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Characterize the impact of sweetener type on the pasting, thermal properties of starch systems.

For a variety of reasons, industry trends are shifting toward products that contain less sugar. However, technical challenges in reducing sugar levels, while maintaining desirable quality attributes in the product, must be overcome.

The structure and texture in low-moisture baked products are the result of a complex interplay between dough components. Sucrose, in addition to being sweet, also inhibits gluten development, delays starch gelatinization and affects texture whether it is crystalline or amorphous. When considering alternative sweeteners for baked products, we must know their effects on starch thermal properties and behaviors.

Scientists at Purdue University characterized the effects of sweetener type on the pasting and thermal properties of starch-water-sweetener systems. Their work provides relevant information needed for reformulation strategies in reduced sugar applications. Still, much more information would be needed before replacing all of the sugar in any given product.

The researchers studied wheat flour, wheat starch and a variety of sweeteners: sucrose, glucose, lactose, fructose, polydextrose, maltodextrins, inulin, isomalt and other sugar alcohols. They determined the thermal properties of starch in the presence of saturated or highly concentrated sweetener solutions using a commercial viscometer analyzer and dynamic scanning calorimetry. Results were correlated with the physical properties of the sweeteners, including their solubility, hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, molecular weight, melting point, glass transition temperature and rotatable bond count.

The scientists found that the type of sweetener had a significant effect on the thermal properties of starch. The molecular weight of the sweetener was correlated to all points on the pasting curve, with values up to eight times greater for monosaccharides than for polysaccharide sweeteners.

The highest onset and peak temperatures for starch gelatinization occurred in the presence of sucrose, fructose, sorbitol, glucose and inulin. When the percent gelatinization, enthalpy and gelatinization onset and peak temperatures were compared, no consistent trends were found among these traits. So, the highest onset gelatinization temperature did not indicate less gelatinization and a change in enthalpy.

Further information. Lisa J. Mauer, Ph.D., Department of Food Science, Director of the Center for Food Safety Engineering, Purdue University, 745 Agriculture Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907; phone: 765-494-9111; email: mauerl@purdue.edu.

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Publication:Emerging Food R&D Report
Date:Dec 1, 2017
Words:368
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