Chapter One The catering world: types of catering.
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
* Discuss the catering industry.
* Identify catering segments.
* Define on-premise and off premise catering.
* Explain the different types of catering events held on-premise and off premise.
* Provide examples of the different kinds of on-premise and off premise operations.
high school catering
private or nonprofit caterers
* CATERING INDUSTRY
Catering is a multifaceted segment of the food service industry. There is a niche for all types of catering businesses within the segment of catering. The food service industry is divided into three general classifications: commercial segment, noncommercial segment, and military segment. Catering management may be defined as the task of planning, organizing, and controlling. Each activity influences the preparation and delivery of food, beverage, and related services at a competitive, profitable price. These activities work together to meet and exceed the customer's perception of value.
* CATERING SEGMENTS
Catering management is executed in many diverse ways within each of the three segments. The first, commercial segment, traditionally considered the for profit operations, includes the independent caterer, the restaurant caterer, and the home-based caterer. In addition, hotel/motel and private club catering operations are also found in this category.
The noncommercial segment, or the not-for-profit operations, consists of the following types of catering activities: business/industry accounts, college and university catering, health care facilities, recreational food service catering, school catering, social organizations, and transportation food service catering. The military segment encompasses all catering activities involved in association with the armed forces and/or diplomatic events. Figure 1-1 illustrates how the food service catering industry is segmented.
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* ON-PREMISE CATERING
There are two main types of catering (on-premise and off-premise) that may be a concern to a large and small caterer. Figure 1-2 illustrates the different types of catering events. First, on-premise catering indicates that the function is held exclusively within the caterer's own facility. All of the required functions and services that the caterer executes are done exclusively at their own facility. For instance, a caterer within a hotel or banquet hall will prepare and cater all of the events without taking any service or food outside the facility. Many restaurants have specialized rooms on-premise to cater to the private-party niche.
A restaurant may have a layout strategically designed with three separate dining rooms (Figure 1-3) attached to a centralized commercial food production kitchen (Figure 1-4). These separate dining rooms are available at the same time to support the restaurant's operation and for reservation and overflow seating. In addition, any of the three dining rooms may be contracted out for private-event celebrations and may require their own specialized service and menu options.
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An example of hospital catering is an on-premise catering operation for events that occur within a hospital's environment. It is very rare for a hospital to sponsor an off-premise event. One exception could occur if the hospital is sponsoring a fund raiser.
There are great demands placed on the food service department within a hospital environment when an active catering service is used. Special functions are held by the internal hospital associations. There are many visible and invisible associations conducting business within a hospital's environment. Associations having special requests for internal catered functions (Figures 1-5 and 1-6) may be the medical technologists in the laboratories, ladies' auxiliary, physicians' meetings, nurses' organizations, employees in all departments, or x-ray departments.
Many hospitals have beautiful dining rooms that are primarily used for catering internal events. In addition, they may have other dining areas to have breakfast meetings, luncheon events, and special dinner events in a private setting.
High School/Elementary School Catering
It is very unlikely that a high school would cater an on-premise event for a customer who is not associated with the school. High school catering operations service events exclusively for the high school population; high schools frequently cater athletic banquets, teachers' meetings, events on the football field for fall and spring celebrations, and other sporting events. They may hold a catered event anywhere on the school property, but the preparation of the food is done in the high school cafeteria. One logical reason for this policy is that insurance and liability costs would escalate, and therefore be prohibitive.
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Private or Nonprofit Caterers
Why does a school cater internal events by using its on-premise food service facilities? There are certain advantages for maintaining an on-premise food service: catering their own activities provides an exceptional opportunity to increase profits and raise profit margins for the purpose of strengthening their internal fiscal health. The school directors can lower operational food costs in the cafeteria or use the additional revenue to expedite the purchase of new pieces of production equipment.
Usually those facilities can provide food and service for less cost than an independent caterer because they have the facility, their labor costs are built in, and they are not paying certain kinds of taxes. Churches, fraternal organizations, and fire halls are other examples of where an entirely on-premise catering operation may take place. Not many private or nonprofit caterers will cater off-premise events because they lack the expertise and equipment to do so; these organizations usually provide the hall, food, beverage, and servers for an occasion. They employ catering as a supplement to their internal financial budgets to help raise money to fund special projects.
There are three strategic advantages these organizations have over the independent caterer.
1. They have no labor costs because the labor is "donated" by the members themselves.
2. They do not pay taxes.
3. Many of them do not incur the expense of carrying any kind of liability insurance.
These organizations can charge $10.00 per plate for a meal and generate a profit. In contrast, the independent caterer would have to charge at least $15.00 per plate for the same job because of the above costs and responsibilities. Since it is difficult for the independent caterer to compete against these organizations on price, they must find another means of competition. They may become a specialist or create a proficiency, strengthen a concept, or create a distinction that leads to satisfying and exceeding customer expectations in ways other organizations cannot do.
Fire halls are not decorated and do not offer many fine accompaniments. This is one area where the independent caterer may show individuality and thus compete with a nonprofit group. They can expend resources on a continual training program resulting in superior customer service. Whereas fire halls have volunteers serving the client, they may not be well trained in proper food preparation techniques or proper sanitation practices. The independent caterer can provide customer appeal by offering more variety, attractive presentations with china and glassware, and a higher quality of food and expertise. This may assure the caterer that the customer will come to the independent caterer rather than a nonprofit group.
For example, at Christmas time, the decorations supplied by the independent caterer would be more elaborate and could be tailored to decorations that fit the clients' tastes and needs. The caterer strives to be a specialist and to satisfy the customer's needs. If you are able to satisfy more needs, you will benefit with a broader customer base. Ultimately, you will achieve success because more customers will recommend you to do work for their friends and other associates.
The management of college and university food service is either contracted to a company which specializes in food management services or handled internally by the institution itself. Regardless of the type of management selected, university/ college caterers are responsible for providing food and related services to the students, faculty, administrators, and guests.
College or university campus facilities are often utilized for on-premise catering. Universities and colleges have a myriad of activities happening simultaneously by many diverse organizations. Campus organizations, individual departments, educational conferences, or any other independent groups on campus make it necessary for the college or university to maintain an active on-premise caterer. The caterer can supply food and beverages ranging from cheese and crackers to buffets and elaborate dinners. On-campus requests for catered events can be held seven days a week, 24-hours a day, and range from such locations as individual classrooms to faculty clubs, renovated historical locations, and open-air functions.
The campus caterer will offer the client a choice from a standardized menu book or will customize a menu to fulfill special requests and needs. Functions held on a campus will include dessert receptions for visiting dignitaries, pre-meeting dinners for the members of the board of trustees, and special requests for the university president. The on-campus caterer is the exclusive caterer for the president and his activities. The president may request weekly or monthly meal plans that will provide breakfast, lunch, or dinner. The catering services are available for the president and visiting dignitaries.
The caterer will also be involved in special university events. Graduation ceremonies, homecoming activities, and sporting events such as football games are important to the university. For homecoming activities, the caterer may set up tents to support both food and beverages for the president and the school's alumni. For football games, the caterer will prepare elaborate pre-game buffets, and during the game may provide food, beverages, and service for the president and his invited guests in his personal box.
The university caterer only services functions on campus for university personnel. Not many events are catered outside the university property for the local community since they do not want to compete against community caterers.
* OFF-PREMISE CATERING
The second type of catering, off-premise catering, is accomplished exclusively by the caterer. The off-premise caterer transports all of the food, serving products, and personnel to a location other than the building or facility where the food is prepared. An important consideration for off-premise catering is that there must be access to equipment needed to prepare the food. Caterers must also furnish their own refrigerated trucks or other equipment to keep food hot or cold. Food must be the right serving temperature to be satisfactorily served. Salads must be ice cold and soups should be served at a minimum 140[degrees]F and not lukewarm. In addition, transportation must be provided for the staff to get to the site. Some off-premise events are so large that a caterer will have to rent buses to get the wait-staff to the location so they all arrive dressed properly at the same time.
TIPS FROM THE TRADE Jardine's Farm Restaurant & Catering provided a huge chicken barbeque for a corporation's 50th Anniversary. This special event celebration included all of the corporation's employees and their families totalling 13,500 guests. The caterer had approximately 100 employees working that day to support the effort to provide exceptional customer service. The event was held on a very hot August day. Two buses were chartered to transport the employees to the location. An agreement with the bus company was made to keep the buses running all day with the air conditioners on so that if the employees became physically exhausted from working in the August heat, combined with the heat from the charcoal grills, they could go into the motor coaches and get refreshed and cooled down. With this size event, located 30 miles from a centralized location, the caterer had to be organized. Attention to details and planning were the keys of the game. The contract with the corporation was made nine months in advance and the caterer worked on organizing this event continually up to the last minute through planning and focusing on all the details. The caterer had to answer questions such as: "How much coleslaw is needed for 13,500 guests?" "How much charcoal would be needed to prepare the food?" "How was the caterer going to set up stations to expedite the service of the food?" With the details and planning process, the caterer eventually determined how many people they could serve per minute. Bill Jardine Jardine's Farm Restaurant & Catering Sarver, PA
Supermarket Evolution into Catering
Supermarkets are also attracted to the opportunities associated with the catering business. Supermarkets have staff and facilities to get into the business with very little additional costs however, supermarket catering is usually limited to what can be served, not what can be prepared.
The evolution of the supermarket and its ability to provide catering service began when they first started offering cheese trays, vegetable trays, and items that people could pick up and take home while shopping in the store. Some of the more upscale supermarkets deducted that since they already had kitchen production facilities for the preparation of hot foods and gourmet foods, they could easily diversify into other related food items.
Supermarkets also use many of the value-added or convenience foods available in the market today. With the use of prepared foods, a menu can be built entirely around these prepared food items. A shopper can conveniently purchase prepared salads and heat-and-serve entrees. Since many of these supermarkets are already serving these items in their deli departments, they can increase their sales by offering similar foods to people who come in and pick up their food and take it home with them. Another development in the prepared food departments in supermarkets is the hiring of highly trained, certified chefs. Certified chefs now manage supermarket gourmet departments, providing an upscale and professional touch to the preparation and presentation of the food.
Dual Restaurant-Catering Operations
Many restauranteurs will cater on-premise special events and pursue off-premise opportunities. One strategic reason for dual restaurant-catering is that restauranteurs have invested in professional production equipment and can thus increase efficiencies. This effort will lower the overall fixed costs of the operation. Another reason to pursue off-premise catering functions is to increase incremental gross sales without having to incur a capital expenditure of expanding either the dining room area, the kitchen area, or building another restaurant.
Restaurant facilities have a fixed capacity-sized dining room and are only limited by increasing incremental sales while serving more customers within a given time period. Therefore, a strategy is to serve more people off-premise because they lack the space to hold two functions simultaneously. By complementing an on-site location with off-premise catering, a restauranteur can gain greater efficiencies in the use of production equipment and professional staff, lower overall fixed costs of business, incrementally increase gross sales, increase cash flow and profits, achieve better efficiencies in purchasing, and gain a much broader customer base.
* EXCLUSIVE CATERING RIGHTS
One of the most important strategic decisions for a successful off-premise function is the design of the menu. It is necessary to create a menu that will complement the equipment in the kitchen facility. Many caterers serve both on-and off-premise catering quite successfully. The Bradley House of Catering is an example of a caterer who has designed their facilities to handle both on-premise and off-premise functions simultaneously, catering off-premise events from fifty to five thousand people.
TIPS FROM THE TRADE The Bradley House of Catering maintains exclusive dining rights in its catering facility. Off-premise catering includes events at local museums, cultural centers, grand halls, centers for the arts, historical mansions, conservatories, and library social halls. Their market niche for both on-premise and off-premise functions is quite specialized: banquets and weddings, business meetings, exhibits/trade shows, private/corporate picnics, senior citizen functions, and personal celebrations have all experienced their expertise. The Bradley House of Catering is the exclusive caterer to a major cultural center. This means their facility has the exclusive rights to all catering functions held in the cultural center. The cultural center features a three-tiered, 11,500 square foot ballroom/auditorium that can accommodate up to 1,000 people. In addition to the cultural center's activities, special events such as banquets, weddings, concerts, dinner theaters, group meetings, and other business and social affairs are frequently held at the cultural center. On-site parking for approximately 500 vehicles is one advantage at this facility. Distinct competence in on-premise and off-premise catering has given them a strategic advantage over many other caterers in the market. When a caterer is able to define a target market, a competitive advantage is developed that is difficult for others to copy. Because of their expertise, The Bradley House of Catering is often called upon to service significant events at national art galleries and other special community activities. Their ability to define their market and work toward exceeding their customer's needs has brought them several awards of honor including The Best Caterer Award at The Caterer Showcase and The Five Star Award by The National Caterers Association. Eric J. Fairman Executive Sous Chef The Bradley House of Catering, Inc. Pittsburgh, PA
* ON-PREMISE AND OFF-PREMISE COMBINATIONS
Although the distinct description between on-premise and off-premise catering does exist, actual operations blend both types of catering so there is some fluctuation between on-premise and off-premise catering services. Many caterers may prepare their foods within their own facility and possibly use labor from another. Hotels and small restaurants may prepare food in their production kitchens and transport food off-premise to another location to serve their guests.
There are many instances when a caterer may be selected to provide either off-premise or on-premise work. For on-premise catering to be successful, the caterer must know how many people can be comfortably seated in their facility. Can entertainment be provided? Can a wide variety of menu items be prepared efficiently at the last minute? The capabilities of getting food off the grill or out of the oven is a serious consideration. However, going off-premise to a facility may find the caterer feeding many people inside a building, twenty-five or thirty people in a private home, at a church facility feeding two or three hundred people, or even outside for a picnic or fund-raising event. These are issues a caterer must consider.
A caterer must decide and determine, in advance, the specific clientele for their business. It is imperative that a caterer understands the relationship between the potential clients' needs, the caterer's knowledge base and skill levels, the event's labor requirements, and the facility's capabilities and availability.
Advantages and Disadvantages
While there is an advantage for both on-premise and off-premise catering, some inherent problems may occur. The distinct advantage of catering a banquet on-premise for one hundred-fifty people is that everything is within reach. If an unforeseen problem strikes, a better opportunity to create a successful alternative may be implemented. If a customer receives a steak they do not like, a caterer can immediately prepare another one. If serving at an off-premise location, this may not be an alternative. Because every job is different, experience teaches what has worked in similar circumstances in the past and will most likely work again in the present.
Many restaurants will do on-premise work, but the size event they can accommodate depends on how many seats they have available. Some restaurants have separate rooms where customers can have private parties catered. If it is a small restaurant, they may offer private-party catering for twenty-five or thirty people. They could cater bridal showers, a small retirement dinner, or a small awards dinner for a special occasion. If the caterer did off-premise work, he could provide the same services by catering the event at an individual's home. The caterer might provide a mini menu such as hors d'oeuvres and sandwiches. If the caterer has access to a hotel where there is seating for hundreds of people, the options are completely different. This opens a window of opportunity for the caterer to offer multiple services for large weddings, business meetings, conventions, or trade organizations. Meetings can be held in one section of the hotel, while dinner and dancing can take place in another. These types of events are quite profitable for hotels and very important to the overall function of the facility.
Conventions and Weddings
Wedding and convention catering are two of the most profitable events for caterers because of all the extra purchases that can be incorporated into a single event. A wedding (Figure 1-7) will usually require wine and champagne which is provided by the caterer; in addition, the caterer may also provide the wedding cake, the floral service, and the limousine service. The challenge for a caterer is to understand both the Jewish and Christian wedding ceremonies. Many caterers have a bridal consultant on staff to assist the prospective bride in her decisions. Often, caterers can receive a percentage of the money from those outside suppliers working with them, providing the caterer with additional profit. These multifaceted events are quite important for the caterer.
One-Stop Shop Catering
When building an off-premise or on-premise business, many caterers evolve into a full service or one-stop shop for the client. The caterer will work with rental companies to provide tables, chairs, and tents. The client appreciates this worry-free service provided by the caterer.
Today, caterers can provide many additional services based upon the needs of the client. Many caterers will provide entertainment, photography, videography service, invitations, ice sculptures, and any other services needed for a memorable occasion. In addition, some caterers provide a champagne toast for the bridal party, disposable cameras placed on each table or at key locations around the reception area with same day development, wedding favors, personalized take-home money boxes, and flower preservation. A caterer may have worked out a program for a large corporation picnic to provide services such as entertainment for the children, registration of guests, and valet parking. The keys to success are understanding the customer's needs and determining how the caterer can better satisfy those needs.
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Another interesting facet of the catering segment is mobile catering. Mobile catering employs trucks that are equipped with a body that has built-in facilities, such as gas-fired coffee urns (Figure 1-8). Many mobile caterers have developed a seasonal menu and a picnic table concept on the back of their truck. It is necessary for their units to be approved by the local health department because of the many sites and types of foods they serve. Mobile caterers keep hot soups in the winter, and their fleet of 25-30 trucks are dispatched to a variety of sites and locations from construction sites to automobile dealerships. They furnish a wide assortment of hot or cold sandwiches, beverages, soup, coffee, doughnuts, bagels, burritos, and other menu items for the construction workers or mechanics to eat.
Off-premise catering opportunities will also enable many restaurants and hotels to develop a seasonal niche. Based upon the time and season of the year there are special events, some that occur on an annual basis, of which the caterer should be aware. These events may involve food such as barbequed chicken and ribs that are prepared at a restaurant or hotel and served off-premise. An advantage of this type of special event is that the restaurant gains publicity that will help build their client base.
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Another advantage that a restaurant can experience by doing off-premise catering is the opportunity to serve more people than they can at their facility. A county fair might attract thousands of people requiring a great deal of planning, organizing, and menu writing. It is not impossible for a small restaurant that seats forty people during the week to do an off-premise event serving five thousand meals every Saturday at a fair or public event. The most important aspect to consider when planning and organizing this kind of service is the design of the menu.
The caterer arrives at the menu based on the needs of the client and what the kitchen equipment is designed to do in food preparation. A caterer cannot expect to do much sauteing without adequate burner space, or roasting without the necessary oven capacity. A caterer must understand that the design of the facility determines the ability to cater at an off-premise location and must be sure the food items on the menu match the production capability of the kitchen. Before selecting the type and categories of food for the menu, the caterer must have a clear understanding of the relationship between the equipment, production capability, and production scheduling.
Summer Outdoor Events
When catering summer off-premise jobs a caterer must be prepared in advance for the unexpected. Is the caterer prepared with the necessary resources if inclement weather threatens the event? The caterer needs to consider having tent rentals available for the day of the event, especially if the client does not have a rain date. Tents will be needed to protect the guests and the food. Additional production details must be coordinated to the type of menu and style of preparation.
* QUESTIONS CATERERS NEED TO ASK
A caterer must make a decision to work with a client. Every caterer must develop a standard set of questions that will assist them in making this determination. See the Client Checklist for a list of questions that may help a caterer decide whether or not to accept a function.
To illustrate the importance of location in off-premise catering, a caterer agreed to cater an off-premise event at a familiar banquet hall. Unfortunately, days before the event, a fire erupted at this facility, rendering it unusable. The event was shifted to another location. At this new location, the function was held on its third floor. Therefore, the job became more difficult and demanding. Food, china, equipment, and supplies had to be transported up and down two flights of stairs. After this experience, the caterer never catered another event in this facility. This is a good legal example for a caterer to cite when including a clause in the contract that allows them to assess an extra fee.
Client Checklist 1. Is the location of the event conducive to the caterer's capabilities to produce the food and service necessary to satisfy the guests' needs? 2. Is the caterer comfortable with the management at the hall or facility? Is the caterer comfortable with the client? Is the caterer comfortable with the personalities? 3. Can the caterer work within the quoted budget specified by the guest? 4. Is the caterer's staff compatible with the hall's staff? 5. Was a background check completed on the financials of the hall and client?
When catering social events, especially in the client's home, the caterer must determine if there is enough area to effectively handle the invited guests. If forty or fifty people will attend the event, is it possible to work in the home with that many guests? What is the size of the kitchen? Is room available to prepare the food and to get the food served properly and expeditiously?
* HOME-BASED CATERERS
One of the most challenging aspects of the catering business is the presence of home-based caterers--caterers who operate from their own homes. In many instances, these caterers may have limited experience, smaller insurance policies, and less knowledge in proper sanitation techniques. Operating out of the home may limit storage facilities, adequate refrigeration, proper food production, and equipment for holding hot food. Many of these home-based caterers are forced to learn techniques on the job. They have a small margin for error.
Many home-based caterers are required by local health departments to have separate kitchens in their homes. This may be a disadvantage to the amount of money necessary to start, but on the other hand, may be an advantage because of the amount of equipment a home-based caterer can purchase. Their equipment may consist of a four-burner stove and a small domestic refrigerator. They may lack a commercial dish machine to sanitize the equipment. The local health departments have a concern over these sanitation issues. If the home-based caterer is preparing mayonnaise-based salads in the summer time, how will they hold it at the proper storage temperature (below 41[degrees]F)? What kind of transportation equipment will they use, a car or pick-up truck? A professional, licensed, insured caterer will most often own a refrigerated truck and will rent more as demand necessitates.
Another potential weakness of a home-based caterer is a lack of professional training for their staff. Many do not have the time or resources to adequately train their staff in professional service techniques. In addition, they may not have workman's compensation coverage for their staff.
Home-based caterers can do a good job catering out of their home and charge less money than a licensed, professional caterer. They can handle small jobs between 50-100 people at less cost per plate than the licensed caterer. Many however, are not equipped to handle large events.
Unfair Competitive Advantage
Home-based caterers are sometimes viewed as unfair competition to a licensed caterer because the professional caterer is required to have a license, must be inspected by the proper authorities, must conform to the rules and regulations of the health department, and many must have on-staff personnel certified in sanitation. The home-based caterer does not have this expense or the overhead of having commercial equipment, professionally-trained staff, and the required insurance coverage to compete in today's market.
Finally, it is important to understand that food prepared in a private home may not be used or offered for human consumption in a food establishment.
Restaurants and hotels are holding banquets on-premise, which permits these events to flow smoothly. The functions may be completed with fewer problems at an on-premise facility than an off-premise location because an on-premise event allows a caterer to have all the equipment at their complete disposal. At an off-premise event, a caterer has to know who is responsible for any cooking, if there is equipment available to heat the food, if the kitchen is large enough to get the food out to serve the guests, and if it is a dinner or stand-up cocktail party. The off-premise catering challenge does give a caterer more hassle, but many times the intrinsic reward and personal satisfaction of completing the event and satisfying the customer is well worth the effort.
1. Identify and discuss features that distinguish on-premise catering from off-premise catering.
2. Define catering management. Discuss and provide examples of how catering fits into three general classifications of the food service industry.
3. Identify and discuss different types of catering events which may occur on-premise and/or off-premise.
4. Identify eight ways restauranteurs benefit from catering off-premise events.
5. Discuss how private or nonprofit caterers have a competitive advantage over the independent caterer.
6. Explain competitive disadvantages a private nonprofit caterer has compared to an independent caterer.
7. Identify the types of catering events a university-based caterer would execute on campus.
8. Discuss the role a one-stop shop caterer provides for a prospective bride and groom when planning their wedding.
9. Identify eight ways off-premise catering events can contribute to increased profitability for the restauranteur.
10. What are the key questions caterers must ask themselves before accepting off-premise functions?
11. Explain why the home-based caterer may be viewed as a competitive threat to the professional caterer.
Select the single best answer for each question.
1. Which of the following catering businesses would be found in the commercial segment of the food service industry?
a. business/industry accounts
b. college and university
d. independent caterer
e. diplomatic functions
2. When all required tasks, functions, and related services the caterer executes in preparation and implementation of the food and service for a client are done exclusively at the caterer's own facility, that is called --.
a. off-premise catering
b. on-premise catering
c. corporate catering
d. social catering
e. recreational catering
3. Restauranteurs will pursue off-premise catering opportunities for which one of the following reasons?
a. It raises the overall fixed costs of business.
b. It incrementally increases gross sales.
c. It will decrease cash flow.
d. It will decrease the customer base.
e. It will decrease purchasing efficiencies.
True or False
Read each of the following statements and determine if it is true or false.
1. The commercial segment of catering management represents the not-for-profit operations which include business and industry, health care, and private clubs.
2. The evolution of supermarkets and their ability to provide catering service began when they first hired highly trained, certified chefs to upscale the food.
3. Off-premise catering is accomplished when the caterer transports all the food, serving products, and personnel to a location other than the building or facility where the food was prepared.
Putting It All Together
Visit an independent caterer, the catering department of a hotel or restaurant, a health care facility, college/university, or a home-based caterer. Identify and discuss the different types of catering events they have executed in the past year. Identify how their facilities benefit from catering off-premise events. Discuss how private or nonprofit caterers may have a competitive advantage over the independent caterer. Write a short report summarizing your visit.
Figure 1-1 Modern American catering categories. FOOD SERVICE CATERING INDUSTRY Military Segment Commercial Segment Noncommercial Segment Military Functions Independent Caterers Business/Industry Diplomatic Functions Hotel/Motel Caterers Accounts Home-Based Caterers College and Restaurant/Catering University Catering Firms Health Care Private Clubs Facilities Recreational Food Service (amusement and theme parks, conference and convention facilities, museums, libraries, stadiums, and sport arenas) School Catering Social Organizations (fraternal and social clubs, associations, and fire halls) Transportation Food Service Catering (in-flight catering)
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|Title Annotation:||PART ONE: What Is Catering?|
|Publication:||Introduction to Catering|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2001|
|Next Article:||Chapter Two The caterer and the client.|