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Characiform fishes collected by Heiko Bleher on the road Sao Paulo-Corumba-Araguaia, December 2005.

Abstract

43 species, 28 preserved in alcohol (including 19 spp. photographed) and 15 species not preserved (some still in aquarium), all photographed.

From the upper basins of the rios Tiete, Parana, Paraguay, Tapajos, Xingu and Tocantins (the last three in the Serra do Roncador).

Zusammenfassung

Prasentiert werden 43 Arten, von denen 28 als Alkohol-praparat vorliegen (darunter 19 auf Fotos), sowie 15 nicht praparierte Arten (einige leben noch in Aquarien), die alle auf Fotos gezeigt werden.

Sie stammen aus den oberen Einzugsgebieten der Fliisse Tiete, Parana, Paraguay, Tapajos, Xingt1 und Tocantins (die drei letzteren befinden sich in der Serra do Roncador).

Resume

43 especes, 28 preservees dans l'alcool (comprenant 19 especes photographides) et 15 especes non preservees (cer-taines encore en aquarium), toutes photographiees.

En provenance des bassins superieurs des rios Tiete, Parana, Paraguay, Tapajos, XingLi et Tocantins (les trois derniers dans la Serra do Roncador).

Sommario

43 specie, 28 conservate in alcol (di cui 19 fotografate) e 15 non conservate (alcune ancora in acquario), tutte fotografate.

Dal bacino superiore del rii Tiete, Parana, Paraguay, Tapa-jos, Xingti e Tocantins (gli ultimi tre nella Serra do Ronca-dor).

CHARACIDAE

Bryconinae

Brycon juvenile (photo in situ).

ca. 8 cm total length (not preserved). Rio Paraguay basin, tributary of Rio Formosa near Pitangeiras, km 30 of the road Bonito to Miranda, Fazenda in a disturbed countryside H. Bleher 15.12.2005.

Tetragonopterinae

Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann 8c Kennedy, 1903) (no photo).

8 ex., largest 31 mm (poor condition), Station 5. Alto Parana basin, km 78 on the road Tres Lagoas to Campo Grande; Corrego da Lagoa, seemingly dry a few days ago, H. Bleher 13.12.2005. N. 134.

Depth 3.70 and head 3.75 in SL; dorsal at midbody; trunk scales 5/38/3', 12 predorsal, 14 around caudal peduncle; base of caudal covered with small scales extending onto the proximal 1/4 or 1/3 of the middle of the lobes, not along their border; anal fin iii,18-19, no hooklets observed; S03 entire, except a small "naked" triangle dorso-posteriorally; premaxilla with 4 tricuspid teeth in the outer row and 4 pentacuspid ones in the inner row, all teeth usually black, the cuspids long; maxilla short, just reaching level of anterior margin of eye, with one broad black tooth; mandible 4 pen-tacuspid followed by about 8 much smaller tricuspid teeth. A pale vertical humeral spot just posterior to opercle, the chromatophores not dilated, a black longitudinal narrow band up to the end of the middle caudal fin rays, broadened onto the caudal peduncle. Known from Paraguay and also from Upper Amazon (same species??).

Knodus sp. 1 aff moenkhausii (Eigenmann Kennedy, 1903) (Fig. 1 in situ).

5 ex., largest 42.7 mm SL, Station 15, Pantanal do Norte, Corrego do Bororo, into Rio Vermelho, near Poxoreu, on the road north of Rondonopolis (fast moving current), H. Bleher 18.12.2005.

Largest with depth 3.7 and head 4.12 in SL, smallest with depth up to 4.25; dorsal fin anterior to midbody; no pelvic spines; trunk scales 5 or 6/37-39/4, predorsal irregular but covering predor-sal line, about 12; 14 around caudal peduncle; only the base of caudal covered with scales (up to the proximal third or less); anal fin iii,19; head moderate in length, probably shorter than in most Knodus, but not very short as in K breviceps; snout slightly anterior to mandible in profile; maxilla reaching to vertical through pupil, with 2 teeth; premaxilla with an outer, weavy row of 5 tricuspid teeth, the last one very close to the maxilla, and an inner row of 4 pentacuspid ones, all the teeth quite heavy; mandible with 4 strong pentacuspid teeth in front, followed by smaller ones on sides; large suborbital developed below, touching the preopercular canal, not quite complete posteriorly; prominent black vertical humeral spot, an indistinct broad lateral band; no peduncular spot, but the middle caudal fin rays distinctly marked with black; eye gold; a photo in situ shows the fish blue or bluish, not iridescent.

In alcohol, this bluish form differs from the preceeding one by several characters, some of them rather subjective; the head is shorter, the dorsal fin more anterior, the caudal less scaled, the S03 less developed posteriorly, the teeth probably stronger, not black coloured, suggesting a different diet, the maxilla longer with one more tooth; the colour-pattern, through similar, is also different, but a photo of the fish from St. 4. was not available for comparison.

Knodus sp. 2 aff. moenkhausil (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903) (possibly photo Fig. 2, "Moen-khausia cf: phaeonota with bacteria from Station 16").

4 ex., largest 40.5 mm SL, Station 16, Rio das Mortes basin, km 52 after Primavera do Leste, near Reserva Indigena Sangradouro, H. Bleher 18.12.2005--(poor condition).

Largest with depth 3.35 or 3.4 and head 3.8 in SL; dorsal slightly anterior to midbody; no pelvic spines; pectoral and pelvic fins relatively short, not reaching anal fin; trunk scales 5 /38 + 2 on caudal/ 3; base of caudal fin covered with scales (up to the proximal third or less, not on the margin of the fin); anal fin iii,18; head moderate in length; snout slightly anterior to mandible in profile; maxilla reaching vertical between eye and pupil, with 2 teeth; premaxilla with an outer, weavy row of 4 tricuspid teeth, the last one very close to the maxilla, and an inner row of 4 pentacuspid ones with the concavity anterior; mandible with 4 pentacuspid teeth in front followed by 7 smaller ones on sides; large suborbital as in the form from Station 15, developed below, touching the preopercular canal, not quite complete posteriorly; iridescent, the eye gold; an indistinct humeral spot, an indistinct broad lateral band; a horizontally oval peduncular spot, the middle caudal fin rays distinctly marked with black; no live photo available.

This form is quite similar to the two preceeding ones, but the single large specimen available is a little deeper with a longer head.

Inc. gen. sp. aff Ceratobranchia (Hemi-bryconini?) (no photo).

1 ex., very small, Station 16, Rio das Mortes basin, km 52 after Primavera do Leste, near Reserva Indi-gena Sangradouro, H. Bleher 18.12.2005.

Elongate; LL complete, with 35 or more scales; anal fin rather long; large suborbital elongate, not completely developed; mouth inferior, with the teeth in two rows rather numerous, narrow, close together, the external row covering the internal one as in Ceratobranchia. The specimen is in poor condition, unidentifiable.

Astyanax (Astyanax) aff pedri (formerly "Deuterodon" pedri (Fig. 3 "Characid sp. 1", Station 16)).

8 ex., largest 40.8 mm SL, Station 16, Rio das Mortes basin, km 52 after Primavera do Leste, near Reserva Indigena Sangradouro, H. Bleher 18.12.2005--(poor condition) N. 1073.

Depth 2.9 and head 3.78 in SL (largest); resembling the following species of the genus or subgenus Jupiaba with similar morphometrics, Deuterodon-like teeth and flat breast, nevertheless without pelvic spines; dorsal fin slightly anterior to midbody; trunk scales 6/37/4', 10 in a regular pre-dorsal series, 14 around peduncle; anal fin iv,17; anterior part of head with the facies of a Deuterodon, the maxilla short, reaching to vertical through anterior margin of eye; premaxilla equally short, not horizontal; teeth black, multicuspid, 2 pentacuspids on the anterior premaxillary series, 5 broad teeth with up to 9 cusps in the inner one; maxilla with 2 narrower teeth, with up to 6 cusps; mandible with 8-9 progressively diminuishing teeth from anterior part to posterior part, the broadest with 9 cusps; large suborbital not touching the subopercular canal; a distinct, vertical humeral spot; a lozenge-shaped peduncular spot up to the tip of the middle caudal fin rays; back dark; a grey lateral band from dorsal fin to peduncular spot. A photo shot in situ shows a fish without brillant colours, except for a shiny spot just anterior to the humeral spot (rather indistinct in life) and a shiny lateral band visible mostly from dorsal fin to caudal peduncle.

A species difficult to identify in a difficult group where the generic differences (between Astyanax, Jupiaba, Deuterodon etc.) are minimal; the geo- graphically closest "Deuterodon" minor from Tapa-jos basin has an indistinct humeral spot and a longer anal fin; "Deuterodon" pedri from Minas Gerais seems closer morphologically, with the head shorter, and a few more premaxillary, maxillary and dentary, teeth.

Astyanax (Jupiaba) acanthogaster (no photo; resembling more or less the preceeding, but with pelvic spines).

7 ex., largest ca 41.0 mm SL, (Station 9, Rio Formosa near Rio Bonito, Alto Paraguay basin, 15.12.2005 on label N. 812.

Depth 2.8 and head 3.66 in SL (two largest specimens); preventral area flattened, with pelvic spines reaching to half pectoral fin length, under skin; trunk scales 7/38/5; anal fin iii,20; anterior part of head Deuterodon-like, with multicuspid teeth, but the snout not very elongate, shorter than eye diameter, equal to the maxilla in projection; maxilla reaching to vertical through anterior margin of eye; premaxilla 2/5, broadest tooth with up to 9 cusps; maxilla with 3 multicuspid teeth; mandible with 67 teeth, anteriormost with 7-9 cusps; a humeral spot, a longitudinal band from dorsal fin to end of middle caudal fin rays, enlarged on peduncle. No photo in situ.

Astyanax (Poecilurichthys) bimaculatus (L. 1754), (1 ex. Fig. 4, photo marked "Astyanax sp. 1" taken on the spot at Station 22).

2 ex., largest 66 mm SL, Station 22 (not preserved in situ but photographed, dead in aquarium): probably Rio Araguaia basin (near mouth of Rio das Mortes), second river on the road B242 from Sic) Felix to Alto Boa Vista, H. Bleher 19.12.2005. N. 236.

Depth 2.5 and depth 3.85 in SL; dorsal fin slightly anterior to midbody; predorsal series of scales regular for 3-4 scales just before dorsal, irregular on the anterior two-thirds, not covering the median line; trunk scales 7/39/5; anal fin iv,26; large suborbital not developed, separated from the preopercular canal; premaxilla with 5 tricuspid outer teeth and 5 pentacuspid inner ones, concave anteriorly; maxilla reaching to vertical through pupil, without teeth; mandible with 5 strong, anterior teeth followed by much smaller ones; humeral spot slightly horizontally oval with dorsal and ventral extension, followed by a faint, second spot; caudal fin pattern with a peduncular lozenge-shaped spot prolonged as a band onto the middle caudal fin rays up to their tips and extending anteriorly to beneath dorsal fin; scales of the dorsum and flanks black bordered, forming a net; the 3 photos shot in aquarium shows the anterior third of anal fin and the base of the caudal fin lobes rosy to dark red.

See also A. argyrimarginatus Garutti 1999 "Ara-garcas, Rio Araguaia"--id (group bimaculatus).

Astyanax (Poecilurichthys) asuncionensis or n. sp.??--(one photo in aquarium, fish coming from Station 11, road Bonito-Miranda km 62 (Fig. 5, fish from Station 11, on the road Bonito-Miranda km 62, Paraguay basin).

1 ex. male, 54.0 mm SL, Station 9, Rio Formosa near Rio Bonito, Alto Paraguay basin, H. Bleher 15.12.2005 (one photo in aquarium labelled A. cf bimaculatus (with another species, not preserved, Station 11, Alto Paraguay basin, tributary of Rio Salobro (?) a few km from Bodoquena, km 62 on the road Bonito to Miranda, H. Bleher 15.12.2005 (photo Astyanax sp. 1).

Depth 2.6 in SL; dorsal fin slightly anterior to midbody; predorsal series of scales regular for 3-4 scales just before dorsal fin, irregular rows on the anterior two-thirds, not covering the median line; trunk scales 7418)36/5'; anal fin iv,26; sexual hooks numerous; large suborbital not developed, separated from the preopercillnr canal; premaxilla with 5-6 tricuspid outer teeth and 5 pentacuspid inner ones; maxilla relatively short, reaching to vertical through anterior margin of eye, with one small tooth; mandible with 5 strong, anterior teeth followed by much smaller ones; upper profile rather pointed, lower lip developed into a flap owing to probable lack of oxygen; humeral spot almost round, not clearly horizontally oval as in "typical" A. bimaculatus, followed by a faint second spot; caudal pattern "typical" of the species; spots on scales as in A. paraguayensis (renamed A. asun-cionensis), very indistinct on the specimen in alcohol, but about 5 midlateral rows of spots in the photo (if it is the same species).

Discussion: the morplometrics of the single specimen (one more in aquarium) agree with the common form; however, the slightly different humeral colour-pattern, the high number of outer premaxillary teeth (5-6 cf usually 4) and chiefly the incompleteness of the lateral line making it technically a Hyphessobrycon, suggests that we are dealing with a distinct, possibly endemic, form. This will remain putative until more collections.

Ctenobrycon sp. (photo only) (Fig. 6), Station 13, Posada Albuquerque near Albuquerque, on the road Campo Grande to Corumba, H. Bleher 16.12.05.

Scales and anal fin rays not counted. Habitus of a Ctenoblycon (see comments); depth probably 2.352.45 in SL. Unpaired fins slightly rosy.

Comments: a few Tetragonopterinae close to Asiyanax share some derived characters (at least in part): body relatively deep and compressed, rhomboid, with the original of dorsal and anal fins at mid-body; scales cyclo-ctenoid, at least in adults in the preventral region, rather numerous, 9-13/4055/7-11; caudal fin naked; predorsum irregularly scaled or even naked as in Poecilurichthys; some or many interpolated scales below lateral line, possibly in all species, their extent depending on the species; this structure in C. alleni (the most derived in this respect) is described by Eigenmann (The American Characidae) in these terms: "the row of scales below the lateral line is dichotomously branched above the origin of the ventral, the main row being apparently deflected; other rows similarly branched; the rows of scales above the front of the anal are all oblique; from above the second third of the anal, there are two or three series of scales parallel with the lateral line"; anal fin long, usually 40-46 rays in total (range 36-49), beginning under the first dorsal fin ray(s), its border straight; mouth small with an almost vertical, short maxilla with 0-2 teeth; colour-pattern

quite common in the Tetragonopterinae, with usually one or two humeral spots and a caudal spot at the end of the peduncle or astride the peduncle and base of caudal fin. They form putatively a clade, possibly sister group of Astyanax s.1., from La Plata and Sao Francisco basins to Venezuela. This group includes the following species (in chronological order):

Tetragonopterus spllurus Valenciennes in Cuvier 8c Valenciennes, 1849 (Guianas).

Tetragonopterus hauxwellianus Cope, 1870 (Amazon basin).

Tetragonopterus multiradiatus Steindachner, 1876 (Tefe, Amazon basin), a junior synonym of the preceeding.

Tetragonopterus correntinus Holmberg, 1891 (Corrientes, Argentina).

Tetragonopterus erythropterus Holmberg, 1891 (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

Astyanax pellegrini Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 (Tetragonopterus multiradiatus Eigenmann & Kennedy, non Steindachner, 1876 (Rio Paraguay).

Astyanax alleni Eigenmann & McAtee, 1907 (rio Paraguay); redescribed by Britslci & al 1999 as a Ctenobrycon (possibly a geographical form of T hauxwellianus).

Psellogrammus kennedyi Eigenmann, 1908 (Rio Paraguay and Rio sao Francisco, according to Eigenmann in Amer. Char. and Britski & al, 1984). Redescribed by Britski & al 1999 as a Psellogrammus.

Ctenobrycon rhabdops Fowler, 1913 (Rio Madeira), a synonym of T hauxwellianus.

The genus available for those species is Cteno-brycon Eigenmann, 1908 (type species Tetra- gonopterus hauxwellianus Cope), synonym Apoda- styanax Fowler, 1911 (type species Tetragonopterus spilurus), possible synonym Psellogrammus Eigenmann, 1908 (type species Psellogrammus kennedyi Eigenmann). Psellogrammus differs from Ctenoby-con only in having an irregular lateral line, which can be complete or incomplete, and more often irregular ("stuttering" sensu Eigenmann).

According to the descriptions, mostly by Eigen-mann, the species differ in the following way:

Artificial key to Ctenobrycon

la. Predorsum scaled with irregular rows

lb. Predorsum naked except near base of dorsal fin.

2a. Lateral line complete (except in the Rio Paranahyba); caudal spot usually vertical, not very apparent; largest size 96 mm SL).

2b. Lateral line "stuttering" or incomplete (depth 2.16-2.60 and head 4.0-4.33 in SL; anal fin rays 40-46; trunk scales 10/40-46/8; a few interpolated scales over anal fin; caudal spot larger than in C. hauxwellianus, roundish; no red streak in front of anal fin; largest size ca 50 mm SL) C. kennedyi (common in Rio Paraguay basin, rare in Rio Sao Francisco basin).

3a. Depth 2.25-3.0 and head 4.25-4.50 in SL; a red streak in front of anal fin C. spilurus (abundant in certain places in the Guianas).

3b. Depth 2.0 in average and head 3.7-4.0 in SL; no red streak in front of anal C. hauxwellianus (common in Amazon, rare in Rio Parahyba).

4a. Lateral line 48-55.

4b. Lateral line 42-50.

5a. Depth 2.65 in SL; anal 45; lateral line 55; eye 0.66 in snout, 0.8-0.83 in interorbital; unpaired fins bright red C. erythropterus (Buenos Aires; rare).

5b. Depth 2 0-2.2 in SL; anal fin 40-45; lateral line 48-50; eye 1.0-1.1 in interorbital (2.75 in head); unpaired fms rosy; interpolated rows of scales beginning above origin of anal fin C. alleni (Rio Paraguay basin: Corumba, Asuncion, Rio Otuquis; rare).

6a. Depth 2.5 in SL; anal fin 45; trunk scales 8/47/7-8; eye 1.7 in interorbital, 3.7 in head. C correntinus (Corrientes, rare).

6b. Depth 2.5-2 8 in SL; anal fin 41; trunk scales 9-11/45-50; eye 1.0 in interorbital (3.5-2.75 in head); interpolated rows of scales beginning above anal fin only C. pellegrini (Bahia Negra, Corumba, Asuncion, Villa Hays; not common; probably a junior synonym of C. correntinus).

When I studied the Paraguay collection in Geneva, I identified some 400+ specimens as C kennedyi and none as C. alleni (of which Eigen-mann mentioned 23 ex., usually sympatric). Thus the two forms are likely to be sibling (then I overlooked this), or synonyms. Another difficulty: both have a "hump" on the nape in Eigenmann's figures, more pronounced in alleni. The latter is also much bigger: 104mm total versus 46mm total. A photo shot by H. Bleher (2005) in a spot not far from that of C. alleni (retouched photo of specimens from Corumba) does not show the hump, and it seems that the lateral line is stuttering like that of C. kennedyi. The photographed specimens are still alive and may be studied in the future. In tetras, important characters such as ctenoid scales, incomplete lateral line, naked predorsal line etc. are not visible on photos. Finally there is the question of the status of correntinus (Corrientes) and C. erythropterus (Buenos Aires) succincdy described by Holmberg in 1891, cited as inc. sp. in CLOFF-SCA. Photos from Argentina or Paraguay are needed. The only sure fact is that C. erythropterus, a rare fish, has bright red fins (thus the name, and Holmberg insisted on this). Some specimens apparently belonging to this species have been studied in Geneva from Paraguayan Chaco, but the coloration in vivo was not recorded.

Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann, 1908 (Fig. 7 from Station 9, shot in situ, labelled Characoid sp. 3 = Moenkhausia intermedia).

9 ex., largest 36.4 mm SL, Station 4, km 54 on the road Tres Lagoas to Campo Grande, H. Bleher 13.12.2005. N. 248.1-9.2006--Alto Parana and Alto Paraguay basins (same species? in Rio Formosa, (marked M tf: intermedia), and Station 7 (just west of Campo Grande. near entrance to BR 262, "Pirapitinga", Altro Pardo basin, photo cf: le-pidura, not preserved).

Depth 3.40 and head 4.15 in SL; dorsal fin at midbody or slightly posterior; trunk scales 5/35/3, pre- dorsal 11: caudal fin scaled up to 2/3 of the lobes; anal fin iii,20; premaxilla 4-5 tricuspid/5 pentacus-pid; maxilla long, up to pupil's level, apparently without tooth; a longitudinal line broadened at dorsal level and forming a lozenge on peduncle, narrowed on caudal and ending on the tip of the middle caudal rays; tips of lobes black without white or hyaline margin; a photo in aquarium of a specimen collected Station 7 (Pirapitinga) shows no striking colours; body pale green, caudal fin marks grey, not as well delimited as in the preserved specimens; a silvery band. The photos from Paraguay Station 7 and 9 (without specimens) are difficult to compare with the specimens from Parana (without photo).

These specimens represent probably the nominal form. The extended distribution suggests a poly-typic species.

Moenkhausia phaenota Fink, 1979 (Fig. 8. in situ and one in aquarium).

18 ex., largest 34.85 mm SL, Station 17 and 24, Rio das Mortes or Suia Missu basin, west flowing unnamed corrego in Fazenda Ipui, just north of Agua Boa on the road Barra do Garca to Sao Felix do Araguaia, Bleher 19.12.2005. N. 943.118.2006 (note: 6 ex. had been put in the bag labelled photo 1 (pale, probably kept alive and died in the field).

Depth 3.45-3.50 in SL; scales about 38, 5'13', LL "stuttering", lacking on the middle of the body or at the end of the peduncle on 5-6 scales; caudal scales not very numerous, not on the border of the lobes; maxilla long, reaching to pupil's level, with 4 teeth; colour-pattern characteristic (several examples are pale, having possibly been kept alive for some time and dead in bag).

Moenkhausia oligolepis (Gunther, 1864) (Fig. 9 in situ, from Station 20).

2 ex., largest 37 mm, Station 20, on BR 242: dirt road 118 km before Sao Felix do Araguaia, small corrego not destroyed among fazendas, H. Bleher 19.12.2005 (probably Chapadinha, Alto Araguaia basin (bad state) N. 168.1-2.2006.

Lateral line complete, 29 pored scales. This population, according to a photo in life, has a pale yellow eye, not red.

Small Tetras: 1) Extra-Amazonian basin.

Hyphessobrycon callistus (Boulenger, 1900) (photo in habitat, Alto Paraguay, plus two photos in situ, (Fig. 10A-B) male and female from Station 1 (Rio Tiete basin).

11 ex., largest 27.75 mm SL, Station 1, Rio Tiete basin, km 458 from Sao Paulo after Aracatuba on the BR 300 "Marechal Rondon", H. Bleher 12.12.2005. N. 181.

Depth 2.65 in SL; scales 6/(6)33/4 (11 transverse total), 14 around caudal peduncle; premaxilla teeth 2/5, pentacuspid, regular; maxilla relatively short, with 2 teeth; humeral spot vertical, long, lozenge-shaped, extending astride the lateral line 3 scales posterior to opercle onto '4' transverse scales; dorsal fin almost entirely black in some specimens, its base red; anal fin border not prominent, but last rays jet black, forming a blotch. This is the most eastern record of the species (first collected in the upper Rio Paraguay). The photo of a male and a female shot in situ shows the black anal fin margin relatively narrow in this eastern population.

A photo shot in the "Aquarium natural" (Station 9, Rio Sucuri) shows the same pattern; the whole body and the fins are cherry-red; the humeral spot and anal fin border are much less conspicuous than the deep black flag of the dorsal fin, which seems the prominent identification mark for members of the species.

Hyphessobrycon luetkeni (Boulenger, 1894) (Fig. 11).

1 ex., 29.7 mm SL, Station 11, tributary of Rio Formosa near Pitangeiras, km 30 of the road Bonito to Miranda, Rio Paraguay basin, H. Bleher 15.12.2005. N. 324.1.2006.

Depth 2.85 in SL; dorsal fin slightly anterior to midbody; trunk scales 51(15)35-36/4; predorsal series complete but irregular; anal fin iii, 20 or 21; large suborbital surrounded by a rather broad "naked" zone (difference with H. santae); premaxilla with 3 broad tricuspid teeth in the outer row and 5 broad flat pentacuspid teeth in the inner row (difference with H. anisitsa maxilla of moderate length, reaching to pupil's level, with 2 broad pen-tacuspid teeth; dentary with 5 broad pentacuspid teeth in front, followed by a series of minute teeth laterally; a conspicuous triangular humeral spot close to the opercle; a conspicuous spot almost the entire depth of the caudal peduncle, with a black line on the middle caudal rays. No photo in situ, colour alive not known (?).

Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi Gery (Fig. 12).

Table I. The discriminant characters of four similar
Hyphessob7con species from the region.

Species       Bleher-Station  H. lowerze   H. mutabilis   H. heliacus
              17

Nr of sp.     7 ex.           5 ex.        8 ex.          43 ex

Max. size     29.6 mm         31.5 mm      26.9 mm        27.8 mm

Base of       1/3 scaled      10% scaled   not scaled     not scaled
caudal

Depth         2.9-3.0         2.25-2.85    3.0-3.4        2.0-2.65

Head          3.65-3.70       3.3-3.6      3.45-3.65      3.30-3.75

Dorsal        anterior        posterior    middle/ant.    middle/ant.

Longest ray   not to          to caudal    not to         to caudal
                              adipose      adipose

Pectoral      to pelvic       to pelvic    to pelvic      to pelvic

Pelvic        overlapp.       overlapp.    not to anal    overlapp.

Squiong.      (9)37           (7)30-31     (6)31-32       (7-9)30-34

Squ.transv.   5/3             6-7/4        5/3'           5/4-6/5

Anal br.      21              19-20        17-20          20-24

S03           very large      1/2 cheek    1/2 cheek      ?

Maxilla       long,thin       ?            long, thin     ?

Mx teeth      4 broad         2-3 broad    3-7 tri-con.   1-3 broad

Pmx teeth     3/5             3-4/5        3/5            2-3/5

Broadest      up to 7 cusps   up to 7      up to 3        up to 7 7
teeth                         cusps        cusps          cusps

Humeral spot  none(faint      vertical     none           (humer.
              band)                                       vertical
                                                          hiatus)

Peduncle      light zone      no light     no light       no light

Caudal        middle, not to  not to end   not to end to  vary large
              end                          end (?)        not to end

Body          yellow/blue     golden fins  green/golden   golden
              golden band     red/orange


Not preserved, Station 14, COrrego Gaucho north of Cox1m, Alto Paraguay basin. Coloration typical.

Hyphessobrycon? n. sp. (Fig. 13, a red finned species with lateral band). No N.G. (photo in aquarium).

3 ex., largest 19 mm SL, Station 4, Alto Parana basin, km 54 on the road Tres Lagoas to Campo Grande, H. Bleher 13.12.2005.

Depth about 3.4 in SL; dorsal about at midbody; sq. 5/(7)30-31/3, anal fin with ca, 23 branched rays; maxilla long, up to pupil's level, apparently without teeth; premaxilla with 2 tricuspid and 5 broad tricuspid to pentacuspid teeth; large suborbital not developed, with a broad naked zone all around; Rather bad state, all fins rotten; a thin lateral band from dorsal fin to end of middle caudal rays (?), perhaps a little expanded onto the peduncle, preceeded by an aggregate of chromatophores from opercle to dorsal fin level; snout distinctly black If a Hyphesso-brycon, differs from H. cachimbensis which has a humeral spot, scales 6/4 and 14-17 branched anal rays, and from H. vilmae which has no peduncular spot and bluish fins, and 19-20 branched anal fin rays. However, the caudal fin rays are so damaged that one cannot be sure that the apparent absence of scales is "natural": the fish might be a Hemzgrammus. In the habitus and locality, it fits with the photo in aquarium with the following comments: "Photo 4, collected only 3 specimens; I think not one preserved !" (the concordance of the photo and the specimens is under debate with the collector). This photo shows the resemblance with a Hasemania but with an adipose fin; a black lateral band, most pronounced on caudal peduncle, where it is somewhat expanded in its posterior part and prolonged apparently up to end of middle caudal ray; pelvics and unpaired fins, as well as anal base region, bright red; colour extending onto the body at dorsal and anal level; head structures not distinct.

Small Tetras: 2) Hyphessobrycon and Hemigram-mus from Serra do Roncador.

Hyphessobrycon aff: cachimbensis Travassos, 1964, differing in colour-pattern (no photo).

3 ex., largest 21.45 mm SL, Station 19 and 20, Rio Araguaia basin, Corrego Chega de Perto before Sao Felix do Araguaia, H. Bleher 19.12.2005. N. 570.1-3.2006.

Depth 2.66 in SL; dorsal fin anterior to midbody; pectoral and pelvic fins relatively developed, each reaching the next respective fin; trunk scales 5/(5)33/3; anal fin iv,19; great suborbital developed, not quite reaching the suborbital canal; teeth relatively broad, broadest with 7 cusps in the front part of the mandible and in the second premaxillary series, 3 tri-to pentacuspid teeth in the first series, which is external, with the lips not developed, black coloured between the teeth; maxilla with 1 or 2 teeth, long, reaching pupil; mandible with 4 front teeth and about 8 much smaller ones on sides. A broad, dark, lateral band, not well distinct in alcohol, from opercle to beneath dorsal fin, continued up to the end of the middle caudal rays by a black, much more distinct but narrower line, expanded onto the whole depth of the peduncle; base of anal fin with a dark line; region above anal fin, up to the lateral line, darkened.

This small sample could well be classified within the small group of species with a distinct caudal spot and without humeral spot; however, no species corresponds, whereas in the group with longitudinal pattern, it corresponds well to Hyphessobycon Ca-chimbensis, owing to morphometrics and locality; in vivo, the fins are said to be yellowish (they are bluish in the near Hyphessoblycon vilmae). 31 ex. from Alto Aripuana have about the same morphometrics, but the band is entire from opercle (included) to end of caudal fin, surmounted by a red band as in Hyphesso-brycon heterorhabdus. Material for comparison, 4 ex. from Rio Batovi (near type locality) are not at hand (in Geneva). According to photos, examples from upper Tocantins in MTD show a very large eye. It is likely that the present specimens belong to a new form, owing to the differences in colour-pattern..

Hyphesso-grycon lowae Costa & Gery, 1994 (photos only) (Fig. 14).

Not preserved; 2 photos labelled Hyphessobrycon aff elachys n. sp., Station 17 (photos in situ). Rio das Mortes or Suia Missu basin, west flowing unnamed cOrrego in Fazenda Ipu.i., just north of Agua Boa on the road Barra do Garca to Sao Felix do Araguaia, H. Bleher 19.12.2005.

The photos show two males with the longest dorsal rays dark and prolonged, probably reaching adipose if depressed, a probably vertical humeral spot followed by a light zone, and a caudal spot beginning above the last fourth of the anal fin and continuing on the lower part of the peduncle then onto the middle of the fin up to the tip of the middle caudal fin rays, with a light spot on the upper part of the peduncle and on the base of the lobes, a pattern ressembling that of Hemigrammus hyanuag or Hemigrammus haraLA for example. Paratypes of Hyphessobrycon loweae Costa & Gery, 1994 (type locality a tributary of the Rio Culene, upper Rio Xingd basin), are similar to the photos; they have no scales on the caudal fin and thus belong to Hyphes-soblycon in its classical sense. They were collected in the Lago do Leo and COrrego do Gato, upper Suia Missu basin, 206 km north of the ferry on the Rio das Mortes (Alto Xavantina), some minutes north of the 13th parallel, around Divineia (ex-Cascalheira).

The collecting spot of Bleher being within the limits of the collections of the Roncador Expedition, it is necessary to check the toponyms to see to which brook cited by Rosemary McConnell corresponds with Station 17 of Bleher. According to the maps, the toponyms have changed 3 times since 1967. For example, Xavantina was renamed Min-istro Jao Alberto (1980 map).

The specimen photographed is only tentatively referred to H. lowae, because it does not exist in the preserved lot; only the examination of specimens can tell. There are at least 2 sympatric species, equally rare, possibly mimetic, as shown by the presence of the Hyphessobrycon described below.

Hemigrammus aff. micropterus n. sp.? (Fig. 15A-B, male & female Characid sp. 1, Station 17).

? Hemigrammus sp. aff brevis Seegers & Gery, 1989.

? Hemigrammus sp. from Serra do Roncador, G6ry (unpublished).

7 ex., largest 29.6 mm SL, Station 17, Rio das Mortes or Suia Missu basin, west flowing unnamed cOrrego in Fazenda Ipui, just north of Agua Boa on the road Barra do Gal-9a to Sao Felix do Araguaia, Bleher 19.12.2005 (with Characidium sp., Thaye-ria cf: boehlkei and Moenkhausia phaeonota, probably also Hyphessobrycon loweae, not preserved).

The two largest have: depth 2.90-2.97 and head 3.65-3.70 in SL; dorsal fin anterior to midbody; one specimen has first dorsal and anal rays elongate, but without filaments, the longest dorsal ray not reaching adipose when depressed; pectoral fins reaching pelvic fins, pelvic fins overlapping last anal fin rays; scales 5/(9)37/3; anal fin iii,21; base of caudal fin scaled, with very small scales on basal third of the lobes; peduncle deep; head short; opercle notched; S03 developed, almost as in the Astyanax paucidens group or most Hemibryconini; mouth a little upturned, its opening at upper part of pupil's level; maxilla long and thin, reaching to pupil's level, with 4 small but broad teeth (4 to 5 cusps); premaxilla with an outer row of 3 broad tri- to pentacuspid teeth and an inner one of 5 with 5-7 cusps, broad and compressed; mandible with 5 broad teeth in front, with 5-7 cusps, followed on sides by a series of much smaller ones. Colour-pattern (in alcohol) much as that of H. micropterus: no humeral spot; a faint band of chromatophores from opercle to dorsal, then a lateral narrow dark band from dorsal fin to end of peduncle, then a light zone and a caudal spot limited to the middle caudal rays up to their end; base of lobes dark; when freshly unpacked, the unpaired fins were rosy; a photo in situ (Characid sp. 2 Station 17) shows the fins hyaline, not much developed, a golden lateral line from upper part of opercle to peduncle separating the body colour into a yellow dorsal part and a grey to bluish ventral one; in life the caudal spot does not reach the end of the middle rays.

This fish has similar morphometrics and colour pattern as H. micropterus, but seems deeper, with more maxillary teeth. It differs from H. lowae in the scaled caudal fin, the dorsal fin not very elongate, the scales less numerous, the absence of a humeral spot, the caudal spot not extended onto the inferior part of the peduncle, etc.

The discriminant characters of four similar Hyphessoblycon species from the region are summarized in the following table:

Hemigrammus n. sp.? (lateral band, resembling Hyphessobgcon aff. cachimbensis) (No N.) no photo.

1 ex., 41 mm SL, preserved after 2 months in aquarium, Station 22 (no material preserved): probably Rio Araguaia basin (near mouth of Rio das Mortes into Araguaia), 2nd river on the road 8242 from Sao Felix to Alto Boa Vista, H. Bleher 19.12.2005.

Depth 2.75 and head 3.9 in SL; trunk scales 5/(10-12)/3', 11i, predorsal, 14-15 around peduncle; anal fin iii,22; caudal fin covered with small scales on its proximal third, plus a large scale suggesting an inseminating characid sensu Weitzman; mouth sub-superior; premaxillary teeth 4 tricus-pid/5 pentacuspid, maxilla rather long and narrow, reaching up to pupil's level, with 3 broad teeth; mandible with 5 pentacuspid and about 10 much smaller teeth; S03 very developed, almost entire; gill-rakers rather long, about 15 on the inferior part of the first arch; coloration in vivo not known, but adipose and caudal fin lobes possibly red; a broad lateral band from opercle to end of caudal fin, much darker on peduncle; no humeral spot; a distinct black line on anal fm base; this fish vaguely resembles Moenkhausia phaeonota or Hyphesso-brycon herbertaxelrodi, differing mostly in being deeper and having the "generic" characters of the latter species. It also resembles Hyphessobrycon aff cachimbensis from Station 20 and Station 21, differing in the larger size (but 2 months in aquarium), more branched anal fin rays (22 vs. 19), more perforated LL scales (12 vs. 5), red caudal lobes (vs. probably not red), and chiefly the scaled caudal fin, with small scales on the proximal third of the lobes, plus one large scale suggesting an inseminating characid.

Hemigrammus cf: rodwayi Durbin, 1909?? (Fig. 16, resembling also Moenkhausia ceros Eigenmann, 1908). Photos only, labeled "Characid sp. 2 Station 20" (in situ and in aquarium) and "Characid sp. 1 Station 21" (in aquarium).

Not preserved. Station 20 and 21, dirt road on BR 242, 118 km before Sao Felix do Araguaia, small corrego not destroyed among fazendas; H. Bleher 19.12.2005 (probably Chapadinha, Alto Araguaia basin), and Rio Xavanti, into Tirape into Araguaia, at Nova Xavantina; H. Bleher 19.12.2005.

The specimens from Station 20, about 30 mm SL, have been photographied in situ and in aquarium. A third photo from Nova Xavantina, Station 21, possibly shot in situ in different conditions, shows two similar fishes. Depth 3.15-3.30; dorsal fin at midbody or slightly posterior; eye big; anal fin iii, 19 or 20 (??); lateral scales more than 30 and less than 40, lateral line can be seen as incomplete or complete, depending on the photo; predorsal series apparently regular; caudal fin possibly scaled. Colour-pattern similar to that of H. levis: caudal spot restricted to the fin, circumscribed by a light, yellow zone: no humeral spot; no (or very feeble) black line along anal fin base; lips black. This pattern is not unusual in the Serra do Roncador (see for example Characid sp. 1 from Station 25), and the photos may represent two spp (sibling). The relatively long anal fin, the dorsal fin at midbody and the colour-pattern suggest the most common tetra from the Serra do Roncador (300 ex. collected by R. McConnell-Lowe, both in the upper Xingti and the upper Tocantins drainages), called provisionally H. cf rodwayi (Roncador U4).

Thayeria cf boehlkei Weitzman, 1957 N. 096.13.2006 (Fig. 17).

2 ex., largest 30 mm SL, Station 17, just north of Agua Boa on the road Barra do Garca to Sao Felix do Araguaia, Bleher 19.12.2005 (mark 24 on the map).

1 ex., 34.5 mm SL, Station 20, corrego 118 km before Sao Felix de Araguaia, H. Bleher 19.12.2005; Alto Araguaia basin.

1 ex. juvenile, about 16-18 mm SL, not preserved, Station 25, rio Aqua Azul km 694, near to Barra do Garcas (not preserved) H. Bleher ca 19.12.2005

Depth about 3.25 in the SL; colour-pattern characteristic; the lower caudal lobe seems longer than in T. boehlkei from the upper Amazon (the aquarium form). Three photos were shot; one, in situ, shows one specimen from Station 17 with the upper part of the body, base of the upper caudal lobe and external rays of lower one, yellow; this is about the same colour in aquarium (Station 20, not preserved); the juvenile has the band relatively broader (photo in situ from Station 25, fish not preserved).

Inc. sed.

Inc. gen. sp. U1 (photo only) "Characid sp. 1", Station 25. (Fig. 18, photo only).

No specimen preserved (possibly 2 alive in aquarium). Station 25, Corrego Azul (in fact muddy) after Nova Xavantina, km 694, near to Barra do Garcas, H. Bleher ca 19.12.2005.

A small elongate tetra, depth 4.25 in SL, resembling Hemigrammus levis without humeral spot (or feebly pronounced in vivo) and a large caudal spot on the centre of the fin, surrounded by conspicuous white bands; anal fin short, its base surmounted by a black line on its anterior half.

According to the study of the R. Lowe McConnell collection in the Serra de Roncador, this photo may represent a new form (represented in her collection by two specimens, from Corrego do Gato, Rio Xingti drainage, Hemigrammus Roncador U3).

Inc. gen. sp. U2 (Fig. 19, photos only) "Characid 1 and Characid 2 lower Station 9" (aquarium); (according to photos, probably only one species).

No specimen preserved. Station 9, Rio Formosa, Alto Paraguay basin near Bonito, H. Bleher 15.12.2005.

Collected with Astyanax cf: asuncionensis and kept in aquarium, where two forms had been recognized (possibly mimetic). Body rather robust. No humeral spot except a shiny spot after opercle (see also A. pedri from upper Rio das Mortes, Station 16) but the humeral region seemingly with numerous chromatophores; a round distinct caudal spot, not to end of rays.

Unidentifiable. Distinct from the similar tetras from Rio Miranda, Astyanax (Jupiaba) acanthoga-ster and Astyanax cf: luetkeni, by the lack of a humeral spot and the caudal spot not to end of middle caudal rays. The slight differences in habitus may be due to age or camera flash, but the presence of two sympatric species cannot be eliminated. To note that "mimicry" means that two species from two different dades (two families for example) resemble each other. Two close species, in the same genus for example, resemble more or less each other because they have the same ancestror. When the resemblance is almost complete, due to recent sympatric speciation, they are termed sibling; due to ancient allopatric speciation, they are termed vicariant (= replacing each other). The cladists have a different definition.

Inc. gen. sp. U3 (Fig. 20, photo only) "Characid 1 Station 24" (in situ, just collected).

No specimen preserved. Station 24, road back to Barra do Garca on BR 158, km 27 south of Agua Boa, first corrego, a tiny waterflow into larger muddy cOrrego, Rio das Mortes basin, H. Bleher 21.12.2005.

Probably less than 40 mm SL; habitus generalized, looking like an Astyanax; depth about 2.8; dorsal fin at midbody; anal fin short; a humeral and a caudal spot, a silvery band and a broad cheek and probably large S03; maxilla not very long; eye large.

Cheirodontinae

Serrapinnus notomelas (Eigenmann, 1915) (Fig. 21 in aquarium from Station 4).

1 ex. adult male, 29.33 mm SL, Station 1, Rio Tiete basin, km 458 from Sao Paulo, after Aracatuba on the BR 300 "Marechal Rondon'', H. Bleher 12.12.2005 N. 394.1.

18 ex., largest 28.5 mm SL, Station 4, Alto Parana basin, km 54 on the road Tres Lagoas to Campo Grande, H. Bleher 13.12.2005 (poor condition) N. 394.2-19.2006.

Depth 2.55-2.90 in SL; scales (8)35, 11 transverse; anal fin iii,17; 5-7 interhaemals; mouth terminal, teeth flat multicuspid (up to 7 cusps only) on both jaws; maxilla very short, with 0-1 teeth; colour-pattern rather variable; usually the anterior part of dorsal fin with a falciform black blotch; a broad caudal spot, covering almost all of the depth of the peduncle, not extending onto the middle caudal fin rays; anal fin lobe never black, only the first ray marked; skin over the interhaemals dark. Originally described from the Rio Tiete basin. Collected in Parana basin by Schindler (Rio Ivin-heima) and H. Schultz (Tres Lagoas), and in Rio Machado (Madeira) by Geraldo dos Santos.

A photo in aquarium shows no striking colours, except a thin lateral golden band and a shiny spot posterior to the caudal spot on each lobe base.

Serrapinnus piaba (Laken, 1874) N. 290.1-3. 2006 (Fig. 22, from Station 7).

3 ex., 1 male and 2 females, 33.0-36.85 mm SL, Station 4, Alto Parana basin, km 54 on the road Tres Lagoas to Campo Grande, H. Bleher 13.12.2005 (not too good state) N. 290.1-3.2006.

? Photo in situ (not preserved, labelled "Station 7, Characid sp. 1, male" just west of Campo Grande, near entrance to BR 262, "Pirapitinga", Alto Pardo basin? (into Parana).

Depth 2.95 in SL; scales (9)34, 10-10' transverse; anal fin iii,20; about 9 interhaemals; mouth subin-ferior, teeth flat multicuspid (up to 7-8 cusps) on both jaws; maxilla very short, with 1(?) tooth; fins hyaline; a broad caudal spot, covering the depth of the peduncle, truncate posteriorly, not extending onto the middle caudal fin rays, pointed anteriorly; the photo in situ labelled Station 7 shows a silvery lateral band, without striking colours.

Originally described from the Rio Sao Francisco basin and possibly endemic; a similar form, or the same one, sympatric with S. notomelas in the upper Parana, is often found in small samples all over the Amazon basin. It seems to have a slightly narrower caudal spot. If two (or three) forms, no differential character found till now (but in need of revision).

Characinae

Phenacogaster aff jancupa Malabarba & Z. de Lucena, 1995? Two photos alive (Station 20) in aquarium and Fig. 23 in situ Station 18).

4 ex., largest 31.0 mm SL, Station 19, possibly Rio Suia Missu basin, C6rrego Chega de Perto flowing north near Posta da Mata before Sao Felix do Araguaia, fazenda-land; H. Bleher 19.12.2005 N. 1072.1-4.2006.

(One photo shot in situ, labelled Phenacogaster sp. 1 Station 18, belongs perhaps also to this species.

Depth 2.95 (the small specimens more elongate) and head 3.50 in SL; a humeral hiatus; pre-pelvic squamation of the derived type, i.e. with the lateral scales obliquely intricated and lacking a median series; trunk scales 6/35-37/4 (to pelvic fins as well as to anal fin), the two smallest with an incomplete lateral line; anal fin iv, 30; premaxilla 2+3, with a gap between/9 tricuspid; maxilla about 24; mandible more than 15; a large, conspicuous, caudal spot, preceeded by a light zone and a rather inconspicuous longitudinal line; a prominent humeral ocellus, the black part almost as large as pupil, the light zone all around it except above, tather narrow; after photographs in vivo, from Station 20; in aquarium and in situ, the light zones white, the unpaired fins pale maroon (?), and there is a golden line from opercle to peduncle, with the upper part of eye apparently of the same colour.

P. jancupa is geographically near (south of Cuiaba), but from an entirely different basin (Rio Paraguay vs. Rios Xingu and Tocantins). I have seen four forms with the morphometrics of P. calverti (a synonym of P franciscoensis): one from Maranao State (coll. Ternetz and Werner) and Ceara (coll. Roberts), one from surroundings Porto Velho (coll. Brittan), one from Rio Paru (coll. Geisler) and this one. No recent revision of the genus.

Phenacogaster sp.?? (Fig. 24, photo only) "Characid 2, Station 25" (aquarium).

No specimen preserved (at least one alive in aquarium). Station 25, Corrego Azul (in fact muddy) after Nova Xavantina, km 694, near to Barra do Garcas, Rio das Mortes basin, H. Bleher ca 19.12.2005.

Habitus of a Phenacogaster; depth about 3.33; dorsal fm anterior to midbody; anal fin long, perhaps about 30 branched rays; perhaps some scales on caudal fin base??; eye large; maxilla long, thin, straight, reaching pupil's level; humeral spot distinct, quadrangular, with a shiny spot in front; a longitudinal line, not in contact with a purely caudal spot, probably to end of middle rays, with lateral expansions at fin base; yellow spots anterior to the spot and on the lobes bases; anal fin with a line on the base and the border black, and the first ray white.

Rather distinct from the preceeding in the humeral and caudal spots, anal fin, etc. The following from the R. Lowe Mcconnell Roncador expedition: 2 ex., 36-37 mm SL, Xavantina (field N. 118 & 124); and probably 1 ex. 23.5 mm SL, Suia Missu (night camp, field N. 146)) may belong to this form.

Oligosarcinae (?)

0ligosarcuspintoi Campos, 1945 (Fig. 25 in situ).

6 ex. juveniles, largest 40.0 mm SL, Station 1, Rio Tiete basin, km 458 from Sio Paulo after Aracatuba on the BR 300 "Marechal Rondon", H. Bleher 12.12.2005 N. 840.1-6.2006.

Depth 3.2 and head 3.1 (largest) in SL; dorsal fin posterior to midbody; scales 8/38/6' (to anal fin), 13 predorsal, 15 around peduncle; anal fin iv,26; great suborbital large, its suture with SO4 high on jaw, not fully developed, not in contact with the subopercular canal; premaxilla with 8 tricuspid teeth, the first one much larger; two large similar teeth forming an inner row, close to the outer one; maxilla long, reaching to middle of eye level, not forming an angle with the premaxilla, with teeth along almost its entire margin (about 13, mostly tricuspid in the largest); mandible with 5 large teeth in front followed on side by about 11 smaller ones; ectoperygoid with ca. 10 teeth, in more than one row (?); eye silvery; a vertical spot high on the humeral region, a black midlateral line starting beneath dorsal fin, forming a large black spot on the peduncle and prolonged onto the middle caudal fin rays. The photo of a living specimen shot in situ, possibly for the first time, shows the body olive-yellow with some bluish relicts(?), a large caudal spot with the expansion onto the middle caudal rays scarcely visible; the black anal fin margin seems extremely narrow in this eastern population.

LEBIASINIDAE

Lebiasininae, Pyrrhulininae Pyrrhulina australis Eigenmann & Kennedyn 1903 (Fig. 26 in situ Station 7, not Station 4).

4 ex., largest 34.55 mm SL, Station 4, Alto Parana basin, km 54 on the road Tres Lagoas to Campo Grande, H. Bleher 13.12.2005 (not too good state) N. 395.1-4.2006.

Depth 4.23 in SL; scales 5'/22 or 23 total; 12 predorsal, 10 around caudal peduncle.

A photo shot at Station 7 (just west of Campo Grande, near entrance to BR 262, "Pirapitinga", Alto Pardo basin? (into Parana), shows the body relatively short, olivaceous with the base of dorsal, anal and caudal fins yellowish; a black band up to opercle, whereas on the preserved fish the opercular part of the band is composed of less dense chromatophores, grey instead of black.

According to Zarske & Gery (2004), 76 specimens of the species (syn. macrolepis Ahl) have 19-24 lateral scales, mean 21.64. The species was collected by Harald Schultz near Tres Lagoas, thus near the present locality 4.

Pyrrhutina sp. (aff: P stoli?) (Fig. 27).

1 ex., 28.5 mm SL, Station 18, a few km before Posta da Mata, after Cascalheira, shortly before turn to Sao Felix, possibly Suia Missu basin but habitus biotopes destroyed, H. Bleher 19.12.2005.

The specimen, soft, has the depth about 4.3 in SL. scales 5/22 or 23 total; 12 predorsal, 10 around caudal peduncle.

17 ex. collected by R. Lowe-McConnell in the same region (Serra do Roncador) have a few more scales.

Depth 3.85 to 4.70 in SL (negative allometry?); predorsal length 0.72 in postdorsal length in the largest; scales 5/23-25+1-2 on caudal, 14 predorsal, 10 around caudal peduncle; anal fin iii,9-10; dorsal fin spot on the anterior half except unbranched rays, occupying the medial two-thirds of its depth; a predorsal line, enlarged anteriorly and in the middle; lateral band from mandible to 3rd scale, then an indistinct blotch on the 5-7th scales.

In an identification key to the Pyrrhulina spp., this Roncador form seems to be phenotypically near to 1? stoli, from the Guianas.

ERYTHRINIDAE

Hoplerythrinus sp. (Fig. 28).

No specimens; Erythrinus sp. 1 Station 22 (not preserved), probably Rio Araguaia basin (near mouth of Rio das Mortes into Araguaia), 2nd col--rego on the road B 242 from Sao Felix to Alto Boa Vista, H. Bleher 21.12.2005.

The genus is monotypic.

Hoplias sp. 1 (Fig. 29)

No specimens; Hoplias sp. 1. Station 25 (not preserved), Corrego Azul (in fact muddy) after Nova Xavantina, km 694, road back to Barra do Gal-gas and close to it (not preserved), H. Bleher 19.12.2005.

The identification of a Hoplias needs not only the examination of a specimen, but also DNA analysis.

Hoplias sp. 2 (Fig. 30).

No specimens; Hoplias sp. 1 Station 23 (not preserved): Road back to Barra do Garca on BR 158 at Fazenda Ipua (soybeans or cattle of course), nice corrego before Agua Boa (near Photo 17, only on the other side of the road). Possibly Suia Missu basin. H. Bleher 21.12.2005.

The identification of a Hoplias needs not only the examination of a specimen, but also DNA analysis.

Certainly different from the preceeding, despite the usual variability of the Hoplias-pattern.

CHARACIDIIDAE

Characidium sp, Ul (Fig. 31 in situ labeled Characidium 1, Station 7).

2 ex., largest 32.7 mm SL, Station 7, Alto Pardo basin? (into Parana), road Campo Grande to Corumba Vazante do km 2 just west of Campo Grande, dirt road to Pirapitanga, sign: Pousada Sol. H. Bleher 14.12.2005 (not too good state).

Depth 4.6 and head 4.15 in SL; width 1.84 in greatest depth; postdorsal length/predorsal length 1.15; isthmus completely scaled; scales 4/33/3, 10 in predorsal, 12 around caudal peduncle; pectoral fins iii,9, almost reaching pelvic fins; pelvic fins i,8, reaching anal fin; anal fin ii, 7; dorsal fin ii, 9, anterior to midbody; a small, anterior supraorbital; no circumorbitals; eyes lateral; mouth small, inferior, its opening below eye level in profile; teeth tricuspid, at least 5/5 on each side; pterygoid teeth not observed; second dentary row not observed (specimens not dissected). A longitudinal broad line (or thin band, half scale high) from opercle to end of caudal peduncle, plus a distinct small spot at base of caudal (characteristic for a group of Characidium); 10-11 indistinct bands across dorsum, scarcely visible on flanks; a colour-photo shot in situ shows the body and fins yellowish, without striking colour.

Characidium cf. zebra Eigenmann, 1909 (Fig. 32 "sp. 2, Station 8" in aquarium).

6 ex., largest 45.0 mm SL, female, Station 8, Aquidauna on the BR 262 Rio Grande to Corumba, rio of the same name at km 468, cgo corrego? flowing north over step waterfall, Alto Paraguay basin, coll. H. Bleher 14.12.2005) N. 518.1-6.2006.

Depth 4.25 (female)-5.1 (male) and head 3.6 in SL; body width 1.65-1.8 in greatest depth; post-dorsal length/predorsal length 1.15-1.20; isthmus completely scaled; scales 4/36/3', 10 in predorsal, 14 around caudal peduncle; pectoral fins iii,12, not reaching pelvic fins, the unbranched rays not enlarged; pelvic fins i,8 (probably i, 7, i), the unbranched ray not enlarged, not reaching anal fin; anal finii, 7; dorsal fin ii, 9, anterior to midbody; a small, anterior supraorbital; no circumorbitals; eyes on top of the head, slightly oblique, the interorbital narrow; snout curved; mouth small, subinferior, its opening just below eye level in profile; teeth tricuspid, on each side at least 7 on premaxilla, the 1st one enlarged, and 8 on dentary, the 1st one not enlarged; pterygoid teeth not observed; second dentary row well visible (specimens not dissected). A crescent-shaped spot on apex of each scale of the flanks above median line to one row below, forming a net; a longitudinal band, half scale high, from snout to end of peduncle, plus a distinct small spot at base of caudal and a humeral spot just posterior to opercle; a quadrangular blotch on peduncle similar to that of Ch. etheostoma Cope, 1871; a spot just anterior to dorsal fin; about 9 fasciae across dorsum; a colour-photo shot in aquarium shows the body and fins yellowish, without striking colour, except the posterior part of peduncle which may be bright lemon in certain circumstances; isthmus silvery, covered with very thin scales.

Discussion: this Paraguayan form belongs to the generalized Ch. zebra-group and is quite similar in morphometrics and pattern to the upper Amazonian species Ch. etheostoma, through much less compressed.

Characidium sp. U2 (Fig. 33 "sp. 1, Station 15").

Not preserved, Station 15, Pantanal do Norte, Corrego do Bororo, near Poxoreu, on the road north of Rondonopolis (fast moving current), H. Bleher 18.12.2005. Unidentifiable.

Characidium sp. U3 (Fig. 34 in situ "sp. 1, Station 22").

Not preserved, Station 22, Rio Araguaia basin (near mouth of Rio das Mortes into Araguaia), 2nd corrego on the road B242 from Sao Felix to Alto Boa Vista, H. Bleher 20.12.2005.

Belongs apparently to the nominotypical genus; a characteristic lateral line or thin band from snout to beginning of caudal, broader in its anterior part (up to about the sixth scale--anterior pattern as in some Pyrrhulina) and the absence of fasciae (at least in vivo).

Characidium (sensu lato) sp. U4 (no photo).

1 ex., 38.5 mm SL, Station 17, Rio das Mortes or Suia Missu basin, west flowing unnamed corrego in Fazenda Ipui, just north of Agua Boa on the road Barra do Garca to Sao Felix do Araguaia, H. Bleher 19.12.2005.

Depth 4.6 and head 4.0 in SL; body width 30C in largest depth; postdorsal length/predorsal length xx; isthmus completely scaled; scales 4/37/3', xx in predorsal, 12 around caudal peduncle; pectoral fins iv,7, reaching pelvic fins, the unbranched rays somewhat enlarged; pelvic fins i,8i, the unbranched ray not enlarged, not reaching anal fin; anal fin ii,7; dorsal fm ii,9, anterior to midbody; caudal fin i9/8i; supraorbital present; circumorbitals reduced to the canal, cheek broad and naked; eyes vertical; nostrils well-separated, on top of the snout; a small occipital triangular fontanel; snout not very elongate, roundish, plunging; mouth very small, inferior, its opening below eye level in profile, maxilla short and broad, visible from below; teeth curved, conical on premaxilla, possibly tricuspid on dentary, formula about 717; pterygoid teeth not observed; second dentaary row not visible (specimens not dissected). A wealdy delimited narrow lateral band from opercle to middle of caudal peduncle; an indistinct small spot at the base of caudal fin (not as apparent as in the above-mentioned Characidium-group); dorsum with a black blotch just in front of dorsal fin and less distinct fasciae (4 or 5) after dorsal fin; dorsal fin with a rather distinct oblique bar at about mid-fin; tip of snout black, the black extending somewhat up to eye; anterior and superior part of eye black, with an extension on the top of the head, not joining the other side; a large, oblique blotch on opercle.

Comments: this specimen may represent a new species; it differs from a Characidium in the high number of unbranched rays on pectoral and the few unbranched ones (ratio 4/7 vs. usually 3/1012), as well as the peculiar nostrils situated vwery high and, probably, by the peculiar colour-pattern just described. The presence of a supraorbital excludes it from Melanocharacidium.

The following key to the five studied Characidium (supraorbital present; isthmus scaled; dorsal fin ii,9; anal fin ii,7) may be of use for future work (the collections from Paraguay and probably from Roncador are in the possession of P. Buckup):

la. Dorsal fasciae; longitudinal band, if any, not well delimited in alcohol.

lb. No dorsal fasciae; a well-delimited longitudinal band in life (morphometrics not known) Characidium sp. U3, photo only, Rio Araguaia or das Mortes Station 22.

2a. Pectoral fins iii,9-12; pelvic fins i,8; teeth tricuspid; predorsal scales 10; dorsal hyaline.

2b. Pectoral fins iv,7; pelvic fins i,8i; premaxillary teeth conical, recurved; predorsal scales 12; dorsal barred Characidium sp. U4 (possibly a new species) 1 ex., Rio das Mortes, Station 17.

3a. Pectoral fins iii,9; scales 4/33/3, 12 around caudal peduncle; 5 premaxillary teeth, the inner one not enlarged; depth 4.6; head 4.15; body width 1.84 in body depth (predorsal 1.15) Characidium sp. Ul, 2 ex. Alto Parana, Station 7.

3b. Pectoral fins iii,12; scales 4/36/3', 14 around caudal peduncle; 7 premaxillary teeth, the inner one enlarged; depth 5.1; head 3.6; body width 1.65-1.70 in body depth (predorsal 1.14-1.18; about 10 transverse bands) Characidium zebra-group, 6 ex. Alto Paraguay, Station 8.

3c. About 14 transverse bands (morphometrics not known; rather similar to C. zebra-group) Characidium sp. Photo only, Alto Paraguay, Station 15.

ANOSTOMIDAE

Leporinus juvenile (Fig. 35 shot in aquarium).

No specimens; Leporinus sp. 1 Station 22 (not preserved), Rio Araguaia basin (near mouth of Rio das Mortes), 2nd corrego on road 8242 from Salo Felix to Alto Boa Vista, H. Bleher 20.12.2005. According to the basic colouration (three round spots on flanks), it would belong to the L. friderici-group; the transverse fasciae (10 bands, some split) may be juvenile features (to be compared with the few from Roncador collection).

PARODONTIDAE

Parodon nasus Kner, 1859 (Fig. 36 "sp. 1" in aquarium).

2 ex., largest 90.0 mm SL, Station 8, Aquidauna on the BR 262 Rio Grande to Corumba, rio of the same name at km 468, corrego flowing north over step waterfall, Alto Paraguay basin, coll. H. Bleher 14.12.2005.

Depth 4.1-4.5 in SL; scales 4/38 tot./3, 14 around peduncle; pectoral fins 1,15, anal fin ii,7; 4 premaxillary teeth on a straight line on each side, the broadest with up to 16 cusps almost in a straight line; 2 maxillary teeth; three rounded teeth on the side of the mandible; no dorsal marking; a longitudinal stripe formed by about 21 closely placed lozenge-shaped lateral spots.

REFERENCES

COSTA, W. J. M., 1994. Description of two new species of the genus Moenkhausia (Characiformes: Characidae) from the central Brazil. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Jena, 232 (1/2): 21-29. (M. nigromarginata & pyrophthalma).

COSTA, W. J. M., 1995. Description of a new species of the genus Asolanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 102 (1): 257-262. (Asanax kullandert).

COSTA, W. J. E. M. & GERY, J., 1994. Two new species of the genus Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Xingu basin, central Brazil. Revue francaise d'aquariologie, 20 (1993) (3): 71-76.

COSTA, W. J. E. M. & VICENTE, E. 0. 1994. Une nouvelle espace du genre Melanocharacidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) du bassin du rio Araguaia, Bresil central. Revue francaise d'Aquariologie, 20 (1993) 3: 67-70 (M. auroradiatum).

LIMA, F. C. T. & MOREIRA, C. R. 2003. Three new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper Rio Araguaia in Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, SZUSP, 1 (1): 21-33 (langeanii, eilyos, weitzmanorum).

LUCENA, C. A. S. DE, 2003. New characid fish, Hyphessokycon scutulatus, from the rio Teles Pires drainage, upper rio Tapajos system (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae). aff minimus?

MOREIRA, C. R., LANDIM, M. I. & COSTA, W. J. E. M. 2002. Hyphessolnycon heliacus. A New Characid Fish (Ostyariophysi: Characiformes) from the Upper Rio Tapajos Basin, Central Brasil. Copeia, 2002 (2): 428-432 (close to H. loweae).

Received: 11 December 2012--Accepted: 09 January 2013
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Author:Gery, Jacques
Publication:aqua: International Journal of Ichthyology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:10418
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