Printer Friendly

Characterisation of the hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite from the weathering of illite in Jiujiang red earth sediments.

Introduction

The crystal-chemical properties of clay minerals are closely related to the physicochemical conditions prevailing when they form in soils and weathered zones. The degree of alteration of pre-existing clay minerals and the composition of the neo-formed clay mineral products reflect local climate and weathering (Banfield et al. 1999; Sheldon and Tabor 2009). Accordingly, clay mineralogy can be used as a proxy to characterise the evolution of the local environmental conditions in response to global climatic changes (Frouin et al. 2013). Vermiculite is most often a pedogenic clay mineral that can be formed by the transformation on weathering of illite or chlorite (Banfield and Murakami 1998; Bronger et al. 1998). This transformation is completed by the release of potassium (K) from the interlayer of illite or of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) from that of chlorite during the weathering process (Aspandiar and Eggleton 2002; Bonifacio et al. 2009). Vermiculite may alter into hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite (HIV) by aluminium (Al)-intercalation in the interlayer in moderately acidic conditions (Rich 1968), and finally into smectite and/or kaolinite with increasing level of weathering (Vicente et al. 1997).

Hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite has been commonly identified in soils (Toksoy-Koksal et al. 2001; Bertrand et al. 2008; Shaw et al. 2010; Huang et al. 2011; Mavris et al. 2011; Darunsontaya et al. 2012; Falsone et al. 2012; Pal et al. 2012a). It is formed by the adsorption of polymers of hydroxyl-Al ions into the interlayer region of vermiculite in moderately acidic soils. The incorporation of Al hydroxide polymers in the interlayer region modifies the expansion or the collapse of the layers (Meunier 2007). Generally, HIV tends to show a 1,4-nm peak. The 1.4-nm peak in HIV is often overlapped by peaks of other clay minerals such as vermiculite, chlorite, illite-smectite mixed clays and hydroxy-interlayered smectite (HIS) in X-ray diffraction, which makes the identification of HIV difficult in samples of polymineralic composition (Y in et al. 2012). Since soil properties are closely related to the clay assemblage, the presence of HIV will strongly influence not only the cation exchange capacity (CEC) but also physical properties such as swelling and dispersive behaviour (Stem et al. 1991; Churchman et al. 1994; Shaw et al. 2010).

Unlike the loess-palaeosol sequence in north-western China, Quaternary sediments distributed in south China are mainly red earth sediments. Both red earth sediments and loess sediments have been considered the consequence of increasing aridity of the dust area in the north, coupled with intensified East Asia winter monsoon activity in association with uplift of the Tibet plateau (Liu 1985; Yang et al. 1991; Xiong et al. 2002). Previous studies of red earth sediments in the middle to lower Yangtze have focused on characteristics of grain size (Li et al. 1997; Li et al. 2001; Hu et al. 2005), chemical weathering (Xiong et al. 2000; Yang et al. 2004; Chen et al. 2008; Hong et al. 2010a), and environmental magnetism (Zhao and Yang 1995; Hu et al. 2003; Qiao et al. 2003; Zhang et al. 2007; Hu et al. 2009), with rare studies on the clay mineralogy of the sediments, especially on the mineralogy of HIV clays. The occurrence, thermal dehydration, genesis and climatic significance of HIV clays were investigated by previous researchers (Harris et al. 19926; Lin et al. 2002; Yin et al. 2013). However, X-ray diffraction analysis has been the only method of identification of HIV in most studies, and different XRD behaviours were shown by HIV clays from different regions (Huang et al. 2011; Pal et al. 2012a). Hence, systematic analyses are needed in order to obtain more information on the mineralogy of HIV clays.

Hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite clays occur abundantly in the upper portion of Jiujiang red earth sediments of south China, where the intercalated Al of HIV was considered to be present as hydroxy-Al hydroxides (Yin et al. 2013). The abundance of HIV in these soils provides an opportunity for understanding this clay species. The goal of this study was to characterise the mineralogy of HIV in Jiujiang red earth sediments using systematic analyses, with the aim of improving our understanding on its interlayer components and its formation process.

Materials and methods

Materials

The Jiujiang section (116[degrees]00'13.7"E, 29[degrees]42'40.27'N) is one of the typical red earth sections in the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River (Fig. 1). The section is 14 m thick, and is lithologically divided into three units. The upper unit (0-3.2 m) is pale yellow to yellow-brown and contains minor amounts of Fe-Mn films and Mn nodules. The middle unit (3.2-6.9 m) is reddish to red-brown, containing sporadically pale yellow to grey spots and small short veins. The lower unit is red-brown to dark-brown, characterised by well-developed, white net-like veins that are more common and are relatively longer and wider than those in the middle unit. The middle and lower units have experienced much stronger weathering than the upper one (Hao et al. 2010).

Optical stimulated luminescence dating of the sample at 0.8 m depth was 40.8 ([+ or -]4.9) ka, and the electron spin resonance dating of samples at depths of 6.3, 8.1, 10.9 and 13.8 m was 393 ([+ or -] 45), 452 (+ or -] 43), 592 ([+ or -] 77) and 685 ([+ or -] 65) ka, respectively. The oldest age of 685 ([+ or -] 65) ka for the lowest red earth layer of the section indicates that the red earth formed after the mid-Pleistocene (Hong et al. 2013). HIV occurs abundantly in the upper portion, in association with illite and kaolinite (Yin et al. 2013). A representative clay sample was collected from the upper unit (~0.9 m depth) for investigation of the mineralogy of the HIV.

X-Ray diffraction

The bulk sample was air-dried and then crushed manually to powder using an agate pestle and mortar. This powder sample was pre-treated with 30% [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] overnight to remove organic materials. The clay mineral fraction (<2 [micro]m) was obtained by sedimentation and centrifugation (Brown and Brindley 1980). The clay mineral phase was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the oriented air-dried, Mg-saturated, glycol-solvated and K-saturated samples. The Mg-saturated and K-saturated samples were obtained by applying Mg[Cl.sub.2] and KC1 solutions to air-dried mounts (Harris and White 2008). Expansion properties of the sample were determined by [Mg.sup.2+] saturation and glycol solvation (Velde and Meunier 2008). The Mgsaturated and glycol-solvated sample was prepared by treating the Mg-saturated sample in a sealed container with ethylene glycol at 70[degrees]C for 3 h (Hong et al. 2007). The air-dried K-saturated sample was analysed at 25C and then heated at 110[degrees]C, 450[degrees]C and 600[degrees]C, respectively. The XRD patterns of the clay samples were collected using a PANalytical (Almelo, The Netherlands) X'Pert PRO DY2198 diffractometer at the Laboratory of Geological Process and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), which was operated at 40 kV and 40 mA with Ni-filtered Cu K[alpha] radiation. It was measured from 3[degrees] to 30[degrees]2[theta] at a scan rate of 4[degrees]2[theta] [min.sup.-1] and a step size of 0.02[degrees]2[theta].

Fourier-transform infrared analysis

Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed on KBr disks prepared by mixing 0.5 mg sample with 200 mg KBr and pressing at 10 kg [cm.sup.-2] (Madejova and Komadel 2001). The KBr disks were heated in a furnace overnight at 105[degrees]C to minimise the water adsorbed on KBr and the clay sample. The mid-infrared spectra (MIR) of the air-dried and heated samples (samples heated at 400[degrees]C and 600[degrees]C, respectively) were recorded on a Bruker (Billerica, MA, USA) Vertex 80 V Fourier-transform spectrometer, equipped with KBr beam splitter, and DTGS KBr detector for MIR measurements. For each sample, 64 scans in the 4000-3000 [cm.sup.-1] wavenumber ranges were recorded with a resolution of 4 [cm.sup.-1].

Thermal analysis

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was carried out on a NETZSCH (Selb, Germany) STA-409 thermal analyser. The endothermic and exothermic effects were recorded on the DSC curve and were used to determine the dehydroxylation temperatures of different clay species. About 10 mg of the ground clay sample was added to a corundum crucible for thermal analysis, and heated in air from ambient temperature to 1000C with a temperature gradient of 10[degrees]C [min.sup.-1].

Chemical extraction

The clay sample was treated with 1/3 m sodium citrate in order to extract hydroxy-Al interlayered polycations of clay minerals (Tamura 1958). The clay fraction was treated with sodium citrate solution (30 mg clay + 25mL of 1/3 m sodium citrate) at 80[degrees]C for 12 h in a sealed polyethylene tube. The extracted solution was then separated from the clay fraction residue by centrifuging for 30 min, and the supernatant was transferred into a 10mL sealed polyethylene tube. The concentrations of Al and/or Fe in the supernatant were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The clay fraction residue was made into the oriented, air-dried and glycol-solvated samples for XRD measurement of the Na-saturated sample.

Results

X-Ray diffraction

The XRD patterns of the clay samples are shown in Fig. 2a. The air-dried sample exhibited a distinct 1.41-nm peak, which did not change after [Mg.sup.2+] saturation and glycol solvation. However, the intensity of the 1.41-nm peak decreased significantly after K+ saturation and drying at 25[degrees]C, indicating presence of vermiculite (Meunier 2007). The collapse of 1.41 nm to 1.0 nm and the increasing intensity of the 0.498-nm peak after [K.sup.+] saturation at 25[degrees]C indicated the dioctahedral nature of vermiculite (Brown and Brindley 1980). When the K-saturated sample was heated to 110[degrees]C, the 1.41-nm peak shifted to 1.38 nm, and it collapsed to 1.0 nm in association with the presence of a weak 1.25 nm peak when further heated to 450[degrees]C. On heating to 600[degrees]C, the spacing changed from 1.25 nm to 1.20 nm, with a notable increase in its intensity. Sequential heat treatment from 110C to 600C of the K-saturated samples resulted in partial collapse of the clay mineral, as inferred from the 001 spacing changing from 1.41 nm to 1.20 nm, which indicated the loss of hydroxy-interlayered materials in the interlayer region of clay minerals (Barnhisel and Bertsch 1989; Chiang et al. 1999). The collapsing behaviours on sequential heat treatments of K-saturated samples were consistent with those of HIV reported by Harris et al. (1992a). The 1.41-nm peak of the air-dried sample in the Jiujiang red earth sediments comprised overlapping peaks of both HIV and vermiculite. Illite--vermiculite or illite--HIV interstratified clays were characterised by the basal XRD peaks between 1.0 nm and 1.4 nm for an air-dried sample (Vanderaveroet et al. 2000). The XRD patterns for the Mg-saturated and K-saturated samples showed obvious peaks at 0.997, 0.498, and 0.333 nm; these showed no shift on the above treatments, indicating the presence of illite in the sample. Kaolinite was identified from its 0.715-nm and 0.357-nm peaks on Mg-saturated and K-saturated samples. Broad 0.715-nm peaks may indicate disorder in the stacking sequence of the kaolinite or the presence of randomly interstratified kaolinite-smectite (Brindley 1980; Churchman et al. 1994). Both the 0.715-nm and 0.357-nm peaks disappeared after heating to 600[degrees]C, indicating that the structure of kaolinite was destroyed at high temperature. The 1.4-nm peak disappeared after heating the K-saturated sample at 600[degrees]C, which indicated that there was no chlorite in the sample (Yeo et al. 1999).

FTIR analysis

Three main absorption bands were observed on the FTIR spectra in the 3700-3000 [cm.sup.-1] region of the air-dried sample. The strongest absorption band at ~3621 [cm.sup.-1] and the weaker one at -3697 [cm.sup.-1] were assigned to OH-stretching in the octahedral sheet of aluminous minerals such as illite or kaolinite (Farmer 1974). The broad bands at -3485 [cm.sup.-1] and ~3415 [cm.sup.-1] might be attributed to OH-stretching vibrations of hydroxides in the interlayer sheets of HIV, in good agreement with those observed for hydroxyl-Al vermiculite by Ahlrichs (1968). When the air-dried sample was heated to 400[degrees]C, the spectra showed peaks quite similar to the air-dried sample. However, on heating to 600[degrees]C, the adsorption band at ~3697 [cm.sup.-1] disappeared, which resulted from the decomposition of kaolinite. The intensity of the adsorption band at ~3621 [cm.sup.-1] was reduced significantly compared with the adsorption bands between ~3400 [cm.sup.-1] and ~3500 [cm.sup.-1] as the temperature increased, indicating the decrease in kaolinite and vermiculite layers. However, the adsorption bands at -3485 [cm.sup.-1] and ~3415 [cm.sup.-1] were well preserved, suggesting that parts of hydroxides still existed intact in the interlayer of vermiculite. When heating to 600[degrees]C, the relatively increased intensity of ~3485 [cm.sup.-1] and ~3415 [cm.sup.-1] peaks was associated with the collapse of vermiculite layers and decomposition of kaolinite (Fig. 3).

Thermal analysis

The thermal behaviour of the clay fraction is shown in Fig. 4. The dehydration process of the clay minerals was characterised by a distinct endothermic effect on heating to 100[degrees]C, and the dehydroxylation was characterised by an endothermic effect between 400[degrees]C and 450[degrees]C. The endothermic effects between 60[degrees]C and 80[degrees]C were assigned to adsorbed water over the surface (Egli et al. 2007) or water in the interlayer of clay minerals (Reichenbach and Beyer 1994). The endothermic dehydroxylation effects between 400[degrees]C and 450[degrees]C were attributed to the dehydroxylation of HIV (Harris et al. 19926). However, dehydroxylation of HIV could not be differentiated from that of kaolinite in this temperature range. The obvious exothermic effects at ~768[degrees]C suggested the formation of new phase (Fig. 4).

Chemical extraction

Measurable Al, Mg, Ca, Fe and K contents were determined in the sodium citrate extracts using 1CP-AES. The amount of Al released was 0.19 cmol/kg, and that of Fe was 0.003 cmol/kg. However, no Mg, Ca and K. were detected in the extract. Far more Al than Fe was extracted, as indicated by the low Fe : Al ratio. No Si was detected in the extracted solution, suggesting that most of Al and Fe came from the interlayer region of clay minerals. The absence of Mg, Ca and K in the extract indicated that those simple cations could not be exchanged by Na within the interlayer of illite, vermiculite and HIV. When saturated with sodium citrate, no obvious change in peaks was observed in the XRD patterns compared with those of the air-dried sample. When solvated with glycol and [Na.sup.+], the 1.41-nm peak showed no shift in the XRD patterns (Fig. 2b), indicating that the amount of Al and/or Fe removed by sodium citrate did not change the expandability of 1,4-nm clay minerals in the Jiujiang red earth sediments.

Discussion

The 1,4-nm clay species in soils

Although structurally hydroxy-interlayered minerals (HIMS) are rather like chlorites, the main difference is that their interlayer space is not completely filled by the interlayer hydroxide polymers. HIMS all have the same (001) reflection centred at ~1.4 nm, and the different behaviours of these under glycol solvation, [K.sup.+]-saturation and heat treatment are attributed to different types and proportions of Al ion complexes in their interlayer region (Mcunier 2007; Velde and Meunier 2008). When there is a higher proportion of Al-polymers in the interlayer region, the expanded peak near 1.4 nm can withstand higher temperatures. Bamhisel and Bertsch (1989) characterise an HIM that retains its ~1.4nm peak upon heating at 500[degrees]C as a pedogenic chlorite, whereas Velde and Meunier (2008) describe it as a dioctahedral aluminous soil chlorite. Furthermore, interlayered Al-polymers of HIMs with a high proportion of these interlayers cannot be exchanged by [K.sup.+] and other alkali ions, resulting in lower CECs in soils that are rich in these minerals (Meunier 2007; Velde and Meunier 2008). HIV and HIS can be considered to form by adsorption and polymerisation of Al-polymers in the interlayer region of vermiculite and smectite, respectively (Meunier 2007). The basal spacings of HIMs and hydrated forms of vermiculite and smectite range from 1.4 nm to 1.5 nm. HIV does not show any change in its basal spacing upon [K.sup.+]-saturation at 25[degrees]C (Bamhisel and Bertsch 1989; Harris et al. 1992a, 19926), but its basal spacing does change upon heating >300[degrees]C (Douglas 1989). The progressive but incomplete collapse of the (001) reflection of HIV towards 1.0 nm after progressive heating has been reported in many previous investigations (Bamhisel and Bertsch 1989; Harris et al. 1992a, 19926; Lin et al. 2002). For example, Harris et al. (1992a, 19926) found that the basal spacing of an HIV from Florida collapsed to 1.38 nm and 1.15nm on heating to 300[degrees]C and 550[degrees]C, respectively; Lin et al. (2002) and Shaw el al. (2010) found similar effects on heating specimens of HIV. By contrast, Pal et al. (2012b) found that a hydroxy-interlayered mineral showed a peak at 1.38-1.36 nm instead of 1.42nm (true chlorite) after the [K.sup.+]-saturated sample was heated at 550[degrees]C, suggesting that the extent of interlayering was quite high. The authors characterised this particular instance of HIV as a 'pseudo chlorite', which they identified with a pedogenic chlorite. The basal spacing of HIS also collapses towards 1.0 nm upon [K.sup.+]-saturation and progressive heating (Meunier 2007; Velde and Meunier 2008), and although it may expand slightly upon [Mg.sup.2+]-saturation and glycol solvation, its complete expansion to 1.7 nm is generally inhibited (Meunier 2007; Velde and Meunier 2008). Lacking in Al-polymers in the interlayer region, vermiculite and smectite display a greater expandability and contractibility than their hydroxy-interlayered counterparts. Vermiculite does not expand beyond -1.6 nm after [Mg.sup.2+]-saturation and glycol solvation and contracts to close to 1.0 nm in the K-saturated and air-dried state, whereas smectite is expected to expand to 1.7 nm in the glycol-solvated state (Meunier 2007; Hong et al. 20106; Velde and Wang et al. 2011) and collapse to 1.0 nm after [K.sup.+] saturation and/or heat treatment >300[degrees]C (Meunier 2007; Furquim et al. 2008; Perez-Maqueda et al. 2012). Hence, the combination of [K.sup.+] saturation, glycol solvation and heat treatment is an extremely effective way to distinguish HIV from HIS, true chlorite, vermiculite and smectite.

Interlayer components of the HIV

The XRD results indicated that the clay assemblages of the Jiujiang sediments are mainly illite, kaolinite, vermiculite and HIV, with minor illite--vermiculite interstratified minerals and trace interstratified kaolinite minerals. Partial collapse of the 001 spacing from 1.41 nm to 1.20 nm with increasing temperature indicated hydroxy-interlayered materials in the interlayer region of the HIM present in these sediments. No change in the 1,4-nm reflection on [Mg.sup.2+] saturation and glycol solvation identifies vermiculite, not smectite, in its basic layers (Fig. 2a); hence, its characterisation as HIV, rather than HIS.

The FTIR spectra of the clay fractions also indicated the clay assemblage of illite, kaolinite and vermiculitic minerals (including HIV), consistent with the results of XRD. HIV clay was characterised by adsorption bands at ~3485 [cm.sup.-1] and ~3415 [cm.sup.-1], which did not change on heating. The FTIR spectra also suggested that kaolinite was completely destroyed after heating to 600[degrees]C, whereas illite was still present, and the broad peak at ~3621 [cm.sup.-1] suggested that illite crystallinity decreased on heating to 600[degrees]C, in good agreement with the results of XRD analysis (Fig. 3).

Thermal behaviour of the clay fractions was characterised by the DSC results (Fig. 4). Dehydroxylation of the HIV occurred at >400[degrees]C, in a good agreement with results reported by Harris et al. (19926). Change of 001 spacing front 1.41 nm to 1.25nm on heating to 450[degrees]C also indicated dehydroxylation of HIV clay species (Fig. 2a), consistent with the DSC results. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite usually occurs at >500[degrees]C (Guggenheim 2001), and the relatively lower dehydroxylation temperature of kaolinite in Jiujiang soil probably suggests that kaolinite was interlaycred, possibly with vermiculite (Wada and Kakuto 1983).

The ICP-AES result showed that the components extracted by sodium citrate solution included Al and Fe. Generally, Fe occurs as a simple exchangeable ion in the interlayer of clay minerals, whereas the intercalated Al is probably present as hydroxy-Al hydroxides in the interlayer of clay minerals such as smectite and vermiculite from acid soils. The XRD results suggested that partial extraction of Al and Fe from the interlayer by sodium citrate exerted no obvious influence on the intensity of the 1.4-nm reflection (Fig. 2b). In addition, the removal of hydroxy-Al from HIV did not change its expandability after glycol solvation (Fig. 2b). Na+ saturation did not remove any other simple ions except of Fe from the interlayer region of vermiculite. More collapse of the 1.4-nm reflection occurred with [K.sup.+] saturation than with [Na.sup.+] saturation, consistent with more Al exchanged by KCl solution relative to that by sodium citrate solution (Yin et al. 2013). The collapse was attributed to the exchange of the interlayer ions by [K.sup.+], as suggested by the presence of Al, Mg, and Ca in KCl-extracted solution. The extracted Al, Mg, and Ca by KCl solution measured 2.3, 4.2 and 4.3 emol [kg.sup.-1]. respectively.

Therefore, HIV of the Jiujiang red earth sediments is a dioctahedral, Al-rich mineral in which the negative layer charge is compensated by Al polymers exchanged into the interlayer region (Kirkland and Hajek 1972). Hydroxy intercalation may occur following the formation of vermiculite or after further weathering to smectite, and hydroxy-Al cations may be removed by complex formation and chelation with organic matter. The presence of HIV was attributable to conditions favourable for hydroxy interlayer fonnation (Pai et al 2007). Meunier (2007) thought that Al ions at first might occur as monomers with a 6-fold coordination state [Al[(OH).sub.2]. [[([H.sub.2]0).sub.4]].sup.+] in place of alkali cations inside the interlayer zone of natural HIV, and Al polymers were formed by the polymerisation reactions among the Al monomers. Finally, discontinuous, gibbsite-like structures were built in the interlayer of HIV. However, just how gibbsite-like structures are organised inside the interlayer zones of HIV has yet to be determined (Meunier 2007). More advanced analyses are urgently needed in order to solve this problem.

Conclusions

Clay minerals in the Jiujiang red earth sediments were dominated by illite, kaolinite, vermiculite and HIV, with minor illite vermiculite or illite--HIV interstratified minerals and trace interstratified kaolinite minerals. HIV was characterised by partial collapse of a 1.4-nm XRD peak on heating to 600[degrees]C, which indicated the loss of hydroxy-interlayered materials in the interlayer region of HIV. HIV exhibited two FTIR adsorption bands at ~3485 [cm.sup.-1] and ~3415 [cm.sup.-1], respectively, attributed to OH-stretching vibrations of hydroxides in the interlayer sheets of HIV, and these two bands did not change on heating. Dehydroxylation of hydroxides in the interlayer region of HIV occurred at 400[degrees]C, and further dehydroxylation took place at ~600[degrees]C. Exchangeable cations in HIV clays were composed of mainly Al and minor Fe. These indicated that Al was probably present as hydroxy-Al hydroxides, which partially occupied the interlayer region of HIV.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1071/SR14014

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41272053 and 41072030), the Specialised Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20110145110001) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (CUGL140805). The authors wish to thank Y. S. Gu for the sample preparation, Dr L. Y. Tie for the ICP-AES analyses, Dr W. Y. Cheng for the DSC analyses, and J. S. Yu for the XRD analyses, and especially to Professor D. B. Singh, the Editor, and the anonymous reviewers for their insightful reviews, valuable comments and suggestions.

Received 16 January 2013, accepted 8 April 2014, published online 14 August 2014

References

Ahlrichs JL (1968) Hydroxyl stretching frequencies of synthetic Ni-, AI-, and Mg-hydroxy interlayers in expanding clays. Clays and Clay Minerals 16, 63-71. doi:10.1346/CCMN.1968.0160108

Aspandiar MF, Eggleton RA (2002) Weathering of chlorite: I. Reactions and products in microsystems controlled by the primary mineral. Clays and Clay Minerals 50, 685-698. doi:l 0.1346/000986002762090227

Banfield JF, Murakami T (1998) Atomic-resolution transmission electron microscope evidence for the mechanism by which chlorite weathers to 1 : 1 semi-regular chlorite-vermiculite. The American Mineralogist 83, 348-357.

Banfield JF, Barker WW, Welch SA, Taunton A (1999) Biological impact on mineral dissolution: application of the lichen model to understanding mineral weathering in the rhizosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 3404-3411. doi: 10.1073/pnas.96.7.3404

Barnhisel RI, Bertsch PM (1989) Chlorites and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite and smectite. In 'Minerals in soil environments'. (Eds JB Dixon, SB Weed) pp. 728-788. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI, USA)

Bertrand S, Charlet F, Charlier B, Renson V, Fagel N (2008) Climate variability of southern Chile since the Last Glacial Maximum: a continuous sedimentological record from Lago Puyehue (40 S). Journal of Paleolimnology 39, 179-195. doi:10.1007/sl0933-007-9117-y

Bonifacio E, Falsone G, Simonov G, Sokolova T, Tolpeshta I (2009) Pedogenic processes and clay transformations in bisequal soils of the Southern Taiga zone. Geoderma 149, 66-75. doi:10.1016/j.gcoderma. 2008.11.022

Brindley GW (1980) Order-disorder in clay mineral structures. In 'Crystal structures of clay minerals and their X-ray identification'. (Eds GW Brindley, G Brown) pp. 125-196. (Mineralogical Society: London)

Bronger A, Winter R, Sedov S (1998) Weathering and clay mineral formation in two Holocene soils and in buried paleosols in Tadjikistan: towards a Quaternary paleoclimatic record in Central Asia. Catena 34, 19-34. doi: 10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00079-4

Brown G, Brindley G W (1980) X-ray diffraction procedures for clay mineral identification. In 'Crystal structures of clay minerals and their X-ray identification'. (Eds GW Brindley, G Brown) pp. 305-359. (Mineralogical Society: London)

Chen Y, Li X, Han Z, Yang S, Wang Y, Yang D (2008) Chemical weathering intensity and element migration features of the Xiashu loess profile in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. Journal of Geographical Sciences 18, 341-352. doi: 10.1007/s 1 1442-008-0341-9

Chiang HC, Wang MK, Houng KH, White N, Dixon J (1999) Mineralogy of B horizons in alpine forest soils of Taiwan. Soil Science 164, 111-122. doi: 10.1097/00010694-199902000-00005

Churchman GJ, Slade PG, Self PG, Janik LJ (1994) Nature of interstratified kaolin-smectites in some Australian soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 805-822. doi:10.1071/SR9940805

Darunsontaya T, Suddhiprakam A, Kheoruenromne l, Prakongkep N, Gilkes RJ (2012) The forms and availability to plants of soil potassium as related to mineralogy for upland Oxisols and Ultisols from Thailand. Geoderma 170, 11-24. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2011. 10.002

Douglas LA (1989) Vermiculites. In 'Minerals in soil environments'. 2nd edn (Eds JB Dixon, SB Weed) pp. 635-674. (Soil Science Society of America: Madison, WI, USA)

Egli M, Mirabella A, Sartori G, Giaccai D, Zanelli R, Plotze M (2007) Effect of slope aspect on transformation of clay minerals in Alpine soils. Clay Minerals 42, 373-398. doi:10.1180/claymin.2007.042.3.09

Falsone G, Celi L, Caimi A, Simonov G, Bonifacio E (2012) The effect of clear cutting on podzolisation and soil carbon dynamics in boreal forests (Middle Taiga zone, Russia). Geoderma 177-178, 27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.01.036

Farmer VC (1974) 'The infrared spectra of minerals.' (Mineralogical Society: London)

Frouin M, Ploquin F, Soressi M, Rendu W, Macchiarelli R, El Albani A, Meunier A (2013) Clay minerals of late Pleistocene sites (Jonzac and Les Cottes, SW France): applications of X-ray Diffraction analyses to local paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Quaternary International 302, 184-198. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2012.12.011

Furquim SAC, Graham RC, Barbiero L, de QueirozNeto JP, Valles V (2008) Mineralogy and genesis of smectites in an alkaline-saline environment of Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Clays and Clay Minerals 56, 579-595. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2008.0560511

Guggenheim S (2001) Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: thermal analysis. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 433-443. doi: 10.1346/CCMN .2001.0490509

Hao Q, Guo Z, Qiao Y, Xu B, Oldfield F (2010) Geochemical evidence for the provenance of middle Pleistocene loess deposits in southern China. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 3317-3326. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev. 2010.08.004

Harris W, White GN (2008) X-ray diffraction techniques for soil mineral identification. In 'Methods of soil analysis. Part 5. Mineralogical methods'. (Eds AL Ulery, R Drees) (Soil Science Society of America Book Series: Madison, WI, USA)

Harris WG, Morrone AA, Coleman SE (1992a) Occluded mica in hydroxyinter-layered vermiculite grains from a highly-weathered soil. Clays and Clay Minerals 40, 32-39. doi:10.1346/CCMN.1992.0400105

Harris WG, Hollien KA, Bates SR, Acree WA (19926) Dehydration of hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite as a function of time and temperature. Clays and Clay Minerals 40, 335-340. doi:10.1346/CCMN.1992. 0400314

Hong H, Li Z, Xue H, Zhu Y, Zhang K, Xiang S (2007) Oligocene clay mineralogy of the Linxia Basin: evidence of Paleoclimatic evolution subsequent to the initial-stage uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Clays and Clay Minerals 55, 491-503. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2007.0550504

Hong H, Gu Y, Li R, Zhang K, Li Z (2010a) Clay mineralogy and geochemistry and their palaeoclimatic interpretation of the Pleistocene deposits in the Xuancheng section, southern China. Journal of Quaternary Science 25, 662-674. doi: 10.1002/jqs. 1340

Hong H, Zhang K, Li Z (20106) Climatic and tectonic uplift evolution since ~7 Ma in Gyirong basin, southwestern Tibet plateau: clay mineral evidence. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 1305-1315. doi: 10.1007/s00531-009-0457-x

Hong H, Gu Y, Yin K, Wang C, Li Z (2013) Clay record of climate change since the mid-Pleistocene in Jiujiang, south China. Boreas 42, 173-183. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2012.00276.x

Hu X, Cheng T. Wu H (2003) Do multiple cycles of aeolian deposit-pedogenesis exist in the reticulate red clay sections in southern China? Chinese Science Bulletin 48, 1251-1258. doi: 10.1007/BF03183947

Hu X, Zhu Y, Shen M (2005) Grain-size evidence for multiple origins of the reticulate red clay in southern China. Chinese Science Bulletin 50, 910-918. doi: 10.1360/04wd0252

Hu XF, Wei J, Xu LF, Zhang GL, Zhang WG (2009) Magnetic susceptibility of the Quaternary Red Clay in subtropical China and its paleoenvironmental implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 279, 216-232. doi:I0.1016/j.palaeo.2009.05.016

Huang C, Zhao W, Liu F, Tan W, Koopal LK (2011) Environmental significance of mineral weathering and pedogenesis of loess on the southernmost Loess Plateau, China. Geoderma 163, 219-226. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.04.018

Kirkland DL, Hajek BF (1972) Formula derivation of Al-interlayered vermiculite in selected soil clays. Soil Science 114, 317-322. doi: 10.1097/00010694-197210000-00010

Li XS, Yang DY, Lu HY, Han HY (1997) The grain-size features of Quaternary aeolian-dust deposition sequence in south Anhui and their significance. Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology 17, 73-87. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Li X, Yang D, Lu H (2001) Grain-size features and genesis of the Xiashu loess in Zhenjiang. Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology 21, 25-32. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Lin CW, Hseu ZY, Chen ZS (2002) Clay mineralogy of Spodosols with high clay contents in the subalpine forests of Taiwan. Clays and Clay Minerals 50, 726-735. doi:10.1346/000986002762090254

Liu T (1985) 'Loess and the environment.' (China Ocean Press: Beijing) [in Chinese]

Madejova J, Komadel P (2001) Baseline studies of the clay minerals society source clays: infrared methods. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 410-432. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2001.0490508

Mavris C, Plotze M, Mirabella A, Giaccai D, Valboa G, Egli M (2011) Clay mineral evolution along a soil chronosequence in an Alpine proglacial area. Geoderma 165, 106-117. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma. 2011.07.010

Meunier A (2007) Soil hydroxy-interlayered minerals: a re-interpretation of their crystallochemical properties. Clays and Clay Minerals 55, 380-388. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2007.0550406

Pai CW, Wang MK, Chiu CY (2007) Clay mineralogical characterization of a toposequence of perhumid subalpine forest soils in northeastern Taiwan. Geoderma 138, 177-184. doi:!0.1016/j.geoderma.2006. 11.010

Pal DK, Wani SP, Sahrawat KL (2012a) Vertisols of tropical Indian environments: Pedology and edaphology. Geoderma 189-190, 28-19. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.04.021

Pal DK, Bhattacharyya T. Sinha R, Srivastava P, Dasgupta AS, Chandran P, Ray SK, Nimje A (2012b) Clay minerals record from Late Quaternary drill cores of the Ganga Plains and their implications for provenance and climate change in the Himalayan foreland. Palaeogeographv, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 356-357, 27-37. doi:10.1016/ j.palaeo.2011.05.009

Perez-Maqueda LA, Maqueda C, Perez-Rodriguez JL, Subrt J, Cemy Z, Balek V (2012) Thermal behaviour of ground and unground acid leached vermiculite. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 107, 431-438. doi:10.1007/sl0973-011-1480-2

Qiao Y, Guo Z, Hao Q, Wu W, Jiang W, Yuan B, Zhang Z, Wei J, Zhao H (2003) Loess-soil sequences in southern Anhui Province: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimatic significance. Chinese Science Bulletin 48, 2088-2093. doi:10.1360/03wd0183

Reichenbach HGV, Beyer J (1994) Dehydration and rehydration of vermiculites: l. Phlogopitic Mg-vermiculite. Clay Minerals 29, 327-340. doi: 10.1180/claymin. 1994.029.3.04

Rich CI (1968) Hydroxy interlayers in expansible layer silicates. Clays and Clay Minerals 16, 15-30. doi:10.1346/CCMN.1968.0160104

Shaw JN, Hajek BF, Beck JM (2010) Highly weathered mineralogy of select soils from Southeastern US Coastal Plain and Piedmont landscapes. Geoderma 154, 447 456. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2009. 01.019

Sheldon ND, Tabor NJ (2009) Quantitative paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction using paleosols. Earth-Science Reviews 95, 1-52. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.03.004

Stem R, Ben-Hur M, Shainberg I (1991) Clay mineralogy effect on rain infiltration, seal formation and soil losses. Soil Science 152, 455-462. doi: 10.1097/00010694-199112000-00008

Tamura T (1958) Identification of clay minerals from acid soils. Journal of Soil Science 9, 141 147. doi: 10.1111 /j. 1365-2389.1958.tb01906.x

Toksoy-Koksal F, Turkmenoglu AG, Gonciioglu MC (2001) Vermiculitization of phlogopite in metagabbro, Central Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals 49, 81 91. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2001.0490107

Vanderaveroet P, Bout-Roumazeilles V, Fagel N, Chamley H, Deconinck JF (2000) Significance of random illite-vermiculite mixed layers in Pleistocene sediments of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Clay Minerals 35, 679-691. doi:10.1180/000985500547133

Velde B, Meunier A (2008) 'The origin of clay minerals in soils and weathered rocks.' (Springer-Verlag: New York, Berlin)

Vicente MA, Elsass F, Molina E, Robert M (1997) Palaeoweathering in slates from the Iberian Hercynian Massif (Spain); investigation by

TEM of clay mineral signatures. Clay Minerals 32, 435^)51. doi: 10.1180/claymin. 1997.032.3.06

Wada K, Kakuto Y (1983) Intergradient vermiculite-kaolin mineral in a Korean Ultisol. Clays and Clay Minerals 31, 183-190. doi: 10.1346/ CCMN. 1983.0310303

Wang CW, Hong HL, Song BW, Yin K, Li ZH, Zhang KX, Ji JL (2011) The early-Eocene climate optimum (EECO) event in the Qaidam basin, northwest China: clay evidence. Clay Minerals 46, 649-661. doi: 10.1180/claymin.2011.046.4.649

Xiong SF, Liu TS, Ding ZL (2000) The weathering sequence of the red earth over southern China. Journal of Mountain Science 18, 7-12. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Xiong S, Sun D, Ding Z (2002) Aeolian origin of the red earth in southeast China. Journal of Quaternary Science 17,181-191. doi:10.1002/jqs.663

Yang D, Han H, Zhou L, Fang Y (1991) Eolian deposit and environmental change of middle-late Pleistocene in Xuancheng, Anhui Province south of the lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Marine Geology and Quaternary Geology 11, 97-104. [in Chinese with English abstract]

Yang SY, Li CX, Yang DY, Li XS (2004) Chemical weathering of the loess deposits in the lower Changjiang Valley, China, and paleoclimatic implications. Quaternary International 117, 27-34. doi: 10.1016/ SI 040-6182(03)00113-7

Yeo SJ, Kim SJ, Bain DC (1999) Occurrence of fine chlorite (<0.2 |im) and its significance in the soils from the Ulsan area, Korea. Clay Minerals 34, 533-541. doi: 10.1180/000985599546424

Yin K, Hong H, Han W, Li R, Wu Y, Gao W, Jia J (2012) Mineralogy and genesis of mixed-layer clay minerals in the Jiujiang net-kike red soil. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis 32, 2765-2769.

Yin K, Hong H, Churchman GJ, Li R, Li Z, Wang C, Han W (2013) Hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite genesis in Jiujiang late-Pleistocene red earth sediments and significance to climate. Applied Clay Science 74, 20-27. doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2012.09.017

Zhang W, Yu L, Lu M, Zheng X, Shi Y (2007) Magnetic properties and geochemistry of the Xiashu Loess in the present subtropical area of China, and their implications for pedogenic intensity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 260, 86-97. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007. 05.018

Zhao Q, Yang H (1995) A preliminary study on red earth and changes of Quaternary environment in south China. Quaternary Sciences 15, 107-115.

Ke Yin (A,E), Hanlie Hong (A,B), Gordon Jock Churchman (C), Zhaohui, Li (D), Wen Han (A), and Chaowen Wang (A)

(A) Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China.

(B) Key Laboratory of Geobiology and Environmental Geology, the Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China.

(C) School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Campus, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

(D) Geosciences Department, University of Wisconsin--Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141-2000, USA.

(E) Corresponding author. Email: yinke1984@qq.com
COPYRIGHT 2014 CSIRO Publishing
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Yin, Ke; Hong, Hanlie; Churchman, Gordon Jock; Li, Zhaohui; Han, Wen; Wang, Chaowen
Publication:Soil Research
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Sep 1, 2014
Words:6360
Previous Article:Climate factors mediate soil respiration dynamics in Mediterranean agricultural environments: an empirical approach.
Next Article:Effects of temperature on soil net nitrogen mineralisation in two contrasting forests on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, China.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters