Printer Friendly

Characterization of oil shale ashes formed at industrial-scale CFBC boilers.

Introduction

The unique pulverized-fired (PF) boilers developed and built during 1959-1965 are still working. PF boilers represent a result of joint effort of Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia), Taganrog boiler factory and planning and design institute Teploelektroprojekt (both Russia), a number of enterprises that belong to Eesti Energia Ltd. and also researchers, designers and exploiters from other institutions (in Estonia and Russia).

The exclusivity of PF boilers is emphasized by the fact that they burn low-calorific oil shale that contains much mineral matter of complicated chemical composition. This circumstance causes difficulties in heat-transfer and phase-separation processes as well as in transport and deposition of ash.

For that kind of material new circulating fluidized bed boilers characterized by advanced technology and less serious impact on the environment were developed and put into operation in last two decades [1]. The research and experimental activity began in the early nineties of the last century to investigate the possibilities to use circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology for oil shale combustion [2, 3]. As a result, since the beginning of 2005 two 215 MW units with CFBC boilers have been put into commercial exploitation.

Examination of the ashes of experimental combustion has shown that noticeable differences in chemical and phase composition of ash as well as in reactivity and structure of particles can be expected because the temperature in CFBC boilers is considerably lower as compared to PF boilers. The properties of PF ashes have been investigated, and the results have been used as a basis for several large-scale applications like production of construction materials [4-7] and conditioning/neutralizing of soils [8], by recommendation of ash as S[O.sub.2] sorbent [9]. Also, the processes occurring during deposition of ash into landfills were explicated [10]. At present, developing industrial applications for CFBC ashes is hindered by insufficient data; and the aim of the current study was to partially fill up the gap.

Materials and Methods

To determine the differences in chemical, grain and phase composition of the ash, the samples were collected from different points of the ashseparation systems of CFBC and PF boilers at the Eesti Thermal Power Plant. During the period of sample collecting, the lower heating value, moisture and ash content of oil shale feed were 7.93 and 8.16 MJ/kg, 11.5 and 12.5%, 44.8 and 44.0% for CFBC and PF boilers, respectively.

The CFBC ash samples used for the investigation were named as bottom ash (CFBC/BA), intrex ash (CFBC/INT), economizer ash (CFBC/ECO), air preheater ash (PHA), electrostatic precipitator ash--fields from 1st to 4th (CFBC/ESPA 1-4), and mixture of ashes taken from common ash silo, whereby the ash is collected from different equipments before landfilling on ash fields (CFBC/Mix). The PF ashes used were: bottom ash (PF/BA), superheater ash (PF/SHA), economizer ash (PF/ECO), cyclone ash (PF/CA) and electrostatic precipitator ash--fields from 1st to 3rd (PF/ESPA 1-3).

The above-mentioned ash samples were analyzed using chemical, grainsize and quantitative XRD methods, as well as SEM and BET methods. Content of total CaO [11], free CaO [12], C[O.sub.2] (volume method), total MgO (AAS method), total sulphur and its bonding forms [13], loss on ignition at 900 [degrees] C (LOI) [14] and indissoluble residue in aqua regia (I.R.) were determined by chemical analysis.

Decomposition rate of carbonate part of oil shale ([MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) was calculated as follows:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (1)

where C[O.sub.2]' and C[O.sub.2]" are the contents of C[O.sub.2] in the initial material (oil shale) and in the heated residue (oil shale ash), %, respectively; A' and A'' are the contents of ash (mineral part) in the same materials, %.

XRD data was collected in powdered unoriented preparations with Dron-3M difractometer using Ni-filtered Cu-Ka radiation. Digitally registered difractograms were measured within the range of 2-50 [degrees] 2[theta], with 0.03 [degrees] 2[theta] step size and 3 s counting time. The difractograms were analyzed by code Siroquant [15], using full-profile Rietveld analysis [16]. Scanning electron microscope Jeol JSM-8404 was used for surface observations, and specific surface area (SSA) data was determined by BET-method at Sorptometer KELVIN 1042.

Results and Discussion

Chemical Analysis and Particle Size Distribution

Chemical analysis (Tables 1 and 2) showed that in both kinds of ashes (from CFBC and PF boilers) total content of CaO decreases along the flow sheet of boilers, being the lowest in the electrostatic precipitator ashes.

The content of indissoluble residue (mainly quartz) increases along the ash separation system in both CFBC and PF ashes, being lower in bottom ashes and several times higher in electrostatic precipitator ashes.

Compared to CFBC ashes, content of free CaO is considerably higher in PF ones (up to 24.84%). In CFBC ashes CaO content is relatively high in intrex ash, but decreases considerably in electrostatic precipitator ashes (down to 2.82%). Contrary to content of free CaO, C[O.sub.2] content is higher in CFBC ashes, being the highest in the bottom ash (up to 15.14%) and the lowest in intrex ash (1.23%). This indicates that oil shale carbonate part is far from being completely decomposed. The lowest rate of carbonate decomposition rate in the bottom ash (47.6%) could be explained by grain composition and inclusions of limestone into larger lumps of oil shale feed. Circulating of intrex ash particles between combustion chamber and intrex leads to nearly full (95.7%) decomposition of limestone as well as to desulphurization of flue gases.

Starting with economizer, the conditions for decomposition of carbonates become unfavorable, and the process stops. The particles that precipitate in economizer have previously been decomposed to the extent that depends on their size. In the case of PF technology, boiler temperatures are considerably higher (up to 1250-1400 [degrees] C) and carbonates are almost entirely decomposed that results in low C[O.sub.2] contents of PF ashes.

In CFBC ashes the content of total MgO is within the range of 8.33-9.25%. Compared to PF ashes (MgOt = 7.65-15.19%) it is somewhat lower due to lower rates of carbonate decomposition. On the whole, the content of total MgO in analyzed samples is relatively high. This can be due to the use of dolomite-rich oil shale (MgO content in initial oil shale and in its laboratory-decomposed residues were 6.50 and 10.70%, respectively).

Sulphur content is highest in intrex ash (7.76%). It can be expected due to the most favorable temperature conditions for S[O.sub.2] binding in this part of the CFBC boiler system. In the case of PF ashes, sulphur content is higher in electrostatic precipitator ashes. The main part of sulphur is bound to sulphates. Traces of sulphides are present in CFBC/BA, CFBC/INT and CFBC/ECO samples.

The particle size of CFBC ashes varies in a very wide range (Table 3). Bottom ash is coarsest (~45% of particles have the diameter >0.63 mm), intrex ash particles are of average size (90% of particles have the diameter of 0.4-0.045 mm) and electrostatic precipitator ashes are finest (85-95% particles have the diameter less than 0.045 mm). Particle distribution of PF ashes (Table 4) is more homogeneous with less particles having the diameter over 0.63 mm. Bottom ash and superheater ash are coarsest (~75% of particles have the diameter of 0.1-0.63 mm). As expected, the electrostatic precipitator ashes are finest, with about 90% of particles having the diameter less than 0.045 mm.

The above-mentioned dissimilarities between chemical and fractional composition of different ash types for various combustion technologies are caused by several circumstances, fractional composition of fuel fed to the boiler being the most important of them. For PF boilers the average median measure of fuel fed to the boiler is 35-60 [micro]m, and the rest on sieves with aperture size 90 and 200 ?m is 20-40 and 10-25%, respectively. Fractions differ noticeably by chemical composition [17]. The material fed to CFBC boilers belongs predominantly to the class 1-10 mm. Fine particles of pulverized oil shale and ashes melt and agglomerate forming larger particles, while in the case of CFBC the main part of fine fractions is formed as a result of intensive attrition of particles in fluidized bed.

Phase Composition

XRD analysis was carried out to determine the phase composition of CFBC and PF ashes (Tables 5 and 6). For some compounds the results of quantitative XRD were compared to those calculated on the basis of chemical analysis (Fig. 1). XRD analysis indicated that as compared to PF ashes CFBC ashes contain more calcite and less free lime. This agrees with composition expected on the basis of chemical analysis and considering different combustion conditions of oil shale. Calcite content in CFBC/BA is highest-up to 34.8%. Anhydrite (CaS[O.sub.4]) content is highest in CFBC/INT. This was also confirmed by chemical analysis.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Generally, anhydrite concentration is somewhat lower in PF-ashes, being highest in electrostatic precipitator ones. Mg was found in both cases mainly as periclase (MgO), partially bound to carbonates (dolomite) or silicates (merwinite). Silica compounds in CFBC ashes are presented mainly with quartz and orthoclase type K-feldspar (up to 17.9 and 15.7% in electrostatic precipitator ashes, respectively). As indicated by the analysis of nonsoluble residue, concentrations of silicate compounds increase along the ash separation system.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Compared to CFBC ashes, PF ones contain less quartz and orthoclase and notably more secondary silicate phases--belite (up to 20.3% in superheater ash) and merwinite (up to 13.2% in cyclone ash). Relatively higher content of secondary silicates can be explained by significantly higher temperatures used in PF boilers--they initiate binding of free CaO which leads to the formation of clinker minerals.

Basing on relatively good correlation between the results of chemical and quantitative XRD analysis (first used for analyzing oil shale ashes), it can be concluded that the latter can be used for preliminary express analysis.

Surface Observations

Comparison of SEM photos of ash samples investigated shows that particles of CFBC ashes formed at moderate temperatures are characterized by irregular shape as well as by porous and uneven surface (see Fig. 2). The effect of attrition could be shown by bigger particles of intrex and air preheater ashes (see Fig. 2b,d). The glassy phase is not formed. In the case of PF ashes, the glassy phase significantly affects the formation of particle shape and surface properties: the particles are characterized by regular spherical shape with smooth surface (see Fig. 3). It was shown that along the ash separation system the porous irregular-shaped particles are replaced by regular smooth spherical particles (electrostatic precipitator ashes).

The results of BET measurements confirmed the significant difference in the physical structure of CFBC and PF ashes depending on ash type: up to ten times (see Tables 1 and 2). While specific surface area of CFBC ashes can reach 8.68 [m.sup.2]/g, the SSA of PF ashes is in range 0.36-1.75 [m.sup.2]/g.

Conclusions

1. Oil shale ashes, formed in boilers operating at different combustion technologies, differ significantly by their chemical and phase composition as well as by surface properties.

2. The sharp difference in the operating temperature and fuel particle size results in different behavior of calcium-and sulphur-containing compounds. Due to considerably higher temperature when using PF technology, the rate of carbonate decomposition is as high as 97-98%, being moderate (47-96%) in the case of CFBC. Content of free CaO is higher in PF ashes (up to 24.84%), while in CFBC ashes it is relatively high only in intrex ash (18.87%), but decreases considerably in electrostatic precipitator ashes (down to 2.82%). In both CFBC and PF ashes the content of total CaO decreases and the content of indissoluble residue increases along the ash separation system.

3. In the case of CFBC, the binding of gaseous S[O.sub.2] occurs in combustion chamber and intrex of the boiler, leading to high sulphur content of bottom (4.53%) and intrex ash (7.76%). The major part of sulphur is bound to sulphates. In PF the bound sulphur is more uniformly distributed between different kinds of ashes, being highest in precipitator ashes (3.67%).

4. Quantitative XRD measurements verified the most part of the results of chemical analysis. Compared to PF ashes, CFBC varieties contain more calcite (up to 34.8% in bottom ash) and less lime. Silica compounds in CFBC ashes are mainly presented with quartz (up to 17.9%) and orthoclase type K-feldspar (up to 15.7%), while PF ashes contain noticeably more secondary silicate - belite (up to 20.3%) and merwinite (up to 13.2%).

5. Surface observations of CFBC and PF ashes show that particles of CFBC ashes are characterized by irregular shape and porous and uneven surface. In the case of PF ashes the glassy phase can be observed, and the particles are characterized by regular spherical shape and smooth surface. The value of specific surface area of CFBC ashes is up to ten times higher than in the case of PF ashes.

Acknowledgements

Authors express their gratitude to Estonian Science Foundation (Grant No. 6195) and AS Narva Elektrijaamad for partial financial support, to Mr. Rain Veinjarv for help by sampling, to Dr Helgi Veskimae for carrying out chemical analyses and PhD Valdek Mikli for performing SEM measurements.

Received May 16, 2005

REFERENCES

[1.] Prikk, A., Hiltunen, M., Makkonen, P. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers // Oil Shale. 1997. Vol. 14, No. 3 Special. P. 254-264.

[2.] Arro, H., Prikk, A., Kasemetsa, J. Circulating fluidized-bed technology--test combustion of Estonian oil shale // Oil Shale. 1997. Vol. 14, No. 3 Special. P. 215-217.

[3.] Paist, A. New epoch in Estonian oil shale combustion technology // Oil Shale. 2004. Vol. 21, No. 3. P. 181-182.

[4.] Kikas, V. Mineral matter of kukersite oil shale and its utilization // Oil Shale. 1988. Vol. 5, No. 1. P.15-28

[5.] Kikas, V. Composition and binder properties of Estonian kukersite oil shale ash // International Cement-Lime-Gypsum. 1997. Vol. 50, No. 2. P. 112-126.

[6.] Paat, A. About the mineral composition of Estonian oil shale ash // Oil Shale. 2002. Vol. 19, No. 3. P. 321-333.

[7.] Paat, A., Traksmaa, R. Investigation of the mineral composition of Estonian oil shale ash using X-ray diffractometry // Oil Shale. 2002. Vol. 19, No. 4. P. 373-386.

[8.] Karblane, H. Handbook of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization. Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Estonia.--Tallinn, 1996 [in Estonian].

[9.] Kuusik, R., Kaljuvee, T., Trikkel, A., Maarend, J., Roundyguine, J. Dry desulphurization of flue gases by Estonian lime-containing materials // Proc. 10th World Clean Air Congr., Espoo, Finland, May 28-June 2, 1995. Helsinki, 1995. Vol. 1. P. 037.

[10.] Kuusik, R., Paat, A., Veskimae, H., Uibu, M. Transformations in oil shale ash at wet deposition // Oil Shale. 2004. Vol. 21, No. 1. P. 27-42.

[11.] EVS-EN 196-2:1997 Methods of Testing Cement--Part 2: Chemical Analysis of Cement.

[12.] Reispere, H. J. Determination of free CaO content in oil shale ash // Transact. Tallinn Polytechnical Institute, series A. 1966. Nr. 245. P. 73-76 [in Estonian].

[13.] EVS 664:1995 Solid Fuels. Sulphur Content--Determination of Total Sulphur and its Bonding Forms.

[14.] EVS 669:1996 Kukersite of oil shale--determination of ash.

[15.] Taylor, J. C. Computer programs for standardless quantitative analysis of minerals using the full powder diffraction profile. Powder Diffraction, 1991, Vol. 6. P. 2-9.

[16.] Colin, R. W., Taylor, C. J., Cohen, D. R. Quantitative mineralogy of sandstones by X-Ray diffractometry and normative analysis // Journal of Sedimentary Research. 1999. Vol. 69. P. 1050-1062.

[17.] Ots, A. Oil Shale Combustion Technology.--Tallinn, 2004. 768 pp. [in Estonian]

R. KUUSIK * (a), M. UIBU (a), K. KIRSIMAE (b)

(a) Laboratory of Inorganic Materials

Tallinn University of Technology

5 Ehitajate St., Tallinn 19086, Estonia

(b) Institute of Geology, University of Tartu

46 Vanemuise St., 51014 Tartu, Estonia

* Corresponding author: e-mail rein.kuusik@ttu.ee
Table 1. Chemical Composition (%) and Other Characteristics of CFBC
Ashes

Item CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/
 /BA /INT /ECO /PHA /ESPA 1 /ESPA 2

Ca[O.sub.t] 49.39 47.59 32.84 35.17 29.52 28.01
Ca[O.sub.f] 11.86 18.87 10.4 12.18 8.45 8.15
MgO 9.25 13.65 9.5 10.77 8.33 8.7
C[O.sub.2] 15.14 1.23 5.48 4.3 4.6 3.92
[k.sub.C[O.sub.2]] 0.476 0.957 0.81 0.851 0.841 0.864
I.R. 8.85 13.25 34.02 29.33 42.45 38.58
LOI
900[degrees]C 16.4 0.26 4.9 4.69 5.87 4.52
[S.sub.t] 4.53 7.76 2.32 3.31 1.71 1.78
[S.sub.sulphate] 4.32 7.7 2.22 3.27 1.71 1.78
[S.sub.sulphide] 0.1 0.02 0 0.013 0 0
SSA,
 [m.sup.2]/g 2.06 2.613 6.893 5.398 8 8.68

Item CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/
 /ESPA 3 /ESPA 4 /Mix

Ca[O.sub.t] 28.17 28.88 33.28
Ca[O.sub.f] 7.01 2.82 10.33
MgO 9.35 9.35 9.5
C[O.sub.2] 3.66 3.8 6.41
[k.sub.C[O.sub.2]] 0.873 0.869 0.778
I.R. 38.03 32.74 31.86
LOI
900[degrees]C 4.43 5.94 7.6
[S.sub.t] 1.81 2.23 2.46
[S.sub.sulphate] 1.81 2.21 2.43
[S.sub.sulphide] 0 0 0.03
SSA,
 [m.sup.2]/g 8.63 7.92 7.11

Table 2. Chemical Composition (%) and Other Characteristics of PF Ashes

Item PF/BA PF/SHA PF/ECO PF/CA PF/ESPA 1

Ca[O.sub.t] 50.75 54.71 48.00 49.39 36.08
Ca[O.sub.f] 24.84 23.08 16.04 22.52 13.56
MgO 15.19 7.81 8.24 14.19 11.39
C[O.sub.2] 2.75 0.96 2.5 0.7 1.16
[k.sub.C[O.sub.2]] 0.905 0.967 0.914 0.976 0.96
I.R. 18.21 18.81 26.64 20.29 26.05
LOI 900[degrees]C 4.15 2.41 3.58 1.11 1.9
[S.sub.t] 1.27 1.98 2.52 1.33 2.74
[S.sub.sulphate] 1.27 1.93 2.514 1.33 2.74
[S.sub.sulphide] 0 0 0.006 0 0
SSA, [m.sup.2]/g 1.75 0.503 0.438 0.36 0.61

Item PF/ESPA 2 PF/ESPA 3

Ca[O.sub.t] 30.62 26.85
Ca[O.sub.f] 7.2 5.85
MgO 10.13 7.65
C[O.sub.2] 0.9 0.8
[k.sub.CO.sub.2] 0.969 0.972
I.R. 29.8 35.79
LOI 900[degrees]C 1.9 1.88
[S.sub.t] 3.5 3.67
[S.sub.sulphate] 3.46 3.67
[S.sub.sulphide] 0 0
SSA, [m.sup.2]/g 0.86 1.09

Table 3. Grain-Size Composition of CFBC Ashes

Ash type Screenings, mm
 +0.63 +0.4 +0.16 +0.1 +0.071 +0.045 -0.045

CFBC/BA 45.2 7.7 19.1 16.4 5.4 3.7 2.6
CFBC/INT 2.2 2.4 15.2 36 22.9 18.5 2.8
CFBC/ECO -- -- -- 1.4 2.8 20.1 75.8
CFBC/PHA -- -- 0.2 3.4 6.3 36.2 53.9
CFBC/ESPA 1 -- -- -- 0.3 1.7 11.1 86.8
CFBC/ESPA 2 -- -- -- 0.6 1.6 12.5 85.3
CFBC/ESPA 3 -- -- -- 0.4 1.7 10.9 87.0
CFBC/ESPA 4 -- -- -- -- 0.7 4.3 95.1
CFBC/MIX 1.7 0.8 3.3 4.4 3.3 13.1 73.3

Table 4. Grain-Size Composition of PF Ashes

Ash type Screenings, mm
 +0.63 +0.4 +O.16 +O.1 +O.071 +O.045 -0.045

PF/BA 5.3 9.9 37.8 25.4 6.1 8.8 6.6
PF/SHA 3.4 8.1 41.0 27.0 5.0 6.3 9.3
PF/ECO 2.6 1.4 14.2 25.7 10.2 19.6 26.2
PF/CA -- -- 8.4 23.6 13.2 27.1 27.7
PF/ESPA 1 -- -- -- 1.8 1.4 4.5 92.3
PF/ESPA 2 -- -- -- 0.3 0.5 0.7 97.4
PF/ESPA 3 -- -- -- -- -- 0.7 99.3

Table 5. Mineral Composition of CFBC Ashes, wt.%

Minerals CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/
 /BA /INT /ECO /PHA /ESPA 1
Quartz Si[O.sub.2] 8.9 5.6 17.1 17.7 16.8
OrthoclaseKAl 1.3 2.7 9.4 8.1 12.5
[Si.sub.3][O.sub.8]
Albite NaAl 1.6 2.7 tr.
[Si.sub.3][O.sub.8]
Illite + Illite-Smectite 2.1 3.1 11.2 9.5 13.8
Na,[K.sub.x](Al,Mg)2
[Si.sub.4][O.sub.10]
[(OH).sub.2] * [H.sub.2]O
Belite Ca2SiO4 4.6 7.3 5.8 6.2 5.3
Merwinite [Ca.sub.3] 4.7 5.2 3.0 3.0 3.7
Mg[([SiO.sub.4]).sub.2]
Tricalcium aluminate 1.2 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.3
3CaO.[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 3.9
Periclase MgO 4.2 7.0 3.8 4.4 2.7
Melilite [(Ca,Na).sub.2] 1.0 3.6 1.6 1.5 1.2
(Mg,Al)[([Si,Al).sub.3][
O.sub.7]
Anhydrite Ca[SO.sub.4] 16.2 29.9 11.1 14.3 9.5
Gypsum Ca[SO.sub.4] * 2H2O 0.8 0.5
Lime CaO 11.4 19.9 13.3 14.9 10.8
Calcite CaC[O.sub.3] 34.8 4.0 14.6 12.6 13.5
 0.8
Aragonite CaC[O.sub.3]
Portlandite Ca[(OH).sub.2] 1.7 2.1 0.7 0.8
Hematite [Fe.sub.2] 1.1 2.1 3.6 2.7 4.3
[O.sub.3]
Pseudowollas-tonite 1.4 1.8 1.9 2.1 3.6
CaSi[O.sub.3]

Minerals CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/ CFBC/
 /ESPA 2 /ESPA 3 /ESPA 4 /Mix
Quartz Si[O.sub.2] 17.9 15.3 12.1 13.8
OrthoclaseKAl 12.5 13.4 15.7 15.6
[Si.sub.3][O.sub.8]
Albite NaAl tr.
[Si.sub.3][O.sub.8]
Illite + Illite-Smectite 14.0 15.6 16.8 9.7
Na,[K.sub.x](Al,Mg)2
[Si.sub.4][O.sub.10]
[(OH).sub.2] * [H.sub.2]O
Belite Ca2SiO4 5.7 5.8 7.5 5.0
Merwinite [Ca.sub.3] 4.0 4.3 4.2 3.0
Mg[([SiO.sub.4]).sub.2]
Tricalcium aluminate 2.2 2.2 3.3 1.8
3CaO.[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2
Periclase MgO 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.8
Melilite [(Ca,Na).sub.2] 1.5 1.8 2.6 2.0
(Mg,Al)[([Si,Al).sub.3][
O.sub.7]
Anhydrite Ca[SO.sub.4] 8.8 8.2 11.3 10.1
Gypsum Ca[SO.sub.4] * 2H2O
Lime CaO 10.0 9.1 3.2 11.0
Calcite CaC[O.sub.3] 12.6 12.6 13.6 18.1

Aragonite CaC[O.sub.3]
Portlandite Ca[(OH).sub.2] Tr. 0.9
Hematite [Fe.sub.2] 4.5 3.8 3.9 3.7
[O.sub.3]
Pseudowollas-tonite 2.5 3.4 2.2 2.3
CaSi[O.sub.3]

Table 6. Mineral Composition of PF Ashes, wt.%

Minerals PF/BA PF/SHA PF/ECO PF/CA

Quartz Si[O.sub.2] 3.1 1.6 3.6 3.3
Orthoclase KAl 6.6 9.7 2.5 1.7
[Si.sub.3][O.sub.8]
Illite + Illite-Smectite 4.0 6.1
Na,Kx(Al,Mg)2[Si.sub.4]
[O.sub.10] [(OH).sub.2] * H2O
Belite [Ca.sub.2]Si[O.sub.4] 13.5 20.3 15.9 15.9
Merwinite [Ca.sub.3] 9.4 10.5 8.9 13.2
Mg[(Si[O.sub.4]).sub.2]
Tricalcium aluminate 2.3 3.3 2 2.2
3CaO.[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]
Periclase MgO 7.9 3.8 3.8 8.7
Melilite [(Ca,Na).sub.2] 17.8 12.6 18.9 5.8
(Mg,Al)[(Si,Al).sub.3]
[O.sub.7]
Anhydrite Ca[SO.sub.4] 5.4 4.6 9.6 5.4
Lime CaO 26.5 24.1 19 29.3
Calcite CaC[O.sub.3] 5.7 3.7 7.6 2.5
Portlandite Ca[(OH).sub.2] 3.3 2.5 3.1 1
Hematite [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] 0.9 tr 1.1 1.1
Pseudowallastonite 0.9 2.6 0.7 1.6
CaSi[O.sub.3]

Minerals PF/ESPA 1 PF/ESPA 3

Quartz Si[O.sub.2] 12 10.4
Orthoclase KAl 3.8 9.3
[Si.sub.3][O.sub.8]
Illite + Illite-Smectite
Na,Kx(Al,Mg)2[Si.sub.4]
[O.sub.10] [(OH).sub.2] * H2O
Belite [Ca.sub.2]Si[O.sub.4] 12.3 11.7
Merwinite [Ca.sub.3] 6.5 6.8
Mg[(Si[O.sub.4]).sub.2]
Tricalcium aluminate 2.8 3.8
3CaO.[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]
Periclase MgO 8.5 5.8
Melilite [(Ca,Na).sub.2] 3.3 3.2
(Mg,Al)[(Si,Al).sub.3]
[O.sub.7]
Anhydrite Ca[SO.sub.4] 16.8 24.1
Lime CaO 28.1 14.3
Calcite CaC[O.sub.3] 2 5.6
Portlandite Ca[(OH).sub.2] 0.8
Hematite [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] 1.6 1.7
Pseudowallastonite 0.8 2.3
CaSi[O.sub.3]
COPYRIGHT 2005 Estonian Academy Publishers
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Kuusik, R.; Uibu, M.; Kirsimae, K.
Publication:Oil Shale
Date:Dec 1, 2005
Words:4405
Previous Article:Combustion of Estonian oil shale in fluidized bed boilers, heating value of fuel, boiler efficiency and C[O.sub.2] emissions.
Next Article:Sulphation and carbonization of oil shale CFBC ashes in heterogeneous systems.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters