Characterization of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries based on observer data.
Bycatch in shrimp trawls is a significant source of fishery induced mortality for several state and Federally managed finfish species in the southeastern United States (Pellegrin, 1982; Alverson et al., 1994; Nichols et al. (1); NMFS (2,3)). Significant declines in landings of several species of southeastern finfish, notably red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, (Goodyear and Phares (4)), resulted in the implementation of Federal management measures to identify reasons for these declines and to expedite the necessary steps required to rebuild affected stocks.
In response to Congressional directives, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC), in cooperation with the Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Foundation, Inc. (Foundation), implemented a cooperative research plan in 1992 to identify, develop, and evaluate gear options to reduce bycatch in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic shrimp fisheries (NMFS (5); Hoar et al. (6)). More than 150 bycatch reduction device (BRD) styles were developed by industry, scientists and gear specialists and evaluated through cooperative multi-year efforts (Scott-Denton and Nance, 1996; Nance and Scott-Denton, 1997; Watson et al., 1999; Scott-Denton, 2007; NMFS2, (2,3); Branstetter (7); Nance et al. (8); Foster and Scott-Denton (9); NMFS (10); Helies and Jamison (11)).
The two primary objectives of these evaluations were to: 1) estimate catch rates during commercial shrimping operations for both target and non-target species by area, season, and depth; and 2) evaluate BRD effectiveness at eliminating or significantly reducing the capture of nontargeted species, notably red snapper.
Since the early 1990's, much progress has been made in addressing the complex issues associated with finfish bycatch reduction in the southeastern shrimp fishery (NMFS (10)). BRD's have been required in Federal waters of the South Atlantic since 1997, the western Gulf of Mexico since 1998, and the eastern Gulf of Mexico since 2004 (50 CFR 622). BRD designs currently certified (or provisionally certified) for use in Federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic include: composite panel, extended funnel, fisheye, Jones-Davis, and modified Jones-Davis (NOAA, 2008a). An additional design, the expanded mesh BRD, is certified for use in the South Atlantic only. Potential BRD designs are certified based on criteria set forth in the revised and consolidated BRD testing manuals and certification requirements for the Gulf and South Atlantic shrimp fisheries (NOAA, 2008b). Once certified, observer data are used periodically to reassess the continued effectiveness of BRD designs (Foster and Scott-Denton (9); NMFS (10); Helies and Jamison (11)).
To improve the statistical validity of data from the voluntary observer program, including bycatch, effort, and fishery performance estimates, the GMFMC, through Amendment 13 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (GMFMC (12)), mandated observer coverage of Federally permitted vessels. In 2007, the SEFSC implemented a mandatory observer program for the commercial shrimp fishery operating in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In June 2008, observer coverage was expanded to include the South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries through Amendment 6 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan for the South Atlantic Region (SAFMC (13)). A voluntary component of the observer program continues for the purposes of BRD development and evaluation.
Three commercially important penaeid shrimp species, brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus; white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus; and pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, historically comprise the majority of shrimp landed in southeastern U.S. waters. In 2010, these three species accounted for 99.9 % of annual shrimp landed in the Gulf of Mexico (NMFS, 2003). Landings were approximately 177.0 million lb (80.3 million kg) (heads-on) valued at $335.5 million (nMfS, 2003). Penaeid shrimp landings in the South Atlantic were approximately 16.3 million lb (7.4 million kg) (heads-on) valued at $33 million. Rock shrimp, Sicyonia spp., also primarily targeted in the South Atlantic, accounted for a smaller percentage of landings (1.8 million lb; 816 thousand kg) valued at $2.5 million (NMFS, 2003).
The shrimp fishery operates year round in the Gulf of Mexico, with highest effort occurring May through December (Nance, 1993a). The majority of brown shrimp catch from offshore waters occurs primarily off the coasts of Texas and Louisiana in depths between 20-40 fm. White shrimp are typically caught in waters of about 10 fm in the same areas. Pink shrimp are caught in waters of about 35 fm, predominately off southwestern Florida in the winter months (NMFS, 1999). Rock shrimp are primarily targeted from waters off the east coast of Florida in depths between 10-40 fm (Anderson, 1956; Nance, 1993b).
Currently, there are 1,467 Federally permitted vessels in the Gulf of Mexico, and 534 penaeid and 106 rock shrimp Federal permit holders in the South Atlantic (SERO (14)). Observer coverage of the entire southeastern shrimp fishery is approximately 2% based on industry effort (nominal days at sea).
While finfish are the primary bycatch, several species listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as amended (16 U.S.C. 1536 et seq.), or other regulatory mandates, have been encountered in the southeastern shrimp fishery. These include the following species:
Five species of sea turtles (Kemp's ridley, Lepidochelys kempii; leatherback, Dermochelys coriacea; hawksbill, Eretmochelys imbricata; loggerhead, Caretta caretta; and green, Chelonia mydas) occur in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic and may be affected by shrimping activities (Magnuson et al., 1990; Epperly et al., 2002). All of these species are currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
Other species that may be encountered include smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata, listed by NMFS as endangered under the ESA in April 2003 (50 CFR 224). Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, were listed by NMFS as endangered species in February 2012 (NOAA, 2012). While delisted in November 2009 under ESA, the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, remains protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. [section][section] 703-712). Lastly, the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) enacted in 1972 (16 USC Chapter 31) affords protection for marine mammals. NMFS routinely prepares ESA section 7 consultations and other recommendations based on observer data to describe the effects of Federal activities, including Federally permitted fisheries, on threatened or endangered species.
The continuing goals of the mandatory observer programs are to provide quantitative biological, vessel, and gear-selectivity information for the southeastern shrimp fishery. The primary objectives are to: 1) provide general fishery bycatch characterization and catch rates for finfish species by area and target species; and 2) provide catch rates that can be used to estimate protected species bycatch levels.
The specific objectives of this paper are to: 1) summarize trip, vessel, environmental, and gear characteristics; 2) quantify fish and protected species capture by area and target species; and 3) estimate catch per unit of effort (CPUE) trends and spatial distribution for target and nontarget species.
Methods are similar to those as described for the voluntary shrimp observer program (Scott-Denton, 2007; NMFS3; Foster and Scott-Denton (9)) and the mandatory reef fish observer program (Scott-Denton et al., 2011). NMFS-approved observers were placed on randomly selected shrimp vessels targeting either penaeid or rock shrimp. For the Gulf of Mexico, under the mandatory selection process, Federally permitted vessels were randomly selected based on the previous year of effort stratified by area, depth, and season. These data were derived from the NMFS shrimp landings file and cross-referenced with U.S. Coast Guard documentation records, which yielded a list of active vessels. The NMFS Southeast Regional Office (SERO) provided owner names and contact information from permit records. Shrimp effort data were not available for all areas in the South Atlantic; therefore, only landings data were used to proportionally allocate sampling effort. Once selected, permit holders were notified by certified mail at least 1 month prior to the selection period. Seasonal selection periods were as follows: January through April, May through August, and September through December.
The authority to place observers falls under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA; 16 USC 1801), ESA, and MMPA. Pursuant to MSFCMA [section] 303(b) (8), Federal fishery permit holders are required to carry an observer if selected for mandatory coverage. Among the several provisions promulgated under MSFCMA [section] 303(b)(8) is the mandate for Federal permit holders to obtain a current Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination decal prior to the selection period for mandatory observer coverage. The safety decal requirement, in combination with other factors, led to low vessel compliance at the onset of the program. A continued dedicated effort by NMFS Office of Law Enforcement (OLE) has substantially increased compliance, notably in the Gulf of Mexico.
Additionally, a minimum sea day requirement by permit type was established to prevent potential early trip termination due to having an observer on board. Gulf of Mexico Federal penaeid permit holders are required to carry an observer for a minimum of 18 days during a selection period, with 11 and 6 days for South Atlantic rock and penaeid shrimp, respectively. Moreover, permit holders are required to carry an observer if selected, regardless of area fished or target species. No exemptions have been granted; however, a small percentage of vessel substitutions have been allowed (i.e., same owner, different vessel, same area).
For the Gulf of Mexico, shrimp statistical zones (Patella, 1975) were used to delineate area designations (Fig. 1). Conventionally, statistical areas 1-9 represent areas off the west coast of Florida, 10-12 delineate Alabama/ Mississippi, 13-17 depict Louisiana, and 18-21 denote Texas. Depth strata seaward of the beach, or International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGS) line, were classified as nearshore ([less than or equal to] 10 fm) or offshore (> 10 fm). Similarly, for the Atlantic, lat. 24[degrees]00'N-30[degrees]42.5'N denote the east coast of Florida, > lat. 30[degrees]42.5'N-32[degrees]00'N depict Georgia, > lat. 32[degrees]00'N-33[degrees]51.6'N represent South Carolina, and > lat. 33[degrees]51.6'N delineate North Carolina.
For each observed trip, vessel length, hull construction material, gross tonnage, engine horsepower, and crew size information were recorded. Gear characteristics related to BRD, turtle excluder device (TED), net type and other associated gear were recorded at the start of each trip, and updated if changes were made during the trip. Bottom time, vessel speed, and operational aspects relative to each net were documented for each tow.
Fishery-specific data were collected for each tow from the two outboard nets from vessels equipped with four nets, and one net for vessels equipped with two nets. Total catch, total shrimp, and red snapper weights were recorded for each net sampled. A subsample (one basket per net; approximately 32 kg) was processed from each net for bycatch composition by sorting for species, family, or species groupings (now referred to as species). Penaeid shrimp (and/or rock shrimp depending on the target), nonpenaeid crustaceans (crustaceans), noncrustacean invertebrates (invertebrates), and debris (e.g., rocks, logs, trash) were recorded from the subsample.
In the Gulf of Mexico, 14 other species of commercial, recreational and ecological importance were recorded. These included: Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus; black drum, Pogonias cromis; cobia, Rachycentron canadum; king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla; lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris; longspine porgy, Stenotomus caprinus; red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus; seatrout, Cynoscion spp.; other snapper, Lutjanus spp.; grouped sharks, Order Selachii; southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma; spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus; Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus; and vermilion snapper, Rhomboplites aurorubens. The remaining finfish species were grouped into a finfish other category.
From 2007 through 2008, all shark species were grouped. Beginning January 2009, identification of some shark species (as well as other species) was implemented; however, for the purpose of CPUE and variance analyses (2007-10), all sharks were grouped for consistency throughout the time series. Similar selection lists and methods were developed for the South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries. A detailed description of at-sea collection methods and data requirements are presented in the NMFS Galveston Laboratory's observer manual entitled "Characterization of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern Atlantic Otter Trawl and Bottom Reef Fish Fisheries" (NMFS (15)).
Biological measurements (weight and length) were recorded in metric units. Vessel, gear, and depth measurements followed current standards for the fisheries (U.S. system equivalents) as related to relevant regulatory mandates.
Catch rates are presented collectively for all years and seasons by area and target species (Gulf of Mexico penaeid; South Atlantic penaeid; and South Atlantic rock shrimp). A minimum of three vessels was required for seasonal and state-specific analyses due to confidentiality restrictions.
Protected species were documented and reported to SERO and/or SEFSC, generally within 24 h of capture. Sighting or capture of sea turtles was recorded in accordance with SEFSC protocol (NMFS, 2008). Observer data pertaining to sea turtle interactions were transmitted to SEFSC for sea turtle take level estimations.
All data were entered into the southeast regional shrimp trawl bycatch database. The database was developed in 1992 through a southeast regional program conducted by NMFS in cooperation with commercial fishing organizations and interests, state fishery management agencies, and universities. This database is housed and managed at SEFSC's Galveston Laboratory, where data sets are archived.
Species total weights were extrapolated from subsample weight using the total catch weight, and were based on all sampled nets (sampling unit) per tow. Data from all sampled nets, regardless of operational problems (e.g., torn webbing, hangs, clogging), were included with the assumption that it represented standard commercial operations experienced by the fishery. The nets used in the analyses were consistent with current BRD regulations (required or not required). Total weight extrapolations were derived by multiplying the sample weight of the species of interest by the total weight of the sampled net, divided by the subsample weight for that net. For rare species and red snapper, all specimens were removed from the net, and no extrapolation was required. In the absence of a weight for a given species, the entire net was set aside from the analysis. Counts of individual specimens (except red snapper) were not recorded for all sampled nets, and therefore not included in the analysis.
Ratio estimation was used for analyses of species-specific catch rates. As described by Snedecor and Cochran (1967) and Watson et al. (1999), the ratio estimation (1) below was used as the sample estimate of the mean.
(1) R = [SIGMA]Y/[SIGNA]X,
R = ratio estimate,
Y = extrapolated kilograms for species of interest for selected strata, and
X = hours towed for selected strata.
The estimated standard error of the estimate is given in equation 2:
(2) s(R) = 1/[bar.x][square root of [SIGMA][(Y - RX).sup.2]/n(n - 1),
[bar.x] = mean of hours towed for selected strata, and
n = number of tows occurring in selected strata.
To standardize bycatch (discard) estimates as described in "Evaluating Bycatch" (NMFS, 2004), the coefficient of variation (CV) was used as a measure of precision for bycatch estimates. CV estimates were calculated by dividing the estimated standard error by the estimate of the mean CPUE (kg per hour for selected species).
As described in Scott-Denton et al. (2011), a density surface of CPUE for commercial and recreational important species was created using Fishery Analyst. (16, 17) This is an ArcGIS extension developed to graphically present temporal and spatial trends in fishery statistics (Riolo, 2006). The search radius was based on the average minimum tow length plus the standard deviation for each fishery (20 km for Gulf penaeid and South Atlantic rock; 10 km for South Atlantic penaeid). A cell size of 1 km produced the optimal resolution. All three fisheries are depicted on the same plot because there was no overlap in fishing grounds.
Density of catch and effort values for each 1 km cell was calculated by summing those values contained within the search radius and dividing the value by the area of the circle as defined by the search radius. A summary CPUE value for all years combined was calculated for each cell by summing CPUE values for individual years and dividing by the number of years for which fishing activity occurred in that cell.
To identify patterns in CPUE for selected species in each fishery, a local spatial statistic, the Getis-Ord [Gi.sup.*] ([Gi.sup.*]), was calculated using the Hot Spot Analysis tool in ArcGIS (18) to locate clusters of features with similarly high or low values. The [Gi.sup.*] statistic was also calculated for all discarded species combined and shrimp (penaeid and rock) in order to assess if geographical areas of particularly high levels of bycatch occurred.
From July 2007 through December 2010, a total of 608 trips were observed (Table 1). For the mandatory component, 10,206 tows targeting penaeid and/ or rock shrimp (royal red shrimp excluded due to confidentiality) were sampled during 5,197 sea days of observations, with 9,264 tows (4,763 sea days) in the Gulf of Mexico and 942 tows (434 sea days) occurring in the South Atlantic. The highest concentration of effort was in statistical areas 2 and 21 in the Gulf, 30 and 35 in the South Atlantic penaeid, and 27 in the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery (Fig. 1). By season, 40% of the tows occurred from September through December; 39% May through August; and 21% January through April (Table 2). The greatest percentage of tows (39%) occurred off Texas after the Texas Closure (typically in effect from May 15 through July 15 annually).
Trip and tow characteristics varied by area and target (Table 3). Trip length averaged 13.8 ([+ or -] 10.7 s.d.) days in the Gulf, 2.9 ([+ or -] 3.0 s.d.) days in the South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery, and 14.8 ([+ or -] 5.9 s.d.) days for the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery. Average tow times were longer in the Gulf (5.2 h [+ or -] 2.2 s.d.) as compared with the South Atlantic penaeid (2.8 h [+ or -] 1.1 s.d.) and rock (2.7 [+ or -] 0.8 s.d) shrimp fisheries. Try net (a small net used to intermittently test for shrimp concentrations) tow times were also longer in the Gulf (0.9 h [+ or -] 0.4 s.d) as compared with the South Atlantic (0.5 h [+ or -] 0.2 s.d). On average, South Atlantic rock shrimp vessels fished deeper depths (33.5 fm) than Gulf (16.4 fm) and South Atlantic (4.8 fm) penaeid fisheries. Average vessel speed for all areas and fisheries combined was 2.8 kn.
Vessel characteristics (Table 4) were similar for the Gulf penaeid and South Atlantic rock shrimp fisheries because they can typically target both penaeid and rock shrimp, though at different times of the year. These vessels are generally larger ([bar.x] > 70 ft), have freezer storage capacity, and are of steel construction versus the South Atlantic penaeid fishery with smaller vessels ([bar.x] = 64.2 ft), ice hold storage, and wood construction.
Typical gear configurations for the southeastern shrimp fishery are depicted (Fig. 2, 3) with net characteristics by area and target species specified (Table 5). Flat nets were used more often in the Gulf (22.6%) and South Atlantic rock (56.5%) shrimp fisheries, while mongoose nets with bibs (56.0%) were used most frequently in the South Atlantic penaeid fishery. Headrope length for the primary trawls was similar among areas and target with an average from 50.5 ft to 52.5 ft. Try net headrope was also comparable in the Gulf and South Atlantic penaeid fisheries with an average of approximately 12 ft. Several trawl characteristics recorded were similar for all areas and target species including trawl body and codend material (nylon), door type (wood), trawl extension (none), chaffing gear (mesh), and lazy line rigging (elephant ears).
BRD type and dimensions (Table 6) were also similar among areas and target species. The dominant BRD type (fisheye), BRD position (top), and BRD location (behind elephant ears) were recorded most frequently. This was also evident with several attributes for TED's (Table 7), including TED type and design (hard/curved bar), TED opening (bottom), and TED angle ([bar.x][greater than or equal to] 48.6 degrees).
Based on actual weight (i.e., non-extrapolated) data, 2.4 million kg of total catch was documented from 12,972 nets (towing for 69,194 h). For nets that had an effort value and an associated total catch and shrimp weight recorded, 2.3 million kg of total catch were documented from 12,415 nets (66,260 h). Penaeid and rock shrimp comprised 634 thousand kg (heads-on) or 27% of the total weight. Average shrimp CPUE was 9.6 kg/h. From 11,122 nets (62,122 h) that had effort, total catch, shrimp and red snapper counts recorded, a total of 88,058 red snapper were documented in the Gulf of Mexico, yielding an average of 1.4 fish/h.
Extrapolated Species Composition Bycatch Ratios
For the 12,403 nets that contained species characterization data, 2.3 million kg of total catch was recorded (66,164 h) for all years, areas, seasons, and depths. Based on weight extrapolations from species composition samples, bycatch to targeted shrimp (penaeid or rock) ratios by area and target species (Table 8) were 2.5 in the Gulf penaeid shrimp fishery, 4.3 for the South Atlantic penaeid, and 1.4 in the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery. Finfish to shrimp ratios for these same fisheries were 2.0, 3.2 and 0.9, respectively.
A total of 199 species were identified (Table 9). For all areas and target species, 4 species comprised > 66% of total catch: grouped finfish species (26%), Atlantic croaker (16%), brown shrimp (13%), and white shrimp (11%).
Extrapolated Species Composition Gulf of Mexico Penaeid Shrimp
Weight extrapolations from species characterization data collected from 11,322 nets (63,024 h) were placed into major categories by area and target for all years, seasons, and depths (Fig. 4). In terms of percent composition and CPUE for the Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery, finfishes dominated the catch at 57% (19.5 kg/h), followed by penaeid shrimp at 29% (9.9 kg/h), crustaceans at 7% (2.4 kg/h), invertebrates at 5% (1.8 kg/h), and debris at 1% (0.5 kg/h). (19) Overall (total catch) CPUE was 34.3 kg/h.
At the species level, the dominant species by area and target are depicted (Fig. 5-7; Table 9). In the Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery, 185 species were identified (Table 9). As to percent composition and CPUE (Fig. 5), grouped finfish accounted for 27% (9.4 kg/h) of the total catch, followed by Atlantic croaker at 16% (5.4 kg/h), brown shrimp at 14% (4.8 kg/h), white shrimp at 11% (3.7 kg/h), crustaceans at 7% (2.4 kg/h), seatrout at 6% (2.0 kg/h), invertebrates at 5% (1.8 kg/h), longspine porgy at 4% (1.4 kg/h), and pink shrimp at 4% (1.3 kg/h). All other species accounted for 6% (2.0 kg/h) of the total weight.
CPUE and variance estimates for selected species collected from all sampled nets from July 2007 through December 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery depict low (<0.3) CV estimates (Table 10). The two exceptions were grouped penaeid shrimp (not taken to species level) and other snapper species (excluding red and lane snapper).
Spatial CPUE density (kg/h) plots for several of these species are depicted in Figures 8-19 for all regions and targets. For the Gulf of Mexico region, brown and white shrimp were caught and retained predominantly in the western Gulf (statistical areas [greater than or equal to] 11), with higher density CPUE for brown shrimp occurring further offshore as compared with white shrimp (Fig. 8, 9). Pink shrimp were found throughout the Gulf, with highest density CPUE occurring off the west coast of Florida (Fig. 10). Grouped finfish were caught throughout the Gulf region with highest spatial CPUE observed in statistical areas 11-13 (Fig. 11). Several finfish species were almost exclusively restricted to the western Gulf and included Atlantic croaker (Fig. 12), trout (Fig. 13), and red snapper (Fig. 14). Spanish mackerel (Fig. 15), king mackerel (Fig.16), and grouped sharks (Fig.17), occurred primarily in the western Gulf and to a lesser extent off Florida in statistical areas 1-3. Crustaceans (Fig.18) and invertebrates (Fig. 19) were found throughout the Gulf, with high spatial densities in several statistical areas, notably 1, 8, and 11.
Cluster locations of statistically significant high CPUE for penaeid shrimp were most pronounced in relatively small concentrated cells of statistical areas 2 and 11-20 (Fig. 20). For all discard (bycatch) species combined, clusters of significantly high CPUE were detected primarily in the western Gulf (Fig. 21) with relatively larger sections of statistical areas 11-20.
Extrapolated Species Composition South Atlantic Penaeid Shrimp
In the South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery, from 890 nets (2,634 h), fish species comprised 60% (31.2 kg/h) of the total catch (Fig. 4), followed by penaeid shrimp at 19% (9.9 kg/h), invertebrates at 15% (8.0 kg/h), crustaceans at 4% (2.0 kg/h), and debris at 1% (0.6 kg/h). Overall CPUE was 51.8 kg/h.
At the species level (Table 9; Fig. 6), Atlantic croaker accounted for 24% (12.5 kg/h) of the total catch, followed by grouped finfish and white shrimp each at 12% (6.4 kg/h), flat croaker, Leiostomus xanthurus, and jellyfish (Family Carybdeidae) each at 7% (3.8 kg/h), brown shrimp at 6% (3.3 kg/h), star drum, Stellifer lanceolatus, at 6% (3.0 kg/h), cannonball jellyfish, Stomolophus meleagris, at 4% (2.2 kg/h), and invertebrates at 4% (2.0 kg/h). All other species (54) comprised 16% (8.4 kg/h) of the total weight.
CPUE and variance estimates for species selected from all sampled nets during the monitoring period in the South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery are depicted (Table 11). Relatively higher ([greater than or equal to] 0.3) CV estimates were observed in the South Atlantic as compared with the Gulf for several species including, but not limited to, sciaenids (Family Sciaenidae) and sea basses (Family Serranidae).
Spatial CPUE density (kg/h) plots for several of these species are denoted in Figures 8-19. Brown and white shrimp were caught and retained predominantly in statistical areas 30, 32, 33, and 35 (Fig. 8, 9). Relatively low density CPUE was observed for pink shrimp along the southeastern Atlantic coast (Fig. 10); the one exception occurred in statistical area 35 with CPUE ranging from 1.4 kg/h to 4.2 kg/h. Grouped finfish occurred along the southeastern Atlantic coast, with highest CPUE density found in statistical areas 26, 34, and 35 (Fig. 11).
Atlantic croaker (Fig. 12) and seatrout (Fig. 13) exhibited a similar spatial pattern with high density CPUE occurring in statistical areas 29, 30, and 33-35. Density surface of CPUE was not detectable for red snapper (Fig. 14). CPUE was low for both Spanish mackerel (Fig. 15) and king mackerel (Fig. 16), with two exceptions in statistical area 31 for Spanish mackerel and in statistical area 29 for king mackerel. Grouped sharks were predominantly caught in statistical areas 30-33 (Fig. 17). Crustaceans (Fig. 18) and invertebrates (Fig. 19) exhibited a similar distribution, with high spatial densities for crustaceans detected in statistical area 35 and in statistical areas 30 and 31 for invertebrates.
Cluster locations of statistically significant high CPUE for South Atlantic penaeid shrimp were most pronounced in statistical areas 30,
31, 33, and 35 (Fig. 20). For discarded species, clusters of significantly high CPUE were detected primarily in the statistical areas 29-31, 33, and 35 (Fig. 21).
Extrapolated Species Composition South Atlantic Rock Shrimp
In the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery (191 nets; 506 h), rock shrimp accounted for 41% (29.0 kg/h) of the total catch (Fig. 4), followed by finfish at 36% (25.7 kg/h), crustaceans at 13% (9.5 kg/h), invertebrates at 6% (3.9 kg/h), debris at 2% (1.6 kg/h), and penaeid shrimp at 1% (0.7 kg/h). Total catch CPUE was 70.7 kg/h.
At the species level (Table 9; Fig. 7), rock shrimp comprised 41% (29.0 kg/h) of the total catch, followed by grouped finfish at 12% (8.8 kg/h), dusky flounder, Syaciumpapillosum, at 11% (7.5 kg/h), inshore lizardfish, Synodus foetens, at 9% (6.6 kg/h), iridescent swimming crab, Portunus gibbesii, and invertebrates each at 6% (3.9 kg/h), crustaceans at 5% (3.7 kg/h), longspine swimming crab, Portunus spinicarpus, at 3% (1.8 kg/h), and debris at 2% (1.6 kg/h). All other species (22) accounted for 5% (3.8 kg/h) of the total weight.
CV estimates for species selected from all sampled nets from July 2007 through December 2010 (Table 12) were higher ([greater than or equal to] 0.3), and in some instances equal to 1.0, for the majority of species in the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery.
Highest spatial CPUE density for brown shrimp was most pronounced in statistical area 27 (Fig. 8). White shrimp had undetectable (no catch documented) spatial CPUE density (Fig. 9). Pink shrimp were found in highest spatial densities in statistical areas 27 and 28 (Fig. 10). Highest CPUE density for grouped finfish was most evident in statistical areas 27 and 29 (Fig. 11). Atlantic croaker were concentrated in statistical area 27 (Fig. 12). Several finfish species had very low or undetectable spatial CPUE densities: seatrout (Fig. 13), red snapper (Fig. 14), Spanish mackerel (Fig. 15), and king mackerel (Fig. 16). Grouped sharks were found in highest spatial densities in statistical areas 27 and 28 (Fig. 17). Crustaceans were also observed in high spatial densities in these same statistical areas (Fig. 18). Highest CPUE density for invertebrates occurred in statistical area 28 (Fig. 19).
Cluster locations of statistically significant high CPUE for penaeid and rock shrimp combined were most pronounced in statistical area 28 (Fig. 20). The highest clusters of significantly high CPUE for discarded species were also in statistical area 28 (Fig. 21).
From July 2007 through December 2010, 55 sea turtles (25 loggerhead, 21 Kemp's Ridley, 4 green, 4 unidentified, and 1 hawksbill) were captured in shrimp trawls with most (47%) documented from May to August (Fig. 22). By method of capture, 49% were observed in try nets, 44% in TED-equipped nets (before the TED or in codend), 4% slid out of TED-equipped nets upon retrieval, and 4% slid out of try nets upon retrieval. Most (80%) of the sea turtles were released alive and conscious.
Other protected species captured aboard shrimp trawlers (Fig. 23) included seven Atlantic sturgeon, three of which were captured at the same location, and one Gulf sturgeon. Of the eight sturgeon spp. captured, most, seven, were released alive.
Seven smalltooth sawfish have been captured in the shrimp fishery since mandatory observer coverage began. A detailed description and resulting estimates of the rate of take are reported in Carlson and Scott-Denton. (20)
One brown pelican was captured aboard a shrimp trawler. The pelican was entangled in the trawl door chains and died during release. Another unidentified seabird perished, but could not be positively identified.
Five dolphin interactions were documented in the Gulf of Mexico. Of these, three were identified as bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, and two unidentified dolphins (Family Delphinidae). The condition at release included three freshly dead, two of which were entangled with the lazy line, and one in front of the TED. Of the remaining two, one was released alive (associated with the lazy line). The other, a decomposed carcass, was captured on the tickler chain.
Bycatch remains one of the most significant and complex issues in fishery management (Hall et al., 2000; Hall and Mainprize, 2005). Many authors have defined and examined the detrimental effects of trawling, on a regional and global scale, in terms of a reduction in biodiversity, shifts in community structure, disruption of the food web, waste, profitability, user conflicts, and mortality of undersized target and nontarget species (Alverson et al., 1994; Hall, 1996; Greenstreet and Rogers, 2000; Hall et al., 2000; Murawski et al., 2000; NRC, 2002; Chuenpagdee et al., 2003; Diamond, 2004; Kumar and Deepthi, 2006). Kelleher (2005) reported tropical shrimp trawl fisheries accounted for 27% of global discards. Harrington et al. (2005) estimated 1.06 million tons of marine fish were discarded in 2002 in U.S. fisheries, making the United States one of the highest worldwide relative to discards.
Based on findings from the 2007-10 mandatory observer program, estimated overall CPUE for the shrimp fishery was comparable in some respects to earlier bycatch assessments conducted for the Gulf of Mexico, but notably different for the South Atlantic (Scott-Denton and Nance, 1996; Nance and Scott-Denton, 1997; Scott-Denton, 2007; NMFS (2,3); Nance et al. (8)). For the 1992 through 1996 period, overall catch rates were 28.0 kg/h in the Gulf of Mexico, and 27.0 kg/h in the South Atlantic penaeid fisheries (NMFS (3)). Scott-Denton (2007) reported catch rates of 30.8 kg/h in the Gulf of Mexico and 27.7 kg/h in the South Atlantic from 1992 through 2005. In this study, overall CPUE was 34.3 kg/h for the Gulf of Mexico and 51.8 kg/h in the South Atlantic.
Early estimates by Alverson et al. (1994) calculated a discard to landing ratio of 10.30 and 8.00 for the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic shrimp fisheries, respectively. While estimation methods varied, more recent assessments (Harrington et al., 2005; Kelleher, 2005) revealed lower ratios. Scott-Denton (2007) estimated discards to landings ratios of 5.18 and 3.20 for the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic, respectively, from 1992 through 2005. These were slightly higher than estimates of 4.56 and 2.95 reported by Harrington et al. (2005) for 1992 through 1996 for the same areas. In this study, bycatch ratios were substantially lower at 2.47 in the Gulf of Mexico and higher in the South Atlantic at 4.25.
These differences can be explained, in part, for the Gulf of Mexico by examining percent composition by species categories. NMFS (3) calculated percentages of the total weight for the Gulf of Mexico of 67% for finfish and 16% for commercial shrimp species (i.e., penaeid; seabob, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri; sugar shrimp, Trachypenaeus spp.; and rock shrimp). Scott-Denton (2007), for the same region, reported finfish species at 65% (20.1 kg/h) and penaeid shrimp at 16% (5.0 kg/h). In this study, finfish species dominated the catch at 57% (19.5 kg/h), followed by penaeid shrimp at 29% (9.9 kg/h).
Based on Gulf of Mexico shrimp landings and effort data from 1992 through 2010 (Nance (21)), an increasing trend in CPUE (> 40 lb/h; 18.1 kg/h) has been observed since 2004, with the highest CPUE occurring in 2009 (> 85 lb/h; 38.6 kg/h). Moreover, the number of Federally permitted vessels (SERO (14)) and effort (Gallaway et al., 2003; Nance et. al, 2008) in the fishery has shown a steady decline since the mid 2000's.
Lastly, Helies and Jamison (11) suggest the lower finfish to shrimp ratios in the Gulf of Mexico may be attributed to basic weight differences between shrimp and fish taken currently in the fishery as compared with earlier years. The authors reported that nearshore sciaenids (notably Atlantic croaker) are exhibiting pronounced increases in abundance after 2002, with these increases corresponding to decreases in shrimp fishing effort, and to more effective exclusion by new BRD designs in recent years.
In the South Atlantic, NMFS (3) calculated percent catch composition for finfish species at 51%, and 18% for commercial shrimp species. Scott-Denton (2007) reported finfish species at 47% (13.0 kg/h), followed by penaeid shrimp at 24% (6.6 kg/h). In the 2007 through 2010 mandatory observer program, finfish accounted for 60% (31.2 kg/h) of the catch with penaeid shrimp at 19% (9.9 kg/h), which reveals an increase in shrimp CPUE and over a two-fold increase in finfish CPUE. In the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery, an increase was also observed in percent composition of rock shrimp at 41% (29.0 kg/h) as compared with the 2001 to 2006 period with rock shrimp comprising 19% (8.7 kg/h) of the catch (SAFMC (22)).
From 1992 through 2005, longspine porgy and Atlantic croaker comprised the largest percentage of the overall catch in the Gulf of Mexico with estimated CPUE (kg/h) at 2.8 and 2.1, respectively (Scott-Denton, 2007). In the current mandatory study, Atlantic croaker CPUE (kg/h) was 5.4 and 1.4 for longspine porgy. This shift in dominant species and rates may be attributed to the mandatory nature of vessel selection and areas fished (nearshore vs. offshore). In the 1992 to 2005 voluntary study, a large number of vessel operators who participated fished primarily in offshore waters (Scott-Denton, 2007). Similarly, with respect to the dominant species in South Atlantic during the 1992 to 2005 period, CPUE (kg/h) for Atlantic croaker was 3.6 and 3.4 for flat croaker (Scott-Denton, 2007). In this study, CPUE (kg/h) was substantially higher for Atlantic croaker at 12.5 and comparable for flat croaker at 3.8.
Several species listed as overfished or undergoing overfishing did not comprise a large percentage by weight of the total bycatch; however, the number of individuals discarded combined with the amount of annual shrimp effort exerted may be reason for considerable concern. Nichols et al. (1, 23) and Nichols and Pellegrin (24), using data from three observer programs and Federal and state resource surveys, provided annual estimates for selected species of finfish bycatch in the Gulf of Mexico commercial shrimp trawl fishery. The authors concluded that while the magnitude of species common in shrimp trawl bycatch was not unexpected, the projected estimate for the less frequently encountered species such as red snapper, king mackerel, and Spanish mackerel was similar to, or exceeded, the recreational harvest (Nichols et al. (1)). Red snapper, considered one of the most high profile species of concern, accounted for approximately 0.3% of the total catch by weight in the Gulf of Mexico in the 1992 through 2005 study (Scott-Denton, 2007). This estimate remained the same (0.3%) in this study. This is similar to findings by Helies and Jamison (11), who reported that while there have been increasing trends in the abundance of Atlantic croaker and inshore lizardfish in recent years, abundance levels for longspine porgy and juvenile red snapper have remained relatively stable.
Alverson and Hughes (1996) reported that bycatch became a major management issue resulting from the rapid growth in world fisheries, increasing competition, and the rise of environmental concerns and subsequent global efforts to limit the effects of commercial fishing operations on protected species.
Concerns initially surfaced in the southeastern United States over the incidental capture of endangered or threatened sea turtles. Using data from three shrimp trawl observer programs in the southeastern U.S. (with nets not equipped with TED's) sea turtle catch rates were estimated to be more than 10,000 sea turtles from 1973 to 1984 (Henwood and Stunz, 1987). Magnu son et al. (1990) concluded that sea turtle mortality resulting from trawling operations in the southeastern shrimp fishery was the major source of man-induced mortality on loggerhead and Kemp's ridley sea turtles, resulting in higher mortality than in all other fisheries combined. Substantial progress has been made since the 1980's to reduce sea turtle interactions, primarily through the required use of TED's (Epperly et al., 2002; Epperly and Teas, 2002). Further advances in gear refinement and development, and/or time and area management strategies should be considered for sea turtles. These considerations should be applied to other protected species and finfish stocks as well.
To date, observer programs remain the most reliable means for monitoring commercial fisheries by providing unbiased, reliable, and high-quality data. These programs provide insight on finfish and protected species CPUE, as well as life history characteristics for both target and nontarget species. Moreover, they provide a wide array of other variables of interest to fishery managers, the fishing industry, academia, and the public including: discard levels, gear effectiveness, temporal and spatial shrimping patterns, socio-economic considerations as related to industry, and individual fishing quota program effectiveness.
We commend the outstanding efforts given by the fishery observers involved in this research effort and the commercial fishing industry for their continued participation.
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ELIZABETH SCOTT-DENTON, PAT F. CRYER, MATT R. DUFFY, JUDITH P. GOCKE, MIKE R. HARRELSON, DONNA L. KINSELLA, JAMES M. NANCE, JEFF R. PULVER, REBECCA C. SMITH, and JO A. WILLIAMS
The authors are with the Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 4700 Avenue U, Galveston, TX 77551 (corresponding author: elizabeth.scott-denton@ noaa.gov).
Table 1.--Trlps, tows, and sea days by year and program, based on observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Mandatory Gulf South Atlantic Year penaeid penaeid Trips by year and project 2007 31 2008 107 27 2009 105 68 2010 104 29 Grand total 348 124 Tows by year and project 2007 1,242 2008 2,797 202 2009 2,918 441 2010 2,307 145 Grand total 9,264 788 Sea days by year and project 2007 639 2008 1,435 86 2009 1,559 206 2010 1,130 68 Grand total 4,763 360 Sea days by year and Year Mandatory Voluntary region Gulf of Mexico 2007 639 127 2008 1,435 234 2009 1,559 250 2010 1,138 22 Grand total 4,771 633 South Atlantic 2007 0 32 2008 139 0 2009 219 0 2010 82 68 Grand total 440 100 Mandatory South Deep water Year Atlantic royal red Trips by year and project rock 2007 2008 3 2009 2 1 2010 1 1 Grand total 6 2 Tows by year and project 2007 2008 97 2009 16 8 2010 41 7 Grand total 154 15 Sea days by year and project 2007 2008 53 2009 7 6 2010 14 8 Grand total 74 14 Sea days by year and Year Total Industry sea region days Gulf of Mexico 2007 766 68,570 * 2008 1,669 62,797 2009 1,809 76,508 2010 1,160 62,190 Grand total 5,404 270,065 South Atlantic 2007 32 15,836 2008 139 15,473 2009 219 15,470 2010 150 12,081 Grand total 540 58,860 Voluntary Bycatch BRD Year characteri- certification Trips by year and project zation 2007 32 5 2008 10 2009 9 2010 1 Grand total 32 25 Tows by year and project 2007 52 214 2008 416 2009 347 2010 41 Grand total 52 1,018 Sea days by year and project 2007 32 127 2008 234 2009 230 2010 22 Grand total 32 613 Sea days by year and Year Industry % region cover Gulf of Mexico 2007 1.1 2008 2.7 2009 2.4 2010 1.9 Grand total 2.0 South Atlantic 2007 0.2 2008 0.9 2009 1.4 2010 1.2 Grand total 0.9 Voluntary Year Skimmer Total Trips by year and project 2007 68 2008 147 2009 15 202 2010 56 192 Grand total 71 608 Tows by year and project 2007 1,508 2008 3,512 2009 76 3,806 2010 358 2,899 Grand total 434 11,725 Sea days by year and project 2007 798 2008 1,808 2009 20 2,028 2010 68 1,310 Grand total 88 5,944 Sea days by year and Year region Gulf of Mexico 2007 2008 2009 2010 Grand total South Atlantic 2007 2008 2009 2010 Grand total * Partial year Table 2.--Percentage of tows by season and state, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Jan-April May-Aug Sept-Dec Total % % Texas Nearshore 3.8 4.9 5.1 13.8 Offshore 4.8 10.7 9.4 24.8 Subtotal 8.6 15.6 14.4 38.6 Louisiana Nearshore 1.2 7.9 7.9 17.0 Offshore 2.6 4.9 6.5 14.0 Subtotal 3.8 12.8 14.3 31.0 Alabama/Mississippi Nearshore 0.7 1.4 2.0 4.0 Offshore 0.5 2.3 1.1 3.9 Subtotal 1.2 3.6 3.1 8.0 Florida Gulf Nearshore 0.0 0.7 1.1 1.8 Offshore 0.0 0.7 0.8 1.5 Subtotal 0.0 1.4 1.9 3.3 Florida Atlantic Nearshore 2.0 0.9 1.1 4.0 Offshore 5.1 1.5 2.7 9.3 Subtotal 7.1 2.4 3.8 13.2 Georgia Nearshore 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.9 Offshore 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Subtotal 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.9 South Carolina Nearshore 0.0 0.8 0.7 1.5 Subtotal 0.0 0.8 0.7 1.5 North Carolina Nearshore 0.0 1.5 0.9 2.4 Offshore 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 Subtotal 0.0 1.5 1.0 2.5 Grand total 21.0 38.8 40.2 100.0 Table 3.--Trip characteristics by area and target species, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Gulf South Atlantic South Item mandatory mandatory Atlantic penaeid penaeid mandatory rock Trip length (days) n = 4763 n = 360 n = 74 Mean 13.8 2.9 14.8 Range 1-51.0 1-20.0 7-22.0 s.d. 10.7 3.0 5.9 Main net tow time (h) n = 9252 n = 788 n = 154 Mean 5.2 2.8 2.7 Range <0.1-16.7 <0.1-6.9 0.8-6.4 s.d. 2.2 1.1 0.8 Total hs 48534.5 2212.0 421.3 Try net towtime (h) n = 5565 n = 1121 Mean 0.9 0.5 Range 0.1- 5.0 <0.1-1.5 s.d. 0.4 0.2 Water depth (ftm) n = 8959 n = 778 n = 154 Mean 16.4 4.8 33.5 Range 0.5-65.0 1.2-16.0 5.0-90.0 s.d. 12.5 2.5 20.7 Vessel speed (kt) n = 9161 n = 788 n = 154 Mean 2.8 2.5 2.6 Range 0.1-4.1 1.2-3.6 1.9-3.2 s.d. 0.3 0.3 0.3 Table 4.--Vessel characteristics by area and target species, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp ishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Gulf South Atlantic South Atlantic mandatory mandatory mandatory rock penaeid penaeid Item (n = 199) (n = 52) (n = 6) Vessel length (ft) n = 199 n = 52 n = 6 Mean 74.0 64.2 76.7 Range 31-98 38-88 72.0-85.0 s.d. 11.9 13.5 4.8 Year built n = 197 n = 51 n = 6 Mean 1987 1981 1988 Range 1951-2003 1953-2003 1977-2001 s.d. 11.0 11.8 10.3 Gross tons n = 190 n = 50 n = 6 Mean 119.5 83.9 143.3 Range 12-208 10-164 107.0-167.0 s.d. 41.3 41.6 21.0 Horsepower n = 169 n = 44 n = 5 Mean 559 434 573 Range 85-1234 165-1000 425-720 s.d. 223 182 138 Crew size n = 196 n = 52 n = 6 Mean 2 2 3 Range 0-4 0-4 1-4 s.d. 0.7 1.0 1.0 Cold storage Freezer 85% 25% 100% Ice 13% 73% Unknown 2% 2% Hull construction Steel 83% 31% 83% Fiberglass 11% 25% Wood 5% 33% 17% Wood/Fiber 2% 12% Table 5.--Net characteristics by area and target species, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Gulf Item mandatory penaeid Net type (%) Flat 22.6 Unknown 15.5 Main net headrope length (ft) n=17,735 Mean 50.5 Range 14.0-74.5 s.d. 10.0 Main net footrope length (ft) n=17,621 Mean 56.6 Range 14.0-79.5 s.d. 10.7 Try net headrope length (ft) n= 5565 Mean 12.4 Range 8.3-16.3 s.d. 1.8 Try net footrope length (ft) n=5511 Mean 13.6 Range 9.8-20.5 s.d. 2.3 TED None Trawl body (%) Nylon 65.9 Sapphire 20.5 Trawl body mesh size (in) n=17,467 Mean 1.9 Range 1.0-3.0 s.d. 0.3 Cod end (%) Nylon 88.5 Sapphire 5.0 Cod end mesh size (in) n=17,177 Mean 1.7 Range 0.8-2.5 s.d. 0.3 Door type (%) Wood 61.5 Aluminum 15.2 Door length (ft) n=17,843 Mean 9.5 Range 4.0-13.0 s.d. 2.2 Door height (ft) n=17,843 Mean 3.6 Range 2.5-5.7 s.d. 0.4 Dummy door length (ft) n=14,376 Mean 7.6 Range 3.5-12.0 s.d. 1.9 Trawl extension type (%) None 86.0 Nylon 8.7 Chaffing gear type (%) Mesh 91.8 None 6.2 Lazy line rigging (%) Elephant 94.9 ears Choke 3.5 Tickler chain length (ft) n=17,478 Mean 62.4 Range 27.0-90.0 s.d. 11.4 South Atlantic Item mandatory penaeid Net type (%) Mongoose w/ 56 bib Mongoose 9.5 Main net headrope length (ft) n=1492 Mean 52.3 Range 33.4-70.0 s.d. 9.7 Main net footrope length (ft) n=1492 Mean 55.0 Range 33.4-79.5 s.d. 10.6 Try net headrope length (ft) n= 1121 Mean 12.0 Range 10.0-14.0 s.d. 0.6 Try net footrope length (ft) n=1121 Mean 12.8 Range 10.0-16.8 s.d. 1.6 TED None Trawl body (%) Nylon 52.1 Spectra 34.4 Trawl body mesh size (in) n=1525 Mean 1.8 Range 0.9-4 s.d. 0.3 Cod end (%) Nylon 62.2 Poly 28.7 Cod end mesh size (in) n=1513 Mean 1.6 Range 0.9-4.0 s.d. 0.3 Door type (%) Wood 82.6 Aluminum 8.9 Door length (ft) n=1537 Mean 8.2 Range 3.0-11.0 s.d. 1.8 Door height (ft) n=1537 Mean 3.3 Range 2.5-4.8 s.d. 0.4 Dummy door length (ft) n=1183 Mean 6.5 Range 4.0-8.8 s.d. 1.2 Trawl extension type (%) None 66.5 Nylon 12.1 Chaffing gear type (%) Mesh 83.9 None 14.0 Lazy line rigging (%) Elephant 89.5 ears Choke 8.0 Tickler chain length (ft) n=1479 Mean 60.0 Range 37.0-106.8 s.d. 12.4 South Atlantic Item mandatory rock Net type (%) Flat 56.5 4 Seam 24.0 Main net headrope length (ft) balloon n=308 Mean 52.5 Range 35.0-61.0 s.d. 6.3 Main net footrope length (ft) n=308 Mean 56.3 Range 41.2-71.0 s.d. 6.8 Try net headrope length (ft) Mean Range s.d. Try net footrope length (ft) Mean Range s.d. TED Trawl body (%) Nylon 93.5 Other 3.2 Trawl body mesh size (in) n=308 Mean 1.9 Range 1.5-2.0 s.d. 0.1 Cod end (%) Nylon 100.0 Cod end mesh size (in) n=308 Mean 1.8 Range 1.5-2.0 s.d. 0.2 Door type (%) Wood 100.0 Door length (ft) n=308 Mean 9.6 Range 9.0-10.0 s.d. 0.5 Door height (ft) n=308 Mean 3.6 Range 3.0-3.7 s.d. 0.2 Dummy door length (ft) n=308 Mean 7.8 Range 5.0-10.0 s.d. 1.3 Trawl extension type (%) None 56.5 Nylon 37.0 Chaffing gear type (%) Mesh 69.5 Whiskers 24.0 Lazy line rigging (%) Elephant 100.0 ears Tickler chain length (ft) n=308 Mean 62.7 Range 46.6-76.5 s.d. 7.4 Table 6.--Bycatch reduction device (BRD) characteristics by area and target species, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Gulf Item mandatory penaeid BRD type (%) Fisheye 82.0 Composite 8 panel BRD cod end length (ft) n=16,677 Mean 130.3 Range 60.0-221.0 s.d. 22.2 BRD circumference n=17,809 (meshes) Mean 133.2 Range 89.0-195.0 s.d. 14.7 BRD distance to n=17,271 tie-off rings (ft) Mean 11.7 Range 6.8-21.8 s.d. 2.7 BRD fisheye (%) Top 82.6 BRD escape shape (%) Oval 54.7 Half moon 18.1 BRD fisheye escape n=14,833 height (in) Mean 6.1 Range 3.0-25.0 s.d. 2.2 BRD fisheye escape n=15,599 width (in) Mean 10.1 Range 5.0-27.0 s.d. 2.0 BRD location (%) Behind 59.3 Front 35.0 South Atlantic Item mandatory penaeid BRD type (%) Fisheye 97.5 Unknown 2.2 BRD cod end length (ft) n=1460 Mean 135.7 Range 50.0-200.0 s.d. 22.2 BRD circumference n=1520 (meshes) Mean 144.5 Range 80.0-200.0 s.d. 13.2 BRD distance to n=1514 tie-off rings (ft) Mean 11.5 Range 8.0-20.0 s.d. 3.3 BRD fisheye (%) Top 95.3 BRD escape shape (%) Diamond 53.2 Square 33.2 BRD fisheye escape n=1502 height (in) Mean 6.8 Range 4.0-10.0 s.d. 1.2 BRD fisheye escape n=1514 width (in) Mean 8.2 Range 4.8-13.5 s.d. 2.2 BRD location (%) Behind 56.5 Front 37.4 South Atlantic Item mandatory rock BRD type (%) Fisheye 100.0 BRD cod end length (ft) n=308 Mean 144.7 Range 120.0-150.0 s.d. 10.8 BRD circumference n=308 (meshes) Mean 145.4 Range 120.0-150.0 s.d. 6.9 BRD distance to n=226 tie-off rings (ft) Mean 11.8 Range 7.3-14.5 s.d. 2.1 BRD fisheye (%) Top 100.0 BRD escape shape (%) Diamond 83.8 Oval 13.0 BRD fisheye escape n=308 height (in) Mean 5.9 Range 5.0-8.0 s.d. 0.8 BRD fisheye escape n=308 width (in) Mean 8.5 Range 6.0-13.0 s.d. 2.9 BRD location (%) Behind 57.8 Front 42.2 Table 7.--Turtle excluder device (TED) characteristics, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Gulf Item mandatory penaeid TED type (%) Hard 96.9 TED design (%) Curved bar 62.4 Straight 30.7 TED opening (%) Bottom 65.5 TED funnel (%) No 80.1 Yes 16.2 TED flap (%) Yes 91.4 No 4.9 TED material (%) Aluminum 93.2 TED angle (degrees) n=17,208 Mean 48.6 Range 18.0-87.0 s.d. 8.7 TED length (in) n=17,514 Mean 46.8 Range 25.0-67.0 s.d. 5.7 TED width (in) n=17,514 Mean 38.9 Range 24.0-48.0 s.d. 3.4 TED PVC sponge (%) Foam 38.5 football Plastic 30.0 round Number of TED floats n=17,772 Mean 2.5 Range 0.0-6.0 s.d. 0.9 South Atlantic Item mandatory penaeid TED type (%) Hard 97.5 TED design (%) Curved bar 94.4 Straight 3.1 TED opening (%) Bottom 89.6 TED funnel (%) No 88.5 Yes 7.9 TED flap (%) Yes 92.2 No 4.2 TED material (%) Aluminum 94.6 TED angle (degrees) n=1496 Mean 50.6 Range 40.0-75.0 s.d. 5.5 TED length (in) n=1514 Mean 44.3 Range 36.0-60.0 s.d. 5.0 TED width (in) n=1514 Mean 36.6 Range 30.0-48.0 s.d. 4.0 TED PVC sponge (%) Foam 62.1 football Foam 10.3 cylinder Number of TED floats n=1514 Mean 2.0 Range 1.0-3.0 s.d. 0.4 South Atlantic Item mandatory rock TED type (%) Hard 100.0 TED design (%) Curved bar 100.0 TED opening (%) Bottom 100.0 TED funnel (%) No 87.0 Yes 13.0 TED flap (%) Yes 100.0 TED material (%) Aluminum 100.0 TED angle (degrees) n=308 Mean 50.4 Range 45.0-64.0 s.d. 6.3 TED length (in) n=308 Mean 49.1 Range 42.0-53.0 s.d. 2.3 TED width (in) n=308 Mean 38.6 Range 36.0-43.0 s.d. 2.6 TED PVC sponge (%) Foam 83.1 football Plastic 13.0 football Number of TED floats n=308 Mean 2.3 Range 2.0-4.0 s.d. 0.6 Table 8.--Bycatch ratios by area and target species, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. south-eatern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. All bycatch: Fish: Project Total (kg) penaeid shrimp penaeid shrimp Gulf mandatory 2,159,146.30 2.47 1.97 penaeid South Atlantic 136,373.30 4.25 3.17 mandatory penaeid South Atlantic 35,791.70 mandatory rock All bycatch: Fish: Project rock shrimp rock shrimp Gulf mandatory penaeid South Atlantic mandatory penaeid South Atlantic 1.41 0.89 mandatory rock Table 9.--Species documented from bycatch characterization samples, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Gulf Mandatory Penaeid Common name Scientific name (kg) Fish (superclass) Pisces 589,438.9 Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus 342,602.3 Brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus 304,664.1 White shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus 231,501.7 Crustacean Crustacean 149,861.1 Seatrout (genus) Cynoscion spp. 125,566.0 Invertebrate Invertebrate 115,359.0 Longspine porgy Stenotomus caprinus 86,452.8 Pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum 85,055.3 Debris (rocks,logs,etc.) Debris 32,257.8 Rock Shrimp (genus) Sicyonia spp. 2,455.1 Spot (flat croaker) Leiostomus xanthurus 972.1 Penaeid shrimp discard Penaeus discard 10,664.2 Pinfish Lagodon rhomboides 10,329.2 Jellyfish (family) Carybdeidae 125.2 Star drum Stellifer lanceolatus 169.1 Dusky flounder Syacium papillosum 3,205.0 Cannonball jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris Red snapper Lutjanus campechanus 5,675.0 Lane snapper Lutjanus synagris 4,538.6 Silver jenny Eucinostomus gula 4,438.4 Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus 3,851.3 Drum (family) Sciaenidae 4,168.3 Inshore lizardfish Synodus foetens 575.8 Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae 3,276.2 Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus 3,826.1 Sharks grouped General sharks 3,252.3 Southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma 3,031.7 Southern kingfish Menticirrhus americanus 1,848.7 Gulf butterdish Peprilus burti 2,550.6 Mojarra (genus) Eucinostomus spp. 2,415.0 Northern kingfish Menticirrhus saxatilis 177.8 Gafftopsail catfish Bagre marinus 1,990.7 Irridescent swimming crab Portunus gibbesii 8.7 Flounder (family) Bothidae 1,699.4 Bonnethead shark Sphyrna tiburo 1,252.0 Atlantic cutlassfish Trichiurus lepturus 1,225.5 Black drum Pogonias cromis 1,402.7 Blue crab Callinectes sapidus Weakfish Cynoscion regalis Atlantic bumper Chloroscombrus chrysurus 1,062.8 Sand perch Diplectrum formosum 953.4 Longspine swimming crab Portunus spinicarpus 4.5 Vermillion (B-liner) Rhomboplites aurorubens 893.2 snapper Left-eye flounder Syacium spp. 825.0 Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus 20.1 King mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla 721.6 Blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus 667.0 Hardhead catfish Arius felis 630.2 Barbfish Scorpaena brasiliensis 609.7 Smooth dogfish Mustelus canis 591.6 Striped anchovy Anchoa hepsetus 540.8 Cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus 500.8 Summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus Pigfish Orthopristis chrysoptera 509.8 Scorpionfish Scorpaena spp. 507.5 Spotfin mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus 465.4 Gulf menhaden Brevoortia patronus 442.8 Silver seatrout Cynoscion nothus 23.3 Roundel skate Raja texana 411.9 Dwarf sand perch Diplectrum bivittatum 362.7 Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix 56.3 Rock seabass Centropristis philadelphica 55.3 Wenchman Pristipomoides aquilonaris 270.5 Herring (genus) Alosa spp. Spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosas 235.0 Seabass (genus) Diplectrum 232.9 Tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum 229.4 Orange filefish Aluterus schoepfi 227.7 Spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna 223.2 Spinycheek scorpionfish Neomerinthe hemingwayi 222.5 Crab (genus) Callinectes 46.8 Clearnose skate Raja eglanteria 35.7 Sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus 210.3 Rock shrimp discards Sicyonia discards 30.7 Scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini 127.4 Cobia Rachycentron canadum 192.9 Twospot flounder Bothus robinsi 196.2 Leopard searobin Prionotus scitulus 191.6 Blacknose shark Carcharhinus acronotus 174.0 Bluespotted searobin Prionotus roseus 172.0 Sculptured mud crab Micropanope sculptipes 171.0 Penaeid shrimp Penaeus spp. 170.6 (brown,white, pink) Smooth butterfly ray Gymnura micrura 45.1 Banded drum Larimus fasciatus 99.4 Gulf kingfish Menticirrhus littoralis 155.5 Bank sea bass Centropristis ocyurus 7.2 Red goatfish Mullus auratus 144.6 Paper scallop Amusium papyraceum 126.7 Snapper (genus) Lutjanus spp. 120.0 Bigeye (blackfin) searobin Prionotus longispinosus 107.3 Flounder (genus) Bothus spp. Sash flounder Trichopsetta ventralis 104.8 Polyps and Medusae Cnidaria 101.3 (phylum) Blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus 101.0 Black seabass Centropristis striata Grass porgy Calamus arctifrons 94.6 Lizardfish (family) Synodontidae 94.2 Herrings (family) Clupeidae Fringed flounder Etropus crossotus 86.8 Common crevalle jack Caranx hippos 82.4 Lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis 75.0 Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina 46.1 Southern stingray Dasyatis americana 70.1 Spotted eagle ray Aetobatis narinari 67.6 Dwarf goatfish Upeneus parvus 67.3 Scrawled cowfish Lactophrys quadricornis 66.4 Bank cusk-eel Ophidion holbrooki 66.3 Harvestfish Peprilus alepidotus 58.2 Atlantic angel shark Squatina dumeril 60.2 Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense 0.4 Atlantic thread herring Opisthonema oglinum Planehead filefish Stephanolepis hispidus 52.8 Florida smoothhound Mustelus norrisi 52.7 Snakefish Trachinocephalus myops 52.6 King snake eel Ophichthus rex 49.1 Palmate (genus) sponge Isodictya spp. 42.8 Butterfly ray Gymnura spp. 7.8 Stingray (genus) Dasyatis spp. 19.7 Brown rock shrimp Sicyonia brevirostris 38.5 Smoothhead scorpionfish Scorpaena calcarata 34.0 Seabob Xiphopenaeus kroyeri 31.9 Spotted hake Urophycis regia 31.2 Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus 3.5 Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas 30.5 Spanish sardine Sardinella aurita 29.9 Bighead searobin Prionotus tribulus 28.7 Triggerfish/FNefish Balistidae 28.3 (family) Lefteye flounder (genus) Paralichthys spp. 28.1 Offshore lizardflsh Synodus poeyi 27.4 Longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus 23.7 Lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris 23.3 Atlantic guitarfish Rhinobatos ientiginosus 23.2 Horseshoe crab Limuius polyphemus 7.4 Tripletail Lobotes surinamensis 21.2 Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni 20.9 Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus 20.3 Inverts & nonpenaeid Unavailable 19.3 crustaceans Sharksucker Echeneis naucrates 17.4 Chub mackerel Scomber japonicus 12.7 Bandtail pufferfish Sphoeroides spengleri 12.3 Bullnose ray Myliobatis freminvillei 11.0 Stingray (family) Dasyatidae Conger eel (family) Congridae 10.7 Unicorn filefish Aluterus monoceros 10.5 Skate (family) Rajidae 10.3 Bluntnose stingray Dasyatis say 10.1 Yellow conger Hildebrandia flava 9.9 Atlantic midshipman Porichthys plectrodon 9.4 Finetooth shark Carcharhinus isodon 9.0 Atlantic spadefish Chaetodipterus faber 6.5 Knobbed porgy Calamus nodosus 8.6 Mutton snapper Lutjanus analis 7.8 Eggcockle Laevicardium laevigatum 7.6 Blackedge cusk-eel Lepophidium brevibarbe 7.2 Fringed filefish Monacanthus ciliatus 7.0 Hogchoker Trinectes maculatus 6.4 Alligator gar Atractosteus spatula 6.4 Honeycomb cowfish Lactophrys polygonia 6.2 Filefish (genus) Monacanthus spp. 6.1 White elbow crab Leiolambrus nitidus Spotfin flounder Cyclopsetta fimbriata 6.0 Ocellated flounder Ancylopsetta quadrocellata 4.8 Searobin (family) Triglidae 4.8 Gulf flounder Paralichthys albigutta 4.4 Common sundial Architectonica nobilias 3.9 Guaguanche Sphyraena guachancho 3.3 Sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus 3.2 Red porgy Pagrus pagrus 2.7 Southern hake Urophycis floridana 2.6 Bigeye Priacanthus arenatus 2.3 Birds Aves 2.2 Scup Stenotomus chrysops Whitebone porgy Calamus leucosteus 1.9 Polka-dot batfish Ogcocephalus cubifrons 1.8 Scrawled filefish Aluterus scriptus 1.7 Silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis 1.6 Atlantic moonfish Selene setapinnis Blackedge moray Gymnothorax nigromarginatus 1.5 Silver perch Bairdiella chrysoura Red grouper Epinephelus morio 1.1 Porgy (genus) Calamus 0.7 Gray snapper Lutjanus griseus 0.7 Mackerel (family) Scombridae 0.7 Southern stargazer Astroscopus y-graecum 0.7 Moray (genus) Gymnothorax spp. 0.7 Red lionfish Pterois volitans 0.5 Cubbyu Pareques umbrosus 0.4 Atlantic flyingfish Cypselurus melanurus 0.4 Jackknife-fish Equetus lanceolatus 0.2 Shrimp flounder Gastropsetta frontalis 0.2 White grunt Haemulon plumieri 0.2 Yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus 0.1 Yellowedge grouper Epinephelus flavolimbatus 0.1 Snowy grouper Epinephelus niveatus 0.1 Ocellated frogfish Antennarius ocellatus 0.1 Bay whiff Citharichthys spilopterus 0.1 Inland silverside Menidia beryllina 0.1 Balloonfish Diodon holocanthus 0.1 Total 2,159,146.4 Gulf South Atlantic Mandatory Mandatory Penaeid Penaeid Common name (Percent) (kg) Fish (superclass) 27.3 16,816.8 Atlantic croaker 15.9 32,939.2 Brown shrimp 14.1 8,603.9 White shrimp 10.7 16,813.0 Crustacean 6.9 3,636.3 Seatrout (genus) 5.8 5,036.9 Invertebrate 5.3 5,296.8 Longspine porgy 4.0 0.1 Pink shrimp 3.9 546.6 Debris (rocks,logs,etc.) 1.5 1,552.3 Rock Shrimp (genus) 0.1 Spot (flat croaker) 0.0 10,022.1 Penaeid shrimp discard 0.5 373.3 Pinfish 0.5 Jellyfish (family) 0.0 10,008.8 Star drum 0.0 7,911.1 Dusky flounder 0.1 Cannonball jellyfish 5,788.9 Red snapper 0.3 0.0 Lane snapper 0.2 Silver jenny 0.2 Spanish mackerel 0.2 421.2 Drum (family) 0.2 Inshore lizardfish 0.0 Atlantic sharpnose shark 0.2 581.4 Red drum 0.2 Sharks grouped 0.2 388.3 Southern flounder 0.1 243.2 Southern kingfish 0.1 1,059.2 Gulf butterdish 0.1 Mojarra (genus) 0.1 Northern kingfish 0.0 1,888.5 Gafftopsail catfish 0.1 Irridescent swimming crab 0.0 Flounder (family) 0.1 Bonnethead shark 0.1 396.5 Atlantic cutlassfish 0.1 248.1 Black drum 0.1 11.5 Blue crab 1,366.7 Weakfish 1,170.1 Atlantic bumper 0.0 30.6 Sand perch 0.0 Longspine swimming crab 0.0 Vermillion (B-liner) 0.0 snapper Left-eye flounder 0.0 Atlantic menhaden 0.0 784.2 King mackerel 0.0 36.0 Blacktip shark 0.0 49.1 Hardhead catfish 0.0 Barbfish 0.0 Smooth dogfish 0.0 16.5 Striped anchovy 0.0 25.1 Cownose ray 0.0 32.4 Summer flounder 513.5 Pigfish 0.0 Scorpionfish 0.0 Spotfin mojarra 0.0 Gulf menhaden 0.0 Silver seatrout 0.0 388.3 Roundel skate 0.0 Dwarf sand perch 0.0 Bluefish 0.0 227.0 Rock seabass 0.0 1.7 Wenchman 0.0 Herring (genus) 258.5 Spotted seatrout 0.0 2.6 Seabass (genus) 0.0 Tomtate 0.0 Orange filefish 0.0 Spinner shark 0.0 Spinycheek scorpionfish 0.0 Crab (genus) 0.0 172.7 Clearnose skate 0.0 50.8 Sheepshead 0.0 Rock shrimp discards 0.0 Scalloped hammerhead 0.0 80.2 Cobia 0.0 5.4 Twospot flounder 0.0 Leopard searobin 0.0 Blacknose shark 0.0 Bluespotted searobin 0.0 Sculptured mud crab 0.0 Penaeid shrimp 0.0 (brown,white, pink) Smooth butterfly ray 0.0 115.3 Banded drum 0.0 59.6 Gulf kingfish 0.0 Bank sea bass 0.0 40.1 Red goatfish 0.0 Paper scallop 0.0 Snapper (genus) 0.0 Bigeye (blackfin) searobin 0.0 Flounder (genus) Sash flounder 0.0 Polyps and Medusae 0.0 (phylum) Blackbelly rosefish 0.0 Black seabass 5.3 Grass porgy 0.0 Lizardfish (family) 0.0 Herrings (family) 90.3 Fringed flounder 0.0 Common crevalle jack 0.0 Lesser electric ray 0.0 Atlantic stingray 0.0 27.0 Southern stingray 0.0 Spotted eagle ray 0.0 Dwarf goatfish 0.0 Scrawled cowfish 0.0 Bank cusk-eel 0.0 Harvestfish 0.0 5.0 Atlantic angel shark 0.0 Threadfin shad 0.0 58.3 Atlantic thread herring 54.8 Planehead filefish 0.0 Florida smoothhound 0.0 Snakefish 0.0 King snake eel 0.0 Palmate (genus) sponge 0.0 Butterfly ray 0.0 34.3 Stingray (genus) 0.0 21.8 Brown rock shrimp 0.0 Smoothhead scorpionfish 0.0 Seabob 0.0 Spotted hake 0.0 Florida pompano 0.0 27.2 Bull shark 0.0 Spanish sardine 0.0 Bighead searobin 0.0 Triggerfish/FNefish 0.0 (family) Lefteye flounder (genus) 0.0 Offshore lizardflsh 0.0 Longnose gar 0.0 Lemon shark 0.0 Atlantic guitarfish 0.0 Horseshoe crab 0.0 14.6 Tripletail 0.0 Mexican flounder 0.0 Caribbean spiny lobster 0.0 Inverts & nonpenaeid 0.0 crustaceans Sharksucker 0.0 Chub mackerel 0.0 Bandtail pufferfish 0.0 Bullnose ray 0.0 Stingray (family) 10.7 Conger eel (family) 0.0 Unicorn filefish 0.0 Skate (family) 0.0 Bluntnose stingray 0.0 Yellow conger 0.0 Atlantic midshipman 0.0 Finetooth shark 0.0 Atlantic spadefish 0.0 2.3 Knobbed porgy 0.0 Mutton snapper 0.0 Eggcockle 0.0 Blackedge cusk-eel 0.0 Fringed filefish 0.0 Hogchoker 0.0 Alligator gar 0.0 Honeycomb cowfish 0.0 Filefish (genus) 0.0 White elbow crab 6.1 Spotfin flounder 0.0 Ocellated flounder 0.0 Searobin (family) 0.0 Gulf flounder 0.0 Common sundial 0.0 Guaguanche 0.0 Sand tiger shark 0.0 Red porgy 0.0 Southern hake 0.0 Bigeye 0.0 Birds 0.0 Scup 2.0 Whitebone porgy 0.0 Polka-dot batfish 0.0 Scrawled filefish 0.0 Silky shark 0.0 Atlantic moonfish 1.6 Blackedge moray 0.0 Silver perch 1.4 Red grouper 0.0 Porgy (genus) 0.0 Gray snapper 0.0 Mackerel (family) 0.0 Southern stargazer 0.0 Moray (genus) 0.0 Red lionfish 0.0 Cubbyu 0.0 Atlantic flyingfish 0.0 Jackknife-fish 0.0 Shrimp flounder 0.0 White grunt 0.0 Yellowtail snapper 0.0 Yellowedge grouper 0.0 Snowy grouper 0.0 Ocellated frogfish 0.0 Bay whiff 0.0 Inland silverside 0.0 Balloonfish 0.0 Total 100.0 136,373.3 South Atlantic South Atlantic Mandatory Mandatory Penaeid Rock Common name (Percent) (kg) Fish (superclass) 12.3 4,456.4 Atlantic croaker 24.2 241.8 Brown shrimp 6.3 193.9 White shrimp 12.3 2.9 Crustacean 2.7 1,890.0 Seatrout (genus) 3.7 Invertebrate 3.9 1,970.5 Longspine porgy 0.0 Pink shrimp 0.4 164.1 Debris (rocks,logs,etc.) 1.1 806.2 Rock Shrimp (genus) 14,680.7 Spot (flat croaker) 7.3 394.0 Penaeid shrimp discard 0.3 Pinfish Jellyfish (family) 7.3 Star drum 5.8 Dusky flounder 3,799.1 Cannonball jellyfish 4.2 Red snapper 0.8 Lane snapper Silver jenny Spanish mackerel 0.3 2.3 Drum (family) Inshore lizardfish 3,364.1 Atlantic sharpnose shark 0.4 4.4 Red drum Sharks grouped 0.3 7.9 Southern flounder 0.2 21.3 Southern kingfish 0.8 0.6 Gulf butterdish Mojarra (genus) Northern kingfish 1.4 6.7 Gafftopsail catfish Irridescent swimming crab 1,979.2 Flounder (family) 1,699.4 Bonnethead shark 0.3 Atlantic cutlassfish 0.2 Black drum 0.0 Blue crab 1.0 Weakfish 0.9 Atlantic bumper 0.0 Sand perch Longspine swimming crab 923.8 Vermillion (B-liner) snapper Left-eye flounder Atlantic menhaden 0.6 King mackerel 0.0 2.1 Blacktip shark 0.0 Hardhead catfish Barbfish Smooth dogfish 0.0 Striped anchovy 0.0 Cownose ray 0.0 Summer flounder 0.4 6.2 Pigfish Scorpionfish Spotfin mojarra Gulf menhaden Silver seatrout 0.3 5.4 Roundel skate Dwarf sand perch Bluefish 0.2 33.9 Rock seabass 0.0 230.2 Wenchman Herring (genus) 0.2 Spotted seatrout 0.0 Seabass (genus) Tomtate Orange filefish Spinner shark Spinycheek scorpionfish Crab (genus) 0.1 Clearnose skate 0.0 128.5 Sheepshead Rock shrimp discards 177.2 Scalloped hammerhead 0.1 Cobia 0.0 Twospot flounder Leopard searobin Blacknose shark Bluespotted searobin Sculptured mud crab Penaeid shrimp (brown,white, pink) Smooth butterfly ray 0.1 Banded drum 0.0 Gulf kingfish Bank sea bass 0.0 100.0 Red goatfish Paper scallop Snapper (genus) Bigeye (blackfin) searobin Flounder (genus) 106.0 Sash flounder Polyps and Medusae (phylum) Blackbelly rosefish Black seabass 0.0 91.6 Grass porgy Lizardfish (family) Herrings (family) 0.1 Fringed flounder Common crevalle jack Lesser electric ray Atlantic stingray 0.0 Southern stingray Spotted eagle ray Dwarf goatfish Scrawled cowfish Bank cusk-eel Harvestfish 0.0 Atlantic angel shark Threadfin shad 0.0 Atlantic thread herring 0.0 Planehead filefish Florida smoothhound Snakefish King snake eel Palmate (genus) sponge Butterfly ray 0.0 Stingray (genus) 0.0 Brown rock shrimp Smoothhead scorpionfish Seabob Spotted hake Florida pompano 0.0 Bull shark Spanish sardine Bighead searobin Triggerfish/FNefish (family) Lefteye flounder (genus) Offshore lizardflsh Longnose gar Lemon shark Atlantic guitarfish Horseshoe crab 0.0 Tripletail Mexican flounder Caribbean spiny lobster Inverts & nonpenaeid crustaceans Sharksucker Chub mackerel Bandtail pufferfish Bullnose ray Stingray (family) 0.0 Conger eel (family) Unicorn filefish Skate (family) Bluntnose stingray Yellow conger Atlantic midshipman Finetooth shark Atlantic spadefish 0.0 Knobbed porgy Mutton snapper Eggcockle Blackedge cusk-eel Fringed filefish Hogchoker Alligator gar Honeycomb cowfish Filefish (genus) White elbow crab 0.0 Spotfin flounder Ocellated flounder Searobin (family) Gulf flounder Common sundial Guaguanche Sand tiger shark Red porgy Southern hake Bigeye Birds Scup 0.0 Whitebone porgy Polka-dot batfish Scrawled filefish Silky shark Atlantic moonfish 0.0 Blackedge moray Silver perch 0.0 Red grouper Porgy (genus) Gray snapper Mackerel (family) Southern stargazer Moray (genus) Red lionfish Cubbyu Atlantic flyingfish Jackknife-fish Shrimp flounder White grunt Yellowtail snapper Yellowedge grouper Snowy grouper Ocellated frogfish Bay whiff Inland silverside Balloonfish Total 100.0 35,791.7 South Atlantic Mandatory Rock Percent Common name (Percent) Total total Fish (superclass) 12.5 610,712.1 26.2 Atlantic croaker 0.7 375,783.4 16.1 Brown shrimp 0.5 313,461.9 13.4 White shrimp 0.0 248,317.6 10.7 Crustacean 5.3 155,387.4 6.7 Seatrout (genus) 130,602.9 5.6 Invertebrate 5.5 122,626.3 5.3 Longspine porgy 86,452.9 3.7 Pink shrimp 0.5 85,766.0 3.7 Debris (rocks,logs,etc.) 2.3 34,616.3 1.5 Rock Shrimp (genus) 41.0 17,135.8 0.7 Spot (flat croaker) 1.1 11,388.2 0.5 Penaeid shrimp discard 11,037.6 0.5 Pinfish 10,329.2 0.4 Jellyfish (family) 10,134.0 0.4 Star drum 8,080.2 0.3 Dusky flounder 10.6 7,004.1 0.3 Cannonball jellyfish 5,788.9 0.2 Red snapper 0.0 5,675.8 0.2 Lane snapper 4,538.6 0.2 Silver jenny 4,438.4 0.2 Spanish mackerel 0.0 4,274.8 0.2 Drum (family) 4,168.3 0.2 Inshore lizardfish 9.4 3,939.9 0.2 Atlantic sharpnose shark 0.0 3,862.0 0.2 Red drum 3,826.1 0.2 Sharks grouped 0.0 3,648.5 Southern flounder 0.1 3,296.3 0.1 Southern kingfish 0.0 2,908.5 0.1 Gulf butterdish 2,550.6 0.1 Mojarra (genus) 2,415.0 0.1 Northern kingfish 0.0 2,073.0 0.1 Gafftopsail catfish 1,990.7 0.1 Irridescent swimming crab 5.5 1,987.9 0.1 Flounder (family) 0.1 Bonnethead shark 1,648.6 0.1 Atlantic cutlassfish 1,473.6 0.1 Black drum 1,414.2 0.1 Blue crab 1,366.7 0.1 Weakfish 1,170.1 0.1 Atlantic bumper 1,093.4 0.0 Sand perch 953.4 0.0 Longspine swimming crab 2.6 928.3 0.0 Vermillion (B-liner) 893.2 0.0 snapper Left-eye flounder 825.0 0.0 Atlantic menhaden 804.2 0.0 King mackerel 0.0 759.7 0.0 Blacktip shark 716.1 0.0 Hardhead catfish 630.2 0.0 Barbfish 609.7 0.0 Smooth dogfish 608.2 0.0 Striped anchovy 565.9 0.0 Cownose ray 533.3 0.0 Summer flounder 0.0 519.7 0.0 Pigfish 509.8 0.0 Scorpionfish 507.5 0.0 Spotfin mojarra 465.4 0.0 Gulf menhaden 442.8 0.0 Silver seatrout 0.0 417.0 0.0 Roundel skate 411.9 0.0 Dwarf sand perch 362.7 0.0 Bluefish 0.1 317.2 0.0 Rock seabass 0.6 287.3 0.0 Wenchman 270.5 0.0 Herring (genus) 258.5 0.0 Spotted seatrout 237.6 0.0 Seabass (genus) 232.9 0.0 Tomtate 229.4 0.0 Orange filefish 227.7 0.0 Spinner shark 223.2 0.0 Spinycheek scorpionfish 222.5 0.0 Crab (genus) 219.5 0.0 Clearnose skate 0.4 215.1 0.0 Sheepshead 210.3 0.0 Rock shrimp discards 0.5 207.9 0.0 Scalloped hammerhead 207.5 0.0 Cobia 198.3 0.0 Twospot flounder 196.2 0.0 Leopard searobin 191.6 0.0 Blacknose shark 174.0 0.0 Bluespotted searobin 172.0 0.0 Sculptured mud crab 171.0 0.0 Penaeid shrimp 170.6 0.0 (brown,white, pink) Smooth butterfly ray 160.5 0.0 Banded drum 158.9 0.0 Gulf kingfish 155.5 0.0 Bank sea bass 0.3 147.3 0.0 Red goatfish 144.6 0.0 Paper scallop 126.7 0.0 Snapper (genus) 120.0 0.0 Bigeye (blackfin) searobin 107.3 0.0 Flounder (genus) 0.3 106.0 0.0 Sash flounder 104.8 0.0 Polyps and Medusae 101.3 0.0 (phylum) Blackbelly rosefish 101.0 0.0 Black seabass 0.3 96.8 0.0 Grass porgy 94.6 0.0 Lizardfish (family) 94.2 0.0 Herrings (family) 90.3 0.0 Fringed flounder 86.8 0.0 Common crevalle jack 82.4 0.0 Lesser electric ray 75.0 0.0 Atlantic stingray 73.1 0.0 Southern stingray 70.1 0.0 Spotted eagle ray 67.6 0.0 Dwarf goatfish 67.3 0.0 Scrawled cowfish 66.4 0.0 Bank cusk-eel 66.3 0.0 Harvestfish 63.2 0.0 Atlantic angel shark 60.2 0.0 Threadfin shad 58.6 0.0 Atlantic thread herring 54.8 0.0 Planehead filefish 52.8 0.0 Florida smoothhound 52.7 0.0 Snakefish 52.6 0.0 King snake eel 49.1 0.0 Palmate (genus) sponge 42.8 0.0 Butterfly ray 42.1 0.0 Stingray (genus) 41.5 0.0 Brown rock shrimp 38.5 0.0 Smoothhead scorpionfish 34.0 0.0 Seabob 31.9 0.0 Spotted hake 31.2 0.0 Florida pompano 30.6 0.0 Bull shark 30.5 0.0 Spanish sardine 29.9 0.0 Bighead searobin 28.7 0.0 Triggerfish/FNefish 28.3 0.0 (family) Lefteye flounder (genus) 28.1 0.0 Offshore lizardflsh 27.4 0.0 Longnose gar 23.7 0.0 Lemon shark 23.3 0.0 Atlantic guitarfish 23.2 0.0 Horseshoe crab 22.0 0.0 Tripletail 21.2 0.0 Mexican flounder 20.9 0.0 Caribbean spiny lobster 20.3 0.0 Inverts & nonpenaeid 19.3 0.0 crustaceans Sharksucker 17.4 0.0 Chub mackerel 12.7 0.0 Bandtail pufferfish 12.3 0.0 Bullnose ray 11.0 0.0 Stingray (family) 10.7 0.0 Conger eel (family) 10.7 0.0 Unicorn filefish 10.5 0.0 Skate (family) 10.3 0.0 Bluntnose stingray 10.1 0.0 Yellow conger 9.9 0.0 Atlantic midshipman 9.4 0.0 Finetooth shark 9.0 0.0 Atlantic spadefish 8.9 0.0 Knobbed porgy 8.6 0.0 Mutton snapper 7.8 0.0 Eggcockle 7.6 0.0 Blackedge cusk-eel 7.2 0.0 Fringed filefish 7.0 0.0 Hogchoker 6.4 0.0 Alligator gar 6.4 0.0 Honeycomb cowfish 6.2 0.0 Filefish (genus) 6.1 0.0 White elbow crab 6.1 0.0 Spotfin flounder 6.0 0.0 Ocellated flounder 4.8 0.0 Searobin (family) 4.8 0.0 Gulf flounder 4.4 0.0 Common sundial 3.9 0.0 Guaguanche 3.3 0.0 Sand tiger shark 3.2 0.0 Red porgy 2.7 0.0 Southern hake 2.6 0.0 Bigeye 2.3 0.0 Birds 2.2 0.0 Scup 2.0 0.0 Whitebone porgy 1.9 0.0 Polka-dot batfish 1.8 0.0 Scrawled filefish 1.7 0.0 Silky shark 1.6 0.0 Atlantic moonfish 1.6 0.0 Blackedge moray 1.5 0.0 Silver perch 1.4 0.0 Red grouper 1.1 0.0 Porgy (genus) 0.7 0.0 Gray snapper 0.7 0.0 Mackerel (family) 0.7 0.0 Southern stargazer 0.7 0.0 Moray (genus) 0.7 0.0 Red lionfish 0.5 0.0 Cubbyu 0.4 0.0 Atlantic flyingfish 0.4 0.0 Jackknife-fish 0.2 0.0 Shrimp flounder 0.2 0.0 White grunt 0.2 0.0 Yellowtail snapper 0.1 0.0 Yellowedge grouper 0.1 0.0 Snowy grouper 0.1 0.0 Ocellated frogfish 0.1 0.0 Bay whiff 0.1 0.0 Inland silverside 0.1 0.0 Balloonfish 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 2,331,311.4 100.0 Table 10.--Selected Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery species recorded from all nets from bycatch characterization samples, based on mandatory observer coverage from July 2007 through December 2010. Scientific name Common name Pisces Fish (superclass) Farfantepenaeus aztecus Brown shrimp Crustacean Crustacean Micropogonias undulatus Atlantic croaker Cynoscion spp. Seatrout (genus) Litopenaeus setiferus White shrimp Invertebrate Invertebrate Stenotomus caprinus Longspine porgy Farfantepenaeus duorarum Pink shrimp Lutjanus campechanus Red snapper Debris Debris (rocks,logs,etc.) Penaeus discard Penaeid shrimp discard (brown,white, pink) General sharks Sharks grouped Lutjanus synagris Lane snapper Scomberomorus maculatus Spanish mackerel Rhomboplites aurorubens Vermilion snapper Sciaenops ocellatus Red drum Scomberomorus cavalla King mackerel Paralichthys lethostigma Southern flounder Pogonias cromis Black drum Cynoscion nebulosus Spotted seatrout Rachycentron canadum Cobia Penaeus spp. Penaeid shrimp (brown,white, pink) Lutjanus spp. Snapper (genus) Scientific name Extrapolated Kg/h CV weight (kg) Pisces 637,493.9 10.1 <0.1 Farfantepenaeus aztecus 304,764.5 4.8 <0.1 Crustacean 152,676.0 2.4 <0.1 Micropogonias undulatus 342,602.4 5.4 <0.1 Cynoscion spp. 125,589.3 2.0 <0.1 Litopenaeus setiferus 231,501.7 3.7 <0.1 Invertebrate 115,778.2 1.8 <0.1 Stenotomus caprinus 86,452.8 1.4 <0.1 Farfantepenaeus duorarum 85,055.4 1.3 <0.1 Lutjanus campechanus 5,574.6 0.1 <0.1 Debris 32,257.8 0.5 <0.1 Penaeus discard 10,664.2 0.2 <0.1 General sharks 9,741.1 0.2 <0.1 Lutjanus synagris 4,538.6 0.1 <0.1 Scomberomorus maculatus 3,851.3 0.1 0.1 Rhomboplites aurorubens 893.2 0.0 0.1 Sciaenops ocellatus 3,826.1 0.1 0.1 Scomberomorus cavalla 721.6 0.0 0.1 Paralichthys lethostigma 3,031.7 0.0 0.1 Pogonias cromis 1,402.7 0.0 0.1 Cynoscion nebulosus 235.0 0.0 0.2 Rachycentron canadum 192.9 0.0 0.2 Penaeus spp. 170.6 0.0 0.5 Lutjanus spp. 128.5 0.0 0.7 Table 11.--Selected South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery species recorded from all nets from bycatch characterization samples, based on mandatory observer coverage from July 2007 through December 2010. Scientific name Common name Pisces Fish (superclass) Cynoscion spp. Seatrout (genus) Litopenaeus setiferus White shrimp Micropogonias undulatus Atlantic croaker Crustacean Crustacean Invertebrate Invertebrate Leiostomus xanthurus Spot (flat croaker) Farfantepenaeus aztecus Brown shrimp Menticirrhus americanus Southern kingfish Menticirrhus saxatilis Northern kingfish Paralichthys dentatus Summer flounder Scomberomorus maculatus Spanish mackerel General sharks Sharks grouped Debris Debris (rocks,logs,etc.) Pomatomus saltatrix Blueflsh Paralichthys lethostigma Southern flounder Penaeus discard Penaeid shrimp discard (brown,white, pin Alosa spp. Herring (genus) Scomberomorus cavalla King mackerel Centropristis ocyurus Bank sea bass Trachinotus carolinus Florida pompano Farfantepenaeus duorarum Pink shrimp Pogonias cromis Black drum Centropristis philadelphica Rock sea bass Stenotomus chrysops Scup Cynoscion nebulosus Spotted seatrout Centropristis striata Black sea bass Rachycentron canadum Cobia Lutjanus campechanus Red snapper Scientific name Extrapolated Kg/h CV weight (kg) Pisces 26,381.5 10.0 <0.1 Cynoscion spp. 6,595.2 2.5 <0.1 Litopenaeus setiferus 16,813.0 6.4 <0.1 Micropogonias undulatus 32,939.2 12.5 <0.1 Crustacean 5,196.5 2.0 0.1 Invertebrate 21,094.5 8.0 0.1 Leiostomus xanthurus 10,022.1 3.8 0.1 Farfantepenaeus aztecus 8,603.9 3.3 0.1 Menticirrhus americanus 1,059.2 0.4 0.1 Menticirrhus saxatilis 1,888.5 0.7 0.1 Paralichthys dentatus 513.5 0.2 0.1 Scomberomorus maculatus 421.2 0.2 0.1 General sharks 1,512.1 0.6 0.1 Debris 1,552.3 0.6 0.1 Pomatomus saltatrix 227.0 0.1 0.1 Paralichthys lethostigma 243.2 0.1 0.1 Penaeus discard k) 373.3 0.1 0.1 Alosa spp. 258.5 0.1 0.2 Scomberomorus cavalla 36.0 0.0 0.2 Centropristis ocyurus 40.1 0.0 0.2 Trachinotus carolinus 27.2 0.0 0.3 Farfantepenaeus duorarum 546.6 0.2 0.3 Pogonias cromis 11.5 0.0 0.4 Centropristis philadelphica 1.7 0.0 0.4 Stenotomus chrysops 2.0 0.0 0.5 Cynoscion nebulosus 2.6 0.0 0.5 Centropristis striata 5.3 0.0 0.6 Rachycentron canadum 5.4 0.0 0.7 Lutjanus campechanus 0.0 0.0 Table 12.--Selected South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery species recorded from all nets from bycatch characterization samples, based on mandatory observer coverage from July 2007 through December 2010. Scientific name Common name Pisces Fish (superclass) Crustacean Crustacean Sicyonia spp. Rock shrimp (genus) Invertebrate Invertebrate Centropristis phiiadeiphica Rock sea bass Farfantepenaeus duorarum Pink shrimp Leiostomus xanthurus Spot (flat croaker) Debris Debris (rocks,logs,etc.) Farfantepenaeus aztecus Brown shrimp Centropristis ocyurus Bank sea bass Micropogonias unduiatus Atlantic croaker Sicyonia discards Rock shrimp (discards) Paraiichthys iethostigma Southern flounder Cynoscion spp. Seatrout (genus) General sharks Sharks grouped Lutjanus campechanus Red snapper Pomatomus saitatrix Bluefish Centropristis striata Black sea bass Menticirrhus saxatiiis Northern kingfish Litopenaeus setiferus White shrimp Paraiichthys dentatus Summer flounder Scomberomorus macuiatus Spanish mackerel Menticirrhus americanus Southern kingfish Scomberomorus cavaiia King mackerel Aiosa spp. Herring (genus) Cynoscion nebuiosus Spotted seatrout Pogonias cromis Black drum Stenotomus chrysops Scup Trachinotus caroiinus Florida pompano Scientific name Extrapolated Kg/h CV weight (kg) Pisces 11,854.1 23.4 <0.1 Crustacean 4,793.0 9.5 0.1 Sicyonia spp. 14,680.7 29.0 0.1 Invertebrate 1,970.5 3.9 0.1 Centropristis phiiadeiphica 230.2 0.5 0.1 Farfantepenaeus duorarum 164.1 0.3 0.1 Leiostomus xanthurus 394.0 0.8 0.2 Debris 806.2 1.6 0.2 Farfantepenaeus aztecus 193.9 0.4 0.2 Centropristis ocyurus 100.0 0.2 0.3 Micropogonias unduiatus 241.8 0.5 0.3 Sicyonia discards 177.2 0.4 0.3 Paraiichthys iethostigma 21.3 0.0 0.4 Cynoscion spp. 5.4 0.0 0.5 General sharks 12.3 0.0 0.5 Lutjanus campechanus 0.8 0.0 0.6 Pomatomus saitatrix 33.9 0.1 0.6 Centropristis striata 91.6 0.2 0.6 Menticirrhus saxatiiis 6.7 0.0 0.7 Litopenaeus setiferus 2.9 0.0 0.7 Paraiichthys dentatus 6.2 0.0 1.0 Scomberomorus macuiatus 2.3 0.0 1.0 Menticirrhus americanus 0.6 0.0 1.0 Scomberomorus cavaiia 2.1 0.0 1.0 Aiosa spp. 0.0 0.0 Cynoscion nebuiosus 0.0 0.0 Pogonias cromis 0.0 0.0 Stenotomus chrysops 0.0 0.0 Trachinotus caroiinus 0.0 0.0 Figure 4.--Major species categories grouped by area and target species, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Gulf South Atlantic South Atlantic mandatory mandatory mandatory rock penaeid penaeid Fish 57% 60% 36% Penaeid 29% 19% 1% shrimp Crustaceans 7% 4% 13% Rock shrimp 41% Invertebrates 5% 15% 6% Debris 1% 1% 2% Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 5.--Species-level characterization in the Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Grouped finfish (27%) Other (6%) Pink shrimp (4%) Longspine porgy (4%) Invertebrate (5%) Seatrout (6%) Crustacean (7%) White shrimp (11%) Brown shrimp (14%) Atlantic (16%) croaker n = 11,322 nets 63,023.5 h 2,159,146 kg 185 species Note: Table made from pie graph. Figure 6.--Species-level characterization in the South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Atlantic croaker (24%) Other (16%) Invertebrate (4%) Cannonball jellyfish (4%) Star drum (6%) Brown Shrimp (6%) Jellyfish (7%) Flat croaker (7%) Grouped finfish (12%) White shrimp (12%) n = 890 nets 2,634 h 136,373 kg 63 species Note: Table made from pie graph. Figure 7.--Species-level characterization in the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery, based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010. Debris (2%) Other (5%) Longspine swimming crab (3%) Irridescent swimming crab (6%) Inshore lizardfish (9%) Dusky flounder (11%) Grouped finfish (12%) Rock shrimp (41%) n = 191 nets 506 h 11,854 kg 31 species Note: Table made from pie graph.
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|Author:||Scott-Denton, Elizabeth; Cryer, Pat F.; Duffy, Matt R.; Gocke, Judith P.; Harrelson, Mike R.; Kinsel|
|Publication:||Marine Fisheries Review|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2012|
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