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Characterization of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries based on observer data.

Introduction

Bycatch in shrimp trawls is a significant source of fishery induced mortality for several state and Federally managed finfish species in the southeastern United States (Pellegrin, 1982; Alverson et al., 1994; Nichols et al. (1); NMFS (2,3)). Significant declines in landings of several species of southeastern finfish, notably red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, (Goodyear and Phares (4)), resulted in the implementation of Federal management measures to identify reasons for these declines and to expedite the necessary steps required to rebuild affected stocks.

In response to Congressional directives, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC), in cooperation with the Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Foundation, Inc. (Foundation), implemented a cooperative research plan in 1992 to identify, develop, and evaluate gear options to reduce bycatch in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic shrimp fisheries (NMFS (5); Hoar et al. (6)). More than 150 bycatch reduction device (BRD) styles were developed by industry, scientists and gear specialists and evaluated through cooperative multi-year efforts (Scott-Denton and Nance, 1996; Nance and Scott-Denton, 1997; Watson et al., 1999; Scott-Denton, 2007; NMFS2, (2,3); Branstetter (7); Nance et al. (8); Foster and Scott-Denton (9); NMFS (10); Helies and Jamison (11)).

The two primary objectives of these evaluations were to: 1) estimate catch rates during commercial shrimping operations for both target and non-target species by area, season, and depth; and 2) evaluate BRD effectiveness at eliminating or significantly reducing the capture of nontargeted species, notably red snapper.

Since the early 1990's, much progress has been made in addressing the complex issues associated with finfish bycatch reduction in the southeastern shrimp fishery (NMFS (10)). BRD's have been required in Federal waters of the South Atlantic since 1997, the western Gulf of Mexico since 1998, and the eastern Gulf of Mexico since 2004 (50 CFR 622). BRD designs currently certified (or provisionally certified) for use in Federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic include: composite panel, extended funnel, fisheye, Jones-Davis, and modified Jones-Davis (NOAA, 2008a). An additional design, the expanded mesh BRD, is certified for use in the South Atlantic only. Potential BRD designs are certified based on criteria set forth in the revised and consolidated BRD testing manuals and certification requirements for the Gulf and South Atlantic shrimp fisheries (NOAA, 2008b). Once certified, observer data are used periodically to reassess the continued effectiveness of BRD designs (Foster and Scott-Denton (9); NMFS (10); Helies and Jamison (11)).

To improve the statistical validity of data from the voluntary observer program, including bycatch, effort, and fishery performance estimates, the GMFMC, through Amendment 13 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (GMFMC (12)), mandated observer coverage of Federally permitted vessels. In 2007, the SEFSC implemented a mandatory observer program for the commercial shrimp fishery operating in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In June 2008, observer coverage was expanded to include the South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries through Amendment 6 to the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan for the South Atlantic Region (SAFMC (13)). A voluntary component of the observer program continues for the purposes of BRD development and evaluation.

Three commercially important penaeid shrimp species, brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus; white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus; and pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, historically comprise the majority of shrimp landed in southeastern U.S. waters. In 2010, these three species accounted for 99.9 % of annual shrimp landed in the Gulf of Mexico (NMFS, 2003). Landings were approximately 177.0 million lb (80.3 million kg) (heads-on) valued at $335.5 million (nMfS, 2003). Penaeid shrimp landings in the South Atlantic were approximately 16.3 million lb (7.4 million kg) (heads-on) valued at $33 million. Rock shrimp, Sicyonia spp., also primarily targeted in the South Atlantic, accounted for a smaller percentage of landings (1.8 million lb; 816 thousand kg) valued at $2.5 million (NMFS, 2003).

The shrimp fishery operates year round in the Gulf of Mexico, with highest effort occurring May through December (Nance, 1993a). The majority of brown shrimp catch from offshore waters occurs primarily off the coasts of Texas and Louisiana in depths between 20-40 fm. White shrimp are typically caught in waters of about 10 fm in the same areas. Pink shrimp are caught in waters of about 35 fm, predominately off southwestern Florida in the winter months (NMFS, 1999). Rock shrimp are primarily targeted from waters off the east coast of Florida in depths between 10-40 fm (Anderson, 1956; Nance, 1993b).

Currently, there are 1,467 Federally permitted vessels in the Gulf of Mexico, and 534 penaeid and 106 rock shrimp Federal permit holders in the South Atlantic (SERO (14)). Observer coverage of the entire southeastern shrimp fishery is approximately 2% based on industry effort (nominal days at sea).

While finfish are the primary bycatch, several species listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as amended (16 U.S.C. 1536 et seq.), or other regulatory mandates, have been encountered in the southeastern shrimp fishery. These include the following species:

Five species of sea turtles (Kemp's ridley, Lepidochelys kempii; leatherback, Dermochelys coriacea; hawksbill, Eretmochelys imbricata; loggerhead, Caretta caretta; and green, Chelonia mydas) occur in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic and may be affected by shrimping activities (Magnuson et al., 1990; Epperly et al., 2002). All of these species are currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).

Other species that may be encountered include smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata, listed by NMFS as endangered under the ESA in April 2003 (50 CFR 224). Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, were listed by NMFS as endangered species in February 2012 (NOAA, 2012). While delisted in November 2009 under ESA, the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, remains protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. [section][section] 703-712). Lastly, the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) enacted in 1972 (16 USC Chapter 31) affords protection for marine mammals. NMFS routinely prepares ESA section 7 consultations and other recommendations based on observer data to describe the effects of Federal activities, including Federally permitted fisheries, on threatened or endangered species.

The continuing goals of the mandatory observer programs are to provide quantitative biological, vessel, and gear-selectivity information for the southeastern shrimp fishery. The primary objectives are to: 1) provide general fishery bycatch characterization and catch rates for finfish species by area and target species; and 2) provide catch rates that can be used to estimate protected species bycatch levels.

The specific objectives of this paper are to: 1) summarize trip, vessel, environmental, and gear characteristics; 2) quantify fish and protected species capture by area and target species; and 3) estimate catch per unit of effort (CPUE) trends and spatial distribution for target and nontarget species.

Methods

Methods are similar to those as described for the voluntary shrimp observer program (Scott-Denton, 2007; NMFS3; Foster and Scott-Denton (9)) and the mandatory reef fish observer program (Scott-Denton et al., 2011). NMFS-approved observers were placed on randomly selected shrimp vessels targeting either penaeid or rock shrimp. For the Gulf of Mexico, under the mandatory selection process, Federally permitted vessels were randomly selected based on the previous year of effort stratified by area, depth, and season. These data were derived from the NMFS shrimp landings file and cross-referenced with U.S. Coast Guard documentation records, which yielded a list of active vessels. The NMFS Southeast Regional Office (SERO) provided owner names and contact information from permit records. Shrimp effort data were not available for all areas in the South Atlantic; therefore, only landings data were used to proportionally allocate sampling effort. Once selected, permit holders were notified by certified mail at least 1 month prior to the selection period. Seasonal selection periods were as follows: January through April, May through August, and September through December.

The authority to place observers falls under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA; 16 USC 1801), ESA, and MMPA. Pursuant to MSFCMA [section] 303(b) (8), Federal fishery permit holders are required to carry an observer if selected for mandatory coverage. Among the several provisions promulgated under MSFCMA [section] 303(b)(8) is the mandate for Federal permit holders to obtain a current Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Examination decal prior to the selection period for mandatory observer coverage. The safety decal requirement, in combination with other factors, led to low vessel compliance at the onset of the program. A continued dedicated effort by NMFS Office of Law Enforcement (OLE) has substantially increased compliance, notably in the Gulf of Mexico.

Additionally, a minimum sea day requirement by permit type was established to prevent potential early trip termination due to having an observer on board. Gulf of Mexico Federal penaeid permit holders are required to carry an observer for a minimum of 18 days during a selection period, with 11 and 6 days for South Atlantic rock and penaeid shrimp, respectively. Moreover, permit holders are required to carry an observer if selected, regardless of area fished or target species. No exemptions have been granted; however, a small percentage of vessel substitutions have been allowed (i.e., same owner, different vessel, same area).

For the Gulf of Mexico, shrimp statistical zones (Patella, 1975) were used to delineate area designations (Fig. 1). Conventionally, statistical areas 1-9 represent areas off the west coast of Florida, 10-12 delineate Alabama/ Mississippi, 13-17 depict Louisiana, and 18-21 denote Texas. Depth strata seaward of the beach, or International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGS) line, were classified as nearshore ([less than or equal to] 10 fm) or offshore (> 10 fm). Similarly, for the Atlantic, lat. 24[degrees]00'N-30[degrees]42.5'N denote the east coast of Florida, > lat. 30[degrees]42.5'N-32[degrees]00'N depict Georgia, > lat. 32[degrees]00'N-33[degrees]51.6'N represent South Carolina, and > lat. 33[degrees]51.6'N delineate North Carolina.

For each observed trip, vessel length, hull construction material, gross tonnage, engine horsepower, and crew size information were recorded. Gear characteristics related to BRD, turtle excluder device (TED), net type and other associated gear were recorded at the start of each trip, and updated if changes were made during the trip. Bottom time, vessel speed, and operational aspects relative to each net were documented for each tow.

Fishery-specific data were collected for each tow from the two outboard nets from vessels equipped with four nets, and one net for vessels equipped with two nets. Total catch, total shrimp, and red snapper weights were recorded for each net sampled. A subsample (one basket per net; approximately 32 kg) was processed from each net for bycatch composition by sorting for species, family, or species groupings (now referred to as species). Penaeid shrimp (and/or rock shrimp depending on the target), nonpenaeid crustaceans (crustaceans), noncrustacean invertebrates (invertebrates), and debris (e.g., rocks, logs, trash) were recorded from the subsample.

In the Gulf of Mexico, 14 other species of commercial, recreational and ecological importance were recorded. These included: Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus; black drum, Pogonias cromis; cobia, Rachycentron canadum; king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla; lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris; longspine porgy, Stenotomus caprinus; red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus; seatrout, Cynoscion spp.; other snapper, Lutjanus spp.; grouped sharks, Order Selachii; southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma; spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus; Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus; and vermilion snapper, Rhomboplites aurorubens. The remaining finfish species were grouped into a finfish other category.

From 2007 through 2008, all shark species were grouped. Beginning January 2009, identification of some shark species (as well as other species) was implemented; however, for the purpose of CPUE and variance analyses (2007-10), all sharks were grouped for consistency throughout the time series. Similar selection lists and methods were developed for the South Atlantic penaeid and rock shrimp fisheries. A detailed description of at-sea collection methods and data requirements are presented in the NMFS Galveston Laboratory's observer manual entitled "Characterization of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern Atlantic Otter Trawl and Bottom Reef Fish Fisheries" (NMFS (15)).

Biological measurements (weight and length) were recorded in metric units. Vessel, gear, and depth measurements followed current standards for the fisheries (U.S. system equivalents) as related to relevant regulatory mandates.

Catch rates are presented collectively for all years and seasons by area and target species (Gulf of Mexico penaeid; South Atlantic penaeid; and South Atlantic rock shrimp). A minimum of three vessels was required for seasonal and state-specific analyses due to confidentiality restrictions.

Protected species were documented and reported to SERO and/or SEFSC, generally within 24 h of capture. Sighting or capture of sea turtles was recorded in accordance with SEFSC protocol (NMFS, 2008). Observer data pertaining to sea turtle interactions were transmitted to SEFSC for sea turtle take level estimations.

All data were entered into the southeast regional shrimp trawl bycatch database. The database was developed in 1992 through a southeast regional program conducted by NMFS in cooperation with commercial fishing organizations and interests, state fishery management agencies, and universities. This database is housed and managed at SEFSC's Galveston Laboratory, where data sets are archived.

Statistical Analyses

Species total weights were extrapolated from subsample weight using the total catch weight, and were based on all sampled nets (sampling unit) per tow. Data from all sampled nets, regardless of operational problems (e.g., torn webbing, hangs, clogging), were included with the assumption that it represented standard commercial operations experienced by the fishery. The nets used in the analyses were consistent with current BRD regulations (required or not required). Total weight extrapolations were derived by multiplying the sample weight of the species of interest by the total weight of the sampled net, divided by the subsample weight for that net. For rare species and red snapper, all specimens were removed from the net, and no extrapolation was required. In the absence of a weight for a given species, the entire net was set aside from the analysis. Counts of individual specimens (except red snapper) were not recorded for all sampled nets, and therefore not included in the analysis.

Ratio estimation was used for analyses of species-specific catch rates. As described by Snedecor and Cochran (1967) and Watson et al. (1999), the ratio estimation (1) below was used as the sample estimate of the mean.

(1) R = [SIGMA]Y/[SIGNA]X,

where:

R = ratio estimate,

Y = extrapolated kilograms for species of interest for selected strata, and

X = hours towed for selected strata.

The estimated standard error of the estimate is given in equation 2:

(2) s(R) = 1/[bar.x][square root of [SIGMA][(Y - RX).sup.2]/n(n - 1),

where:

[bar.x] = mean of hours towed for selected strata, and

n = number of tows occurring in selected strata.

To standardize bycatch (discard) estimates as described in "Evaluating Bycatch" (NMFS, 2004), the coefficient of variation (CV) was used as a measure of precision for bycatch estimates. CV estimates were calculated by dividing the estimated standard error by the estimate of the mean CPUE (kg per hour for selected species).

As described in Scott-Denton et al. (2011), a density surface of CPUE for commercial and recreational important species was created using Fishery Analyst. (16, 17) This is an ArcGIS extension developed to graphically present temporal and spatial trends in fishery statistics (Riolo, 2006). The search radius was based on the average minimum tow length plus the standard deviation for each fishery (20 km for Gulf penaeid and South Atlantic rock; 10 km for South Atlantic penaeid). A cell size of 1 km produced the optimal resolution. All three fisheries are depicted on the same plot because there was no overlap in fishing grounds.

Density of catch and effort values for each 1 km cell was calculated by summing those values contained within the search radius and dividing the value by the area of the circle as defined by the search radius. A summary CPUE value for all years combined was calculated for each cell by summing CPUE values for individual years and dividing by the number of years for which fishing activity occurred in that cell.

To identify patterns in CPUE for selected species in each fishery, a local spatial statistic, the Getis-Ord [Gi.sup.*] ([Gi.sup.*]), was calculated using the Hot Spot Analysis tool in ArcGIS (18) to locate clusters of features with similarly high or low values. The [Gi.sup.*] statistic was also calculated for all discarded species combined and shrimp (penaeid and rock) in order to assess if geographical areas of particularly high levels of bycatch occurred.

Results

Fishing Characteristics

From July 2007 through December 2010, a total of 608 trips were observed (Table 1). For the mandatory component, 10,206 tows targeting penaeid and/ or rock shrimp (royal red shrimp excluded due to confidentiality) were sampled during 5,197 sea days of observations, with 9,264 tows (4,763 sea days) in the Gulf of Mexico and 942 tows (434 sea days) occurring in the South Atlantic. The highest concentration of effort was in statistical areas 2 and 21 in the Gulf, 30 and 35 in the South Atlantic penaeid, and 27 in the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery (Fig. 1). By season, 40% of the tows occurred from September through December; 39% May through August; and 21% January through April (Table 2). The greatest percentage of tows (39%) occurred off Texas after the Texas Closure (typically in effect from May 15 through July 15 annually).

Trip and tow characteristics varied by area and target (Table 3). Trip length averaged 13.8 ([+ or -] 10.7 s.d.) days in the Gulf, 2.9 ([+ or -] 3.0 s.d.) days in the South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery, and 14.8 ([+ or -] 5.9 s.d.) days for the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery. Average tow times were longer in the Gulf (5.2 h [+ or -] 2.2 s.d.) as compared with the South Atlantic penaeid (2.8 h [+ or -] 1.1 s.d.) and rock (2.7 [+ or -] 0.8 s.d) shrimp fisheries. Try net (a small net used to intermittently test for shrimp concentrations) tow times were also longer in the Gulf (0.9 h [+ or -] 0.4 s.d) as compared with the South Atlantic (0.5 h [+ or -] 0.2 s.d). On average, South Atlantic rock shrimp vessels fished deeper depths (33.5 fm) than Gulf (16.4 fm) and South Atlantic (4.8 fm) penaeid fisheries. Average vessel speed for all areas and fisheries combined was 2.8 kn.

Vessel characteristics (Table 4) were similar for the Gulf penaeid and South Atlantic rock shrimp fisheries because they can typically target both penaeid and rock shrimp, though at different times of the year. These vessels are generally larger ([bar.x] > 70 ft), have freezer storage capacity, and are of steel construction versus the South Atlantic penaeid fishery with smaller vessels ([bar.x] = 64.2 ft), ice hold storage, and wood construction.

Typical gear configurations for the southeastern shrimp fishery are depicted (Fig. 2, 3) with net characteristics by area and target species specified (Table 5). Flat nets were used more often in the Gulf (22.6%) and South Atlantic rock (56.5%) shrimp fisheries, while mongoose nets with bibs (56.0%) were used most frequently in the South Atlantic penaeid fishery. Headrope length for the primary trawls was similar among areas and target with an average from 50.5 ft to 52.5 ft. Try net headrope was also comparable in the Gulf and South Atlantic penaeid fisheries with an average of approximately 12 ft. Several trawl characteristics recorded were similar for all areas and target species including trawl body and codend material (nylon), door type (wood), trawl extension (none), chaffing gear (mesh), and lazy line rigging (elephant ears).

BRD type and dimensions (Table 6) were also similar among areas and target species. The dominant BRD type (fisheye), BRD position (top), and BRD location (behind elephant ears) were recorded most frequently. This was also evident with several attributes for TED's (Table 7), including TED type and design (hard/curved bar), TED opening (bottom), and TED angle ([bar.x][greater than or equal to] 48.6 degrees).

Catch Composition

Based on actual weight (i.e., non-extrapolated) data, 2.4 million kg of total catch was documented from 12,972 nets (towing for 69,194 h). For nets that had an effort value and an associated total catch and shrimp weight recorded, 2.3 million kg of total catch were documented from 12,415 nets (66,260 h). Penaeid and rock shrimp comprised 634 thousand kg (heads-on) or 27% of the total weight. Average shrimp CPUE was 9.6 kg/h. From 11,122 nets (62,122 h) that had effort, total catch, shrimp and red snapper counts recorded, a total of 88,058 red snapper were documented in the Gulf of Mexico, yielding an average of 1.4 fish/h.

Extrapolated Species Composition Bycatch Ratios

For the 12,403 nets that contained species characterization data, 2.3 million kg of total catch was recorded (66,164 h) for all years, areas, seasons, and depths. Based on weight extrapolations from species composition samples, bycatch to targeted shrimp (penaeid or rock) ratios by area and target species (Table 8) were 2.5 in the Gulf penaeid shrimp fishery, 4.3 for the South Atlantic penaeid, and 1.4 in the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery. Finfish to shrimp ratios for these same fisheries were 2.0, 3.2 and 0.9, respectively.

A total of 199 species were identified (Table 9). For all areas and target species, 4 species comprised > 66% of total catch: grouped finfish species (26%), Atlantic croaker (16%), brown shrimp (13%), and white shrimp (11%).

Extrapolated Species Composition Gulf of Mexico Penaeid Shrimp

Weight extrapolations from species characterization data collected from 11,322 nets (63,024 h) were placed into major categories by area and target for all years, seasons, and depths (Fig. 4). In terms of percent composition and CPUE for the Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery, finfishes dominated the catch at 57% (19.5 kg/h), followed by penaeid shrimp at 29% (9.9 kg/h), crustaceans at 7% (2.4 kg/h), invertebrates at 5% (1.8 kg/h), and debris at 1% (0.5 kg/h). (19) Overall (total catch) CPUE was 34.3 kg/h.

At the species level, the dominant species by area and target are depicted (Fig. 5-7; Table 9). In the Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery, 185 species were identified (Table 9). As to percent composition and CPUE (Fig. 5), grouped finfish accounted for 27% (9.4 kg/h) of the total catch, followed by Atlantic croaker at 16% (5.4 kg/h), brown shrimp at 14% (4.8 kg/h), white shrimp at 11% (3.7 kg/h), crustaceans at 7% (2.4 kg/h), seatrout at 6% (2.0 kg/h), invertebrates at 5% (1.8 kg/h), longspine porgy at 4% (1.4 kg/h), and pink shrimp at 4% (1.3 kg/h). All other species accounted for 6% (2.0 kg/h) of the total weight.

CPUE and variance estimates for selected species collected from all sampled nets from July 2007 through December 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery depict low (<0.3) CV estimates (Table 10). The two exceptions were grouped penaeid shrimp (not taken to species level) and other snapper species (excluding red and lane snapper).

Spatial CPUE density (kg/h) plots for several of these species are depicted in Figures 8-19 for all regions and targets. For the Gulf of Mexico region, brown and white shrimp were caught and retained predominantly in the western Gulf (statistical areas [greater than or equal to] 11), with higher density CPUE for brown shrimp occurring further offshore as compared with white shrimp (Fig. 8, 9). Pink shrimp were found throughout the Gulf, with highest density CPUE occurring off the west coast of Florida (Fig. 10). Grouped finfish were caught throughout the Gulf region with highest spatial CPUE observed in statistical areas 11-13 (Fig. 11). Several finfish species were almost exclusively restricted to the western Gulf and included Atlantic croaker (Fig. 12), trout (Fig. 13), and red snapper (Fig. 14). Spanish mackerel (Fig. 15), king mackerel (Fig.16), and grouped sharks (Fig.17), occurred primarily in the western Gulf and to a lesser extent off Florida in statistical areas 1-3. Crustaceans (Fig.18) and invertebrates (Fig. 19) were found throughout the Gulf, with high spatial densities in several statistical areas, notably 1, 8, and 11.

Cluster locations of statistically significant high CPUE for penaeid shrimp were most pronounced in relatively small concentrated cells of statistical areas 2 and 11-20 (Fig. 20). For all discard (bycatch) species combined, clusters of significantly high CPUE were detected primarily in the western Gulf (Fig. 21) with relatively larger sections of statistical areas 11-20.

Extrapolated Species Composition South Atlantic Penaeid Shrimp

In the South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery, from 890 nets (2,634 h), fish species comprised 60% (31.2 kg/h) of the total catch (Fig. 4), followed by penaeid shrimp at 19% (9.9 kg/h), invertebrates at 15% (8.0 kg/h), crustaceans at 4% (2.0 kg/h), and debris at 1% (0.6 kg/h). Overall CPUE was 51.8 kg/h.

At the species level (Table 9; Fig. 6), Atlantic croaker accounted for 24% (12.5 kg/h) of the total catch, followed by grouped finfish and white shrimp each at 12% (6.4 kg/h), flat croaker, Leiostomus xanthurus, and jellyfish (Family Carybdeidae) each at 7% (3.8 kg/h), brown shrimp at 6% (3.3 kg/h), star drum, Stellifer lanceolatus, at 6% (3.0 kg/h), cannonball jellyfish, Stomolophus meleagris, at 4% (2.2 kg/h), and invertebrates at 4% (2.0 kg/h). All other species (54) comprised 16% (8.4 kg/h) of the total weight.

CPUE and variance estimates for species selected from all sampled nets during the monitoring period in the South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery are depicted (Table 11). Relatively higher ([greater than or equal to] 0.3) CV estimates were observed in the South Atlantic as compared with the Gulf for several species including, but not limited to, sciaenids (Family Sciaenidae) and sea basses (Family Serranidae).

Spatial CPUE density (kg/h) plots for several of these species are denoted in Figures 8-19. Brown and white shrimp were caught and retained predominantly in statistical areas 30, 32, 33, and 35 (Fig. 8, 9). Relatively low density CPUE was observed for pink shrimp along the southeastern Atlantic coast (Fig. 10); the one exception occurred in statistical area 35 with CPUE ranging from 1.4 kg/h to 4.2 kg/h. Grouped finfish occurred along the southeastern Atlantic coast, with highest CPUE density found in statistical areas 26, 34, and 35 (Fig. 11).

Atlantic croaker (Fig. 12) and seatrout (Fig. 13) exhibited a similar spatial pattern with high density CPUE occurring in statistical areas 29, 30, and 33-35. Density surface of CPUE was not detectable for red snapper (Fig. 14). CPUE was low for both Spanish mackerel (Fig. 15) and king mackerel (Fig. 16), with two exceptions in statistical area 31 for Spanish mackerel and in statistical area 29 for king mackerel. Grouped sharks were predominantly caught in statistical areas 30-33 (Fig. 17). Crustaceans (Fig. 18) and invertebrates (Fig. 19) exhibited a similar distribution, with high spatial densities for crustaceans detected in statistical area 35 and in statistical areas 30 and 31 for invertebrates.

Cluster locations of statistically significant high CPUE for South Atlantic penaeid shrimp were most pronounced in statistical areas 30,

31, 33, and 35 (Fig. 20). For discarded species, clusters of significantly high CPUE were detected primarily in the statistical areas 29-31, 33, and 35 (Fig. 21).

Extrapolated Species Composition South Atlantic Rock Shrimp

In the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery (191 nets; 506 h), rock shrimp accounted for 41% (29.0 kg/h) of the total catch (Fig. 4), followed by finfish at 36% (25.7 kg/h), crustaceans at 13% (9.5 kg/h), invertebrates at 6% (3.9 kg/h), debris at 2% (1.6 kg/h), and penaeid shrimp at 1% (0.7 kg/h). Total catch CPUE was 70.7 kg/h.

At the species level (Table 9; Fig. 7), rock shrimp comprised 41% (29.0 kg/h) of the total catch, followed by grouped finfish at 12% (8.8 kg/h), dusky flounder, Syaciumpapillosum, at 11% (7.5 kg/h), inshore lizardfish, Synodus foetens, at 9% (6.6 kg/h), iridescent swimming crab, Portunus gibbesii, and invertebrates each at 6% (3.9 kg/h), crustaceans at 5% (3.7 kg/h), longspine swimming crab, Portunus spinicarpus, at 3% (1.8 kg/h), and debris at 2% (1.6 kg/h). All other species (22) accounted for 5% (3.8 kg/h) of the total weight.

CV estimates for species selected from all sampled nets from July 2007 through December 2010 (Table 12) were higher ([greater than or equal to] 0.3), and in some instances equal to 1.0, for the majority of species in the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery.

Highest spatial CPUE density for brown shrimp was most pronounced in statistical area 27 (Fig. 8). White shrimp had undetectable (no catch documented) spatial CPUE density (Fig. 9). Pink shrimp were found in highest spatial densities in statistical areas 27 and 28 (Fig. 10). Highest CPUE density for grouped finfish was most evident in statistical areas 27 and 29 (Fig. 11). Atlantic croaker were concentrated in statistical area 27 (Fig. 12). Several finfish species had very low or undetectable spatial CPUE densities: seatrout (Fig. 13), red snapper (Fig. 14), Spanish mackerel (Fig. 15), and king mackerel (Fig. 16). Grouped sharks were found in highest spatial densities in statistical areas 27 and 28 (Fig. 17). Crustaceans were also observed in high spatial densities in these same statistical areas (Fig. 18). Highest CPUE density for invertebrates occurred in statistical area 28 (Fig. 19).

Cluster locations of statistically significant high CPUE for penaeid and rock shrimp combined were most pronounced in statistical area 28 (Fig. 20). The highest clusters of significantly high CPUE for discarded species were also in statistical area 28 (Fig. 21).

Protected Species

From July 2007 through December 2010, 55 sea turtles (25 loggerhead, 21 Kemp's Ridley, 4 green, 4 unidentified, and 1 hawksbill) were captured in shrimp trawls with most (47%) documented from May to August (Fig. 22). By method of capture, 49% were observed in try nets, 44% in TED-equipped nets (before the TED or in codend), 4% slid out of TED-equipped nets upon retrieval, and 4% slid out of try nets upon retrieval. Most (80%) of the sea turtles were released alive and conscious.

Other protected species captured aboard shrimp trawlers (Fig. 23) included seven Atlantic sturgeon, three of which were captured at the same location, and one Gulf sturgeon. Of the eight sturgeon spp. captured, most, seven, were released alive.

Seven smalltooth sawfish have been captured in the shrimp fishery since mandatory observer coverage began. A detailed description and resulting estimates of the rate of take are reported in Carlson and Scott-Denton. (20)

One brown pelican was captured aboard a shrimp trawler. The pelican was entangled in the trawl door chains and died during release. Another unidentified seabird perished, but could not be positively identified.

Five dolphin interactions were documented in the Gulf of Mexico. Of these, three were identified as bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, and two unidentified dolphins (Family Delphinidae). The condition at release included three freshly dead, two of which were entangled with the lazy line, and one in front of the TED. Of the remaining two, one was released alive (associated with the lazy line). The other, a decomposed carcass, was captured on the tickler chain.

Discussion

Bycatch remains one of the most significant and complex issues in fishery management (Hall et al., 2000; Hall and Mainprize, 2005). Many authors have defined and examined the detrimental effects of trawling, on a regional and global scale, in terms of a reduction in biodiversity, shifts in community structure, disruption of the food web, waste, profitability, user conflicts, and mortality of undersized target and nontarget species (Alverson et al., 1994; Hall, 1996; Greenstreet and Rogers, 2000; Hall et al., 2000; Murawski et al., 2000; NRC, 2002; Chuenpagdee et al., 2003; Diamond, 2004; Kumar and Deepthi, 2006). Kelleher (2005) reported tropical shrimp trawl fisheries accounted for 27% of global discards. Harrington et al. (2005) estimated 1.06 million tons of marine fish were discarded in 2002 in U.S. fisheries, making the United States one of the highest worldwide relative to discards.

Based on findings from the 2007-10 mandatory observer program, estimated overall CPUE for the shrimp fishery was comparable in some respects to earlier bycatch assessments conducted for the Gulf of Mexico, but notably different for the South Atlantic (Scott-Denton and Nance, 1996; Nance and Scott-Denton, 1997; Scott-Denton, 2007; NMFS (2,3); Nance et al. (8)). For the 1992 through 1996 period, overall catch rates were 28.0 kg/h in the Gulf of Mexico, and 27.0 kg/h in the South Atlantic penaeid fisheries (NMFS (3)). Scott-Denton (2007) reported catch rates of 30.8 kg/h in the Gulf of Mexico and 27.7 kg/h in the South Atlantic from 1992 through 2005. In this study, overall CPUE was 34.3 kg/h for the Gulf of Mexico and 51.8 kg/h in the South Atlantic.

Early estimates by Alverson et al. (1994) calculated a discard to landing ratio of 10.30 and 8.00 for the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic shrimp fisheries, respectively. While estimation methods varied, more recent assessments (Harrington et al., 2005; Kelleher, 2005) revealed lower ratios. Scott-Denton (2007) estimated discards to landings ratios of 5.18 and 3.20 for the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic, respectively, from 1992 through 2005. These were slightly higher than estimates of 4.56 and 2.95 reported by Harrington et al. (2005) for 1992 through 1996 for the same areas. In this study, bycatch ratios were substantially lower at 2.47 in the Gulf of Mexico and higher in the South Atlantic at 4.25.

These differences can be explained, in part, for the Gulf of Mexico by examining percent composition by species categories. NMFS (3) calculated percentages of the total weight for the Gulf of Mexico of 67% for finfish and 16% for commercial shrimp species (i.e., penaeid; seabob, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri; sugar shrimp, Trachypenaeus spp.; and rock shrimp). Scott-Denton (2007), for the same region, reported finfish species at 65% (20.1 kg/h) and penaeid shrimp at 16% (5.0 kg/h). In this study, finfish species dominated the catch at 57% (19.5 kg/h), followed by penaeid shrimp at 29% (9.9 kg/h).

Based on Gulf of Mexico shrimp landings and effort data from 1992 through 2010 (Nance (21)), an increasing trend in CPUE (> 40 lb/h; 18.1 kg/h) has been observed since 2004, with the highest CPUE occurring in 2009 (> 85 lb/h; 38.6 kg/h). Moreover, the number of Federally permitted vessels (SERO (14)) and effort (Gallaway et al., 2003; Nance et. al, 2008) in the fishery has shown a steady decline since the mid 2000's.

Lastly, Helies and Jamison (11) suggest the lower finfish to shrimp ratios in the Gulf of Mexico may be attributed to basic weight differences between shrimp and fish taken currently in the fishery as compared with earlier years. The authors reported that nearshore sciaenids (notably Atlantic croaker) are exhibiting pronounced increases in abundance after 2002, with these increases corresponding to decreases in shrimp fishing effort, and to more effective exclusion by new BRD designs in recent years.

In the South Atlantic, NMFS (3) calculated percent catch composition for finfish species at 51%, and 18% for commercial shrimp species. Scott-Denton (2007) reported finfish species at 47% (13.0 kg/h), followed by penaeid shrimp at 24% (6.6 kg/h). In the 2007 through 2010 mandatory observer program, finfish accounted for 60% (31.2 kg/h) of the catch with penaeid shrimp at 19% (9.9 kg/h), which reveals an increase in shrimp CPUE and over a two-fold increase in finfish CPUE. In the South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery, an increase was also observed in percent composition of rock shrimp at 41% (29.0 kg/h) as compared with the 2001 to 2006 period with rock shrimp comprising 19% (8.7 kg/h) of the catch (SAFMC (22)).

From 1992 through 2005, longspine porgy and Atlantic croaker comprised the largest percentage of the overall catch in the Gulf of Mexico with estimated CPUE (kg/h) at 2.8 and 2.1, respectively (Scott-Denton, 2007). In the current mandatory study, Atlantic croaker CPUE (kg/h) was 5.4 and 1.4 for longspine porgy. This shift in dominant species and rates may be attributed to the mandatory nature of vessel selection and areas fished (nearshore vs. offshore). In the 1992 to 2005 voluntary study, a large number of vessel operators who participated fished primarily in offshore waters (Scott-Denton, 2007). Similarly, with respect to the dominant species in South Atlantic during the 1992 to 2005 period, CPUE (kg/h) for Atlantic croaker was 3.6 and 3.4 for flat croaker (Scott-Denton, 2007). In this study, CPUE (kg/h) was substantially higher for Atlantic croaker at 12.5 and comparable for flat croaker at 3.8.

Several species listed as overfished or undergoing overfishing did not comprise a large percentage by weight of the total bycatch; however, the number of individuals discarded combined with the amount of annual shrimp effort exerted may be reason for considerable concern. Nichols et al. (1, 23) and Nichols and Pellegrin (24), using data from three observer programs and Federal and state resource surveys, provided annual estimates for selected species of finfish bycatch in the Gulf of Mexico commercial shrimp trawl fishery. The authors concluded that while the magnitude of species common in shrimp trawl bycatch was not unexpected, the projected estimate for the less frequently encountered species such as red snapper, king mackerel, and Spanish mackerel was similar to, or exceeded, the recreational harvest (Nichols et al. (1)). Red snapper, considered one of the most high profile species of concern, accounted for approximately 0.3% of the total catch by weight in the Gulf of Mexico in the 1992 through 2005 study (Scott-Denton, 2007). This estimate remained the same (0.3%) in this study. This is similar to findings by Helies and Jamison (11), who reported that while there have been increasing trends in the abundance of Atlantic croaker and inshore lizardfish in recent years, abundance levels for longspine porgy and juvenile red snapper have remained relatively stable.

Alverson and Hughes (1996) reported that bycatch became a major management issue resulting from the rapid growth in world fisheries, increasing competition, and the rise of environmental concerns and subsequent global efforts to limit the effects of commercial fishing operations on protected species.

Concerns initially surfaced in the southeastern United States over the incidental capture of endangered or threatened sea turtles. Using data from three shrimp trawl observer programs in the southeastern U.S. (with nets not equipped with TED's) sea turtle catch rates were estimated to be more than 10,000 sea turtles from 1973 to 1984 (Henwood and Stunz, 1987). Magnu son et al. (1990) concluded that sea turtle mortality resulting from trawling operations in the southeastern shrimp fishery was the major source of man-induced mortality on loggerhead and Kemp's ridley sea turtles, resulting in higher mortality than in all other fisheries combined. Substantial progress has been made since the 1980's to reduce sea turtle interactions, primarily through the required use of TED's (Epperly et al., 2002; Epperly and Teas, 2002). Further advances in gear refinement and development, and/or time and area management strategies should be considered for sea turtles. These considerations should be applied to other protected species and finfish stocks as well.

To date, observer programs remain the most reliable means for monitoring commercial fisheries by providing unbiased, reliable, and high-quality data. These programs provide insight on finfish and protected species CPUE, as well as life history characteristics for both target and nontarget species. Moreover, they provide a wide array of other variables of interest to fishery managers, the fishing industry, academia, and the public including: discard levels, gear effectiveness, temporal and spatial shrimping patterns, socio-economic considerations as related to industry, and individual fishing quota program effectiveness.

Acknowledgments

We commend the outstanding efforts given by the fishery observers involved in this research effort and the commercial fishing industry for their continued participation.

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(19) Percentages may not equal 100% due to rounding.

(20) Carlson, J., and E. Scott-Denton. 2011. Estimated incidental take of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) and an assessment of observer coverage required in the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico shrimp trawl fishery. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Southeast Fish. Sci. Cent., Panama City, Fla., SFD Contribution PCB-11-08, 14 p.

(21) Nance, J. 2012. Unpubl. data on file at National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Galveston Laboratory, Galveston, TX 77551.

(22) SAFMC. 2008. Observer coverage of the US southeastern atlantic rock shrimp fishery, September 2001 through September 2006 Preliminary report. South Atl. Fish. Manage. Counc., Charleston, S.C., (avail. at http://www.safmc.net).

(23) Nichols, S., A. Shah, G. J. Pellegrin, and K. Mullin. 1990. Updated estimates of shrimp fleet bycatch in the offshore waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Southeast Fish. Sci. Cent., Pascagoula, Miss., 22 p.

(24) Nichols, S., and G. J. Pellegrin, Jr. 1992. Revision and update of estimates of shrimp fleet bycatch 1972-1991. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Southeast Fish. Sci. Cent., Pascagoula, Miss., 17 p.

ELIZABETH SCOTT-DENTON, PAT F. CRYER, MATT R. DUFFY, JUDITH P. GOCKE, MIKE R. HARRELSON, DONNA L. KINSELLA, JAMES M. NANCE, JEFF R. PULVER, REBECCA C. SMITH, and JO A. WILLIAMS

The authors are with the Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 4700 Avenue U, Galveston, TX 77551 (corresponding author: elizabeth.scott-denton@ noaa.gov).

Table 1.--Trlps, tows, and sea days by year and program,
based on observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern
shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010.

                                                     Mandatory

                                              Gulf      South Atlantic
                                Year        penaeid        penaeid
Trips by year and project

                                2007           31
                                2008          107             27
                                2009          105             68
                                2010          104             29
                             Grand total      348            124
Tows by year and project
                                2007         1,242
                                2008         2,797           202
                                2009         2,918           441
                                2010         2,307           145
                             Grand total     9,264           788
Sea days by year and
project
                                2007          639
                                2008         1,435            86
                                2009         1,559           206
                                2010         1,130            68
                             Grand total     4,763           360

Sea days by year and             Year      Mandatory      Voluntary
region

Gulf of Mexico                  2007          639            127
                                2008         1,435           234
                                2009         1,559           250
                                2010         1,138            22
                             Grand total     4,771           633

South Atlantic                  2007           0              32
                                2008          139             0
                                2009          219             0
                                2010           82             68
                             Grand total      440            100

                                                       Mandatory

                                              South        Deep water
                                Year         Atlantic      royal red
Trips by year and project                      rock

                                2007
                                2008            3
                                2009            2              1
                                2010            1              1
                             Grand total        6              2
Tows by year and project
                                2007
                                2008            97
                                2009            16             8
                                2010            41             7
                             Grand total       154             15
Sea days by year and
project
                                2007
                                2008            53
                                2009            7              6
                                2010            14             8
                             Grand total        74             14

Sea days by year and             Year         Total       Industry sea
region                                                        days

Gulf of Mexico                  2007           766          68,570 *
                                2008          1,669          62,797
                                2009          1,809          76,508
                                2010          1,160          62,190
                             Grand total      5,404         270,065
South Atlantic                  2007            32           15,836
                                2008           139           15,473
                                2009           219           15,470
                                2010           150           12,081
                             Grand total       540           58,860

                                                     Voluntary

                                            Bycatch          BRD
                                Year       characteri-  certification
Trips by year and project                    zation

                                2007           32             5
                                2008                          10
                                2009                          9
                                2010                          1
                             Grand total       32             25
Tows by year and project
                                2007           52            214
                                2008                         416
                                2009                         347
                                2010                          41
                             Grand total       52           1,018
Sea days by year and
project
                                2007           32            127
                                2008                         234
                                2009                         230
                                2010                          22
                             Grand total       32            613

Sea days by year and             Year      Industry %
region                                       cover

Gulf of Mexico                  2007          1.1
                                2008          2.7
                                2009          2.4
                                2010          1.9
                             Grand total      2.0
South Atlantic                  2007          0.2
                                2008          0.9
                                2009          1.4
                                2010          1.2
                             Grand total      0.9

                                                   Voluntary

                                Year       Skimmer    Total
Trips by year and project

                                2007                    68
                                2008                   147
                                2009          15       202
                                2010          56       192
                             Grand total      71       608
Tows by year and project
                                2007                  1,508
                                2008                  3,512
                                2009          76      3,806
                                2010         358      2,899
                             Grand total     434      11,725
Sea days by year and
project
                                2007                   798
                                2008                  1,808
                                2009          20      2,028
                                2010          68      1,310
                             Grand total      88      5,944

Sea days by year and             Year
region

Gulf of Mexico                  2007
                                2008
                                2009
                                2010
                             Grand total

South Atlantic                  2007
                                2008
                                2009
                                2010
                             Grand total
* Partial year

Table 2.--Percentage of tows by season and state, based on mandatory
observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007
through December 2010.

                       Jan-April   May-Aug    Sept-Dec   Total
                           %          %
Texas
  Nearshore               3.8        4.9        5.1       13.8
  Offshore                4.8        10.7       9.4       24.8
  Subtotal                8.6        15.6       14.4      38.6

Louisiana
  Nearshore               1.2        7.9        7.9       17.0
  Offshore                2.6        4.9        6.5       14.0
  Subtotal                3.8        12.8       14.3      31.0

Alabama/Mississippi
  Nearshore               0.7        1.4        2.0       4.0
  Offshore                0.5        2.3        1.1       3.9
  Subtotal                1.2        3.6        3.1       8.0

Florida Gulf
  Nearshore               0.0        0.7        1.1       1.8
  Offshore                0.0        0.7        0.8       1.5
  Subtotal                0.0        1.4        1.9       3.3

Florida Atlantic
  Nearshore               2.0        0.9        1.1       4.0
  Offshore                5.1        1.5        2.7       9.3
  Subtotal                7.1        2.4        3.8       13.2

Georgia
  Nearshore               0.2        0.6        1.0       1.9
  Offshore                0.0        0.0        0.0       0.0
  Subtotal                0.2        0.6        1.0       1.9

South Carolina
  Nearshore               0.0        0.8        0.7       1.5
  Subtotal                0.0        0.8        0.7       1.5

North Carolina
  Nearshore               0.0        1.5        0.9       2.4
  Offshore                0.0        0.0        0.0       0.1
  Subtotal                0.0        1.5        1.0       2.5

Grand total              21.0        38.8       40.2     100.0

Table 3.--Trip characteristics by area and target species, based
on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp
fishery from July 2007 through December 2010.

                          Gulf      South Atlantic    South
Item                    mandatory     mandatory      Atlantic
                         penaeid       penaeid       mandatory
                                                       rock

Trip length (days)      n = 4763       n = 360        n = 74
  Mean                    13.8           2.9           14.8
  Range                  1-51.0         1-20.0        7-22.0
  s.d.                    10.7           3.0            5.9
Main net tow time (h)   n = 9252       n = 788        n = 154
  Mean                     5.2           2.8            2.7
  Range                 <0.1-16.7      <0.1-6.9       0.8-6.4
  s.d.                     2.2           1.1            0.8
  Total hs               48534.5        2212.0         421.3
Try net towtime (h)     n = 5565       n = 1121
  Mean                     0.9           0.5
  Range                 0.1- 5.0       <0.1-1.5
  s.d.                     0.4           0.2
Water depth (ftm)       n = 8959       n = 778        n = 154
  Mean                    16.4           4.8           33.5
  Range                 0.5-65.0       1.2-16.0      5.0-90.0
  s.d.                    12.5           2.5           20.7
Vessel speed (kt)       n = 9161       n = 788        n = 154
  Mean                     2.8           2.5            2.6
  Range                  0.1-4.1       1.2-3.6        1.9-3.2
  s.d.                     0.3           0.3            0.3

Table 4.--Vessel characteristics by area and target species, based on
mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp ishery from
July 2007 through December 2010.

                        Gulf      South Atlantic   South Atlantic
                     mandatory      mandatory      mandatory rock
                      penaeid        penaeid
Item                 (n = 199)       (n = 52)         (n = 6)

Vessel length (ft)    n = 199         n = 52           n = 6
  Mean                  74.0           64.2             76.7
  Range                31-98          38-88          72.0-85.0
  s.d.                  11.9           13.5             4.8
Year built            n = 197         n = 51           n = 6
  Mean                  1987           1981             1988
  Range              1951-2003      1953-2003        1977-2001
  s.d.                  11.0           11.8             10.3
Gross tons            n = 190         n = 50           n = 6
  Mean                 119.5           83.9            143.3
  Range                12-208         10-164        107.0-167.0
  s.d.                  41.3           41.6             21.0
Horsepower            n = 169         n = 44           n = 5
  Mean                  559            434              573
  Range               85-1234        165-1000         425-720
  s.d.                  223            182              138
Crew size             n = 196         n = 52           n = 6
  Mean                   2              2                3
  Range                 0-4            0-4              1-4
  s.d.                  0.7            1.0              1.0
Cold storage
  Freezer               85%            25%              100%
  Ice                   13%            73%
  Unknown                2%             2%
Hull construction
  Steel                 83%            31%              83%
  Fiberglass            11%            25%
  Wood                   5%            33%              17%
  Wood/Fiber             2%            12%

Table 5.--Net characteristics by area and target species, based on
mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery
from July 2007 through December 2010.

                                Gulf
Item                            mandatory penaeid

Net type (%)                      Flat          22.6
                                 Unknown        15.5
Main net headrope length (ft)               n=17,735
  Mean                                          50.5
  Range                                     14.0-74.5
  s.d.                                          10.0
Main net footrope length (ft)               n=17,621
  Mean                                          56.6
  Range                                     14.0-79.5
  s.d.                                          10.7
Try net headrope length (ft)                 n= 5565
  Mean                                          12.4
  Range                                     8.3-16.3
  s.d.                                           1.8
Try net footrope length (ft)                  n=5511
  Mean                                          13.6
  Range                                     9.8-20.5
  s.d.                                           2.3
  TED                                           None
Trawl body (%)                    Nylon         65.9
                                Sapphire        20.5
Trawl body mesh size (in)                   n=17,467
  Mean                                           1.9
  Range                                      1.0-3.0
  s.d.                                           0.3
Cod end (%)                       Nylon         88.5
                                Sapphire         5.0
Cod end mesh size (in)                      n=17,177
  Mean                                           1.7
  Range                                      0.8-2.5
  s.d.                                           0.3
Door type (%)                     Wood          61.5
                                Aluminum        15.2
Door length (ft)                            n=17,843
  Mean                                           9.5
  Range                                     4.0-13.0
  s.d.                                           2.2
Door height (ft)                            n=17,843
  Mean                                           3.6
  Range                                      2.5-5.7
  s.d.                                           0.4
Dummy door length (ft)                      n=14,376
  Mean                                           7.6
  Range                                     3.5-12.0
  s.d.                                           1.9
Trawl extension type (%)          None          86.0
                                  Nylon          8.7
Chaffing gear type (%)            Mesh          91.8
                                  None           6.2
Lazy line rigging (%)           Elephant        94.9
                                  ears
                                  Choke          3.5
Tickler chain length (ft)                   n=17,478
  Mean                                          62.4
  Range                                     27.0-90.0
  s.d.                                          11.4

                                South Atlantic
Item                            mandatory penaeid

Net type (%)                    Mongoose w/            56
                                bib Mongoose         9.5
Main net headrope length (ft)                     n=1492
  Mean                                              52.3
  Range                                        33.4-70.0
  s.d.                                               9.7
Main net footrope length (ft)                     n=1492
  Mean                                              55.0
  Range                                        33.4-79.5
  s.d.                                              10.6
Try net headrope length (ft)                     n= 1121
  Mean                                              12.0
  Range                                        10.0-14.0
  s.d.                                               0.6
Try net footrope length (ft)                      n=1121
  Mean                                              12.8
  Range                                        10.0-16.8
  s.d.                                               1.6
  TED                                               None
Trawl body (%)                     Nylon            52.1
                                  Spectra           34.4
Trawl body mesh size (in)                         n=1525
  Mean                                               1.8
  Range                                            0.9-4
  s.d.                                               0.3
Cod end (%)                        Nylon            62.2
                                    Poly            28.7
Cod end mesh size (in)                            n=1513
  Mean                                               1.6
  Range                                          0.9-4.0
  s.d.                                               0.3
Door type (%)                       Wood            82.6
                                  Aluminum           8.9
Door length (ft)                                  n=1537
  Mean                                               8.2
  Range                                         3.0-11.0
  s.d.                                               1.8
Door height (ft)                                  n=1537
  Mean                                               3.3
  Range                                          2.5-4.8
  s.d.                                               0.4
Dummy door length (ft)                            n=1183
  Mean                                               6.5
  Range                                          4.0-8.8
  s.d.                                               1.2
Trawl extension type (%)            None            66.5
                                   Nylon            12.1
Chaffing gear type (%)              Mesh            83.9
                                    None            14.0
Lazy line rigging (%)            Elephant           89.5
                                    ears
                                   Choke             8.0
Tickler chain length (ft)                         n=1479
  Mean                                              60.0
  Range                                        37.0-106.8
  s.d.                                              12.4

                                South Atlantic
Item                            mandatory rock

Net type (%)                      Flat          56.5
                                 4 Seam         24.0
Main net headrope length (ft)    balloon       n=308
  Mean                                          52.5
  Range                                     35.0-61.0
  s.d.                                           6.3
Main net footrope length (ft)                  n=308
  Mean                                          56.3
  Range                                     41.2-71.0
  s.d.                                           6.8
Try net headrope length (ft)
  Mean
  Range
  s.d.
Try net footrope length (ft)
  Mean
  Range
  s.d.
  TED
Trawl body (%)                    Nylon         93.5
                                  Other          3.2
Trawl body mesh size (in)                      n=308
  Mean                                           1.9
  Range                                      1.5-2.0
  s.d.                                           0.1
Cod end (%)                       Nylon        100.0

Cod end mesh size (in)                         n=308
  Mean                                           1.8
  Range                                      1.5-2.0
  s.d.                                           0.2
Door type (%)                     Wood         100.0

Door length (ft)                               n=308
  Mean                                           9.6
  Range                                     9.0-10.0
  s.d.                                           0.5
Door height (ft)                               n=308
  Mean                                           3.6
  Range                                      3.0-3.7
  s.d.                                           0.2
Dummy door length (ft)                         n=308
  Mean                                           7.8
  Range                                     5.0-10.0
  s.d.                                           1.3
Trawl extension type (%)          None          56.5
                                  Nylon         37.0
Chaffing gear type (%)            Mesh          69.5
                                Whiskers        24.0
Lazy line rigging (%)           Elephant       100.0
                                  ears

Tickler chain length (ft)                      n=308
  Mean                                          62.7
  Range                                     46.6-76.5
  s.d.                                           7.4

Table 6.--Bycatch reduction device (BRD) characteristics by area
and target species, based on mandatory observer coverage of the
U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010.

                          Gulf
Item                      mandatory
                          penaeid

BRD type (%)              Fisheye          82.0
                          Composite            8
                          panel
BRD cod end length (ft)                n=16,677
  Mean                                    130.3
  Range                               60.0-221.0
  s.d.                                     22.2
BRD circumference                      n=17,809
(meshes)
  Mean                                    133.2
  Range                               89.0-195.0
  s.d.                                     14.7
BRD distance to                        n=17,271
tie-off rings (ft)
  Mean                                     11.7
  Range                                6.8-21.8
  s.d.                                      2.7
BRD fisheye (%)           Top              82.6
BRD escape shape (%)      Oval             54.7
                          Half moon        18.1
BRD fisheye escape                     n=14,833
height (in)
  Mean                                      6.1
  Range                                3.0-25.0
  s.d.                                      2.2
BRD fisheye escape                     n=15,599
width (in)
  Mean                                     10.1
  Range                                5.0-27.0
 s.d.                                       2.0
BRD location (%)          Behind           59.3
                          Front            35.0

                          South Atlantic
Item                      mandatory penaeid

BRD type (%)              Fisheye        97.5
                          Unknown         2.2

BRD cod end length (ft)                n=1460
  Mean                                  135.7
  Range                             50.0-200.0
  s.d.                                   22.2
BRD circumference                      n=1520
(meshes)
  Mean                                  144.5
  Range                             80.0-200.0
  s.d.                                   13.2
BRD distance to                        n=1514
tie-off rings (ft)
  Mean                                   11.5
  Range                              8.0-20.0
  s.d.                                    3.3
BRD fisheye (%)           Top            95.3
BRD escape shape (%)      Diamond        53.2
                          Square         33.2
BRD fisheye escape                     n=1502
height (in)
  Mean                                    6.8
  Range                              4.0-10.0
  s.d.                                    1.2
BRD fisheye escape                     n=1514
width (in)
  Mean                                    8.2
  Range                              4.8-13.5
 s.d.                                     2.2
BRD location (%)          Behind         56.5
                          Front          37.4

                          South Atlantic
Item                      mandatory rock

BRD type (%)              Fisheye        100.0

BRD cod end length (ft)                  n=308
  Mean                                   144.7
  Range                             120.0-150.0
  s.d.                                    10.8
BRD circumference                        n=308
(meshes)
  Mean                                   145.4
  Range                             120.0-150.0
  s.d.                                     6.9
BRD distance to                          n=226
tie-off rings (ft)
  Mean                                    11.8
  Range                               7.3-14.5
  s.d.                                     2.1
BRD fisheye (%)           Top            100.0
BRD escape shape (%)      Diamond         83.8
                          Oval            13.0
BRD fisheye escape                       n=308
height (in)
  Mean                                     5.9
  Range                                5.0-8.0
  s.d.                                     0.8
BRD fisheye escape                       n=308
width (in)
  Mean                                     8.5
  Range                               6.0-13.0
 s.d.                                      2.9
BRD location (%)          Behind          57.8
                          Front           42.2

Table 7.--Turtle excluder device (TED) characteristics, based on
mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery
from July 2007 through December 2010.

                       Gulf
Item                   mandatory
                       penaeid

TED type (%)           Hard                96.9
TED design (%)         Curved bar          62.4
                       Straight            30.7
TED opening (%)        Bottom              65.5
TED funnel (%)         No                  80.1
                       Yes                 16.2
TED flap (%)           Yes                 91.4
                       No                   4.9
TED material (%)       Aluminum            93.2
TED angle (degrees)                    n=17,208
  Mean                                     48.6
  Range                                18.0-87.0
  s.d.                                      8.7
TED length (in)                        n=17,514
  Mean                                     46.8
  Range                                25.0-67.0
  s.d.                                      5.7
TED width (in)                         n=17,514
  Mean                                     38.9
  Range                                24.0-48.0
  s.d.                                      3.4
TED PVC sponge (%)     Foam                38.5
                       football
                       Plastic             30.0
                       round
Number of TED floats                   n=17,772
  Mean                                      2.5
  Range                                 0.0-6.0
  s.d.                                      0.9

                       South Atlantic
Item                   mandatory
                       penaeid

TED type (%)           Hard             97.5
TED design (%)         Curved bar       94.4
                       Straight          3.1
TED opening (%)        Bottom           89.6
TED funnel (%)         No               88.5
                       Yes               7.9
TED flap (%)           Yes              92.2
                       No                4.2
TED material (%)       Aluminum         94.6
TED angle (degrees)                   n=1496
  Mean                                  50.6
  Range                             40.0-75.0
  s.d.                                   5.5
TED length (in)                       n=1514
  Mean                                  44.3
  Range                             36.0-60.0
  s.d.                                   5.0
TED width (in)                        n=1514
  Mean                                  36.6
  Range                             30.0-48.0
  s.d.                                   4.0
TED PVC sponge (%)     Foam             62.1
                       football
                       Foam             10.3
                       cylinder
Number of TED floats                  n=1514
  Mean                                   2.0
  Range                              1.0-3.0
  s.d.                                   0.4

                       South Atlantic
Item                   mandatory rock

TED type (%)           Hard            100.0
TED design (%)         Curved bar      100.0

TED opening (%)        Bottom          100.0
TED funnel (%)         No               87.0
                       Yes              13.0
TED flap (%)           Yes             100.0

TED material (%)       Aluminum        100.0
TED angle (degrees)                    n=308
  Mean                                  50.4
  Range                             45.0-64.0
  s.d.                                   6.3
TED length (in)                        n=308
  Mean                                  49.1
  Range                             42.0-53.0
  s.d.                                   2.3
TED width (in)                         n=308
  Mean                                  38.6
  Range                             36.0-43.0
  s.d.                                   2.6
TED PVC sponge (%)     Foam             83.1
                       football
                       Plastic          13.0
                       football
Number of TED floats                   n=308
  Mean                                   2.3
  Range                              2.0-4.0
  s.d.                                   0.6

Table 8.--Bycatch ratios by area and target species, based on
mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. south-eatern shrimp
fishery from July 2007 through December 2010.

                                      All bycatch:        Fish:
Project                Total (kg)    penaeid shrimp   penaeid shrimp

Gulf mandatory        2,159,146.30        2.47             1.97
  penaeid
South Atlantic         136,373.30         4.25             3.17
  mandatory penaeid
South Atlantic         35,791.70
  mandatory rock

                      All bycatch:      Fish:
Project               rock shrimp    rock shrimp

Gulf mandatory
  penaeid
South Atlantic
  mandatory penaeid
South Atlantic            1.41          0.89
  mandatory rock

Table 9.--Species documented from bycatch characterization samples,
based on mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp
fishery from July 2007 through December 2010.

                                                              Gulf
                                                            Mandatory
                                                             Penaeid
Common name                  Scientific name                  (kg)

Fish (superclass)            Pisces                         589,438.9
Atlantic croaker             Micropogonias undulatus        342,602.3
Brown shrimp                 Farfantepenaeus aztecus        304,664.1
White shrimp                 Litopenaeus setiferus          231,501.7
Crustacean                   Crustacean                     149,861.1
Seatrout (genus)             Cynoscion spp.                 125,566.0
Invertebrate                 Invertebrate                   115,359.0
Longspine porgy              Stenotomus caprinus            86,452.8
Pink shrimp                  Farfantepenaeus duorarum       85,055.3
Debris (rocks,logs,etc.)     Debris                         32,257.8
Rock Shrimp (genus)          Sicyonia spp.                   2,455.1
Spot (flat croaker)          Leiostomus xanthurus             972.1
Penaeid shrimp discard       Penaeus discard                10,664.2
Pinfish                      Lagodon rhomboides             10,329.2
Jellyfish (family)           Carybdeidae                      125.2
Star drum                    Stellifer lanceolatus            169.1
Dusky flounder               Syacium papillosum              3,205.0
Cannonball jellyfish         Stomolophus meleagris
Red snapper                  Lutjanus campechanus            5,675.0
Lane snapper                 Lutjanus synagris               4,538.6
Silver jenny                 Eucinostomus gula               4,438.4
Spanish mackerel             Scomberomorus maculatus         3,851.3
Drum (family)                Sciaenidae                      4,168.3
Inshore lizardfish           Synodus foetens                  575.8
Atlantic sharpnose shark     Rhizoprionodon terraenovae      3,276.2
Red drum                     Sciaenops ocellatus             3,826.1
Sharks grouped               General sharks                  3,252.3
Southern flounder            Paralichthys lethostigma        3,031.7
Southern kingfish            Menticirrhus americanus         1,848.7
Gulf butterdish              Peprilus burti                  2,550.6
Mojarra (genus)              Eucinostomus spp.               2,415.0
Northern kingfish            Menticirrhus saxatilis           177.8
Gafftopsail catfish          Bagre marinus                   1,990.7
Irridescent swimming crab    Portunus gibbesii                 8.7
Flounder (family)            Bothidae                        1,699.4
Bonnethead shark             Sphyrna tiburo                  1,252.0
Atlantic cutlassfish         Trichiurus lepturus             1,225.5
Black drum                   Pogonias cromis                 1,402.7
Blue crab                    Callinectes sapidus
Weakfish                     Cynoscion regalis
Atlantic bumper              Chloroscombrus chrysurus        1,062.8
Sand perch                   Diplectrum formosum              953.4
Longspine swimming crab      Portunus spinicarpus              4.5
Vermillion (B-liner)         Rhomboplites aurorubens          893.2
  snapper
Left-eye flounder            Syacium spp.                     825.0
Atlantic menhaden            Brevoortia tyrannus              20.1
King mackerel                Scomberomorus cavalla            721.6
Blacktip shark               Carcharhinus limbatus            667.0
Hardhead catfish             Arius felis                      630.2
Barbfish                     Scorpaena brasiliensis           609.7
Smooth dogfish               Mustelus canis                   591.6
Striped anchovy              Anchoa hepsetus                  540.8
Cownose ray                  Rhinoptera bonasus               500.8
Summer flounder              Paralichthys dentatus
Pigfish                      Orthopristis chrysoptera         509.8
Scorpionfish                 Scorpaena spp.                   507.5
Spotfin mojarra              Eucinostomus argenteus           465.4
Gulf menhaden                Brevoortia patronus              442.8
Silver seatrout              Cynoscion nothus                 23.3
Roundel skate                Raja texana                      411.9
Dwarf sand perch             Diplectrum bivittatum            362.7
Bluefish                     Pomatomus saltatrix              56.3
Rock seabass                 Centropristis philadelphica      55.3
Wenchman                     Pristipomoides aquilonaris       270.5
Herring (genus)              Alosa spp.
Spotted seatrout             Cynoscion nebulosas              235.0
Seabass (genus)              Diplectrum                       232.9
Tomtate                      Haemulon aurolineatum            229.4
Orange filefish              Aluterus schoepfi                227.7
Spinner shark                Carcharhinus brevipinna          223.2
Spinycheek scorpionfish      Neomerinthe hemingwayi           222.5
Crab (genus)                 Callinectes                      46.8
Clearnose skate              Raja eglanteria                  35.7
Sheepshead                   Archosargus probatocephalus      210.3
Rock shrimp discards         Sicyonia discards                30.7
Scalloped hammerhead         Sphyrna lewini                   127.4
Cobia                        Rachycentron canadum             192.9
Twospot flounder             Bothus robinsi                   196.2
Leopard searobin             Prionotus scitulus               191.6
Blacknose shark              Carcharhinus acronotus           174.0
Bluespotted searobin         Prionotus roseus                 172.0
Sculptured mud crab          Micropanope sculptipes           171.0
Penaeid shrimp               Penaeus spp.                     170.6
  (brown,white, pink)
Smooth butterfly ray         Gymnura micrura                  45.1
Banded drum                  Larimus fasciatus                99.4
Gulf kingfish                Menticirrhus littoralis          155.5
Bank sea bass                Centropristis ocyurus             7.2
Red goatfish                 Mullus auratus                   144.6
Paper scallop                Amusium papyraceum               126.7
Snapper (genus)              Lutjanus spp.                    120.0
Bigeye (blackfin) searobin   Prionotus longispinosus          107.3
Flounder (genus)             Bothus spp.
Sash flounder                Trichopsetta ventralis           104.8
Polyps and Medusae           Cnidaria                         101.3
  (phylum)
Blackbelly rosefish          Helicolenus dactylopterus        101.0
Black seabass                Centropristis striata
Grass porgy                  Calamus arctifrons               94.6
Lizardfish (family)          Synodontidae                     94.2
Herrings (family)            Clupeidae
Fringed flounder             Etropus crossotus                86.8
Common crevalle jack         Caranx hippos                    82.4
Lesser electric ray          Narcine brasiliensis             75.0
Atlantic stingray            Dasyatis sabina                  46.1
Southern stingray            Dasyatis americana               70.1
Spotted eagle ray            Aetobatis narinari               67.6
Dwarf goatfish               Upeneus parvus                   67.3
Scrawled cowfish             Lactophrys quadricornis          66.4
Bank cusk-eel                Ophidion holbrooki               66.3
Harvestfish                  Peprilus alepidotus              58.2
Atlantic angel shark         Squatina dumeril                 60.2
Threadfin shad               Dorosoma petenense                0.4
Atlantic thread herring      Opisthonema oglinum
Planehead filefish           Stephanolepis hispidus           52.8
Florida smoothhound          Mustelus norrisi                 52.7
Snakefish                    Trachinocephalus myops           52.6
King snake eel               Ophichthus rex                   49.1
Palmate (genus) sponge       Isodictya spp.                   42.8
Butterfly ray                Gymnura spp.                      7.8
Stingray (genus)             Dasyatis spp.                    19.7
Brown rock shrimp            Sicyonia brevirostris            38.5
Smoothhead scorpionfish      Scorpaena calcarata              34.0
Seabob                       Xiphopenaeus kroyeri             31.9
Spotted hake                 Urophycis regia                  31.2
Florida pompano              Trachinotus carolinus             3.5
Bull shark                   Carcharhinus leucas              30.5
Spanish sardine              Sardinella aurita                29.9
Bighead searobin             Prionotus tribulus               28.7
Triggerfish/FNefish          Balistidae                       28.3
  (family)
Lefteye flounder (genus)     Paralichthys spp.                28.1
Offshore lizardflsh          Synodus poeyi                    27.4
Longnose gar                 Lepisosteus osseus               23.7
Lemon shark                  Negaprion brevirostris           23.3
Atlantic guitarfish          Rhinobatos ientiginosus          23.2
Horseshoe crab               Limuius polyphemus                7.4
Tripletail                   Lobotes surinamensis             21.2
Mexican flounder             Cyclopsetta chittendeni          20.9
Caribbean spiny lobster      Panulirus argus                  20.3
Inverts & nonpenaeid         Unavailable                      19.3
  crustaceans
Sharksucker                  Echeneis naucrates               17.4
Chub mackerel                Scomber japonicus                12.7
Bandtail pufferfish          Sphoeroides spengleri            12.3
Bullnose ray                 Myliobatis freminvillei          11.0
Stingray (family)            Dasyatidae
Conger eel (family)          Congridae                        10.7
Unicorn filefish             Aluterus monoceros               10.5
Skate (family)               Rajidae                          10.3
Bluntnose stingray           Dasyatis say                     10.1
Yellow conger                Hildebrandia flava                9.9
Atlantic midshipman          Porichthys plectrodon             9.4
Finetooth shark              Carcharhinus isodon               9.0
Atlantic spadefish           Chaetodipterus faber              6.5
Knobbed porgy                Calamus nodosus                   8.6
Mutton snapper               Lutjanus analis                   7.8
Eggcockle                    Laevicardium laevigatum           7.6
Blackedge cusk-eel           Lepophidium brevibarbe            7.2
Fringed filefish             Monacanthus ciliatus              7.0
Hogchoker                    Trinectes maculatus               6.4
Alligator gar                Atractosteus spatula              6.4
Honeycomb cowfish            Lactophrys polygonia              6.2
Filefish (genus)             Monacanthus spp.                  6.1
White elbow crab             Leiolambrus nitidus
Spotfin flounder             Cyclopsetta fimbriata             6.0
Ocellated flounder           Ancylopsetta quadrocellata        4.8
Searobin (family)            Triglidae                         4.8
Gulf flounder                Paralichthys albigutta            4.4
Common sundial               Architectonica nobilias           3.9
Guaguanche                   Sphyraena guachancho              3.3
Sand tiger shark             Carcharias taurus                 3.2
Red porgy                    Pagrus pagrus                     2.7
Southern hake                Urophycis floridana               2.6
Bigeye                       Priacanthus arenatus              2.3
Birds                        Aves                              2.2
Scup                         Stenotomus chrysops
Whitebone porgy              Calamus leucosteus                1.9
Polka-dot batfish            Ogcocephalus cubifrons            1.8
Scrawled filefish            Aluterus scriptus                 1.7
Silky shark                  Carcharhinus falciformis          1.6
Atlantic moonfish            Selene setapinnis
Blackedge moray              Gymnothorax nigromarginatus       1.5
Silver perch                 Bairdiella chrysoura
Red grouper                  Epinephelus morio                 1.1
Porgy (genus)                Calamus                           0.7
Gray snapper                 Lutjanus griseus                  0.7
Mackerel (family)            Scombridae                        0.7
Southern stargazer           Astroscopus y-graecum             0.7
Moray (genus)                Gymnothorax spp.                  0.7
Red lionfish                 Pterois volitans                  0.5
Cubbyu                       Pareques umbrosus                 0.4
Atlantic flyingfish          Cypselurus melanurus              0.4
Jackknife-fish               Equetus lanceolatus               0.2
Shrimp flounder              Gastropsetta frontalis            0.2
White grunt                  Haemulon plumieri                 0.2
Yellowtail snapper           Ocyurus chrysurus                 0.1
Yellowedge grouper           Epinephelus flavolimbatus         0.1
Snowy grouper                Epinephelus niveatus              0.1
Ocellated frogfish           Antennarius ocellatus             0.1
Bay whiff                    Citharichthys spilopterus         0.1
Inland silverside            Menidia beryllina                 0.1
Balloonfish                  Diodon holocanthus                0.1
Total                                                      2,159,146.4

                               Gulf      South Atlantic
                             Mandatory     Mandatory
                              Penaeid       Penaeid
Common name                  (Percent)        (kg)

Fish (superclass)              27.3         16,816.8
Atlantic croaker               15.9         32,939.2
Brown shrimp                   14.1         8,603.9
White shrimp                   10.7         16,813.0
Crustacean                      6.9         3,636.3
Seatrout (genus)                5.8         5,036.9
Invertebrate                    5.3         5,296.8
Longspine porgy                 4.0           0.1
Pink shrimp                     3.9          546.6
Debris (rocks,logs,etc.)        1.5         1,552.3
Rock Shrimp (genus)             0.1
Spot (flat croaker)             0.0         10,022.1
Penaeid shrimp discard          0.5          373.3
Pinfish                         0.5
Jellyfish (family)              0.0         10,008.8
Star drum                       0.0         7,911.1
Dusky flounder                  0.1
Cannonball jellyfish                        5,788.9
Red snapper                     0.3           0.0
Lane snapper                    0.2
Silver jenny                    0.2
Spanish mackerel                0.2          421.2
Drum (family)                   0.2
Inshore lizardfish              0.0
Atlantic sharpnose shark        0.2          581.4
Red drum                        0.2
Sharks grouped                  0.2          388.3
Southern flounder               0.1          243.2
Southern kingfish               0.1         1,059.2
Gulf butterdish                 0.1
Mojarra (genus)                 0.1
Northern kingfish               0.0         1,888.5
Gafftopsail catfish             0.1
Irridescent swimming crab       0.0
Flounder (family)               0.1
Bonnethead shark                0.1          396.5
Atlantic cutlassfish            0.1          248.1
Black drum                      0.1           11.5
Blue crab                                   1,366.7
Weakfish                                    1,170.1
Atlantic bumper                 0.0           30.6
Sand perch                      0.0
Longspine swimming crab         0.0
Vermillion (B-liner)            0.0
  snapper
Left-eye flounder               0.0
Atlantic menhaden               0.0          784.2
King mackerel                   0.0           36.0
Blacktip shark                  0.0           49.1
Hardhead catfish                0.0
Barbfish                        0.0
Smooth dogfish                  0.0           16.5
Striped anchovy                 0.0           25.1
Cownose ray                     0.0           32.4
Summer flounder                              513.5
Pigfish                         0.0
Scorpionfish                    0.0
Spotfin mojarra                 0.0
Gulf menhaden                   0.0
Silver seatrout                 0.0          388.3
Roundel skate                   0.0
Dwarf sand perch                0.0
Bluefish                        0.0          227.0
Rock seabass                    0.0           1.7
Wenchman                        0.0
Herring (genus)                              258.5
Spotted seatrout                0.0           2.6
Seabass (genus)                 0.0
Tomtate                         0.0
Orange filefish                 0.0
Spinner shark                   0.0
Spinycheek scorpionfish         0.0
Crab (genus)                    0.0          172.7
Clearnose skate                 0.0           50.8
Sheepshead                      0.0
Rock shrimp discards            0.0
Scalloped hammerhead            0.0           80.2
Cobia                           0.0           5.4
Twospot flounder                0.0
Leopard searobin                0.0
Blacknose shark                 0.0
Bluespotted searobin            0.0
Sculptured mud crab             0.0
Penaeid shrimp                  0.0
(brown,white, pink)
Smooth butterfly ray            0.0          115.3
Banded drum                     0.0           59.6
Gulf kingfish                   0.0
Bank sea bass                   0.0           40.1
Red goatfish                    0.0
Paper scallop                   0.0
Snapper (genus)                 0.0
Bigeye (blackfin) searobin      0.0
Flounder (genus)
Sash flounder                   0.0
Polyps and Medusae              0.0
(phylum)
Blackbelly rosefish             0.0
Black seabass                                 5.3
Grass porgy                     0.0
Lizardfish (family)             0.0
Herrings (family)                             90.3
Fringed flounder                0.0
Common crevalle jack            0.0
Lesser electric ray             0.0
Atlantic stingray               0.0           27.0
Southern stingray               0.0
Spotted eagle ray               0.0
Dwarf goatfish                  0.0
Scrawled cowfish                0.0
Bank cusk-eel                   0.0
Harvestfish                     0.0           5.0
Atlantic angel shark            0.0
Threadfin shad                  0.0           58.3
Atlantic thread herring                       54.8
Planehead filefish              0.0
Florida smoothhound             0.0
Snakefish                       0.0
King snake eel                  0.0
Palmate (genus) sponge          0.0
Butterfly ray                   0.0           34.3
Stingray (genus)                0.0           21.8
Brown rock shrimp               0.0
Smoothhead scorpionfish         0.0
Seabob                          0.0
Spotted hake                    0.0
Florida pompano                 0.0           27.2
Bull shark                      0.0
Spanish sardine                 0.0
Bighead searobin                0.0
Triggerfish/FNefish             0.0
  (family)
Lefteye flounder (genus)        0.0
Offshore lizardflsh             0.0
Longnose gar                    0.0
Lemon shark                     0.0
Atlantic guitarfish             0.0
Horseshoe crab                  0.0           14.6
Tripletail                      0.0
Mexican flounder                0.0
Caribbean spiny lobster         0.0
Inverts & nonpenaeid            0.0
  crustaceans
Sharksucker                     0.0
Chub mackerel                   0.0
Bandtail pufferfish             0.0
Bullnose ray                    0.0
Stingray (family)                             10.7
Conger eel (family)             0.0
Unicorn filefish                0.0
Skate (family)                  0.0
Bluntnose stingray              0.0
Yellow conger                   0.0
Atlantic midshipman             0.0
Finetooth shark                 0.0
Atlantic spadefish              0.0           2.3
Knobbed porgy                   0.0
Mutton snapper                  0.0
Eggcockle                       0.0
Blackedge cusk-eel              0.0
Fringed filefish                0.0
Hogchoker                       0.0
Alligator gar                   0.0
Honeycomb cowfish               0.0
Filefish (genus)                0.0
White elbow crab                              6.1
Spotfin flounder                0.0
Ocellated flounder              0.0
Searobin (family)               0.0
Gulf flounder                   0.0
Common sundial                  0.0
Guaguanche                      0.0
Sand tiger shark                0.0
Red porgy                       0.0
Southern hake                   0.0
Bigeye                          0.0
Birds                           0.0
Scup                                          2.0
Whitebone porgy                 0.0
Polka-dot batfish               0.0
Scrawled filefish               0.0
Silky shark                     0.0
Atlantic moonfish                             1.6
Blackedge moray                 0.0
Silver perch                                  1.4
Red grouper                     0.0
Porgy (genus)                   0.0
Gray snapper                    0.0
Mackerel (family)               0.0
Southern stargazer              0.0
Moray (genus)                   0.0
Red lionfish                    0.0
Cubbyu                          0.0
Atlantic flyingfish             0.0
Jackknife-fish                  0.0
Shrimp flounder                 0.0
White grunt                     0.0
Yellowtail snapper              0.0
Yellowedge grouper              0.0
Snowy grouper                   0.0
Ocellated frogfish              0.0
Bay whiff                       0.0
Inland silverside               0.0
Balloonfish                     0.0
Total                          100.0       136,373.3

                             South Atlantic   South Atlantic
                               Mandatory        Mandatory
                                Penaeid            Rock
Common name                    (Percent)           (kg)

Fish (superclass)                 12.3           4,456.4
Atlantic croaker                  24.2            241.8
Brown shrimp                      6.3             193.9
White shrimp                      12.3             2.9
Crustacean                        2.7            1,890.0
Seatrout (genus)                  3.7
Invertebrate                      3.9            1,970.5
Longspine porgy                   0.0
Pink shrimp                       0.4             164.1
Debris (rocks,logs,etc.)          1.1             806.2
Rock Shrimp (genus)                              14,680.7
Spot (flat croaker)               7.3             394.0
Penaeid shrimp discard            0.3
Pinfish
Jellyfish (family)                7.3
Star drum                         5.8
Dusky flounder                                   3,799.1
Cannonball jellyfish              4.2
Red snapper                                        0.8
Lane snapper
Silver jenny
Spanish mackerel                  0.3              2.3
Drum (family)
Inshore lizardfish                               3,364.1
Atlantic sharpnose shark          0.4              4.4
Red drum
Sharks grouped                    0.3              7.9
Southern flounder                 0.2              21.3
Southern kingfish                 0.8              0.6
Gulf butterdish
Mojarra (genus)
Northern kingfish                 1.4              6.7
Gafftopsail catfish
Irridescent swimming crab                        1,979.2
Flounder (family)                                1,699.4
Bonnethead shark                  0.3
Atlantic cutlassfish              0.2
Black drum                        0.0
Blue crab                         1.0
Weakfish                          0.9
Atlantic bumper                   0.0
Sand perch
Longspine swimming crab                           923.8
Vermillion (B-liner)
  snapper
Left-eye flounder
Atlantic menhaden                 0.6
King mackerel                     0.0              2.1
Blacktip shark                    0.0
Hardhead catfish
Barbfish
Smooth dogfish                    0.0
Striped anchovy                   0.0
Cownose ray                       0.0
Summer flounder                   0.4              6.2
Pigfish
Scorpionfish
Spotfin mojarra
Gulf menhaden
Silver seatrout                   0.3              5.4
Roundel skate
Dwarf sand perch
Bluefish                          0.2              33.9
Rock seabass                      0.0             230.2
Wenchman
Herring (genus)                   0.2
Spotted seatrout                  0.0
Seabass (genus)
Tomtate
Orange filefish
Spinner shark
Spinycheek scorpionfish
Crab (genus)                      0.1
Clearnose skate                   0.0             128.5
Sheepshead
Rock shrimp discards                              177.2
Scalloped hammerhead              0.1
Cobia                             0.0
Twospot flounder
Leopard searobin
Blacknose shark
Bluespotted searobin
Sculptured mud crab
Penaeid shrimp
(brown,white, pink)
Smooth butterfly ray              0.1
Banded drum                       0.0
Gulf kingfish
Bank sea bass                     0.0             100.0
Red goatfish
Paper scallop
Snapper (genus)
Bigeye (blackfin) searobin
Flounder (genus)                                  106.0
Sash flounder
Polyps and Medusae
  (phylum)
Blackbelly rosefish
Black seabass                     0.0              91.6
Grass porgy
Lizardfish (family)
Herrings (family)                 0.1
Fringed flounder
Common crevalle jack
Lesser electric ray
Atlantic stingray                 0.0
Southern stingray
Spotted eagle ray
Dwarf goatfish
Scrawled cowfish
Bank cusk-eel
Harvestfish                       0.0
Atlantic angel shark
Threadfin shad                    0.0
Atlantic thread herring           0.0
Planehead filefish
Florida smoothhound
Snakefish
King snake eel
Palmate (genus) sponge
Butterfly ray                     0.0
Stingray (genus)                  0.0
Brown rock shrimp
Smoothhead scorpionfish
Seabob
Spotted hake
Florida pompano                   0.0
Bull shark
Spanish sardine
Bighead searobin
Triggerfish/FNefish
  (family)
Lefteye flounder (genus)
Offshore lizardflsh
Longnose gar
Lemon shark
Atlantic guitarfish
Horseshoe crab                    0.0
Tripletail
Mexican flounder
Caribbean spiny lobster
Inverts & nonpenaeid
  crustaceans
Sharksucker
Chub mackerel
Bandtail pufferfish
Bullnose ray
Stingray (family)                 0.0
Conger eel (family)
Unicorn filefish
Skate (family)
Bluntnose stingray
Yellow conger
Atlantic midshipman
Finetooth shark
Atlantic spadefish                0.0
Knobbed porgy
Mutton snapper
Eggcockle
Blackedge cusk-eel
Fringed filefish
Hogchoker
Alligator gar
Honeycomb cowfish
Filefish (genus)
White elbow crab                  0.0
Spotfin flounder
Ocellated flounder
Searobin (family)
Gulf flounder
Common sundial
Guaguanche
Sand tiger shark
Red porgy
Southern hake
Bigeye
Birds
Scup                              0.0
Whitebone porgy
Polka-dot batfish
Scrawled filefish
Silky shark
Atlantic moonfish                 0.0
Blackedge moray
Silver perch                      0.0
Red grouper
Porgy (genus)
Gray snapper
Mackerel (family)
Southern stargazer
Moray (genus)
Red lionfish
Cubbyu
Atlantic flyingfish
Jackknife-fish
Shrimp flounder
White grunt
Yellowtail snapper
Yellowedge grouper
Snowy grouper
Ocellated frogfish
Bay whiff
Inland silverside
Balloonfish
Total                            100.0           35,791.7

                             South Atlantic
                               Mandatory
                                  Rock                     Percent
Common name                    (Percent)        Total       total

Fish (superclass)                 12.5        610,712.1     26.2
Atlantic croaker                  0.7         375,783.4     16.1
Brown shrimp                      0.5         313,461.9     13.4
White shrimp                      0.0         248,317.6     10.7
Crustacean                        5.3         155,387.4      6.7
Seatrout (genus)                              130,602.9      5.6
Invertebrate                      5.5         122,626.3      5.3
Longspine porgy                                86,452.9      3.7
Pink shrimp                       0.5          85,766.0      3.7
Debris (rocks,logs,etc.)          2.3          34,616.3      1.5
Rock Shrimp (genus)               41.0         17,135.8      0.7
Spot (flat croaker)               1.1          11,388.2      0.5
Penaeid shrimp discard                         11,037.6      0.5
Pinfish                                        10,329.2      0.4
Jellyfish (family)                             10,134.0      0.4
Star drum                                      8,080.2       0.3
Dusky flounder                    10.6         7,004.1       0.3
Cannonball jellyfish                           5,788.9       0.2
Red snapper                       0.0          5,675.8       0.2
Lane snapper                                   4,538.6       0.2
Silver jenny                                   4,438.4       0.2
Spanish mackerel                  0.0          4,274.8       0.2
Drum (family)                                  4,168.3       0.2
Inshore lizardfish                9.4          3,939.9       0.2
Atlantic sharpnose shark          0.0          3,862.0       0.2
Red drum                                       3,826.1       0.2
Sharks grouped                    0.0          3,648.5
Southern flounder                 0.1          3,296.3       0.1
Southern kingfish                 0.0          2,908.5       0.1
Gulf butterdish                                2,550.6       0.1
Mojarra (genus)                                2,415.0       0.1
Northern kingfish                 0.0          2,073.0       0.1
Gafftopsail catfish                            1,990.7       0.1
Irridescent swimming crab         5.5          1,987.9       0.1
Flounder (family)                                            0.1
Bonnethead shark                               1,648.6       0.1
Atlantic cutlassfish                           1,473.6       0.1
Black drum                                     1,414.2       0.1
Blue crab                                      1,366.7       0.1
Weakfish                                       1,170.1       0.1
Atlantic bumper                                1,093.4       0.0
Sand perch                                      953.4        0.0
Longspine swimming crab           2.6           928.3        0.0
Vermillion (B-liner)                            893.2        0.0
  snapper
Left-eye flounder                               825.0        0.0
Atlantic menhaden                               804.2        0.0
King mackerel                     0.0           759.7        0.0
Blacktip shark                                  716.1        0.0
Hardhead catfish                                630.2        0.0
Barbfish                                        609.7        0.0
Smooth dogfish                                  608.2        0.0
Striped anchovy                                 565.9        0.0
Cownose ray                                     533.3        0.0
Summer flounder                   0.0           519.7        0.0
Pigfish                                         509.8        0.0
Scorpionfish                                    507.5        0.0
Spotfin mojarra                                 465.4        0.0
Gulf menhaden                                   442.8        0.0
Silver seatrout                   0.0           417.0        0.0
Roundel skate                                   411.9        0.0
Dwarf sand perch                                362.7        0.0
Bluefish                          0.1           317.2        0.0
Rock seabass                      0.6           287.3        0.0
Wenchman                                        270.5        0.0
Herring (genus)                                 258.5        0.0
Spotted seatrout                                237.6        0.0
Seabass (genus)                                 232.9        0.0
Tomtate                                         229.4        0.0
Orange filefish                                 227.7        0.0
Spinner shark                                   223.2        0.0
Spinycheek scorpionfish                         222.5        0.0
Crab (genus)                                    219.5        0.0
Clearnose skate                   0.4           215.1        0.0
Sheepshead                                      210.3        0.0
Rock shrimp discards              0.5           207.9        0.0
Scalloped hammerhead                            207.5        0.0
Cobia                                           198.3        0.0
Twospot flounder                                196.2        0.0
Leopard searobin                                191.6        0.0
Blacknose shark                                 174.0        0.0
Bluespotted searobin                            172.0        0.0
Sculptured mud crab                             171.0        0.0
Penaeid shrimp                                  170.6        0.0
(brown,white, pink)
Smooth butterfly ray                            160.5        0.0
Banded drum                                     158.9        0.0
Gulf kingfish                                   155.5        0.0
Bank sea bass                     0.3           147.3        0.0
Red goatfish                                    144.6        0.0
Paper scallop                                   126.7        0.0
Snapper (genus)                                 120.0        0.0
Bigeye (blackfin) searobin                      107.3        0.0
Flounder (genus)                  0.3           106.0        0.0
Sash flounder                                   104.8        0.0
Polyps and Medusae                              101.3        0.0
  (phylum)
Blackbelly rosefish                             101.0        0.0
Black seabass                     0.3            96.8        0.0
Grass porgy                                      94.6        0.0
Lizardfish (family)                              94.2        0.0
Herrings (family)                                90.3        0.0
Fringed flounder                                 86.8        0.0
Common crevalle jack                             82.4        0.0
Lesser electric ray                              75.0        0.0
Atlantic stingray                                73.1        0.0
Southern stingray                                70.1        0.0
Spotted eagle ray                                67.6        0.0
Dwarf goatfish                                   67.3        0.0
Scrawled cowfish                                 66.4        0.0
Bank cusk-eel                                    66.3        0.0
Harvestfish                                      63.2        0.0
Atlantic angel shark                             60.2        0.0
Threadfin shad                                   58.6        0.0
Atlantic thread herring                          54.8        0.0
Planehead filefish                               52.8        0.0
Florida smoothhound                              52.7        0.0
Snakefish                                        52.6        0.0
King snake eel                                   49.1        0.0
Palmate (genus) sponge                           42.8        0.0
Butterfly ray                                    42.1        0.0
Stingray (genus)                                 41.5        0.0
Brown rock shrimp                                38.5        0.0
Smoothhead scorpionfish                          34.0        0.0
Seabob                                           31.9        0.0
Spotted hake                                     31.2        0.0
Florida pompano                                  30.6        0.0
Bull shark                                       30.5        0.0
Spanish sardine                                  29.9        0.0
Bighead searobin                                 28.7        0.0
Triggerfish/FNefish                              28.3        0.0
  (family)
Lefteye flounder (genus)                         28.1        0.0
Offshore lizardflsh                              27.4        0.0
Longnose gar                                     23.7        0.0
Lemon shark                                      23.3        0.0
Atlantic guitarfish                              23.2        0.0
Horseshoe crab                                   22.0        0.0
Tripletail                                       21.2        0.0
Mexican flounder                                 20.9        0.0
Caribbean spiny lobster                          20.3        0.0
Inverts & nonpenaeid                             19.3        0.0
  crustaceans
Sharksucker                                      17.4        0.0
Chub mackerel                                    12.7        0.0
Bandtail pufferfish                              12.3        0.0
Bullnose ray                                     11.0        0.0
Stingray (family)                                10.7        0.0
Conger eel (family)                              10.7        0.0
Unicorn filefish                                 10.5        0.0
Skate (family)                                   10.3        0.0
Bluntnose stingray                               10.1        0.0
Yellow conger                                    9.9         0.0
Atlantic midshipman                              9.4         0.0
Finetooth shark                                  9.0         0.0
Atlantic spadefish                               8.9         0.0
Knobbed porgy                                    8.6         0.0
Mutton snapper                                   7.8         0.0
Eggcockle                                        7.6         0.0
Blackedge cusk-eel                               7.2         0.0
Fringed filefish                                 7.0         0.0
Hogchoker                                        6.4         0.0
Alligator gar                                    6.4         0.0
Honeycomb cowfish                                6.2         0.0
Filefish (genus)                                 6.1         0.0
White elbow crab                                 6.1         0.0
Spotfin flounder                                 6.0         0.0
Ocellated flounder                               4.8         0.0
Searobin (family)                                4.8         0.0
Gulf flounder                                    4.4         0.0
Common sundial                                   3.9         0.0
Guaguanche                                       3.3         0.0
Sand tiger shark                                 3.2         0.0
Red porgy                                        2.7         0.0
Southern hake                                    2.6         0.0
Bigeye                                           2.3         0.0
Birds                                            2.2         0.0
Scup                                             2.0         0.0
Whitebone porgy                                  1.9         0.0
Polka-dot batfish                                1.8         0.0
Scrawled filefish                                1.7         0.0
Silky shark                                      1.6         0.0
Atlantic moonfish                                1.6         0.0
Blackedge moray                                  1.5         0.0
Silver perch                                     1.4         0.0
Red grouper                                      1.1         0.0
Porgy (genus)                                    0.7         0.0
Gray snapper                                     0.7         0.0
Mackerel (family)                                0.7         0.0
Southern stargazer                               0.7         0.0
Moray (genus)                                    0.7         0.0
Red lionfish                                     0.5         0.0
Cubbyu                                           0.4         0.0
Atlantic flyingfish                              0.4         0.0
Jackknife-fish                                   0.2         0.0
Shrimp flounder                                  0.2         0.0
White grunt                                      0.2         0.0
Yellowtail snapper                               0.1         0.0
Yellowedge grouper                               0.1         0.0
Snowy grouper                                    0.1         0.0
Ocellated frogfish                               0.1         0.0
Bay whiff                                        0.1         0.0
Inland silverside                                0.1         0.0
Balloonfish                                      0.1         0.0
Total                            100.0        2,331,311.4   100.0

Table 10.--Selected Gulf of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery species
recorded from all nets from bycatch characterization samples, based
on mandatory observer coverage from July 2007 through December 2010.

Scientific name             Common name

Pisces                      Fish (superclass)
Farfantepenaeus aztecus     Brown shrimp
Crustacean                  Crustacean
Micropogonias undulatus     Atlantic croaker
Cynoscion spp.              Seatrout (genus)
Litopenaeus setiferus       White shrimp
Invertebrate                Invertebrate
Stenotomus caprinus         Longspine porgy
Farfantepenaeus duorarum    Pink shrimp
Lutjanus campechanus        Red snapper
Debris                      Debris (rocks,logs,etc.)
Penaeus discard             Penaeid shrimp discard
                              (brown,white, pink)
General sharks              Sharks grouped
Lutjanus synagris           Lane snapper
Scomberomorus maculatus     Spanish mackerel
Rhomboplites aurorubens     Vermilion snapper
Sciaenops ocellatus         Red drum
Scomberomorus cavalla       King mackerel
Paralichthys lethostigma    Southern flounder
Pogonias cromis             Black drum
Cynoscion nebulosus         Spotted seatrout
Rachycentron canadum        Cobia
Penaeus spp.                Penaeid shrimp
                              (brown,white, pink)
Lutjanus spp.               Snapper (genus)

Scientific name             Extrapolated   Kg/h   CV
                            weight (kg)

Pisces                        637,493.9    10.1   <0.1
Farfantepenaeus aztecus       304,764.5    4.8    <0.1
Crustacean                    152,676.0    2.4    <0.1
Micropogonias undulatus       342,602.4    5.4    <0.1
Cynoscion spp.                125,589.3    2.0    <0.1
Litopenaeus setiferus         231,501.7    3.7    <0.1
Invertebrate                  115,778.2    1.8    <0.1
Stenotomus caprinus            86,452.8    1.4    <0.1
Farfantepenaeus duorarum       85,055.4    1.3    <0.1
Lutjanus campechanus            5,574.6    0.1    <0.1
Debris                         32,257.8    0.5    <0.1
Penaeus discard                10,664.2    0.2    <0.1

General sharks                  9,741.1    0.2    <0.1
Lutjanus synagris               4,538.6    0.1    <0.1
Scomberomorus maculatus         3,851.3    0.1    0.1
Rhomboplites aurorubens           893.2    0.0    0.1
Sciaenops ocellatus             3,826.1    0.1    0.1
Scomberomorus cavalla             721.6    0.0    0.1
Paralichthys lethostigma        3,031.7    0.0    0.1
Pogonias cromis                 1,402.7    0.0    0.1
Cynoscion nebulosus               235.0    0.0    0.2
Rachycentron canadum              192.9    0.0    0.2
Penaeus spp.                      170.6    0.0    0.5

Lutjanus spp.                     128.5    0.0    0.7

Table 11.--Selected South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery species
recorded from all nets from bycatch characterization samples,
based on mandatory observer coverage from July 2007 through
December 2010.

Scientific name               Common name

Pisces                        Fish (superclass)
Cynoscion spp.                Seatrout (genus)
Litopenaeus setiferus         White shrimp
Micropogonias undulatus       Atlantic croaker
Crustacean                    Crustacean
Invertebrate                  Invertebrate
Leiostomus xanthurus          Spot (flat croaker)
Farfantepenaeus aztecus       Brown shrimp
Menticirrhus americanus       Southern kingfish
Menticirrhus saxatilis        Northern kingfish
Paralichthys dentatus         Summer flounder
Scomberomorus maculatus       Spanish mackerel
General sharks                Sharks grouped
Debris                        Debris (rocks,logs,etc.)
Pomatomus saltatrix           Blueflsh
Paralichthys lethostigma      Southern flounder
Penaeus discard               Penaeid shrimp discard
                                (brown,white, pin
Alosa spp.                    Herring (genus)
Scomberomorus cavalla         King mackerel
Centropristis ocyurus         Bank sea bass
Trachinotus carolinus         Florida pompano
Farfantepenaeus duorarum      Pink shrimp
Pogonias cromis               Black drum
Centropristis philadelphica   Rock sea bass
Stenotomus chrysops           Scup
Cynoscion nebulosus           Spotted seatrout
Centropristis striata         Black sea bass
Rachycentron canadum          Cobia
Lutjanus campechanus          Red snapper

Scientific name               Extrapolated   Kg/h   CV
                              weight (kg)

Pisces                           26,381.5    10.0   <0.1
Cynoscion spp.                    6,595.2    2.5    <0.1
Litopenaeus setiferus            16,813.0    6.4    <0.1
Micropogonias undulatus          32,939.2    12.5   <0.1
Crustacean                        5,196.5    2.0    0.1
Invertebrate                     21,094.5    8.0    0.1
Leiostomus xanthurus             10,022.1    3.8    0.1
Farfantepenaeus aztecus           8,603.9    3.3    0.1
Menticirrhus americanus           1,059.2    0.4    0.1
Menticirrhus saxatilis            1,888.5    0.7    0.1
Paralichthys dentatus               513.5    0.2    0.1
Scomberomorus maculatus             421.2    0.2    0.1
General sharks                    1,512.1    0.6    0.1
Debris                            1,552.3    0.6    0.1
Pomatomus saltatrix                 227.0    0.1    0.1
Paralichthys lethostigma            243.2    0.1    0.1
Penaeus discard                  k) 373.3    0.1    0.1

Alosa spp.                          258.5    0.1    0.2
Scomberomorus cavalla                36.0    0.0    0.2
Centropristis ocyurus                40.1    0.0    0.2
Trachinotus carolinus                27.2    0.0    0.3
Farfantepenaeus duorarum            546.6    0.2    0.3
Pogonias cromis                      11.5    0.0    0.4
Centropristis philadelphica           1.7    0.0    0.4
Stenotomus chrysops                   2.0    0.0    0.5
Cynoscion nebulosus                   2.6    0.0    0.5
Centropristis striata                 5.3    0.0    0.6
Rachycentron canadum                  5.4    0.0    0.7
Lutjanus campechanus                  0.0    0.0

Table 12.--Selected South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery species
recorded from all nets from bycatch characterization samples,
based on mandatory observer coverage from July 2007 through
December 2010.

Scientific name               Common name

Pisces                        Fish (superclass)
Crustacean                    Crustacean
Sicyonia spp.                 Rock shrimp (genus)
Invertebrate                  Invertebrate
Centropristis phiiadeiphica   Rock sea bass
Farfantepenaeus duorarum      Pink shrimp
Leiostomus xanthurus          Spot (flat croaker)
Debris                        Debris (rocks,logs,etc.)
Farfantepenaeus aztecus       Brown shrimp
Centropristis ocyurus         Bank sea bass
Micropogonias unduiatus       Atlantic croaker
Sicyonia discards             Rock shrimp (discards)
Paraiichthys iethostigma      Southern flounder
Cynoscion spp.                Seatrout (genus)
General sharks                Sharks grouped
Lutjanus campechanus          Red snapper
Pomatomus saitatrix           Bluefish
Centropristis striata         Black sea bass
Menticirrhus saxatiiis        Northern kingfish
Litopenaeus setiferus         White shrimp
Paraiichthys dentatus         Summer flounder
Scomberomorus macuiatus       Spanish mackerel
Menticirrhus americanus       Southern kingfish
Scomberomorus cavaiia         King mackerel
Aiosa spp.                    Herring (genus)
Cynoscion nebuiosus           Spotted seatrout
Pogonias cromis               Black drum
Stenotomus chrysops           Scup
Trachinotus caroiinus         Florida pompano

Scientific name               Extrapolated   Kg/h   CV
                              weight (kg)

Pisces                           11,854.1    23.4   <0.1
Crustacean                        4,793.0    9.5    0.1
Sicyonia spp.                    14,680.7    29.0   0.1
Invertebrate                      1,970.5    3.9    0.1
Centropristis phiiadeiphica         230.2    0.5    0.1
Farfantepenaeus duorarum            164.1    0.3    0.1
Leiostomus xanthurus                394.0    0.8    0.2
Debris                              806.2    1.6    0.2
Farfantepenaeus aztecus             193.9    0.4    0.2
Centropristis ocyurus               100.0    0.2    0.3
Micropogonias unduiatus             241.8    0.5    0.3
Sicyonia discards                   177.2    0.4    0.3
Paraiichthys iethostigma             21.3    0.0    0.4
Cynoscion spp.                        5.4    0.0    0.5
General sharks                       12.3    0.0    0.5
Lutjanus campechanus                  0.8    0.0    0.6
Pomatomus saitatrix                  33.9    0.1    0.6
Centropristis striata                91.6    0.2    0.6
Menticirrhus saxatiiis                6.7    0.0    0.7
Litopenaeus setiferus                 2.9    0.0    0.7
Paraiichthys dentatus                 6.2    0.0    1.0
Scomberomorus macuiatus               2.3    0.0    1.0
Menticirrhus americanus               0.6    0.0    1.0
Scomberomorus cavaiia                 2.1    0.0    1.0
Aiosa spp.                            0.0    0.0
Cynoscion nebuiosus                   0.0    0.0
Pogonias cromis                       0.0    0.0
Stenotomus chrysops                   0.0    0.0
Trachinotus caroiinus                 0.0    0.0

Figure 4.--Major species categories grouped
by area and target species, based on mandatory
observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp
fishery from July 2007 through December 2010.

                 Gulf          South Atlantic   South Atlantic
                 mandatory     mandatory        mandatory rock
                 penaeid       penaeid

Fish             57%           60%              36%
Penaeid          29%           19%              1%
  shrimp
Crustaceans      7%            4%               13%
Rock shrimp                                     41%
Invertebrates    5%            15%              6%
Debris           1%            1%               2%

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 5.--Species-level characterization in the Gulf
of Mexico penaeid shrimp fishery, based on mandatory
observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery
from July 2007 through December 2010.

Grouped finfish   (27%)
Other             (6%)
Pink shrimp       (4%)
Longspine porgy   (4%)
Invertebrate      (5%)
Seatrout          (6%)
Crustacean        (7%)
White shrimp      (11%)
Brown shrimp      (14%)
Atlantic          (16%)
croaker

n = 11,322 nets
63,023.5 h
2,159,146 kg
185 species

Note: Table made from pie graph.

Figure 6.--Species-level characterization in the
South Atlantic penaeid shrimp fishery, based on
mandatory observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern
shrimp fishery from July 2007 through December 2010.

Atlantic croaker       (24%)
Other                  (16%)
Invertebrate           (4%)
Cannonball jellyfish   (4%)
Star drum              (6%)
Brown Shrimp           (6%)
Jellyfish              (7%)
Flat croaker           (7%)
Grouped finfish        (12%)
White shrimp           (12%)

n = 890 nets
2,634 h
136,373 kg
63 species

Note: Table made from pie graph.

Figure 7.--Species-level characterization in the
South Atlantic rock shrimp fishery, based on mandatory
observer coverage of the U.S. southeastern shrimp fishery
from July 2007 through December 2010.

Debris                      (2%)
Other                       (5%)
Longspine swimming crab     (3%)
Irridescent swimming crab   (6%)
Inshore lizardfish          (9%)
Dusky flounder              (11%)
Grouped finfish             (12%)
Rock shrimp                 (41%)

n = 191 nets
506 h
11,854 kg
31 species

Note: Table made from pie graph.
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Article Details
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Author:Scott-Denton, Elizabeth; Cryer, Pat F.; Duffy, Matt R.; Gocke, Judith P.; Harrelson, Mike R.; Kinsel
Publication:Marine Fisheries Review
Article Type:Abstract
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2012
Words:17205
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