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Chapter 9 Viennoiserie.

OBJECTIVES

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

* describe the Viennoiserie ingredients used and their central functions.

* explain the mixing, fermentation, makeup, proofing, and baking of laminated and nonlaminated dough.

* produce a selection of various pastries from laminated doughs, exhibiting proper mixing, lamination, and makeup techniques.

* produce a selection of nonlaminated Viennoiserie.

* demonstrate and implement alternative baking processes for Viennoiserie.

AN INTRODUCTION TO VIENNOISERIE

Viennoiserie is the meeting point between pastry and bread. Professional bakers and pastry chefs use this term to refer to yeast-raised products that are sweetened with sugar and enriched with butter and eggs. The two major classes of Viennoiserie are laminated dough and nonlaminated dough.

Lamination is the process of creating layers of dough and butter to create light and flaky pastries. Examples of laminated Viennoiserie include croissant and Danish, while versions of nonlaminated Viennoi serie include brioche, Pan d'Oro, and Gibassier. Viennoiserie requires knowledge of bread-making principles such as dough mixing, fermentation, proofing time assessment, and baking, yet it can also require skills more commonly associated with the pastry chef, such as visual composition, uniqueness of flavor, and presentation.

THE BAKING PROCESS FOR VIENNOISERIE

Like bread, Viennoiserie is yeast raised, and many of the same basic principles apply. However, depending on the category of Viennoiserie and the characteristics of the dough, some special considerations should to be taken. The basic processes for Viennoiserie are listed in Figure 9-1.

The working stages of Viennoiserie are similar to bread and can be divided into two categories: physically working with the dough (mixing, laminating, dividing, preshaping, and shaping) and resting or undergoing fermentation (preferment, first fermentation, final fermentation, and oven spring). A review of mixing and fermentation from Chapters 3 and 4 will be helpful. The important difference is the process of lamination.

INGREDIENT SELECTION AND FUNCTIONALITY

The selection of ingredients for Viennoiserie will have an effect on the properties of the dough. As with bread, basic ingredients include flour, water, yeast, and salt. Additional ingredients commonly used in sweet, yeasted dough include sugar, fat, eggs, and milk.

FLOUR

The choice of flour is important because the dough needs go through the processes of mixing, fermentation, and makeup. Proper dough characteristics can be achieved through a good balance between extensibility and elasticity. Most bakers use low-protein bread flour milled from HRW (hard red winter) wheat, which provides enough strength to support the additional ingredients commonly found in doughs like croissant or brioche.

Other bakers use high-gluten flour milled from HRS wheat. This option may be desirable for dough with ingredients that weaken gluten structure, like hard fat and sugar. However, the use of high-gluten flour might create a product with a thicker crust with a leathery mouth feel and a crumb with a more chewy texture. Occasionally, the baker may come across a formula that uses a weaker flour like cake or pastry flour in addition to stronger flour. This will slightly weaken the dough in order to make it more tender.
Figure 9-1
Comparative Steps in Laminated
and Nonlaminated Viennoiserie

Laminated                Nonlaminated

Preferment (optional)    Preferment (optional)

Mixing                   Mixing

First fermentation       First fermentation

Lamination               Dividing

Dividing                 Preshaping

Relaxing of dough        Resting time

Shaping                  Shaping

Final proof              Final proof

Baking                   Baking

Cooling                  Cooling


The ash content of flour is another important consideration, because a high level of minerals combined with the higher levels of sugar in Viennoiserie can prematurely increase dough's fermentation activity rate. When ash content is high, a lower quantity of yeast may be required to decrease the rate of fermentation. In addition, high ash content can interfere in the development of the dough, decreasing the chances of obtaining sufficient elasticity in the dough. Higher levels of ash content can also create a darker crumb color which is not as visually attractive for Viennoiserie. See Chapter 6 for more information on ash content and its effect on dough and fermentation.

HYDRATING COMPONENTS OF VIENNOISERIE: WATER, MILK, AND EGGS

Flour needs to be hydrated in order to link its components and start chemical reactions in the dough. For Viennoiserie, one has the option of using water, milk, eggs, or a combination of these ingredients. The choice will have an effect on the dough's physical properties and flavor. In addition, as in bread mixing, the temperature of the liquids controls the temperature of the dough.

Water

Water is commonly used in Viennoiserie, often in conjunction with milk or milk powder, especially for croissant dough. Water does not lend any unique flavors, as eggs or milk do, but it is very effective at hydrating flour. When 100 percent water is used, 100 percent of the water contributes to hydrating the dough, which helps produce a cohesive dough with good working properties.

Milk

Milk adds richness, flavor, nutritional benefits, and color to Viennoiserie. Although any type of milk can be used, whole milk is typically chosen for its more concentrated flavor and richness. Milk contains natural sugars and proteins that help facilitate browning effects, as well as natural fat that helps make dough smoother, resulting in a finer, softer crumb.

Milk is commonly used as a portion of the liquid for croissant, and as the majority of the liquid for Danish. Milk hydrates flour at about 87 percent, which must be taken into account when determining dough hydration.

When milk is indicated by a formula, some bakers choose to use milk powder in conjunction with water. This is often determined by the size of the bakery and the availability of dairy products. When milk powder is used in Viennoiserie formulas, it is measured at 10 percent milk powder by weight of the milk being replaced. The difference is added to the formula in the form of water.

Any dry milk can be used successfully, but the nonfat variety is preferred because it is stable and because it can be mixed directly with dry ingredients. High heat-processed dry milk is preferable to low heat processed varieties because the enzymes that can break down dough have been killed in high heat. Some older formulas for croissant or Danish call for milk that has been scalded to destroy these enzymes. This step is no longer necessary because the pasteurization process used on all milk today has the same enzyme-killing effect.

Eggs

When eggs are used as a hydrating agent, their addition is more noticeable than either water or milk. Added flavor, color, and nutrition make eggs a common addition to richer forms of Viennoiserie such as Danish, brioche, and the extremely egg-rich Pan d'Oro and Panettone.

Eggs contain water, protein, and fats and hydrate flour at 73 percent of water. Dough hydration can be improved by adding 10 to 20 percent of milk or water when a large quantity of eggs is used in a formula. Higher quantities of egg increase dough plasticity. The protein coagulates during baking, providing structure and strength, and the fat in the yolks acts as a tenderizing agent and helps retain moisture.

The egg yolk, rich in carotenoid pigments, also adds richness in color and flavor. The fats, cholesterol, and lecithin help create a smooth, fine texture in baked goods, while higher levels of egg yolk help emulsify higher quantities of butter within the dough. The protein in the yolk also aids in the Maillard reaction and promotes browning during baking.

The type of egg used typically depends on the size and location of the bakery. Smaller bakeries often use fresh eggs. When a larger volume of egg is required and fresh eggs are no longer practical, frozen bucket eggs are likely to be used. If this is the case, the quantity of sugar added to the eggs for preservation must be taken into account in the final dough. If fresh or frozen eggs are not available, or are not economical, rehydrated dry eggs can be used. Pasteurized liquid egg products are another choice and are increasingly more common because they are easy to use (no defrosting is necessary) and very safe microbiologically.

SUGAR

Sugar is used in varying amounts in Viennoiserie. For example, puff pastry has no added sugars, croissant has a modest 12 to 13 percent, based on flour weight, and some brioche have upward of 20 percent. The amount of sugar in a sweet, yeasted dough will not only affect the flavor of the finished item but also affect the mixing, fermentation, and baking guidelines that need to be followed.

The point at which sugar has a significant impact on dough mixing and fermentation is 10 to 12 percent. These two steps are related to dough development and yeast activity, respectively.

Mixing

Because sugar is hygroscopic, it competes with protein from the flour for hydration in a dough system. If sugar is added too early in the mixing process, the gluten formation will be delayed and the dough will be more difficult to develop, resulting in increased mixing times. To give the gluten sufficient opportunity to form and develop, higher quantities of sugar (10 percent and greater) should be held back and slowly added as the dough develops.

Flavor

The amount of flavor that sugar contributes to Viennoiserie is dictated by the type and amount used. For example, even though croissants are described as sweet, yeasted pastries, they are not very sweet. The type of sugar used also has an influence on secondary flavor characteristics. Brown sugar in Danish or croissant create a more complex sweetness and aroma, while honey adds a characteristic flavor inherent to its particular source and blend.

Color

Sugar may not color dough, but it does have an impact on crust color. As a result of the sugar caramelization and Maillard reaction, which is created as residual sugars and amino acids react under heat, higher quantities of sugar result in faster browning during baking. In this case, a lower oven temperature ensures that items bake before they become too dark. Sugars such as brown sugar or molasses can change the color of the crumb and are sometimes used in sweet dough for their unique flavor contributions.

Texture and Shelf Life

Sugar's hygroscopic properties improve the texture of baked goods. Its ability to attract and retain moisture creates a softer crust and crumb, both of which are characteristic of Danish and croissant. Sugar also creates denser dough with smaller alveoles that are typically regular in distribution and size. Shelf life is also related to the quantity of sugar used, with higher amounts ensuring longer freshness in finished products. Additionally, natural and commercially produced inverted sugars may be used to increase shelf life and help retain moisture.

Types of Sugar Used in Viennoiserie

Granulated white sugar is the most common type of sugar found in sweet, yeasted dough, with honey and brown sugar used significantly less often. Once the baker understands how to use sugar in dough and how to alter mixing, fermentation, and baking accordingly, other types of sugar can be substituted or quantities altered to achieve desired results.

SALT

Salt has the same functions in Viennoiserie as it does in bread. For a thorough review of salt and its effect on dough, please refer to Chapters 3 and 4. In Viennoiserie, salt helps to regulate fermentation, improves fermentation tolerance, and balances the sweet and acidic flavors within a baked item. The quantity of salt can be adjusted to accommodate longer or shorter fermentation time and/or higher quantities of sugar. For example, if a formula contains a high level of sugar, it may have a smaller percentage of salt (1 to 1.5 percent based on flour weight) to avoid slowing down the fermentation activity too much.

YEAST

Yeast guidelines are similar for Viennoiserie and bread. Yeast is incorporated into the dough in the same way as it is for bread dough, and the same precautions exist. However, a different type of yeast, osmotolerant yeast, is preferred for Viennoiserie. This is a particular strain or strains of yeast conditioned with specific culture processes that allow them to function well under the high osmotic pressure created from increased levels of sugar. In these situations, osmotolerant yeast ensures consistent results for fermentation activity and a fuller volume of the finished products.

FAT

The fat used in laminated dough affects the working properties of the dough, as well as the flavor and cost of the final product. Although unsalted butter is traditionally used, cost and working properties sometimes result in the substitution of alternative solid fats. The most common of these include margarine or other hydrogenated oils like roll-in shortening (a fat specifically designed for use with laminated doughs). Some bakers use a blend of butter and another hard fat to balance flavor, cost, and working properties of the dough.

Selection of Fat

To better understand the selection of fats used in Viennoiserie, please review the butter, margarine, and shortening sections of the online companion, including melting temperatures, working properties, and flavor and texture characteristics. To download the information on ingredients, go to http://wwwdelmarlearning.com/companions/.

Application of Fat in Viennoiserie

The selection of fat is always a determining quality of Viennoiserie. Whether it is used in brioche, croissant, or Panettone, it lends unique qualities. The two basic methods of incorporating fat into Viennoiserie are often used in conjunction for laminated dough. The baker can put fat in the dough and can laminate it to create thin layers of fat and dough.

Fat in the Dough

Practically all Viennoiserie dough contains fat. For laminated dough, this creates extensibility. For nonlaminated Viennoiserie, such as brioche, fat softens and enriches the crumb. The range of fat added to a dough can be anywhere from 4 to 70 percent of the flour weight. The higher the percentage of fat, the more precautions the baker needs to take during mixing, shaping, proofing, and baking. Quality Viennoiserie will always contain butter. Specific guidelines for working with high-fat dough appear later in this chapter.

Effects Color, flavor, crumb, and shelf life are all affected by the type and quantity of butter mixed into the dough. For example, margarine has a more golden color than butter, while butter has a more golden color than shortening. Butter can add a unique cultured flavor. In addition, as the quantity of fat increases, the texture of the crumb becomes softer and tighter, and staling is increasingly delayed.

Mixing Considerations The quantity of fat mixed into the final dough will affect its development and strength. When the percentage of butter increases beyond 10 to 12 percent based on flour weight, it is necessary to mix longer to ensure proper development and strength. For dough with a high content of fat, such as brioche or Panettone, an intensive mix is required. The fat should be added, in a softened, malleable state, just before full development has been achieved. If it is added too early, the dough will take much longer to develop and gain the strength required to support larger quantities of fat.

For leaner enriched dough, which contains only 4 to 10 percent fat based on flour weight, the fat can be added during ingredient incorporation. Development for these leaner sweet doughs (croissant and Danish) is typically limited to improved mix, and the butter should be malleable to ensure easy incorporation. For products with large quantities of fat, the temperature of the fat must be considered for proper control of dough temperature.

Fat for Lamination

Fat is also used to create the thin layer of butter and dough that creates the desired flaky texture. Special considerations, such as temperature and quantity in relation to the total amount of dough, must be followed when considering fat for lamination. Although the most popular choices are butter, margarine, shortening, or a blend of butter and shortening, the most prized is cultured butter with a fat content between 82 and 84 percent. This butter is also referred to as dry butter because it has lower water content than standard butter. Dry butter produces flakier pastries and typically has a more pronounced flavor due to the addition of unique cultures.

Quantity of Fat The quantity of roll-in fat in relation to dough in the formula will affect the lamination process and, in turn, the texture of the final product. The standard quantity of fat for croissant is 25 percent of total dough weight; for puff pastry, it is 50 percent of dough weight. As a general rule, higher ratios of fat to dough require more folds. For example, three single folds are standard for croissant, whereas five to six single folds are required for puff pastry.

Temperature and Texture of Fat Due to the various melting points of fats used in laminated dough, obtaining the proper working properties can be a challenge. For proper lamination to occur, the fat must have plasticity. Properties of plasticity include having the butter firm, yet pliable. The temperature of the fat should always be cold enough to resist absorption into the dough or oozing out of the detrempe, the dough portion of laminated Viennoiserie. This is why some bakers opt to use margarine or roll-in shortening. The melting point for each is higher than that of butter, water content is lower, and both are easily workable at moderate room temperatures. Some bakers mix 5 to 10 percent flour (based on the weight of the roll-in butter) into the butter to absorb water content, increase plasticity, and prevent the butter from becoming too firm. The dry butter must be softened slightly before the lamination process begins to ensure that the butter has good plasticity so that it will expand in thin even sheets along with the dough during the lamination process.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE LAMINATED DOUGH PROCESS

Six critical steps make up the laminated dough process. This process serves as a starting point for introducing different preferments and alternative fermentation techniques to create unique flavor profiles and adaptable production schedules.

MIXING

Proper mixing is the first step in making successful laminated dough. Throughout time, this step has evolved from a simple incorporation of ingredients to an improved mix. Although a short mix is sometimes still used today, an improved mix results in better volume and a more consistent production schedule. If mixing time is shorter, a longer first fermentation is required to build optimal strength before lamination.

Croissant made using a shorter mixing time will have a smaller volume, a crumb with a more golden color, and possibly a more complex flavor due to the limited amount of dough oxidation. The one typical adjustment required when mixing croissant over lean dough is that the sugar is held back until development occurs if sugar percentage is more than 10 percent based on the flour weight. Optimal dough temperature for laminated dough is 76[degrees]F (24[degrees]C).

Just as in lean dough mixing, the baker can choose to use an autolyse for laminated dough. This will reduce the mixing time and will increase the extensibility of the dough. Having a dough with good extensibility is beneficial especially if laminating the dough manually; however, it is indispensable for mechanical processing as well, especially during the final sheeting of the dough to help prevent shrinkage.

FIRST FERMENTATION

The typical duration of the first fermentation of yeasted laminated dough is 2 hours using two temperature zones. The purpose of the two temperature zones is to allow the dough to ferment and then to cool in preparation for the laminating process. After mixing is completed, the dough enters first fermentation and the temperature should be taken. Depending on the temperature of the dough, the baker may need to adjust the ambient temperature surrounding the dough to either warm it or cool it. The appropriate guidelines follow:

* Dough cooler than 72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) should be placed in a warm area of the bakery for 1 hour.

* Dough between 73[degrees]F (23[degrees]C) and 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C) should remain at room temperature for 1 hour.

* Dough 79[degrees]F (26[degrees]C) or warmer should go into the refrigerator for 1 hour.

After the dough has undergone the initial hour of first fermentation in its designated temperature zone, it may be divided into the appropriate weight per detrempe and put under refrigeration. During this time, the yeast activity is slowed, and the dough temperature becomes equal to the temperature of the butter used for lamination.

LAMINATION

Lamination is the process by which layers of dough and butter are created to make flaky pastries such as croissant and Danish. Among the important things to consider when laminating are the temperature and preparation of the butter (also known as the beurrage or roll-in fat), the temperature and consistency of the dough, the process of rolling out the dough, and the types and quantity of folds given to the dough. During the process of lamination, it is crucial that the temperature of the dough and butter remains cold and that the butter remains extensible.

Preparing the Beurrage

The first step in lamination is the preparation of the butter. This important step has been ill-achieved in several "creative" but misguided ways. In one such method, butter was grated over the dough like cheese, which actually produces a final product more like bread than pastry. In another innovative process, warmed, spreadable butter was used. Because this technique requires that the dough be refrigerated before sheeting, the butter is absorbed and the layers of fat and dough are less distinct.

The most commonly used techniques to prepare butter for lamination all lead to the creation of a cold block of fat that is smooth, pliable, and extensible. Some of the following techniques may be more applicable than others, depending on production requirements and equipment availability. The two most important aspects for the pastry chef or baker are knowing what characteristics to look for and how to control them.

* Larger bakeries that produce thousands of pieces of pastry per day benefit from using a butter press, a hydraulic press that efficiently and consistently forms uniform blocks of butter at the push of a button.

* The dough sheeter technique is useful for bakeries that cannot afford a butter press yet want to quickly and efficiently produce butter blocks. Room temperature butter is sheeted out to the desired size and shape between two silicone baking mats (see Dough Sheet Technique Figure 9-2, Steps 1-2). Once prepared, it can be transferred to parchment paper and reserved under refrigeration until needed. (See Dough Sheet Technique Figure 9-2, Steps 3-4.)

* For the small bakery or the serious home baker, the rolling pin technique is simple in theory but loud in practice. The cold butter is placed between heavy plastic sheets and is hit with a heavy French rolling pin until it is the desired shape and size (see Rolling Pin Technique Figure 9-3, Step 1). The action of the pin softens the butter, making it extensible and pliable, but the quick process maintains the cool temperature. (See Rolling Pin Technique Figure 9-3, Step 2.)

Bakers from any production environment should be able to successfully prepare the butter for lamination using any one of these three options. The process can be simplified by using commercially avail able sheets of butter when available, but the choice of butter in prepared blocks is more limited than with bulk butter, and the cost is higher.

Dough and Butter Characteristics

A successful lamination process creates great laminated dough. To achieve both, the dough and butter used must exhibit particular characteristics. If the dough is too wet, it will cause indistinct layers within the pastry; if it is too stiff, it will cause an excessive amount of strength and problems during lamination and makeup. Depending on the type of flour used and the quantity of butter in the dough, a hydration of 60 to 65 percent of flour weight is standard. If less water is used in the dough, the fat can be increased up to 10 percent of flour weight to increase extensibility. In addition, the butter enclosed in the dough must be at a similar temperature and texture.

Enclosing the Fat into the Dough

There are several ways to enclose fat into the dough, and some work better than others. The method used will determine the number of layers. The most common and easiest way to accomplish this is to enclose the beurrage over 50 percent of the dough, creating an initial single layer of fat. (See Enclosing Fat Into Dough Figure 9-4, Steps 1-2.) The fat should extend to the edges so that the dough is not stretched to enclose the fat. Altering the thickness of the dough can create uneven layers of dough and fat that can throw off the lamination. When done correctly, the end result of this method is two layers of dough and one layer of butter. (See Enclosing Fat Into Dough Figure 9-4, Step 3.)
FIGURE 9-2 DOUGH SHEET TECHNIQUE

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Place the butter in an even layer
between two silicon baking mats.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Sheet the butter using the dough
sheeter.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Once the butter is the desired size,
remove the silicon mats and place
butter on parchment paper.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] The butter is now ready for storage.

FIGURE 9-3 ROLLING PIN TECHNIQUE

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Place the butter in an even layer,
enclosed in a heavy-duty plastic sheet,
and hit the butter to soften it and form
the shape.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] The finished butter block is ready for use.

FIGURE 9-4 ENCLOSING FAT INTO DOUGH

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Roll the dough to double the
size of the fat.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Place the fat in the center of the dough
and fold the sides toward the center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] The seam should run down the
center of the dough, and the butter
should come to the edge.


An alternate method is to lay the fat over two-thirds of the dough, justified to the left or right (see Alternative Method: Enclosing Fat Into Dough Figure 9-5, Step 1). Next, the third that is not covered is folded over the butter (see Alternative Method: Enclosing Fat Into Dough Figure 9-5, Step 2). After this, the third that is topped with butter is folded toward the center (see Alternative Method: Enclosing Fat Into Dough Figure 9-5, Step 3). The end result is three layers of dough and two layers of butter (see Alternative Method: Enclosing Fat Into Dough Figure 9-5, Step 4).

Sheeting the Dough and the Folding Process

The next step in the process is to sheet or roll out the dough. After this, the dough is given a series of folds. There are two options for folds: a single or letter fold (see Single Fold Figure 9-6) and a double or book fold (see Double Fold Figure 9-7). Single fold refers to folding one third of the dough from the left and then the right, as if folding a business letter. A double fold can be done by folding the sheeted dough in four, with the center spine offset to ensure consistent layering.

A proper resting time is required between folds. For example, croissant typically get three single folds, the first two of which may be done back to back. After resting for at least a half hour, the third fold can be completed. When making croissant dough by hand, it is beneficial to rest the dough for up to 45 minutes after each fold.

Sheeting guidelines are the same whether the pastry chef or baker is making laminated dough by hand or with a reversible dough sheeter. It is essential to sheet the dough out as evenly as possible in order to create even layers of dough and fat. In addition, the dough must be sheeted in the direction of the open ends to help prevent it from distorting and creating excessive scrap dough. Caution must be taken to not sheet the dough out too much in one pass of the sheeter or one roll of the pin because even, gradual sheeting will help ensure even layering. The degree to which the dough is sheeted out largely depends on the size of the detrempe. In general, the dough should be sheeted to three times its width for a single fold and to four times its width for a double fold.

After the dough has been sheeted out to the appropriate length, the fold can be given. When a dough sheeter is used, it is possible to give a second fold right away; however, if the dough is processed by hand, it is beneficial to let it rest for at least 30 minutes in the refrigerator. Before making the second fold, rotate the dough 90[degrees] to ensure the sheeting is congruent with the open ends of the dough. After the second fold, the dough should rest for at least 30 minutes in the refrigerator.

The final fold may be given to the detrempe after the minimum resting time is completed. After the third fold is complete, the dough must then rest again before being sheeted out for product makeup. Allowing the dough to rest is important to ensure that the dough does not shrink during makeup, which can produce narrow, thick strips of dough.

The Effect of Sheeting and Folding the Dough Beside the obvious effect of creating layers of dough and fat, other things happen as dough is sheeted and folded. As the folds are completed, dough strength increases, much as it does with punches and folds for bread dough. This increase in dough strength due to sheeting is one of the reasons it is possible to undermix a dough, yet still end up with an acceptable laminated pastry.
FIGURE 9-5 ALTERNATIVE METHOD: ENCLOSING FAT INTO DOUGH

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Place the prepared fat over two-thirds
of the dough.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Fold the uncovered dough toward the
center of the fat.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Fold the dough with the butter on it
toward the opposite side.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] The finished detrempe will have three
layers of dough and two layers of fat.

FIGURE 9-6 SINGLE FOLD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Roll out the dough on a lightly floured
surface to about three times its width.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Fold one-third of the dough toward the
center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] From the other side, fold the
remaining third toward the center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] The single fold is complete.


The type and number of folds have a large impact on the final product. For example, when making croissant, the first two folds can be done back to back, but at least 30 minutes should pass before the third fold can be completed. To speed up production time and reduce dough handling, some pastry chefs and bakers use a single and a double fold back to back, or two double folds back to back. This method is useful to keep production moving because dough is ready for sheeting, cutting, and makeup within 30 minutes. When combining single and double folds, the single fold should always be completed first.

The degree of flakiness in the final product is largely dependent on the quality of the lamination, but it is also the result of the number and types of folds that are put into the dough. The larger layers of fat and dough that are created by a combination of double and single folds create a flakier pastry than one made using the same formula, but with three single folds. Doing less than a single and a double fold is not advisable because the layers of dough will be too thick, easily flaking off the finished products.

MAKEUP

Makeup can happen after the dough has had its final fold and has rested in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes. During the final sheeting, establish the proper width first and then rotate the dough 90[degrees] to sheet it down to the proper thickness. On most reversible sheeters, dough thickness should be about 1/8 inch (3 to 3.5 mm) for the average size croissant.

Before dividing and shaping begins, the dough must be relaxed. During this process, the dough shrinks, which helps to prevent shrinking after cutting. When cutting laminated dough, it is essential to use rulers for proper measurement and to work quickly with sharp tools. The dough will warm at an accelerated rate because it has been sheeted so thinly.

The type of Viennoiserie being made will determine the shape of the cuts and the ease of effort. Although the varieties may seem endless, shaping must remain consistent. The makeup techniques for the laminated Viennoiserie vary. (See Shaping Traditional Croissant Figure 9-8; Shaping Chocolate Croissant Figure 9-9; Shaping Half Pocket Danish Figure 9-10; Shaping Pocket Danish Figure 9-11; Shaping Pinwheel Danish Figure 9-12; Shaping Snail Danish Figure 9-13; Filling Danish with Cream and Jam Figure 9-14; Filling Danish with Cream and Fruit Figure 9-15.)

Egg Washing Pastries

After the pastries have been made up, they are panned and egg washed. When panning, allow sufficient space for each pastry and bake on parchment paper. The goal of egg washing is to coat each pastry with a thin coat of egg wash. It should not pool on the pastry or around the base of the pastry. Egg washing prevents a skin from forming on the pastry, and the yolk enhances the crust color. All Viennoiserie is typically egg washed twice: once after makeup and again before baking. This practice ensures even coloration over the pastry, taking into consideration the part of the dough that was not exposed before proofing.

Care must be taken when egg washing to prevent deflating or damaging the delicate pastries. When egg washing croissant, use a brush with soft bristles and brush in strokes parallel to the shoulders of the croissant to avoid gluing together the layers of dough and smearing together the layers on the finished product.
FIGURE 9-7 DOUBLE FOLD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Roll out the dough on a lightly
floured surface to about four times
its width.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Fold approximately one-eighth of the
dough toward the center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] From the other side, fold the dough
to meet the first fold.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Fold the dough in half to complete the
double fold.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[5] The "offset" double fold is complete.

FIGURE 9-8 SHAPING TRADITIONAL CROISSANT

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[1] Roll out the dough to 16 inches
(41 cm) wide. Cut into two
8 inch (20 1/2 cm) wide strips from
which the triangles are cut having
a 4 inch (10 1/4 cm) wide base.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Gently stretch the dough.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Gently stretch out the base.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Roll the croissant toward the tip.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[5] Use caution to not damage the
shoulders of the croissant.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[6] After panning, apply a light coat
of egg wash.

FIGURE 9-9 SHAPING CHOCOLATE CROISSANT

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Cut strips of dough measuring 5 1/4
inches (13 1/2 cm) in width (length-wise)
and then cut them into sections
approximately 3 inches (8 cm) wide
(or as wide as the chocolate baton).

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Step-by-step view of shaping for chocolate
croissant.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] The seam should always be
centered on the bottom of the pastry.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Using the same shaping principle as in
Figure 9-10, Step 2, the same technique
can be applied to an uncut strip of
croissant dough.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[5] After the strip in complete, it can be cut
to the desired size.

FIGURE 9-10 SHAPING HALF POCKET DANISH

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Cut squares to the desired size.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] From two opposing corners, gently pull
them outward.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Fold the extended corner
toward the center of the dough
piece and press to secure.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] The half pocket Danish is ready
for proofing.

FIGURE 9-11 SHAPING POCKET DANISH

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Start with the shape for the half
pocket Danish.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Rotate the dough, stretch the two
unfolded sides outward, and bring
them toward the center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] The completed pocket Danish
ready for proofing.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FIGURE 9-12 SHAPING PINWHELL DANISH

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Cut out squares of dough and cut
them from the corners in toward
the center, taking caution to not cut
through the center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Fold the tips of the dough in to the
center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] In the center, press the down
to secure the shape.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] The pinwhell Danish is ready for
proofing.

FIGURE 9-13 SHAPING SNAIL DANISH

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Brush a 16 inch (41 cm) wide strip of
Danish dough lightly with egg wash
and then sprinkle it with cinnamon
sugar.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Fold the dough in half to form a layer
of cinnamon sugar sandwiched between
the Danish dough.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Cut the dough into strip 3/4 inch
(2 cm) wide and gently stretch them.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Twist the strip of dough on the
table

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[5] Secure the closed end to the strip on the
table and wrap the twisted strip around
the center.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[6] Secure the tail under the pastry.

FIGURE 9-14 FILLING DANISH WITH CREAM AND JAM

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Once proofed, egg wash the
pastry a second time and degas
the center of the pastry.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Pipe in the pastry cream.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Pipe jam into the pastry cream
and bake.

FIGURE 9-15 FILLING DANISH WITH
CREAM AND FRUIT

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Once proofed, egg wash the
pastry a second time and degas
the center of the pastry.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Pipe the desired filling into
the center of the pastry (cream
cheese filling shown).

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Top the filling with frozen or
fresh fruit and bake.


THE FINAL PROOF

Yeasted laminated dough undergoes a final proof before baking. Due to the elevated level of sugar, this process can take up to 90 minutes. This can be done at room temperature [68[degrees]F (20[degrees]C) to 70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C)] or in a proof box. Proof boxes are more consistent, but the temperature and humidity settings should be closely controlled. The ideal temperature for proofing laminated dough is at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C) with approximately 80 percent humidity. Excessive heat can potentially melt the butter within the layers of the dough, whereas too much humidity can cause excessive blistering or wrinkling of the pastry.

BAKING

Once the final proof has been assessed, the Viennoiserie is ready to bake. Before baking, an additional coat of egg wash is required and additional preparation may be needed for items like Danish and specialty croissant. Creams, fillings, or jams should be added just before baking. The area where the filling will go should be slightly degassed so that the filling does not migrate off the pastry due to oven spring. Only the portion of the pastry where the filling will be deposited should be degassed.

Steam is just as important in baking Viennoiserie as it is in baking bread because it allows full oven spring to occur and leads to a product with higher volume and lighter texture. However, because of the egg wash coating the product, a lower amount of steam is needed in comparison to bread.

Proper oven temperature is critical for yeasted, laminated dough. Ideally, it is baked at a high temperature to ensure steam production and ample oven spring. If the temperature is too cold, the water content of the butter will not turn to steam fast enough and the texture and volume will suffer. Additionally, if the oven is too cool, the pastry will dry out excessively before proper coloration is reached. A too-hot oven temperature will promote premature browning, and the inside of the pastry may very well be underbaked if removed from the oven too soon. If browning happens at an accelerated rate, the temperature can be lowered or the tray can be double-panned.

Once pastries are baked, handling should be minimal to prevent damage. They will set and become more stable during the cooling process, making them less prone to damage when moved for finishing or packaging.

The finishing of croissant and Danish varies with type and desired presentation. Powdered sugar, apricot glaze, pastry cream, assorted creams, fresh fruit, and whipped cream can all be used to garnish specialty pastries.

NONLAMINATED VIENNOISERIE

Nonlaminated Viennoiserie is also known as sweet, yeasted dough. It is characterized by higher levels of sugar and eggs and by fats of variable quantities. One of the most popular of these is brioche, described by Professor Raymond Calvel as a typically French product that is "one of the oldest examples of yeast-raised sweet goods. Its origins are lost so far back in the depths of times that it would be foolish to try and determine exactly the period during which it was developed" (Calvel, 2001, p.149).

The evolution of brioche is an interesting example of how enriching ingredients have changed throughout time. Before sugar was readily available, honey was commonly used as a sweetener. To supplement the flavor of the honey, orange flour water was often used and can still be seen today in regional brioche and other sweet, yeasted specialty breads. In addition, vegetable oils and animal fats were historically used as enriching ingredients instead of butter.

As the popularity of brioche spread, enterprising bakers added local ingredients to the dough, adopting characteristic formulas with varying levels of sweetness and richness, along with a variety of specialty shapes that mirrored local tastes and preferences.

The basic process for sweet, yeasted dough is very similar to that of traditional bread. Because of the inherent differences in formulation, however, mixing, fermentation, makeup, proofing, and baking procedures have changed. As a general rule, all specific instructions that accompany formulas should be followed. Due to the large variation of regional specialties, we cannot present them all.

MIXING

Because sweet, yeasted dough always contains sugar and butter in higher ratios, the dough must be further developed than most laminated dough. The goal of the intensive mix is to limit the weakening action of the butter and sugar by creating a strong gluten network.

When mixing sweet, yeasted dough, several basic principles should be closely followed. When adding quantities of sugar and butter greater than 10 percent based on flour weight, the dough must first be developed toward an improved mix, and sugar must be added slowly as the dough develops. Adding sugar too quickly will require a longer mixing time, which will result in a greater dough oxidation and warmer dough.

Longer mixing times and higher levels of oxidation will also occur if fat is added too early in the mixing process. Quantities of fat higher than 10 percent based on flour weight should be added once the dough is near full development. For easy incorporation, the butter should be pliable and slightly softened. Once the fat is completely incorporated and the dough shows signs of proper development, mixing should stop.

FIRST FERMENTATION

The first fermentation for sweet, yeasted dough is much the same as for traditional baking and Viennoiserie, except for certain regional preparations that are noted in the formula section of this text.

Depending on strength, the dough may require one to two punches and folds during the first fermentation. Because most of the bread in this category is so high in fat, it is difficult to work with at room temperature or the temperature at which the dough comes off the mixer. After 1 hour at room temperature, it is standard to cool most sweet, yeasted dough for 1 hour in the retarder or refrigerator to ensure ease of handling. In addition, retarding the dough slows the rate of fermentation and encourages the production of acidity, which is beneficial to flavor, aroma production, and shelf life.

DIVIDING, PRESHAPING, AND RESTING

The basic theory behind dividing, preshaping, and resting sweet dough is the same as for lean dough, but the process for dough handling and the tightness of the preshape differ.

As quantities of sugar and butter increase in the dough, changes should be made in the preshaping process. If the dough lacks strength, it may need to be shaped tightly. Conversely, if the dough already has a sufficient amount of strength, a loose preshape is recommended.

Even though the dough may be sticky, it is essential to not add too much flour, which can dry out the product and leave a dull matte finish after baking. For some regional specialties such as traditional Panettone and Pan d'Oro, the bread is preshaped and shaped on a buttered table to ensure silky smoothness throughout the makeup process.

The resting time for sweet yeast dough should be at least 20 minutes. Depending on the temperature of the bakery and product composition, this may best be done under refrigeration in warmer working environments. Keep in mind that a dough that is too cold won't shape well because the stiff butter impedes gluten extensibility and dough viscosity. Guidelines for preshaping and resting time should be followed for individual formulas.

SHAPING

After the dough has been appropriately preshaped and rested, it can be shaped and deposited into the baking mold or onto the baking tray. As with lean yeasted dough, the strength of the dough must be considered when determining how tightly to shape the product, and all products should be egg washed after shaping unless otherwise noted. Shaping guidelines and instructions should be followed for individual formulas.

FINAL PROOF

Depending on the composition of the product, the proofing time for sweet, yeasted dough can last from 30 minutes to 15 hours. Because the quantities of sugar, fat, and yeast are highly variable, it is necessary to refer to specific formulas for final proof guidelines.

Temperatures for the final proof can vary from room temperature [70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C)] to between 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C) and 80[degrees]F (27[degrees]C) in a proof box. Because most sweet, yeasted dough contains high levels of butter, the proofing temperature must not be too high. Although guidelines for assessing the final proof of sweet, yeasted dough are similar to that for lean dough, the process is a bit trickier because the surface of the dough is typically tacky.

BAKING

All nonlaminated Viennoiserie should be egg washed before baking. The temperature for baking will vary by oven type, product selection, and product size. Steam is typically used for sweet, yeasted dough items but may not be required in some instances, such as Panettone. Baking guidelines for individual formulas should be followed.

After items are baked, they typically need to cool slightly before being removed from the pan. Preparations like traditional Panettone and Columba di Pasqua may require upside-down cooling to prevent collapse (due to their large volume and high levels of butter and sugar). If these are regularly produced in a bakery, pinzes are used to hang them upside-down. Smaller quantities can be hung between tables using thick wooden skewers. In general, finishing sweet, yeasted dough is less involved than finishing laminated dough. Powdered sugar, pearl sugar, apricot glaze, and flat icing or fondant are all common garnishes.

ALTERNATIVE PROCESSES FOR VIENNOISERIE

The basic processes described for laminated dough and nonlaminated sweet, yeasted dough can be altered to include variations in the mixing process, including the addition of preferments, autolyse, and various retarding techniques. The purpose of these alternative measures is to improve dough characteristics, accommodate production and scheduling, improve or alter flavor characteristics, and improve shelf life and physical qualities like crumb structure and appearance of the crust.

PREFERMENTS

The use of preferments is highly beneficial in Viennoiserie because fermentation creates the major flavor profiles of yeasted products. Even though it can contain high levels of sugar, butter, eggs, and other ingredients, Viennoiserie would probably taste bland without extended fermentation. Preferments are an ideal way to add the benefits of a long fermentation, and the final characteristics will depend on the type of preferment used and its quantity in the final dough. To determine which one best suits products and the production schedule, the baker should run tests and use the one where the best flavors are obtained.

This section will review commercially yeasted preferments like prefermented dough, sponge, poolish, and biga, as well as naturally leavened preferments like liquid levain and Italian levain. For an in-depth discussion of preferments, please refer to Chapter 4.

Prefermented Dough

The best type of prefermented dough for Viennoiserie is lean dough that has a formulation similar to basic baguette dough. If a prefermented dough is used in Viennoiserie, it should be its own mix to control over-development and fermentation. Traditionally, prefermented dough is not used as often as a sponge for Viennoiserie, but it is valued for the strength it brings to the final dough. This may be important if weaker flour is used and strength has been a problem with dough such as brioche. Pulling a piece of yeasted dough off to ferment and introduce to the next batch on a continual basis is not advised, as it can cause off flavors and inconsistent characteristics.

Sponge

A sponge preferment is the classic choice for Viennoiserie because the characteristic, sweet notes of this preferment are complementary to the flavor of sweet, yeasted dough. Sponges also add strength to the dough.

Poolish

The slightly acidic qualities of poolish that has fermented longer create complex flavors and aromas in Viennoiserie that are sometimes described as nutty. Because of the more important secondary effect of the protease activity in a wet environment, poolish is beneficial for dough that requires a larger degree of extensibility for lamination, such as croissant made by hand using a rolling pin, or for makeup purposes, such as forming Danish snails.

Biga

In Italy, biga is traditionally used in conjunction with weaker flours. The stiff consistency and long fermentation time at a lower temperature of this preferment add mellow acidity to Viennoiserie and also help to improve dough strength if only weaker flour is available.

Liquid Levain

Although sourdough has limited uses in Viennoiserie, it brings beneficial qualities to the dough when used properly. When sourdough is used, it is usually in the form of a liquid levain in small quantities of about 10 to 15 percent of the flour weight. Used in these quantities, liquid levain brings subtle acidity to the dough that adds strength, flavor, and keeping qualities. Its use in small quantities is especially easy if a fermentation tank, which limits the need to mix another preferment specifically for the dough, is on hand. The milder lactic acidity of liquid levain complements very nicely the butter flavor of breakfast pastries.

Italian Levain

An Italian levain is a stiff levain that differs from the "stiff levain" discussed in the sourdough section of this text in Chapter 4. Its characteristics are different because of the alteration in the feeding and storage process and the percentage of starter in the levain. A basic formula for Italian levain contains 100 percent flour, 50 percent water, and 100 percent starter.

Feedings should take place with warm water to ensure a final dough temperature of 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C). Once fed, the levain is left to ferment at 85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C) and is fed again every 4 hours, ensuring a very active culture. Because the dough is so active, it produces very mild acidity and although it is a "stiff starter," there are no real sour characteristics to it.

Italian levain is ideal for producing naturally leavened Viennoiserie in both laminated and sweet, yeasted dough preparations. Examples include sourdough croissant, Pan d'Oro, and traditional Panettone. Italian levain brings all the benefits of sourdough without the signature intense flavors, including enhanced shelf life, crust color, dough strength, fermentation tolerance, aroma production, and flavor.

Summary of Preferments

Good lamination technique alone is not enough to produce high-quality Viennoiserie. The starting point is sufficient and proper fermentation, which is simplified by preferments. Through a series of tests that mimic production needs, the pastry chef or baker can achieve desired flavor-building characteristics, as well as total control over the fermentation process.

RETARDING VIENNOISERIE

The process of retarding dough or made-up Viennoiserie provides the pastry chef or baker with flexibility and convenience in managing production, building flavor, managing inventory, and providing fresh pastries throughout the day. Each of the options for retarding Viennoiserie--including retarding in bulk, retarding shaped, freezing in bulk, freezing shaped, and freezing preproofed frozen--has its own benefits and considerations.

Retarding in Bulk

Retarding in bulk can be used for both laminated and nonlaminated Viennoiserie. The basic procedure is to refrigerate or retard the dough for up to 16 hours after it has undergone its first fermentation. This technique is helpful for the production of laminated dough because the long, slow fermentation produces desirable acidity and aids in the baking process, flavor production, and shelf life. After retarding is complete, the dough can be laminated or processed as required for sweet, yeasted dough.

Laminated dough can also be retarded for up to 18 hours in the middle of the lamination process. When using this technique, it is important that the last fold in the dough is not performed before retarding begins. During extended retarding, the dough will accumulate some gas, and the butter will lose some of its plasticity. When the dough is ready to be used, the final fold is given, which helps to degas the dough and soften the butter. The dough can then be processed as usual after the appropriate resting period under refrigeration.

Retarding Shaped

Retarding shaped provides the pastry chef with flexibility as to when products are baked. Once made up and egg washed, pastries can be held under refrigeration for up to 24 hours. The pastries can be transferred to a proof box on an as-needed basis to undergo final fermentation before being baked. When using this technique, it is essential that pastries be put into a retarder as soon as possible to control fermentation.

Freezing in Bulk

The goal of freezing in bulk is to have frozen and ready for use detrempes of dough that have all but the last fold completed. The process is to mix the dough (a lower dough temperature of 68[degrees]F (20[degrees]C) to 72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) is advised), give it a very limited first fermentation, portion and cool the dough, give all but one fold, wrap it well, and then freeze it. The night before it is needed, transfer the dough to the refrigerator. After the dough is fully defrosted and the final fold has been put into it, the process resumes as normal.

This method is convenient as it condenses mixing and most of the lamination to one day. For each day's production, the required amount of dough can be removed from the freezer to be used for the following day's sales.

Some precautions must be taken when using this method. If freezing the dough for a week or longer, dough conditioners should be used to maintain the integrity of dough strength. When freezing dough, it is also recommended that the quantity of yeast be increased by as much as double to ensure that not all of it dies during the freezing process. In addition, the faster dough freezes, the better. Slow freezing encourages more ice crystals, which increase the breakdown of dough strength. Proper air circulation is required, and a blast freezer is ideal.

Freezing Shaped

Freezing Viennoiserie shaped is a good technique to use if a limited bake off is needed every day. The process is unchanged for both laminated and nonlaminated dough to the point of the final proof, at which time the pastries are put into the freezer. The pastries must be covered, and if they are to be frozen for longer than a week, the quantity of yeast must be increased to up to double the normal dosage, and dough conditioners must be used to reinforce the strength of the gluten.

Before baking off frozen, shaped Viennoiserie, the pastry must first be totally thawed under refrigeration or at room temperature and then proofed and baked as normal. Pastry chefs and bakers should avoid placing frozen pastry into a warm proof box because it will cause the outside to defrost and begin proofing before the center of the pastry has had a chance to thaw.

Preproofed Frozen

Preproofed frozen products are made from dough that has gone through an adapted process that quickly freezes the pastry just before the optimal proof is reached. For this technique to be successful, specialty equipment is required. Changes in the formulation include the addition of preferment for added flavor and strength, the addition of dough conditioners for strength (required), a limited first fermentation, and cold dough for processing.

Preproofed frozen pastry can be baked directly out of the freezer, but it should be baked at a lower temperature to ensure a balance between thawing and oven spring. Bake time can increase by as much as 40 percent. These pastries are valued for their versatility for pastry shops, restaurants, and hotels that want freshly baked products on demand. They are not valued for their flavor or shelf life and are best served while still warm because they stale and lose flavor quickly.

Putting Alternative Processes Into Production

Although preferments and retarding processes can be used in conjunction with each other, there are situations in which combining techniques can be detrimental to the final dough. Autolyse is not part of this discussion because its effects are primarily on the dough and have a limited impact on planning production.

To adapt to scheduling and to build flavor and strength in products, many of the preferment and retarding techniques can be used together. Precautions should be taken when combining techniques regarding fermentation activity, specifically for gas retention. To ensure a longer, slower fermentation, the dough should contain less yeast.

Another important consideration is that products can be frozen only once. Several problems will be created otherwise, including decreased yeast activity, extensive loss of dough strength, the production of off flavors and aromas, and an inefficient work schedule. For example, freezing dough in bulk, defrosting it, making up croissants, freezing them, and finally defrosting, proofing, and baking them at a later date will make for an inferior product.
Examples of Production Scenarios for Viennoiserie
Using Preferments and/or Retarding

Note: All scenarios will result in fresh-baked pastries by
6:00 a.m. Friday.

* Croissant with Poolish (retarded shaped)

8:00 p.m.   Wednesday:   Mix poolish.
11:00 a.m.  Thursday:    Mix dough for 76[degrees]F (24[degrees]C)
                          final temperature. Give 1 hour at room
                          temperature.
12:00 p.m.  Thursday:    Retard dough for second hour of first
                          fermentation.
1:00 p.m.   Thursday:    Prepare dough and give two single folds.
1:30 p.m.   Thursday:    Give last single fold.
2:00 p.m.   Thursday:    Final sheeting of the dough. Shape and retard.
3:30 a.m.   Friday:      Remove from retarder, transfer to proofer.
5:30 a.m.   Friday:      Bake.

* Danish (retarded in bulk with two single folds)

12:00 p.m.  Thursday:    Mix dough.
1:00 p.m.   Thursday:    Retard dough 1 hour.
2:00 p.m.   Thursday:    Prep dough and give two single folds.
1:30 a.m.   Friday:      Give last single fold.
2:00 a.m.   Friday:      Sheet dough and form pastries.
2:30 a.m.   Friday:      Proof pastries.
5:30 a.m.   Friday:      Bake.

* Brioche with Prefermented Dough (frozen shaped)

6:00 p.m.   Sunday:      Mix prefermented dough.
8:00 p.m.   Sunday:      Retard prefermented dough.
9:00 a.m.   Monday:      Mix brioche, give 1 hour at room temperature.
10:00 a.m.  Monday:      Transfer brioche to refrigerator.
11:00 a.m.  Monday:      Divide and preshape brioche.
11:20 a.m.  Monday:      Shape brioche, egg wash, and freeze.
5:00 p.m.   Thursday:    Pull brioche and place in proofer/retarder.
2:30 a.m.   Friday:      Retarder turns on to proofer.
5:00 a.m.   Friday:      Bake.

* Croissant with Sponge (bulk frozen and shaped retarded)

6:00 p.m.   Sunday:      Mix sponge.
9:00 a.m.   Monday:      Mix croissant dough and give 1 hour at
                          room temperature.
10:00 a.m.  Monday:      Put dough in refrigerator.
11:00 a.m.  Monday:      Prepare dough, give two single folds, and
                          freeze.
5:00 a.m.   Thursday:    Pull detrempe from freezer and put in
                          refrigerator to thaw.
3:00 p.m.   Thursday:    Give last single fold.
3:30 p.m.   Thursday:    Sheet out dough and shape croissants.
4:00 p.m.   Thursday:    Retard shaped croissant in proofer/retarder.
2:30 a.m.   Friday:      Retarder turns on to proofer.
5:30 a.m.   Friday:      Bake.


Retarding Technique Conclusion

Retarding techniques can be of great benefit in the production of breakfast pastry. The goal is to spread out the process of dough handling and to encourage changes in the dough that can benefit and improve flavor and shelf life. At the same time, retarding reduces continuous workload and increases productivity. For example, it is easier for a small bakery to process a larger amount of dough once a week rather than smaller batches every day. Once the drawbacks of retarding in the refrigerator or freezer are understood, the pastry chef can implement quality control and appropriately adjust formulas and processing as needed.

CROISSANTS

According to legend, the croissant was invented in Vienna to celebrate the end of the second invasion of Vienna by Ottoman troops in 1683. The enemy decided to attack at night to avoid being seen, but the Viennese bakers, who were at work at the time, realized the city was under siege and gave the alert. To immortalize this victory, the bakers created the Hornchen ("small horn" in German), with a crescent shape to symbolize the Ottoman flag. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche, originally from Vienna, officially introduced and promoted the popularity of the croissant in France, starting in the late 1700s. However, the croissant may have existed in France well before Marie Antoinette's introduction. In the culinary inventory of the Patrimoine Francais, mention is made of a cake in the shape of a croissant served during a banquet given in Paris by the Queen of France in 1549 to commemorate the alliance of Francois Ier with le Grand Turc. Today, the croissant is a traditional element of the French breakfast, and one of the most familiar French pastries to those living outside France, ubiquitous in bakeries throughout the world. It has transcended breakfast in some instances, serving delicious duty as a quick and simple sandwich. While deviations abound, the perfect croissant is memorable for its sultry layers of buttery, flaky dough.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

CROISSANT DOUGH

Made with no preferments, this croissant dough can withstand
retarding for up to 18 hours in bulk. Longer retarding builds acidity,
which adds a fine complexity to the flavor of croissants made from
this dough. For an interesting comparison to note the effect of
fermentation on flavor and rheological properties, process the dough
after it has cooled for an hour, following an hour of fermentation.

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Bread flour             100.00          2.496         5.504
Water                    38.00          0.949         2.091
Milk                     23.00          0.574         1.266
Sugar                    13.00          0.325         0.715
Salt                      2.00          0.050         0.110
Osmotolerant instant      1.20          0.030         0.066
yeast
Malt                      0.50          0.012         0.028
Butter                    4.00          0.100         0.220
Total                   181.70          4.536        10.000
Butter for roll-in       25.00          1.134         2.500

Ingredients             Lb & Oz         Test

Bread flour             5   8        1 lb 1 5/8 oz
Water                   2   1 1/2         6 3/4 oz
Milk                    1   4 1/4             4 oz
Sugar                      11 1/2         2 1/4 oz
Salt                        1 3/4           3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant        1               1/4 oz
yeast
Malt                          1/2           1/8 oz
Butter                      3 1/2           3/4 oz
Total                  10   0                 2 lb
Butter for roll-in      2   8                 8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                   Improved mix

DDT                   72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to
                      77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C)

First fermentation    45 minutes to 1 hour, retard for 8 to 15
                      hours at 40[degrees]F (4 [degrees]C)

Divide                None

Lamination            Three single folds

Resting time          30 minutes between each fold or series
in refrigerator       of folds

Shaping               Assorted shapes

Final proof           1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F
                      (26[degrees]C) at 65% rh

Steam                 2 seconds

Bake                  Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                      385[degrees]F (96[degrees]C)

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.

FORMULA

CROISSANT DOUGH WITH POOLISH

This croissant uses a lot of poolish as a preferment. The result is a
dough with good machinability because of the higher levels of protease
activity. The poolish lends a complex, slightly nutty flavor, and
the higher levels of acidity add a blistered appearance to the crust.

Poolish Formula

Ingredients             Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Bread flour              100.00        0.791        1.744
Water                    100.00        0.791        1.744
Yeast (instant)            0.10        0.001        0.002
Total                    200.10        1.583        3.490

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour              1 11 7/8      5 5/8 oz
Water                    1 11 7/8      5 5/8 oz
Yeast (instant)             < 1/8       1/8 tsp
Total                    3  7 7/8     11 1/8 oz

Process, Poolish

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of
70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

2. Allow to ferment 12 to 16 hours at room temperature
[65[degrees]F (18[degrees]C) to 70[degrees]F
(21[degrees]C)].

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients             Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Bread flour              100.00        1.809        3.989
Milk                      34.00        0.615        1.356
Sugar                     18.50        0.335        0.738
Salt                       2.90        0.052        0.116
Osmotolerant instant       1.40        0.025        0.056
yeast
Malt                       0.70        0.013        0.028
Butter                     5.70        0.103        0.227
Poolish                   87.50        1.583        3.490
Total                    250.70        4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in        25.00        1.134        2.500

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour               3 15 7/8    12 3/4 oz
Milk                      1  5 3/4     4 3/8 oz
Sugar                       11 3/4     2 3/8 oz
Salt                         1 7/8       3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant           7/8       1/8 oz
yeast
Malt                          1/2        1/8 oz
Butter                      3 5/8        3/4 oz
Poolish                   3 7 1/8     11 1/8 oz
Total                    10 0              2 lb
Butter for roll-in        2 8              8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                   Improved mix

DDT                   72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to
                      77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C)

First fermentation    45 minutes to 1 hour, then 1 hour at
                      40[degrees]F (4[degrees]C)
Divide                None

Lamination            Three single folds

Resting time          30 minutes between each fold or
in refrigerator       series of folds

Shaping               Assorted shapes

Final proof           1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F
                      (26[degrees]C) at 65% rh

Steam                 2 seconds

Bake                  Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                      385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula of Detrempe

Ingredients             Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Bread flour              100.00          2.601         5.733
Water                     30.42          0.791         1.744
Milk                      23.66          0.615         1.356
Sugar                     12.87          0.335         0.738
Salt                       2.02          0.052         0.116
Osmotolerant instant       1.00          0.026         0.058
yeast
Malt                       0.49          0.013         0.028
Butter                     3.97          0.103         0.227
Total                    174.43          4.536        10.000

Ingredients              Lb & Oz         Test

Bread flour              5 11 3/4    1 lb 23/8 oz
Water                    1 11 1/8        5 5/8 oz
Milk                     1  5 3/4        4 3/8 oz
Sugar                      11 3/4        2 3/8 oz
Salt                        1 7/8          3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant          7/8          1/8 oz
yeast
Malt                          1/2          1/8 oz
Butter                      3 5/8          3/4 oz
Total                   10  0                2 lb

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.


SHAPING OPTIONS

Lunette Shape With Fig Filling

Sheet out the dough to 16 inches (41 cm) wide and down to 1/8 inch (3 to 3 1/2 mm) thick. Spread the fig filling in a thin layer evenly over the dough. (Do not use too much filling, or the makeup and baking process will be difficult.) Roll the dough inward from both edges to meet in the middle. Cut into 1 inch (2 1/2 cm) wide portions. Line 12 to 15 on a parchment lined sheet pan and egg wash. Proof and bake as normal.

Twisted "S" Shape With Praline and Chocolate

Sheet out the dough to 16 inches (41 cm) wide and down to 1/8 inch (3 to 3 1/2 mm) thick. Spread the praline filling over the dough, leaving a 1 1/2 inch (4 cm) wide gap without filling running down the center of the dough. (Do not use too much filling, or the makeup and baking process will be difficult.) Sprinkle semi-sweet chocolate chips over the surface of the dough. As for the lunette, roll the dough from both edges toward the center, leaving a 1 inch (2 1/2 cm) gap between the two rolls. Cut into 1 inch (2 1/2 cm) wide portions. When placing on a parchment-lined sheet pan, flip one side of the pastry to create the "S" shape. Egg wash the top and the sides of the pastry. Proof and bake as normal.

Pain au Raisin

Sheet out the dough to 16 inches (41 cm) wide and down to 1/8 inch (3 to 3 1/2 mm) thick. Brush the far edge of the dough with water, about 1 inch (2 1/2 cm) wide. Spread pastry cream thinly over the dough, leaving the part that has been brushed with water. Sprinkle raisins evenly over the pastry cream, and dust lightly with granulated sugar. Roll the dough toward the far side, without tightening too much. Cut into 1 inch (2 1/2 cm) wide portions, place 15 per parchment-lined sheet pan and egg wash. Proof and bake as normal.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CROISSANT DOUGH WITH
PREFERMENTED DOUGH

Utilizing prefermented dough adds a fair amount of strength to this
croissant dough. Extensibility is slightly reduced, and the flavor is
complex and deep, while the crust appears blistered from acidity.
This is a good formula to use with less consistent, weaker bread
flours.

Prefermented Dough Formula

Ingredients             Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Bread flour              100.00        0.490        1.080
Water                     65.00        0.318        0.702
Yeast (instant)            0.60        0.003        0.006
Salt                       2.00        0.010        0.022
Total                    167.60        0.821        1.810

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour              1  1 1/4      3 1/2 oz
Water                      11 1/4      2 1/4 oz
Yeast (instant)               1/8       1/8 tsp
Salt                          3/8        1/8 oz
Total                    1 13              6 oz

Process, Prefermented Dough

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of 70
[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

2. Allow to ferment 1 hour at room temperature [65[degrees]F (18
[degrees]C) to 70[degrees]F 21[degrees]C)].

3. Refrigerate until needed.

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients             Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Bread flour              100.00        2.003        4.415
Water                     33.00        0.661        1.457
Milk                      29.00        0.581        1.280
Sugar                     15.00        0.300        0.662
Salt                       2.00        0.040        0.088
Osmotolerant instant       1.20        0.024        0.053
yeast
Malt                       0.30        0.006        0.013
Butter                     5.00        0.100        0.221
Prefermented dough        41.00        0.821        1.810
Total                    226.50        4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in        25.00        1.134        2.500

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour              4   6 5/8     14 1/8 oz
Water                    1   7 1/4      4 5/8 oz
Milk                     1   4 1/2      4 1/8 oz
Sugar                       10 5/8      2 1/8 oz
Salt                         1 1/8        1/4 oz
Osmotolerant instant           7/8        1/8 oz
yeast
Malt                           1/4       1/4 tsp
Butter                       3 1/2        3/4 oz
Prefermented dough        1 13          5 3/4 oz
Total                    10  0              2 lb
Butter for roll-in        2  8              8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                   Improved mix

DDT                   72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to
                      77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C)

First fermentation    45 minutes to 1 hour, then 1 hour at
                      40[degrees]F (4[degrees]C)

Divide                None

Lamination            Three single folds

Resting time          30 minutes between each fold or series
in refrigerator       of folds

Shaping               Assorted shapes

Final proof           1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F
                      (26[degrees]C) at 65% rh

Steam                 2 seconds

Bake                  Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                      385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula of Detrempe

Ingredients             Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Bread flour              100.00          2.493         5.495
Water                     39.29          0.979         2.159
Milk                      23.30          0.581         1.280
Sugar                     12.05          0.300         0.662
Salt                       2.00          0.050         0.110
Osmotolerant instant       1.08          0.027         0.059
yeast
Malt                       0.24          0.006         0.013
Butter                     4.02          0.100         0.221
Total                    181.98          4.536        10.000

Ingredients              Lb & Oz         Test

Bread flour               5  7 7/8     1 lb 1 5/8 oz
Water                     2  2 1/2          6 7/8 oz
Milk                      1  4 1/2          4 1/8 oz
Sugar                       10 5/8          2 1/8 oz
Salt                         1 3/4            3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1                1/4 oz
yeast
Malt                           1/4           1/4 tsp
Butter                       3 1/2            3/4 oz
Total                    10  0                  2 lb

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.

FORMULA

CROISSANT DOUGH WITH SPONGE

Using sponge as the preferment in sweet dough is a common
choice, and in croissant, the use of a sponge enhances the natural
flavors of the rich, buttery croissant with slightly acidic sweet
tones.

Sponge Formula

Ingredients             Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Bread flour              100.00        0.520        1.146
Water                     62.00        0.322        0.710
Yeast (instant)            0.10        0.001        0.001
Total                    162.10        0.842        1.857

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour              1  2 3/8      3 5/8 oz
Water                      11 3/8      2 1/4 oz
Yeast (instant)             < 1/8       1/8 tsp
Total                    1 13 3/4          6 oz

Process, Sponge

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of 70
[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

2. Allow to ferment 12 to 16 hours at room temperature [65[degrees]F
(18[degrees]C) to 70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C)].

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients             Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Bread flour              100.00        2.106        4.643
Water                     20.00        0.421        0.929
Milk                      30.00        0.632        1.393
Sugar                     16.00        0.337        0.743
Salt                       2.50        0.053        0.116
Osmotolerant instant       1.60        0.034        0.074
yeast
Malt                       0.30        0.006        0.014
Butter                     5.00        0.105        0.232
Sponge                    40.00        0.842        1.857
Total                    215.40        4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in        25.00        1.134        2.500

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour              4  10 1/4    14 7/8 oz
Water                       14 7/8         3 oz
Milk                     1   6 1/4     4 1/2 oz
Sugar                       11 7/8     2 3/8 oz
Salt                         1 7/8       3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/4       1/4 oz
yeast
Malt                           1/4      1/4 tsp
Butter                       3 3/4       3/4 oz
Sponge                    1 13 3/4         6 oz
Total                    10  0             2 lb
Butter for roll-in        2  8             8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                   Improved mix

DDT                   72[degrees]F (27[degrees]C) to
                      77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C)

First fermentation    45 minutes to 1 hour, then 1 hour at
                      40[degrees]F (4[degrees]C)

Divide                None

Lamination            Three single folds

Resting time          30 minutes between each fold or series
in refrigerator       of folds

Shaping               Assorted shapes

Final proof           1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F
                      (26[degrees]C) at 65% rh

Steam                 2 seconds

Bake                  Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                      385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula of Detrempe

Ingredients           Baker's %   Kilogram    US decimal

Bread flour            100.00      2.625         5.788
Water                   28.31      0.743         1.639
Milk                    24.06      0.632         1.393
Sugar                   12.83      0.337         0.743
Salt                     2.01      0.053         0.116
Osmotolerant instant     1.30      0.034         0.075
  yeast
Malt                     0.24      0.006         0.014
Butter                   4.01      0.105         0.232
Total                  172.76      4.536        10.000

Ingredients             Lb & Oz         Test

Bread flour            5   12 5/8   1 lb 2 1/2 oz
Water                  1   10 1/4        5 1/4 oz
Milk                   1    6 1/4        4 1/2 oz
Sugar                      11 7/8        2 1/2 oz
Salt                        1 7/8          3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant        1 1/4          1/4 oz
  yeast
Malt                          1/4         1/4 tsp
Butter                      3 3/4          3/4 oz
Total                 10    0                2 lb

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.

FORMULA

CROISSANT DOUGH
WITH NATURAL STARTER

The combination of sourdough and croissant is natural. The key to
success is controlling the degree of acidity that accumulates in the
dough. The levain required for this is an Italian levain, prized for
its mild acidity. This croissant is comprised of two doughs, in the
Italian tradition (think Pan d'Oro and Panettone). The first dough
is allowed to ferment for 12 to 15 hours and is then mixed into
the final dough. The flavor of this croissant is quite pleasant, and
mildly acidic.

Italian Levain Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal   Lb & Oz

Bread flour             100.00      0.018       0.040         5/8
Water                    50.00      0.009       0.020         3/8
Starter                 100.00      0.018       0.040         5/8
Total                   250.00      0.045       0.100       1 5/8

Process, Italian Levain

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of
85[degrees]F (29[degrees]C).

2. Feed every 4 hours.

3. When the levain is mature, mix all the ingredients until well
incorporated with a DDT of 70[degrees]F (21 [degrees]C).

4. Allow to ferment 12 to 16 hours at room temperature [73[degrees]F
(23[degrees]C) to 76[degrees]F (25[degrees]C)].

First Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      0.223       0.492
Water                    50.00      0.112       0.246
Milk                     13.00      0.029       0.064
Eggs                      4.00      0.009       0.020
Sugar                    14.00      0.031       0.069
Butter                    4.00      0.009       0.020
Levain                   15.00      0.034       0.074
Total                   200.00      0.447       0.985

Ingredients            Lb & Oz      Test

Bread flour              7 7/8    15/8 oz
Water                        4    3/4 0 z
Milk                         1    1/4 0 z
Eggs                       3/8     1/8 oz
Sugar                    1 1/8     1/4 oz
Butter                     3/8     1/8 oz
Levain                   1 1/8     1/4 oz
Total                   15 3/4   3 1/8 oz

Process, First Dough

1. Incorporate all the ingredients for 4 minutes in first speed.

2. Mix just until the gluten starts to develop in second speed.

3. Allow to ferment 12 hours at 70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      2.233        4.924
Water                    30.00      0.670        1.477
Milk                     25.00      0.558        1.231
Eggs                      5.00      0.112        0.246
Sugar                    14.00      0.313        0.689
Salt                      2.20      0.049        0.108
Osmotolerant instant      1.50      0.034        0.074
  yeast
Malt                      1.40      0.031        0.069
Butter                    4.00      0.089        0.197
First dough              20.00      0.447        0.985
Total                   203.10      4.536       10.000

Ingredients               Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour             4   14 3/4   15 3/4 oz
Water                   1    7 5/8    4 3/4 oz
Milk                    1    3 3/4        4 oz
Eggs                         4          3/4 oz
Sugar                       11        2 1/4 oz
Salt                         1 3/4      3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/8      1/4 oz
  yeast
Malt                         1 1/8      1/4 oz
Butter                       3 1/8      5/8 oz
First dough                 15 3/4    3 1/8 oz
Total                  10    0            2 lb

Process, Final Dough

Mix                  Improved mix
DDT                  72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F
                       (25[degrees]C)
First fermentation   45 minutes to 1 hour, then 1 hour at
                       40[degrees]F (4[degrees]C)
Divide               None
Lamination           Three single folds
Resting time         30 minutes between each fold or series of folds
  in refrigerator
Shaping              Assorted shapes
Final proof          1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C)
                       at 65% rh
Steam                2 seconds
Bake                 Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                        385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula of Detrempe

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      2.479        5.465
Water                    31.98      0.793        1.748
Milk                     23.69      0.587        1.295
Eggs                      4.86      0.121        0.266
Sugar                    13.87      0.344        0.758
Salt                      1.98      0.049        0.108
Osmotolerant instant      1.35      0.034        0.074
yeast
Malt                      1.26      0.031        0.069
Butter                    3.96      0.098        0.217
Total                   182.95      4.536       10.000

Ingredients              Lb & Oz         Test

Bread flour             5    7 1/2   1 lb 1 1/2 oz
Water                   1   12            5 5/8 oz
Milk                    1    4 3/4        4 1/8 oz
Eggs                         4 1/4          7/8 oz
Sugar                       12 1/8        2 3/8 oz
Salt                         1 3/4          3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/8          1/4 oz
yeast
Malt                         1 1/8          1/4 oz
Butter                       3 1/2          3/4 oz
Total                  10    0                2 1b

Formula

CROISSANT DOUGH--HAND MIX

The luxury of possessing both a dough mixer and a reversible
dough sheeter is not always reality. This croissant dough is formulated
to be mixed and processed by hand. The use of poolish in
this formula lends to extensibility of the dough, which is beneficial
for the lamination process. After the dough is mixed, it should be
refrigerated right away to limit any fermentation, as that would
increase the strength of the dough. For easier lamination, allow the
dough to rest 1 hour in the refrigerator between each fold, rather
than the standard 30 minutes.

Poolish Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      0.734        1.617
Water                   100.00      0.734        1.617
Yeast (instant)           0.10      0.001        0.002
Total                   200.10      1.468        3.236

Ingredients             Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour            1   9 7/8    5 1/8 oz
Water                  1   9 7/e    5 1/8 oz
Yeast (instant)            < 1/8     1/8 tsp
Total                  3   3 3/4   10 3/8 oz

Process, Poolish

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of
70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

2. Allow to ferment 12 to 16 hours at room temperature [65[degrees]F
(18[degrees]C) to 70[degrees]F (21 [degrees]C)].

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      1.678        3.698
Water                    34.00      0.570        1.257
Milk                     20.00      0.336        0.740
Sugar                    18.50      0.310        0.684
Salt                      2.90      0.049        0.107
Osmotolerant instant      1.40      0.023        0.052
yeast
Malt                      0.40      0.007        0.015
Butter                    5.70      0.096        0.211
Poolish                  87.50      1.468        3.236
Total                   270.40      4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in       25.00      1.134        2.500

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour             3   11 1/8   11 7/8 oz
Water                   1    4 1/8        4 oz
Milk                        11 7/8    2 3/8 oz
Sugar                       11        2 1/4 oz
Salt                         1 3/4      3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant           7/8      1/8 oz
yeast
Malt                           1/4     1/2 tsp
Butter                       3 3/8      5/8 oz
Poolish                 3    3 3/4    0 3/8 oz
Total                  10    0            2 1b
Butter for roll-in      2    8            8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                  Hand mix
DDT                  72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F
                       (25[degrees]C)
First fermentation   2 hours in the refrigerator
Divide               None
Lamination           Three single folds
Resting time         1 hour between each fold
  in refrigerator
Shaping              Assorted shapes
Final proof          1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C)
                       at 65% rh
Steam                2 seconds
Bake                 Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                       38[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula of Detrempe

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      2.411        5.315
Water                    54.08      1.304        2.875
Milk                     13.92      0.329        0.740
Sugar                    12.87      0.310        0.684
Salt                     2.02       0.049        0.107
Osmotolerant instant     1.00       0.024        0.053
  yeast
Malt                     0.28       0.007        0.015
Butter                   3.97       0.096        0.211
Total                   188.14      4.536       10.000

Ingredients              Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour             5    5       1 lb 1 oz
Water                   2   14        9 1/4 oz
Milk                        11 7/8    2 3/8 oz
Sugar                       11        2 1/4 oz
Salt                         1 3/4      3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant           7/8      1/8 oz
  yeast
Malt                           1/4     1/2 tsp
Butter                       3 3/8      5/8 oz
Total                  10    0            2 lb

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.

FORMULA

WHOLE WHEAT CROISSANT DOUGH

Using whole wheat flour in this dough is a fairly new variation on
the classic and adds a pleasing flavor and aroma. Egg yolk helps
make the dough smoother (balancing the texture of the whole
wheat) because of its natural lecithin. This dough is excellent for
making a savory croissant.

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour              75.00      1.924        4.242
Whole wheat flour        25.00      0.641        1.414
Water                    50.00      1.283        2.828
Egg yolks                 8.00      0.205        0.452
Sugar                    11.00      0.282        0.622
Salt                      2.00      0.051        0.085
Osmotolerant instant      1.60      0.041        0.090
  yeast
Malt                      0.20      0.005        0.011
Butter                    4.00      0.103        0.226
Total                   176.80      4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in       25.00      1.134        2.500

Ingredients              Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour             4    3 7/8   13 5/8 oz
Whole wheat flour       1    6 5/8    4 1/2 oz
Water                   2   13 1/4        9 oz
Egg yolks                    7 1/4    1 1/2 OZ
Sugar                       10        2 oz
Salt                         1 3/8      1/4 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/2      1/4 oz
  yeast
Malt                           1/8     1/8 tsp
Butter                       3 5/8      3/4 oz
Total                  10    0            2 lb
Butter for roll-in      2    8            8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                  Improved mix
DDT                  72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F
                       (25[degrees]C)
First fermentation   45 minutes to 1 hour, retard for 8 to 15 hours
                       at 40[degrees]F (5[degrees]C)
Divide               None
Lamination           Three single folds
Resting time         30 minutes between each fold or series of folds
  in refrigerator
Shaping              Assorted shapes
Final proof          1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C)
                       at 65% rh
Steam                2 seconds
Bake                 Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                       385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.


SHAPING OPTIONS: SAVORY CROISSANT

Ham and Cheese Croissants

Sheet out the dough to 16 inches (41 cm) wide and down to 1/8 inch (3 to 3 1/2 mm) thick.

For the square ham and cheese croissant, cut the dough into 3 1/4 inch (8 3/8 cm) X 5 1/3 inch (13 1/2 cm) portions. Place a slice of black forest ham and a slice of Swiss cheese on one side, and fold the dough twice so that the end edge without filling ends up on the bottom of the pastry. Place 15 per parchment-lined sheet pan. Egg wash and score if desired. Proof and bake as normal.

For the traditional shape ham and cheese croissant, sheet out the dough to 16 inches wide and down to 3 to 3 1/2 mm thick. Cut the dough into 4 inch X 8 inch triangles. Place the ham and cheese on the wide end of the triangle, and shape as for traditional croissant. Place 15 per parchment-lined sheet pan and egg wash. Proof and bake as normal.

Spinach and Feta Croissants

Sheet out the dough to 16 inches (41 cm) wide and down to 1/8 inch (3 to 3 1/2 mm) thick. Cut into three 5 1/3 inch (13 1/2 cm) wide strips. For each strip, place the spinach and feta filling down the center in one line. (Spinach and feta filling is on page 394.) Roll the dough over the filling and place the seam on the bottom to seal. Cut into 3 inch (7 1/2 cm) wide pieces, or as desired. Place 15 per parchment-lined sheet pan. Proof and bake as normal.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

WHOLE WHEAT CROISSANT DOUGH
WITH PREFERMENTED DOUGH

Based on the same formula as the whole wheat croissant dough,
this version uses prefermented dough, which gives it additional
flavor and strength.

Prefermented Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      0.500       1.103
Water                    65.00      0.325       0.717
Yeast (instant)           0.60      0.003       0.007
Salt                      2.00      0.010       0.022
Total                   167.60      0.838       1.849

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour            1    1 5/8   3 1/2 oz
Water                      11 1/2   2 1/4 oz
Yeast (instant)               1/8    1/8 tsp
Salt                          3/8     1/8 oz
Total                  1   13 5/8   5 7/8 oz

Process, Prefermented Dough

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of
70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

2. Allow to ferment 1 hour at room temperature [65[degrees]F
(18[degrees]C) to 70[degrees]F (21 [degrees]C)].

3. Refrigerate until needed.

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour              75.00      1.534        3.381
Whole wheat flour        25.00      0.502        1.127
Water                    48.00      0.982        2.164
Egg yolks                10.00      0.205        0.451
Sugar                    13.00      0.266        0.586
Salt                      2.00      0.041        0.090
Osmotolerant instant      1.60      0.032        0.072
  yeast
Malt                      0.20      0.004        0.009
Butter                    6.00      0.123        0.271
Prefermented dough       41.00      0.838        1.849
Total                   221.80      4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in       25.00      1.134        2.500

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Bread flour             3    6 1/8   10 7/8 oz
Whole wheat flour       1    2        3 5/8 oz
Water                   2    2 5/8    6 7/8 oz
Egg yolks                    7 1/4    1 1/2 oz
Sugar                        9 3/8    1 7/8 oz
Salt                         1 1/2      1/4 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/8      1/4 oz
  yeast
Malt                           1/8     1/4 tsp
Butter                       4 3/8      7/8 oz
Prefermented dough      1   13 5/8    5 7/8 oz
Total                  10    0            2 lb
Butter for roll-in      2    8            8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                  Improved mix
DDT                  72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F
                       (25[degrees]C)
First fermentation   45 minutes to 1 hour, then 1 hour at
                        40[degrees]F (5[degrees]C)
Divide               None
Lamination           Three single folds
Resting time         30 minutes between each fold or series of folds
  in refrigerator
Shaping              Assorted shapes
Final proof          1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C)
                       at 65% rh
Steam                2 seconds
Bake                 Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                       385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour              80.00      2.036        4.484
Whole wheat flour        20.00      0.509        1.127
Water                    51.34      1.307        2.881
Egg yolks                 8.03      0.204        0.451
Sugar                    10.45      0.266        0.586
Salt                      2.00      0.051        0.112
Osmotolerant instant      1.40      0.036        0.079
  yeast
Malt                      0.16      0.004        0.009
Butter                    4.82      0.123        0.271
Total                   178.20      4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in       25.00      1.134        2.500

Ingredients               Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour              4    7 3/4   14 3/8 oz
Whole wheat flour        1    2        3 5/8 oz
Water                    2   14 1/8    9 1/4 oz
Egg yolks                     7 1/4    1 1/2 oz
Sugar                         9 3/8    1 7/8 oz
Salt                          1 3/4      3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant          1 1/4      1/4 oz
  yeast
Malt                            1/8     1/4 tsp
Butter                        4 3/8      7/8 oz
Total                  10     0            2 1b
Butter for roll-in      2     8            8 oz

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.


DANISH

In Denmark, Danish is known as wienerbrod, or "bread of Vienna." A popular explanation goes back to an 18th or 19th century strike by Danish journeyman bakers, which created a shortage of bakers in Denmark. Austrian bakers who traveled to Denmark to replace the striking workers introduced their traditional recipe for sweet pastry. The Viennese dough relied on a high amount of butter and resulted in a light, flaky product that became a sensation in Denmark and soon spread to surrounding lands. In other countries, the name "Danish" was applied to the newly discovered pastries, but in Denmark, it retained its reference to Viennese origins. Danish pastries are now popular throughout the world in a wide variety of flavors and shapes. In the United States, the current pervasiveness of Danish can be attributed to New York City and its Jewish delicatessens, which helped to popularize the pastries beginning in the early 1900s.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

DANISH DOUGH

This Danish dough has no preferments but can withstand a longer
retarding for up to 18 hours in bulk. The retarding builds acidity,
which leads to a pleasant complexity in the flavor of the Danish
made from this dough. For an interesting experiment to note the
effect of fermentation on flavor and rheological properties, process
the dough after it has cooled for an hour, following an hour of
fermentation.

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      2.588        5.705
Milk                     46.00      1.190        2.624
Sugar                    12.00      0.311        0.685
Eggs                     11.00      0.285        0.627
Salt                      2.00      0.052        0.114
Osmotolerant instant      1.30      0.034        0.074
  yeast
Butter                    3.00      0.078        0.171
Total                   175.30      4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in       27.00      1.225        2.700

Ingredients              Lb & Oz         Test

Bread flour             5   11 1/4   1 lb 2 1/4 oz
Milk                    2   10            8 3/8 oz
Sugar                       11            2 1/4 oz
Eggs                        10                2 oz
Salt                         1 7/8          3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/8          1/4 oz
  yeast
Butter                       2 3/4          1/2 oz
Total                  10    0                2 lb
Butter for roll-in      2   11 1/4        8 5/8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                  Improved mix
DDT                  72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F
                       (25[degrees]C)
First fermentation   45 minutes to 1 hour, retard for 8 to 15 hours
                       at 40[degrees]F (5[degrees]C)
Divide               None
Lamination           Three single folds
Resting time         30 minutes between each fold or series of folds
  in refrigerator
Shaping              Assorted shapes
Final proof          1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C)
                       at 65% rh
Steam                2 seconds
Bake                 Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                       385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.

FORMULA

DANISH DOUGH WITH BIGA

The long, slow fermentation that is characteristic of the biga gives
the Danish made with this dough multifaceted flavor and aroma.
Slightly sweet and acidic, the resulting pastries retain moisture
and resist staling longer. This formula is well suited to those times
when only weaker or inconsistent bread flours are available.

Biga Formula

Ingredients       Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour        100.00      0.771       1.699
Milk                55.00      0.424       0.934
Yeast (instant)      0.40      0.003       0.007
Total              155.40      1.197       2.640

Ingredients        Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour       1   11 1/8   5 3/8 oz
Milk                  15           3 oz
Yeast (instant)          1/8    1/8 tsp
Total             2   10 1/4   8 1/2 oz

Process, Biga

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of
70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

2. Allow to ferment for 16 hours at 60[degrees]F (16[degrees]C).

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      1.787        3.940
Milk                     45.00      0.804        1.773
Eggs                     16.00      0.286        0.630
Sugar                    17.00      0.304        0.670
Salt                      3.00      0.054        0.118
Osmotolerant instant      1.80      0.032        0.071
yeast
Butter                    4.00      0.071        0.158
Biga                     67.00      1.197        2.640
Total                   253.80      4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in       27.00      1.225        2.700

Ingredients              Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour             3   15       12 5/4 oz
Milk                    1   12 3/8    5 5/8 oz
Eggs                        10 1/8        2 oz
Sugar                       10 3/4    2 1/8 oz
Salt                         1 7/8      3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/8      1/4 oz
yeast
Butter                       2 1/2      1/2 oz
Biga                    2   10 1/4    8 1/2 oz
Total                  10    0            2 lb
Butter for roll-in      2   11 1/4    8 5/8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                  Improved mix
DDT                  72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F
                       (25[degrees]C)
First fermentation   45 minutes to 1 hour, then 1 hour at
                       40[degrees]F (5[degrees]C)
Divide               None
Lamination           Three single folds
Resting time         30 minutes between each fold or series of folds
  in refrigerator
Shaping              Assorted shapes
Final proof          1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C)
                       at 65% rh
Steam                2 seconds
Bake                 Convection oven, 3 to 15 minutes at
                       385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula of Detrempe

Ingredients       Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour        100.00      2.558        5.639
Milk                48.01      1.228        2.707
Eggs                11.18      0.286        0.630
Sugar               11.88      0.304        0.670
Salt                 2.10      0.054        0.118
Yeast (instant)      1.38      0.035        0.078
Butter               2.79      0.071        0.158
Total              177.34      4.536       10.000

Ingredients         Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour        5   10 1/4   1 lb 2 oz
Milk               2   11 3/8    8 5/8 oz
Eggs                   10 1/8        2 oz
Sugar                  10 3/4    2 1/8 oz
Salt                    l 7/8      3/8 oz
Yeast (instant)         1 1/4      1/4 oz
Butter                  2 1/2      1/2 oz
Total             10    0            2 lb

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.

FORMULA

DANISH DOUGH WITH SPONGE

Danish dough and sponge preferment complement each other
nicely. Sponge, a common choice of preferments for sweet, yeasted
doughs, adds an excellent flavor and aroma to the Danish.

Sponge Formula

Ingredients       Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour        100.00      0.771       1.701
Water               62.00      0.478       1.054
Yeast (instant)      0.10      0.001       0.002
Total              162.10      1.251       2.757

Ingredients        Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour       1   11 1/4   5 1/2 oz
Water             1      7/8   3 3/8 oz
Yeast (instant)        < 1/8    1/8 tsp
Total             2   12 1/8   8 7/8 oz

Process, Sponge

1. Mix all the ingredients until well incorporated with a DDT of
70[degrees]F (21[degrees]C).

2. Allow to ferment 12 to 16 hours at room temperature [65[degrees]F
(18[degrees]C) to 70[degrees]F
(21[degrees]C)].

Final Dough Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      1.807        3.984
Milk                     40.00      0.723        1.594
Eggs                     16.00      0.289        0.637
Sugar                    17.00      0.307        0.677
Salt                      3.00      0.054        0.120
Osmotolerant instant      1.80      0.033        0.072
  yeast
Butter                    4.00      0.072        0.159
Sponge                   69.20      1.251        2.757
Total                   251.00      4.536       10.000
Butter for roll-in       27.00      1.225        2.700

Ingredients              Lb & Oz       Test

Bread flour             3   15 3/4   12 3/4 oz
Milk                    1    9 1/2    5 1/8 oz
Eggs                        10 1/4        2 oz
Sugar                       10 7/8    2 1/8 oz
Salt                         1 7/8      3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/8      1/4 oz
  yeast
Butter                       2 1/2      1/2 oz
Sponge                  2   12 1/8    8 7/8 oz
Total                  10    0            2 lb
Butter for roll-in      2   11 1/4    8 5/8 oz

Process, Final Dough

Mix                  Improved mix
DDT                  72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F
                       (25[degrees]C)
First fermentation   45 minutes to 1 hour, then 1 hour at
                       40[degrees]F (5[degrees]C).
Divide               None
Lamination           Three single folds
Resting time         30 minutes between each fold or series of folds
  in refrigerator
Shaping              Assorted shapes
Final proof          1.5 to 2 hours at 78[degrees]F (26[degrees]C)
                       at 65% rh
Steam                2 seconds
Bake                 Convection oven, 13 to 15 minutes at
                       385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C)

Total Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Bread flour             100.00      2.579        5.685
Water                    18.55      0.478        1.054
Milk                     28.03      0.723        1.594
Eggs                     11.21      0.289        0.637
Sugar                    11.91      0.307        0.677
Salt                      2.10      0.054        0.120
Osmotolerant instant      1.29      0.033        0.073
  yeast
Butter                    2.80      0.072        0.159
Total                   175.89      4.536       10.000

Ingredients              Lb & Oz         Test

Bread flour             5   11       1 lb 21/4 oz
Water                   1      7/8       3 3/8 oz
Milk                    1    9 1/2       5 1/8 oz
Eggs                        10 1/4           2 oz
Sugar                       10 7/8       2 1/8 oz
Salt                         1 7/8         3/8 oz
Osmotolerant instant         1 1/8         1/4 oz
  yeast
Butter                       2 1/2         1/2 oz
Total                  10    0               2 lb

Note

Butter for roll-in is a percentage of the total dough weight.
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Title Annotation:PART 3 VIENNOISERIE
Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:17268
Previous Article:Chapter 8 Bread formulas.
Next Article:Chapter 9 Viennoiserie.
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