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Checklist of benthic marine macrophytes and macrofauna from Uran coast, Navi Mumbai, off the Arabian Sea.

ABSTRACT

The species composition of benthic macrophytes and macrofauna was studied in three localities (Sheva creek, Peerwadi coast and Dharamtar creek) along Uran coastline, off Arabian Sea. Uran is located along the eastern shore of Mumbai harbor opposite to Coloba and is included in the planned metropolis of Navi Mumbai and its port, the Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP). The intertidal and shallow subtidal region of the study sites were surveyed during spring low tides for diversity of macrobenthos monthly from June 2013 to May 2015. The study recorded a total of 170 species of macrobenthos belonging to 119 genera, 83 families, 44 orders and 17 classes. Of the 10 macrobenthic taxa recorded, phylum mollusca exhibited highest contribution with 90 species (60 gastropods, 26 bivalves and 4 cephalopods). Phylum arthropoda appeared as the second most dominant group contributed with 33 species of brachyuran and anomuran crabs. 16 species of sponges, 5 species of polychaetes, 19 species of seaweeds were also reported. Other reported taxa include flat worms (4 species), soft corals (2 species) and tunicates (1 species). Results of the study showed that intertidal region of Uran coast is fertile and provides a suitable habitat for diverse and wide range of organisms. The comprehensive checklist of macrobenthos provided can be used as the baseline for future research and to develop the management strategy for the conservation of coastal marine ecosystem.

KEYWORDS: Checklist, Macrobenthos, Intertidal region, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Uran, Species composition

INTRODUCTION

Checklists are comprehensive lists covering all species of a certain group known to occur in a specific area. They provide an overall view of an area's diversity, its species composition and biological history, and functions as a living document. The list is the foundation document of a particular region and includes all background information [23]. The comprehensive evaluations and inventories serve as the basis for local practices of conservation. A checklist of regional marine species provides base line information and important data for comparative studies on biodiversity, and plays an important role in the estimation of resource availability [27].

Coastal marine systems are among the most ecologically and socio-economically vital on the planet. Marine habitats from the intertidal zone out to the continental shelf break provides ecosystem goods (e.g. food and raw materials) and services (e.g. disturbance regulation and nutrient cycling) [22]. The provision of protein for human consumption and the ecosystems that sustain fisheries are the products and functions of marine ecosystems that benefit humankind [51]. Coastal-zone habitat includes highly productive estuaries and bays, which are essential nursery grounds for a number of commercial and recreational fish species and home to a number of invertebrates [40].

Benthos refers to the community of organisms that live on, or in, the bottom of a water body and are generally classified according to size. Macrobenthos are the benthic communities with greater than 0.5 mm in size and play an important role in transitional ecosystems [50]. Macrobenthos acts as an ecosystem engineers which substantially modify the physical structure of the abiotic or biotic materials forming the habitat, and thus directly or indirectly change the availability of resources to other species [15].

Macrobenthos play various ecological roles in transitional ecosystems like, food source for larger organisms [24, 41], linking primary production with higher trophic levels [26, 43], structure and oxygenate the bottom by reworking sediments [37, 56], break down organic material before bacterial remineralization [1, 13], food for human e. g. clams, gastropods, cephalopods etc [29], bait for recreational purposes as fishing e. g. worms [50], biological indicators of ecological health and coastal pollution [3, 6, 21, 55], indicator species for the detection of types and levels of stress [57], improving and preserving water quality through mineralization and recycling of organic matters [39], bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in aquatic system [12, 20], provide shelter and profitable foraging sites for invertebrate feeders [38], and is useful to assess the fishery production of a particular area [42].

Marine resources are major source of food for local inhabitants and of major economic value in terms of commercial exploitation [54]. Sridhar and Bhaskaran [44] reported that recovery and dredging; industrial effluents, sewage, and oil pollution are the main anthropogenic effects crucial for biodiversity. Seitz et al., [40] noted that coastal habitats are threatened by coastal development, habitat degradation, rising temperature and sea levels, nutrient and sediment run-off, overfishing, dredging, commercial fishing, sand mining, and habitat loss [4, 8].

Literature review suggests that baring few reports [5, 23, 27, 28, 49], meager information is available on the checklist of marine benthic macrophytes and macrofauna. Considering the incomplete knowledge of the species diversity associated to the intertidal and shallow subtidal marine ecosystems, the main objective of this study was to produce a comprehensive checklist of marine macrobenthos inhabiting three localities of Uran coast (Sheva creek, Peerwadi coast and Dharamtar creek).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Area:

Uran (18[degrees] 50'5'' to 18[degrees]50'20'' N, 72[degrees]57'5'' to 72[degrees]57'15'' E) with the population of 28,620 is located along the eastern shore of Mumbai harbor opposite to Coloba. Uran is bounded by Mumbai harbor to the northwest, Thane creek to the north, Dharamtar creek and Karanja creek to the south, and the Arabian Sea to the west. Uran is included in the planned metropolis of Navi Mumbai and its port, the Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT) (Fig. 1).

The Uran coast is a tide-dominated and the tides are semidiuranal. The average tide amplitude is 2.28 m. The flood period lasts for about 6-7 h and the ebb period lasts for about 5 h. The average annual precipitation is about 3884 mm of which about 80% is received during July to September. The temperature range is 12-36[degrees]C, whereas the relative humidity remains between 61% and 86% and is highest in the month of August.

Study Location:

For the present study, three sampling sites, namely Sheva creek, site I (18[degrees] 50' 20'' N, 72[degrees] 57' 5'' E), Peerwadi coast, site II (18[degrees] 50' 10'' N, 72[degrees] 57' 1'' E) and Dharamtar creek, site III (18[degrees] 48' 3'' N, 72[degrees] 58' 31'' E) separated approximately by 10 km were selected. These sites were selected on the basis of their strategic locations for Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP, an International Port), industries, port related infrastructural facilities and different anthropogenic activities along the entire coastal area.

Sheva creek is characterized by extensive mud flats with sparse mangrove vegetation and less rocky stretches. Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP) and other port related establishments are located in the stretch of the creek. Gharapuri Island (Elephanta caves), a famous tourist spot is present on the north side of the creek. Intertidal region of Peerwadi coast has major portion of rocky substratum. Dharamtar creek is with rocky and coral substratum towards the Dronagiri Mountain whereas remaining part of the creek is dominated by the marshy areas and mud flats. Towards the Revas and Karanja side, the Dharamtar creek has mangrove associated habitats due to presence of dense and natural mangrove habitat. Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek are considered as high anthropogenic pressure zones.

Field Sampling:

Studies on the diversity of macrobenthos from the intertidal regions of these sites were carried for a period of two years, i.e., from June 2013 to May 2015. The entire intertidal belt of each sampling site was subdivided into upper, middle and lower littoral zones. The diversity and distribution of macrobenthos in the intertidal belt at each station were studied during the spring low tide.

The macrobenthos were collected by hand picking method from intertidal regions and shallow coastal waters. Sponges, bivalves and seaweeds attached to the boulders, jetties, rocks on the shores, stones, pebbles, fishing nets and pneumatophores of mangrove were collected by scrapping. Collected specimens were washed with seawater to remove the debris, and were transferred to the clean polythene bags; one sample per bag and were brought to the laboratory.

In the laboratory, morphological features of each specimen were recorded. The specimens were washed under tap water and then fixed in 10% formaldehyde-seawater solution and transferred into 90% ethanol. Empty shells were washed in water containing mild detergent and were rinsed in diluted hydrochloric acid to remove the hard outer coat and to reveal the natural colours.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Identification of macrobenthos:

All collected organisms were photographed with Cannon EOS1100D digital camera and were identified up to the lowest possible taxonomic level following Marine Species Identification Portal website (http://species-identification.org) and standard taxonomic keys of Dhargalkar & Kavlekar [16] and Bhavanath Jha et al. [7] for seaweeds, Picton [37] and Van Soest et al., [52] for sponges, Subrahmanyam et al. [47, 48] and Apte [2] for gastropods, Subrahmanyam et al [45, 46] and Coan & Valentich-Scott [14] for bivalves, Chhapgar [10, 11] and Jeyabaskaran and Wafar [25] for crabs, Cantera [9] and Fischer et al. [17] for other invertebrates. Scientific names and classification of gastropods was adopted from World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) website (http://www.marinespecies.org).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A total of 170 species of macrobenthos belonging to 119 genera, 83 families, 44 orders and 17 classes were recorded (Table 1). Total 151 species of benthic macrofauna representing 103 genera, 63 families, 31 orders and 12 classes were collected. The benthic macrophytes were represented by 19 species, 16 genera, 15 families, 13 orders, 5 classes and 5 divisions (Table 1).

Of the 10 macrobenthic taxa recorded in present study, phylum mollusca exhibited highest contribution with 90 species (60 gastropods, 26 bivalves and 4 cephalopods). Phylum arthropoda appeared as the second most dominant group with 33 species of brachyuran and anomuran crabs. 16 species of sponges, 5 species of polychaetes, 19 species of seaweeds were also reported. Other reported taxa include flat worms (4 species), soft corals (2 species) and tunicates (1 species) (Fig. 2).

In the present study, diversity of benthic organisms were in the sequence of gastropods (35.29%) > crabs (19.41%) > pelecypods (15.29%) > seaweeds (11.18%) > sponges (9.41%) > polychaetes (2.94%) > flat worms and cephalopods (2.35%) > soft corals (1.18%) > tunicates (0.59%).
Fig. 2: Average % composition of macrobenthos recorded along Uran coast.

        % composition of macrobenthos species recorded along
        Uran coast, Navi Mumbai

Gastropods    35%
Crabs         20%
Pelecypods    15%
Sea weeds     11%
Sponges       10%
Polychactes    3%
Flat worms     2%
Cephalopods    2%
Soft corals    1%
Turnicates     1%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


Species composition:

* Seaweeds:

A total of 19 species of seaweeds representing 16 genera, 15 families and 13 orders were recorded. Of these, 7 species belongs each to Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, 2 each to Cyanobacteria and Ochrophyta and 1 to Charophyta. Varied diversity of seaweeds belonging to Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria, Ochrophyta and Rhodophyta is recorded from three sites. Of the recorded species, 36.84% belongs each to Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, 10.53% each to Cyanobacteria and Ochrophyta, and 5.26% to Charophyta.

* Sponges:

16 species of sponges representing 12 genera, 10 families and 8 orders were recorded. Of the recorded species, 13 species belongs to class Demospongiae, 2 to Calcarea and 1 to Hexactinellida. The percentage distribution (by order) of sponges showed that the Order Halichondrida had the highest species composition (31.25%), followed by Leucosolenida, Axinellida, Hadromerida, and Poecilosclerida each with 12.5%. Orders Haplosclerida, Homosclerophorida and Hexactinosida had a composition of 6.25% species in each.

* Gastropods:

Total 60 species of gastropods belonging to 38 genera, 25 families and 8 orders were recorded. In present study, gastropods belonging to order Archaeogastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Chitonida, Cycloneritimorpha, Littorinimorpha, Neogastropoda, Nudibranchia and Patellogastropoda were recorded. Number of species of gastropods distributed in each family reveals that 10 species belongs to family Muricidae, 9 species to Neritidae, 6 species to Trochidae and 4 species to Bursidae. Families Cypraeidae and Lottiidae were represented by 3 species each. 2 species each were reported from families Turbinidae, Cerithidae, Potamididae, Naticidae, Conidae and Volemidae whereas 1 species each is contributed by remaining 13 families.

* Bivalves:

26 species of bivalves belonging to 18 genera, 8 families and 4 orders were recorded. In present study, bivalves belonging to families Arcidae, Ostreidae, Pectinidae, Placunidae, Corbiculidae, Psammobiidae, Trapezidae and Veneridae were recorded. Number of species of bivalves distributed in each family reveals that 12 species belongs to family Veneridae, 5 species to Arcidae, 3 species to Ostreidae and 2 species to Pectinidae. One species each were reported from families Placunidae, Corbiculidae, Psammobiidae and Trapezidae.

* Crabs:

Total 33 species of crabs belonging to 21 genera and 12 families under the order Decapoda in the class Malacostraca were recorded. Brachyuran crabs belonging to family Grapsidae, Leucosiidae, Matutidae, Menippidae, Ocypodidae, Oziidae, Polybiidae, Porcellanidae, Portunidae, Sesarmidae and Xanthidae were recorded. Family Portunidae contribute 9 species while 5 species were belonging each to families Grapsidae and Xanthidae. 2 species were belonging each to families Leucosiidae, Ocypodidae, Oziidae and Sesarmidae where as rest of the families including Matutidae, Menippidae, Polybiidae and Porcellanidae contributed only one species each. 2 species of anomuran crabs belonging to family Diogenidae were also recorded.

* Other macrobenthos:

5 species of polychaetes, 4 species of flat worms, 2 species of soft corals and 1 species of tunicates were also recorded.

Measuring species richness and diversity in various habitats is a useful tool for conservation and action planning of the marine and coastal biodiversity [6, 24, 30]. Ganesh and Raman [18] stated that several factors, e.g. locality, depth, distance from the shore, river proximity and local oceanographic features appeared important for determining benthos distribution patterns.

Results of the present study are in agreement with the work of Varadharajan et al., [53] along the south east coast of India, Lozano-Cortes et al., [27] from Malaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, Susan et al., [49] in Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India, Behera and Nayak [5] of Bahuda estuary, Odisha, east coast of India, Geetha and Bijoy [19] in Cochin Estuary, India, Mahapatro et al., [28] of the Chilika Lake, east coast of India and Balachandar et al., [3] from Puducherry coast, southeast coast of India.

The Uran coast acts as a sink receiving large daily volume of domestic and industrial wastes and effluents from Asia's largest industrialized zone namely Thane Belapur industrial area, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation and effluents from Jawaharlal Nehru Port [32]. Maritime activities of JNP and local dredging activities have promoted the changes in physico-chemical parameters, and inorganic nutrients in the seawater surrounding the Jawaharlal Nehru Port [31]. Anthropogenic impact of these activities has affected the water quality and diversity of macrobenthos from coastline of Uran [33, 34, 35].

The present study provides a comprehensive checklist of benthic macrophytes and macrofauna from coastline of Uran. Results of the study can be used as the baseline for future research. It will further helpful to develop the management strategy for the conservation of coastal marine ecosystem.

Conclusion:

Results of the present study showed that intertidal region of Uran coast is fertile and provides a suitable habitat for diverse and wide range of organisms. Findings of the study also reflect the biological characteristics of the macrobenthos in the intertidal and shallow subtidal region. Gastropods, crabs, pelecypods, seaweeds and sponges are dominant taxa recorded during the study. The study was an initial step toward understanding the macrobenthic community dynamics of Uran coast and long-term monitoring studies are recommended to evaluate the impacts of human activities on the local marine communities. The comprehensive checklist of macrobenthos provided can be used as the baseline for future research and to develop the management strategy for the conservation of coastal marine ecosystem.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Financial support provided by University Grants Commission, New Delhi [File No: 42-546/2013 (SR) dated 22nd Mar 2013] is gratefully acknowledged. The author is thankful to The Principal, Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Mahalan Vibhag, Phunde (Uran), Navi Mumbai 400 702 for providing necessary facilities for the present study. Special thanks to Dr. Rahul B. Patil for providing healthy cooperation during field visits for photography of the study sites and sponges. Thanks are due to Mr. Sanket S. Shirgaonkar, who worked as a Project Fellow for the present study. Thanks to Dr. Atul G. Babar for the graphic design of the study area and the distribution maps.

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(1) Prabhakar R. Pawar and (2) Abdel Rahman Mohammad Said Al-Tawaha

(1) Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Department of Zoology, Phunde (Uran), Raigad, Navi Mumbai - 400 702, India

(2) Department of Biological Sciences, Al Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma'an, P.O. Box 20, Jordan

Address For Correspondence:

Prabhakar R. Pawar, Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Department of Zoology, Phunde (Uran), Raigad, Navi Mumbai - 400 702, India.

E-mail: prpawar1962@gmail.com
Table 1: % composition of macrobenthos recorded along Uran coast.

Sr.   Benthos      Division  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species
No.
1     Sea weeds    05        05     13     15       16     19
2     Sponges      ---       03     08     10       12     16
3     Soft corals            01     01     01       01     02
4     Flat worms   ---       01     01     04       04     04
5     Polychaetes  ---       01     03     04       04     05
6     Crabs        ---       01     01     12       21     33
7     Gastropods   ---       01     08     25       38     60
8     Pelecypods   ---       01     04     08       18     26
9     Cephalopods  ---       01     03     03       04     04
10    Tunicates    ---       01     01     01       01     01
      TOTAL        05        17     44     83      119    170


Sr.   Percentage
No.   Representation
1     11.176 %
2      9.412 %
3      1.176 %
4      2.353 %
5      2.941 %
6     19.411 %
7     35.294 %
8     15.294 %
9      2.353 %
10     0.588 %
         100 %

Table 2: Checklist of benthic macrophytes recorded along Uran coast,
Navi Mumbai collected during June 2013 to May 2015

Class                     Order            Family

Division: Charophyta
Charophyceae              Charales         Characeae          1

Division: Chlorophyta
Ulvophyceae               Cladophorales    Cladophoraceae     2
                                           Valoniaceae        3
                          Ulotrichales     Gomonticeae        4
                          Ulvales          Ulvaceae           5
                                                              6
                                                              7
                                                              8
Division: Cyanobacteria
Cyanophyceae              Oscillatoriales  Oscillatoriaceae   9
                                                             10

Division: Ochrophyta
Phaeophyceae              Ectocarapales    Scytosiphonaceae  11
                          Sphacelariales   Sphacelariaceae   12
Division: Rhodophyta
Florideophyceae           Corallinales     Corallinaceae     13
                          Nemaliales       Galaxauraceae     14
                          Gelidiales       Gelidiaceae       15
                                           Gelidiellaceae    16
                          Gracilariales    Gracilariaceae    17
                          Halymeniales     Halymeniaceae     18
                          Ceramiales       Rhodomelaceae     19
05                        13               15


Class                     Scientific Name

Division: Charophyta
Charophyceae              Chara baltica
                          (A. Bruzelius,1824)
Division: Chlorophyta
Ulvophyceae               Cladophora rupestris (L.) Kutzing 1843)
                          Valonia aegagropila (C. Agardh, 1823)
                          Monostroma nitidium (Wittrock,1866)
                          Ulva fasciata (Delile, 1813)
                          Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus, 1753)
                          Enteromorpha intestinalis
                          (L.) Nees, 1820
                          Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh, 1883
Division: Cyanobacteria
Cyanophyceae              Lyngbya confervoides
                          (C. Agardh ex Gomont, 1893)
                          Lyngbya majuscule
                          (Harvey ex Gomont, 1892)
Division: Ochrophyta
Phaeophyceae              Colpomenia sinuosa
                          (Derbes & Solier, 1851)
                          Sphacelaria tribuloides
                          (Meneghini, 1840)
Division: Rhodophyta
Florideophyceae           Amphiroa tribuloides
                          (Meneghini, 1840)
                          Galaxaura oblongata
                          (J. V. Lamouroux, 1816)
                          Gelidium pusillum
                          (Stackhouse) Le Jolis, 1863
                          Gelidiella acerosa (Fosskal)
                          Feldmann & G. Hamel, 1934
                          Gracilaria verrucosa
                          (Hudson) Papenfuss, 1950
                          Grateloupia filicina (C. Agardh, 1822)
                          Acanthophora specifera
                          (M.Vahl) Borgesen,1910
05                        19

Table 3: Checklist of benthic macrofauna recorded along Uran coast,
Navi Mumbai collected during June 2013 to May 2015

Class           Order              Family

Sponges
Calcarea        Leucosolenida      Leucosoleniidae    20
                                                      21
Demospongiae    Axinellida         Axinellidae        22
                                                      23
                Halichondrida      Halichondriidae    24
                                                      25
                                                      26
                                                      27
                                                      28
                Haplosclerida      Haliclonidae       29
                Hadromerida        Hemiasterellidae   30
                                   Suberitidae        31
                Poecilosclerida    Hymedesmiidae      32
                                   Microcionidae      33
                Homosclerophorida  Plakinidae         34
Hexactinellida  Hexactinosida      Aphrocallistidae   35
Coelenterates (Soft corals)
Anthozoa        Alcyonacea         Nephtheidae        36
                                                      37
Flat worms
Rhabditophora   Polycladida        Leptoplanidae      38
                                   Notoplanidae       39
                                   Pericelidae        40
                                   Stylochoplanidae   41
Polychaetes
Polychaeta      Amphinomida        Amphinomidae       42
                Phyllodocida       Nereididae         43
                                                      44
                                   Polynoidae         45
                Terebellida        Terebellidae       46
Brachyuran
crabs
Malacostraca    Decapoda           Grapsidae          47
                                                      48
                                                      49
                                                      50
                                                      51

                                   Leucosiidae        52
                                                      53
                                   Matutidae          54
                                   Menippidae         55
                                   Ocypodidae         56
                                                      57
                                   Oziidae            58
                                                      59
                                   Polybiidae         60
                                   Porcellanidae      61
                                   Portunidae         62
                                                      63
                                                      64
                                                      65
                                                      66
                                                      67
                                                      68
                                                      69
                                                      70
                                   Sesarmidae         71
                                                      72
                                   Xanthidae          73
                                                      74
                                                      75
                                                      76
                                                      77
Anomuran crabs
Malacostraca    Decapoda           Diogenidae         78
                                                      79
Gastropods
Gastropoda      Archaeogastropoda  Fissurellidae      80
                                   Nacellidae         81
                                   Trochidae          82
                                                      83
                                                      84
                                                      85
                                                      86
                                                      87
                                   Turbinidae         88
                                                      89
                Caenogastropoda     Cerithiidae       90
                                                      91
                                   Potamididae        92
                                                      93
                Chitonida          Ischnochitonidae   94
                Cyclo-neritimorpha Neritidae          95
                                                      96
                                                      97
                                                      98
                                                      99
                                                     100
                                                     101
                                                     102
                                                     103
                Littorinimorpha    Bursidae          104
                                                     105
                                                     106
                                                     107
                                   Cypraeidae        108
                                                     109
                                                     110
                                   Ficidae           111
                                   Naticidae         112
                                                     113
                                   Rostellariidae    114
                                   Tonnidae          115
                Neo-gastropoda     Buccinidae        116
                                   Clavatulidae      117
                                   Columbellidae     118
                                   Conidae           119
                                                     120
                                   Mangeliidae       121
                                   Muricidae         122
                                                     123
                                                     124
                                                     125
                                                     126
                                                     127
                                                     128
                                                     129
                                                     130
                                                     131
                                   Nassariidae       132
                                   Onchidiidae       133
                                   Volemidae         134
                                                     135
                                   Chromodorididae   136
                                   Lottiidae         137
                                                     138
                                                     139
Pelecypods
Pelecypoda      Arcoida            Arcidae           140
                                                     141
                                                     142
                                                     143
                                                     144
                Ostreoida          Ostreidae         145
                                                     146
                                                     147
                Pectinoida         Pectinidae        148
                                                     149
                Pectinoida         Placunidae        150
                Veneroida          Corbiculidae      151
                Psammobiidae                         152
                Trapezidae                           153
                Veneridae                            154
                                                     155
                                                     156
                                                     157
                                                     158
                                                     159
                                                     160
                                                     161
                                                     162
                                                     163
                                                     164
                                                     165
Cephalopods
Cephalopoda     Myopsida           Loliginidae       166
                Octopoda           Octopodidae       167
                                                     168
                Sepiida            Sepiidae          169
Tunicates
Ascidiacea      Aplousobranchia    Euherdmaniidae    170

12              31                 68


Class           Scientific Name
Sponges
Calcarea        Leucosolenia complicate (Montagu,1818)
                Leucosolenia variabilis (Haeckel, 1870)
Demospongiae    Axinella damicornis (Esper, 1794)
                Axinella verrucosa (Esper, 1794)
                Axinyssa ambrosia (de Laubenfels, 1936)
                Halichondria bowerbanki (Burton, 1930)
                Halichondria panacea (Pallas, 1766)
                Hymeniacidon heliophila (Parker, 1910)
                Hymeniacidon perleve (Montagu, 1814)
                Haliclona permollis (Bowerbank,1866)
                Paratimea constellate (Topsent, 1893)
                Protosuberitis epiphytum (Lamarck, 1815)
                Kirkaptrickia borealis (Koltun, 1970)
                Clathria parthena (de Laubenfels,1930)
                Plakina monolopha (Schulze,1880)
Hexactinellida  Aphrocallistes Beatrix (Gray, 1858)
Coelenterates
Anthozoa        Dendronephthya klunzingeri (Studer,1888)
                Dendronephthya hemprichi (Klunzinger,1877)
Flat worms
Rhabditophora   Leptoplana tremellaris (Muller OF, 1773)
                Notoplana australis (Schmarda, 1859)
                Pericelis hymanae (Poulter, 1974)
                Stylochoplana maculata (Quatrefage, 1845)
Polychaetes
Polychaeta      Hermodice carunculata (Pallas, 1766)
                Perinereis cultrifera (Grube, 1840)
                Perinereis nuntiavallata (Grube, 1857)
                Enipo gracilis (Verrill, 1874)
                Neoamphitrite groenlandica (Malmgren,1866)
                Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803)
                Grapsus albolineatus (Lamarck, 1818)
                Metopograpsus frontalis (Miers, 1880)
                Metopograpsus messor (Forskal,1775)
                Metopograpsus oceanicus (H. & Jacquinot,1846)
                Persephona mediterranea (Herbst, 1794)
                Tokoyo eburnea (Alcock, 1896)
                Matuta lunaris(Forskal, 1775)
                Myomenippe hardwickii (Gray, 1831)
                Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1837)
                Uca dussumieri (H. Milne Edwards, 1852)
                Epixanthus frontalis (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
                Ozius rugulosus (Stimpson,1858)
                Liocarcinus pusillus (Leach, 1815)
                Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc,1802)
                Charybdis acuta (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869)
                Charybdis feriatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Charybdis japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861)
                Charybdis lucifera (Fabricius, 1798)
                Charybdis orientalis (Dana, 1852)
                Charybdis truncata (Fabricius, 1798)
                Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Portunus sanguinolentus (Herbst, 1783)
                Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1775)
                Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards,1837)
                Metasesarma obesum (Dana, 1851)
                Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
                Leptodius sanguineus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
                Paractaea monody (Guinot, 1969)
                Xantho incisus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834)
                Xantho poressa (Olivi, 1792)
Anomuran crabs
Malacostraca    Clibanarius senegalensis (Chevreux & Bouvier, 1892)
                Clibanarius taeniatus (H. Milnne Edwards, 1848)
Gastropods
Gastropoda      Diodora gibberula (Lamarck, 1822)
                Cellana radiata (Born, 1778)
                Trochus radiates (Gmelin, 1791)
                Trochus tentorium (Gmelin,1791)
                Umbonium vestiarium (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Trochus stellatus (Gmelin, 1791)
                Trochus maculates (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Clanculus guineensis (Gmelin, 1791)
                Astraea stellata (Gmlin, 1791)
                Astraea semicostata (Kiener, 1850)
                Clypeomorus bifasciatus (Sowerby II, 1855)
                Clypeomorus moniliferus (Kiener, 1841)
                Telescopium telescopium (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Potamides cingulatus (Gmelin, 1791)
                Ischnochiton australis (G.B. Sowerby II, 1833)
                Nerita undata (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Nerita albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Nerita crepidularia (Lamarck, 1816)
                Nerita oryzarum (Recluz, 1841)
                Nerita costata (Gmelin, 1791)
                Nerita chamaeleon (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Nerita aterrima (Gmelin, 1791)
                Neritina pulligera (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Neritina punctulata (Lamarck, 1816)
                Bursa tuberculata (Broderip,1833)
                Bursa granularis (Roding, 1798)
                Bursa spinosa (Schumacher, 1817)
                Bursa lissostoma (E. A. Smith, 1914)
                Erosaria lamarckii (J.E. Gray, 1825)
                Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Cypraea tigris (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Ficus gracilis (G. B. Sowerby I,1825)
                Natica didyma (Roding, 1798)
                Natica rufa (Born, 1778)
                Tibia curta (G. B. Sowerby II, 1842)
                Tonna dolium (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Cantharus spiralis (Gray, 1839)
                Makiyamaia arthopleura (Kilburn, 1983)
                Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845)
                Conus ambiguus (Reeve, 1844)
                Conus circumactus (Iredale, 1929)
                Propebela harpularia (Couthouy, 1838)
                Drupa konkanensis (Melvill, 1893)
                Indothais blanfordi (Melvill, 1893)
                Murex brunneus (Link, 1807)
                Murex bundharmai (Houart, 1992)
                Purpura bufo (Lamarck, 1822)
                Stramonita floridana (Conrad, 1837)
                Thais carinifera (Lamarck, 1822)
                Thais sacellum (Gmelin, 1791)
                Thais gradata (Jonas, 1846)
                Vasula deltoidea (Lamarck, 1822)
                Nassarius vibex (Say, 1822)
                Onchidium damelii (Semper, 1882)
                Hemifusus pugilinus (Born, 1778)
                Hemifusus cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Mexichromis mariei (Crosse, 1872)
                Lottia septiformis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)
                Lottia tenuisculpta (Sasaki & Okutani,1994)
                Acmaea subrugosa (d'Orbigny, 1846)
Pelecypods
Pelecypoda      Arca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Barbatia barbata (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Barbatia foliata (Forsskal in Niebuhr,1775)
                Barbatia virescens (Reeve, 1844)
                Barbatia obliquata (Wood, 1828)
                Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791)
                Saccostrea scyphophilla (Peron & Lesueur, 1807)
                Saccostrea glomerata (Gould, 1850)
                Volachlamys tranquebaria (Gmelin, 1791)
                Volachlamys singaporina (Sowerby II, 1842)
                Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Villorita cyprinoides (Gray, 1825)
                Hiatula diphos (Linnaeus, 1771)
                Trapezium sublaevigatum (Lamarck, 1819)
                Callista chione (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Dosinia caerulea (Reeve, 1850)
                Dosinia exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Gafrarium divaricatum (Gmelin, 1791)
                Katelysia japonica (Gmelin, 1791)
                Meretrix casta (Gmelin, 1791)
                Meretrix meretrix (Linnaeus, 1758)
                Meretrix lamarckii (Deshayes, 1853)
                Paphia rhomboides (Pennant, 1777)
                Pitar hebraeus (Lamarck, 1818)
                Protapes gallus (Gmelin, 1791)
Cephalopods
Cephalopoda     Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798)
                Eledone cirrhosa (Lamarck, 1798)
                Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797)
                Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Tunicates
Ascidiacea      Euherdmania claviformis (Ritter, 1903)
12              151
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Author:Pawar, Prabhakar R.; Al-Tawaha, Abdel Rahman Mohammad Said
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Date:Jun 1, 2017
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