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Chapter 8 large shrubs.

Cercis chinensis

(sir'-sis chi-nen'-sis)

Chinese Redbud

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 3" to 4" brown pod, bean-like; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Multi-stemmed, upright, and stiff.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and wide, cordate shape with entire margins, petiole broadened at attachment with leaf blade. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Rose-purple, 1/2" to 1" long, often bunched. Flowers in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soils. Pruning is minimal and is recommended only for shaping.

PEST PROBLEMS: Stem canker, borers.

BARK/STEMS: Reddish-brown and smooth on young stems; older stems scaly. SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Nana'--Lower-growing version of the above, to about half as large.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Chinese Redbud is an early-flowering deciduous shrub that can be used in borders for early color. Good specimens can be quite profuse in bloom. Easy to grow but unfortunately not as attractive as Eastern Redbud, an excellent small tree (see Chapter 9).

Chionanthus virginicus

(ki-o-nan'-thus vir-jin'-e-cuss)

Grancy Gray-beard, Old-man's-beard

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/2" dark blue drupe; plum-like.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Spreading and open.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 7" long and one-third as wide, narrow-elliptic shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 4 strap-like petals per flower, petals 1" long, flowers appearing in dense 6" panicles. Flowers in May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, organic soil but is adaptable. Does best with mulching for cooler roots. Prune after flowering. Can be pruned to tree-form with interesting results.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green or brown; some pubescent. Older stems gray and smooth to slightly ridged.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: C. retusis--A small to medium size tree. (Featured in Medium Deciduous Trees.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Gray-beard makes an excellent large shrub or small tree for garden borders. It is often used as a spring focal point since flowers are abundant and very attractive. A proven plant that is very useful in modern landscapes. Often tree-formed.

Cotinus coggygria

(ko-ti'-nus ko-gig'-re-uh)

Smoketree, Smokebush

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 12'

FRUIT: 1/4" pinkish drupe; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded and irregular.

FAMILY: Anacardiaceae

LEAF COLOR: Gray-green in summer; yellow, orange, or purple in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 3" long and 5/8" to 2" wide, oval shape with obtuse tip and entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Pinkish-gray to purplish, tiny, in 8" many-branched panicles, hairy and smoke-like. Flowers in May and June.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Grows in a wide range of soil types and pH levels. Very drought-resistant. Prune after flowering to maintain shape or control size.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Nordine'--Very hardy form with purplish-red leaves that keep their color well into fall. 'Pendulus'--Has drooping branches. 'Purpureus'--Has purple leaves and darker flowers. 'Royal Purple'--(Featured on next page.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Smoketree is properly named because of the unusual flowers that resemble little puffs of smoke throughout the shrub. It is a plant to feature and should be used with moderation. This plant has been overshadowed by the purple cultivars, but the species is still useful in landscaping. Great for xeriscaping.

Cotinus coggygria 'Royal Purple'

(ko-ti'-nus ko-gig'-re-uh)

Purple Smoketree

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 12'

FRUIT: A compressed 1/4" drupe; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and irregularly rounded.

FAMILY: Anacardiaceae

LEAF COLOR: New foliage red, maturing to deep (blackish) purple; holds color through fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and 1 1/4" to 2 1/2" wide, elliptic to oval shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Purplish-red, tiny, in 8" to 10" multi-branched panicles, appearing like puffs of smoke. Flowers in May and June.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun for best color and bloom. The plant grows in a wide range of soil types and pH levels, and is drought-resistant. Pruning should be accomplished after flowering. Maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of C. coggygria.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Purple Smoketree is a bold accent plant to feature in the garden border or accent beds. Care should be taken in choosing a location. One should especially consider the color of adjacent structures or plants. This is an outstanding selection for xeriscaping.

Cytisus scoparius

(si-tiss'-us sko-pair'-e-us)

Scotch Broom

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 6' to 8'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 2" brown pod; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Rounded and irregular with arching branches.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; yellowish or brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND (3-petaled), leaflets 1/2" long and half as wide, obovate to oblanceolate shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Bright yellow, 1" long, solitary or in pairs, arising from the axils of older wood. Flowers in May. Very profuse and noticeable.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers well-drained, organic soil, but is adaptable. Will thrive in dry, sandy soil. Prune heavily after flowering, if desired, to control size.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spot.

BARK/STEMS: Stems are glabrous and bright green, providing additional interest in winter.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Dorothy Walpole'--Has rose-pink flowers. 'Moonlight' Has pale yellow flowers. 'Red Favorite'--Has true red flowers. Interesting.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Scotch Broom is an easy-to-grow, dependable plant that can be used to cover difficult areas. Yellow flowers are striking during spring, and bright green winter twigs are interesting and noticeable. A proven performer that still has a place in landscaping.

Deutzia x magnifica

(doot'-see-uh x mag-niff'-e-ca)

Showy Deutzia

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 6' to 10'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and multi-stemmed; arching branches.

FAMILY: Saxifragaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dull green with grayish-green tomentose; fading to brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 3" long and 1/2" to 1 1/4" wide, ovate-oblong shape with serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 3/4" in short panicles. DOUBLE. Flowers in late spring. Very prolific.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Grows well in any soil with reasonable moisture and fertility. Mulching will improve flowering. Prune after flowering to control size and shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Eburnea'--Has bell-shaped flowers borne in loose panicles. 'Erecta'--Flowers borne in upright panicles.

RELATED SPECIES: D. scabra--This species has 6" flower panicles. Has brown, peeling bark. D. x lemoinei--This species is a medium-grower that is rounded and more compact.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Showy Deutzia is a reliable shrub that blooms very profusely in late spring. It should be used as a warm season specimen in the garden border. It also makes a fine background plant for perennial plantings. Reliable and easy-to-grow.

Elaeagnus multiflora 'Crispa'

(e-le-ag'-nuss mull-te-flo'-rah)

Silver Elaeagnus

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/2" red achene; drupe-like.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Loose and wide-spreading.

FAMILY: Elaeagnaceae

LEAF COLOR: Silver-green with brown scale beneath in summer; silver-brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2" long and 3/4" to 1 1/4" wide, elliptic or ovate shape with entire to slightly undulate margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Pale yellow, 1/2", solitary or in pairs, arising from leaf axils. Flowers in spring. ABUNDANT and very FRAGRANT.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. The plant is adaptable as to soil type, and is used on sandy, droughty soils. Prune after flowering as desired to control size or maintain shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Aphids, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of E. multiflora, Cherry Elaeagnus.

RELATED SPECIES: E. angustifolia--Russian Olive. This species is characterized by thorny spines on stems and yellowish fruits. Often found in the wild. Diseaseprone. E. macrophylla--Silverberry. This species has much larger, green leaves (to 6") and does not have thorns. Compact form. E. pungens--(See Large Evergreen Shrubs.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Silver Elaeagnus is a large, broad shrub that is probably best suited for naturalizing along borders of the garden. The tiny yellow flowers are very pleasingly fragrant. The red fruits are edible, and they attract a variety of birds. This is a worthy plant that should be more widely planted.

Exochorda racemosa

(eck-so-kor'-duh ra-se-mo'-suh)

Pearlbush

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 9' to 12'

WIDTH: 10' to 15'

FRUIT: 1/4" 5-valved capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Globular and irregular.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Gray-green to medium green in summer; brown before dropping in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic to oblong-obovate shape with mostly entire margins, often serrated toward the apex. Whitish beneath. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1 1/2" to 2" across, 5-petaled, appearing in racemes of 5 or more flowers in spring. Buds are pearl-colored before opening. Very abundant and attractive.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun or light shade. Prefers well-drained, organic soil, but is adaptable to all but very wet soils. Prune after flowering to shape or control.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: E. x macrantha--More upright form, having greater vigor and denser panicles of flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Pearlbush is an "old timey" plant that has been used extensively in home gardens. It is best suited to borders as a background plant. Not especially noticeable except when flowering.

Ficus carica

(fi'-cuss kar'-e-kuh)

Common Fig

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 12' to 15'

WIDTH: 10' to 15'

FRUIT: Green; pinkish when ripe; 1" to 2" pear-shaped receptacle; EDIBLE AND DELICIOUS.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Spreading and irregular.

FAMILY: Moraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; brown to black in fall. LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 5" to 9" long and broad, palmately lobed shape with smooth margins, 3 to 5 deeply cut lobes, pubescent beneath. Thick and leathery. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Flowers are minute and produced inside a green fleshy receptacle; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun to part shade. Prefers well-drained, loamy, organic soil, but is adaptable to all but wet soils. Prune in early spring, as desired.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Brown Turkey'--A popular cultivar having abundant, purplish fruits.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Common Fig is actually a fruit tree that produces abundant fruits for preserves, jellies, or fresh fruit. The tree can be quite attractive in the landscape, and provides a textural change. Locate where dropped fruit will not be a problem. Unfortunately, it is not hardy above Zone 7.

Forsythia x intermedia

(for-sith'-e-uh x in-ter-me'-de-uh)

Showy Forsythia, Yellow Bells

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6" to 10"

WIDTH: 8" to 12"

FRUIT: Brown capsule with winged seed; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Broad-spreading and open; arching branches.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; yellowish to red to burgundy in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and one-third as wide, ovate-lanceolate shape with coarsely serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Bright yellow, 1" long, 4-parted corolla tube, appearing in groups along the stems. Flowers in very early spring. No fragrance.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun for best flowering. Prefers well-drained, loamy soil, but is adaptable to all but the extremes of wet or very dry. Prune heavily after flowering if desired, then let plant attain its natural, gracefully arching habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Beatrix Farrand'--Larger yellow flowers on upright plant. 'Lynwood Gold'--Heavy bloomer with flower corollas that are more open, giving appearance of larger flowers. Upright habit. 'Nana'--Much smaller form to medium size. 'Spectabilis'--The standard by which all others are judged. Hardiest. Very dependable. 'Spring Glory'--Brilliant yellow flowers. Blooms fully before any leaves appear.

RELATED SPECIES: F. ovata--The earliest of all Forsythias. This medium size shrub has a slight green tinge to its bright yellow flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Forsythia is one of the first shrubs to flower in spring, and really brightens the landscape. It is best used in borders for accent or screening, and should not be used in foundations. It looks best when allowed to develop its natural shape. This is a very easy to grow shrub that is overplanted, but is very refreshing at a time when most of the garden is still dull. Simply stated, absolutely outstanding!

Hamamelis vernalis

(ham-uh-me'-lis ver-na'-lis)

Vernal Witchhazel

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8" to 12"

WIDTH: 8" to 10"

FRUIT: 2-valved, brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Irregular and rounded.

FAMILY: Hamamelidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and half as wide, obovate to elliptic shape with crenate margins. Downy on veins on undersides; sometimes on upper surface veins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellow, sometimes reddish, 4-petaled, 1/2" long and strap-like, appearing in axillary cymes. Flowers in January to March.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun to part shade. Prefers moist, organic soil, but is adaptable. Does not like drought. Prune after flowering to shape. Can be tree-formed for interesting effect.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Rubra'--Petals are reddish near base.

RELATED SPECIES: H. virginiana--Common Witchhazel. This is a native species that attains much greater height. It flowers in fall or early winter. H. x intermedia This is a hybrid between H. japonica and H. mollis. This is the species being marketed most, and there are numerous cultivars, many with red flowers. 'Arnold Promise' belongs here.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Vernal Witchhazel blooms during the "drab of winter," making it a welcome site for early color. Fall foliage is excellent, and the plant is best used for naturalizing.

Hibiscus syriacus

(hi-bis'-cuss seer-e-a'-cuss)

Althea, Rose Of Sharon

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 5-celled, brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright and open.

FAMILY: Malvaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; dull yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and 2 1/2" to 3" wide, triangular to rhombic-ovate shape with 3-lobed margins (palmate) having coarse teeth.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, red, purple, or blue, depending on cultivar. 2" to 3" wide and 5-petaled, single or double. Flowers in August or September and continues into fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, organic soil, but is adaptable. Avoid extremely wet or extremely dry soils. Prune heavily, if desired, in early spring.

PEST PROBLEMS: Beetles, aphids, spider mites, leaf spots, and powdery mildew.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Aphrodite'--Single. Deep rose-pink with red eye. Sterile triploid. USDA introduction. 'Blue Bird'--Single. Blue; dense habit. 'Blushing Bride' Double. Rich pink flowers. Dense habit. 'Collie Mullens'--Double. Lavender blooms and upright, compact habit. 'Diana'--(Featured on next page.) 'Helene'--Single. White flowers with reddish-purple eyes. Triploid. USDA introduction. 'Minerva'--Single. Lavender-pink with reddish-purple eyes. Triploid. USDA introduction. 'Red Heart' Single. White with scarlet-red eyes.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Althea is a late-blooming plant that has a long bloom period. It should be used in combination with evergreens in the border or as a late-summer specimen. This is an easy to grow, proven performer.

Hibiscus syriacus 'Diana'

(hi-bis'-cuss seer-e-a'-cuss)

Diana Rose Of Sharon

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 7' to 8'

WIDTH: 7' to 10'

FRUIT: 5-celled, brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Upright and compact;

BROADER SPREADING THAN THE SPECIES.

FAMILY: Malvaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and 1 1/2" to 3" wide, THICKER THAN THE SPECIES, triangular shape with coarse-toothed, sometimes lobed, margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, to 6" across and STAYING OPEN AT NIGHT. Single. Flowers in late summer and continues until the first freeze.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun to light shade. Adaptable to most soils except too wet or dry. Will withstand heavy pruning, but this should be accomplished in very early spring.

PEST PROBLEMS: Beetles, aphids, spider mites, leaf spots, powdery mildew.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar. (See SELECTED CULTIVARS on previous page.)

RELATED SPECIES: H. rosa-sinensis--This species is noted for large foliage and huge flowers. Unfortunately, it is hardy only to Zone 10, but can be grown as an annual in other zones.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: 'Diana' is one of several outstanding triploids introduced by the U.S. National Arboretum. For those familiar with the "old timey" selections, Diana is certainly in a class of its own. Can be used as a screen or specimen in the garden border. OUTSTANDING.

Hydrangea paniculata

(hi-dran'-jee-uh pan-ick-u-la'-tah)

Panicle Hydrangea

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 15'

FRUIT: Dehiscent capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Rounded and open.

FAMILY: Saxifragaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; tinged yellowish or purplish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 6" long and half as wide, elliptic or oval shape with serrated margins, downy underneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish-white, becoming pinkish, tiny, borne in panicles to 10" long. Flowers July into fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, well-drained, organic soil, but is reasonably adaptable. Will take severe pruning if accomplished in very early spring. Maintain natural shape throughout the warm season.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, mildew.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Grandiflora'--(Featured on next page.) 'Praecox'--Similar, but earlier in flowering. 'Tardiva'--Flowers later than the species.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Panicle Hydrangea is a much-used plant of the past, but still has merit in modern landscaping. The plant is hardy and easy to grow, and responds well to a little attention. Choose the location carefully.

Hydrangea paniculata 'Grandiflora'

(hi-dran'-jee-uh pan-ick-u-la'-tah)

Peegee Hydrangea

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 15'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: Dehiscent capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Rounded and open; arching when in bloom.

FAMILY: Saxifragaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic to oval shape with serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, becoming pink, tiny flowers appearing in 6" to 10" clusters. Flowers in July or August.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soil. Plant should be mulched to maintain moisture level. Prune severely, if desired, during winter or very early spring.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, mildew.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: PeeGee Hydrangea is a large-flowered shrub that produces abundant flower clusters in late season. Flower color provides interest as it changes from white to pink. Flowers cling for a long period, making this a nice flower panicle for dried arrangements in the home.

Ilex decidua 'Warrens Red'

(i'-lex de-sid'-u-uh)

Possumhaw

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 7' to 12'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" round berry, ripening in early fall, persisting until spring.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow to moderate.

HABIT: Upright and horizontal branches; more upright than the species.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 3/4" to 3 1/4" long and one-third as wide, obovate shape, cuneate base, serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: DIOECIOUS, tiny, female in axillary clusters; NOT SHOWY!

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun to part shade. Prefers moderate moisture and acid soils, but is more tolerant of alkaline soil than the species.

PEST PROBLEMS: None serious.

BARK/STEMS: Very light gray stems that are attractive with dark, evergreen background.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Warrens Red Possumhaw is a cultivar of the native Possumhaw, and it is valued for its deeper red berries and attractive stems. It is one of the better deciduous plants for naturalizing in the landscape.

Ilex verticillata

(i'-lex ver-ti-se-la'-tah)

Winterberry

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 7' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 15'

FRUIT: 1/4" red drupe in late summer, persisting after leaf drop.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow to moderate.

HABIT: Rounded and spreading; irregular and open.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer, fading to yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with cuneate base and acuminate apex, serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; male in cymes, female in axillary clusters; not showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers moist, acid soils since it is native to swampy areas. Will not tolerate alkaline soils or droughty conditions. Prune in early spring to thicken, control, or encourage heavy fruiting.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots and mildews.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems are green, maturing to grayish-brown.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: F. chrysocarpa--This form is a yellow-fruited native plant, having fewer berries than the red types. 'Nana'--A dwarf cultivar, but having larger fruits. 'Winter Red'--This most popular cultivar has larger, abundant fruits that hold later into winter.

RELATED VARIETIES: I. decidua--Possumhaw. Large shrub to small tree size. Fruits are orange to red. Better adapted to alkaline soils. Has noticeable gray bark similar to I. vomitoria. I. serrata--Japanese Winterberry. This species has slightly smaller leaves and fruit, and is smaller in overall size. Has been crossed with I. verticillata to produce hybrids of merit.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Winterberry is probably best utilized in the border as a winter specimen. It is especially attractive with snow-covered branches. The plant blends nicely with evergreens and is great for naturalizing.

Kolkwitzia amabilis 'Pink Cloud'

(kolk-wit'-ze-ah uh-mab'-uh-lis)

Pink Beautybush

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 5' to 7'

FRUIT: 1/4" brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Upright, vase-shaped, and multi-stemmed.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 3" long and 1" to 2 1/4" wide, ovate shape with acuminate tip and sparsely serrated margins. New leaves downy on both surfaces. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Pink, 1/2" long and wide, appearing in clusters (corymbs) in late spring; NOT FRAGRANT.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Prefers organic, loamy soil, but is adaptable to most well-drained soils. Thin out older stems after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Has an interesting brown bark that peels on older stems.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of K. amabilis.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Rosea'--Has deeper pink flowers than 'Pink Cloud'.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Beautybush is a plant that is spectacular in bloom, yet blends into the landscape border when not in bloom. Such a plant has merit in adding variety and interest to the garden, especially when naturalizing. This plant, like many of the deciduous shrubs, looks best with a minimum of pruning and absolutely NO SHEARING.

Lespedeza bicolor

(les-pe-de'-zuh bi'-cul-er)

Bicolor Lespedeza, Bush Clover

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: Small, one-seeded pod; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright, open, and arching.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium to dark green in summer; yellowish-brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND, trifoliate (3 leaflets), leaflets 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Purple, 1/2", appearing in erect 4" panicles in late summer. Attractive and quite showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun or light shade. The plant is adaptable to most well-drained soils. Should be pruned severely in early spring to encourage lush, new growth.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Lil Buddy'--A dwarf form to 3'-3 1/2'.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Bicolor Lespedeza is appropriately used to add interest and color to garden borders. Often used as a conservation plant to stabilize soil, but especially to attract numerous species of birds and small wildlife. This is a plant for naturalizing.

Lonicera fragrantissima

(lon-iss'-er-uh fra-gran-tiss'-e-ma)

Winter Honeysuckle

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 9'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" red berry.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Rounded and somewhat arching.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Deep green in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic to oval shape with entire margins. Bluish-green beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Creamy-white, 1/2" long, appearing in pairs before the leaves. Very fragrant. Blooms in late winter.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun or part shade. Adapts to a wide range of well-drained soils. Somewhat drought-tolerant. Prune severely, if needed, after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Winter Honeysuckle is valuable for early color and fragrance in the garden. Often used as a hedge or screen, it makes a good background plant for smaller species in borders. Reliable and easy to grow.

Lonicera tatarica

(lon-iss'-er-uh ta-tar'-e-cuh)

Tatarian Honeysuckle

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/4" red berry.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and arching.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green (tinged blue) in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate or ovate-lanceolate shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Pink or white, 1" long in axillary pairs, appearing with the leaves in mid-spring; FRAGRANT.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soil. Prune after flowering, as desired.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alba'--Has white flowers. 'Arnold Red'--Very deep red flowers. 'Grandiflora'--Especially large, white flowers. 'Lutea'--Has pink flowers, followed by yellow fruits. 'Nana'--Dwarf form (2" to 3") with pink flowers. 'Rosea' Flowers rose-colored with pink inside. 'Virginalis'--Has large, white flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Tatarian Honeysuckle is best used as a specimen in the garden border. This is a hardy and reliable plant, and like all of the shrub-type Honeysuckles, it is a nice plant for naturalizing.

Philadelphus x 'Natchez'

(fil-uh-del'-fuss x nah'-chez)

Natchez Mock Orange

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Broad-spreading and arching.

FAMILY: Saxifragaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; brownish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to oval shape with sparsely serrated margins. Veins downy beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 4-petaled, 2" across, solitary or in small racemes. Flowers in May or June; FRAGRANT.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Does best in well-drained, organic soils. Responds well to pruning, but do not prune in late summer or fall.

PEST PROBLEMS: Aphids, mildew, leaf spots.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a hybrid cultivar of questionable parentage.

RELATED SPECIES: P. coronarius--One of the older species having fragrant flowers, but less spectacular than recent forms. P. x lemoinei--One of the better hybrids with abundant fragrant flowers in late spring. Compact. P. x virginalis--Another hybrid of unknown parentage, having double or semi-double, white flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Natchez Mock Orange is an excellent plant to add color and fragrance to dull areas of the garden. It is especially handsome in flower, but is best used in groupings with other plants in the garden border.

Poncirus trifoliata

(pon-si'-rus tri-fol-e-a'-ta)

Hardy Orange

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10" to 15"

WIDTH: 8" to 12"

FRUIT: Small, yellowish-orange; edible, but sour.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Upright and irregular.

FAMILY: Rutaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND (3 leaflets), leaflets 1 1/2" to 2" long and half as wide, elliptic to obovate shape with crenate margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 2" across, appearing in axils of thorns. Flowers in mid-spring. Slightly fragrant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Adaptable to most soils except wet soils. Somewhat drought-tolerant. Selectively prune with CAUTION after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: Sometimes attacked by mites.

BARK/STEMS: Shiny green with 1" or longer sharp spines. Older stems have brown bark.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None important.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Hardy Orange is an accent or "conversation piece" in the garden. It's best use is probably as an impenetrable hedge to control traffic. Should not be used where children frequent an area.

Salix caprea

(sa'-licks cap'-re-uh)

Goat Willow, Pussy Willow

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: 10' to 15'

FRUIT: Small brown capsule on female plants.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Upright plant with multiple stems.

FAMILY: Salicaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green above and grayish beneath.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 4" long and half as wide, long ovate shape with variable margins, sparsely serrated or entire. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: DIOECIOUS, male plants grown for the showy silver catkins before the leaves in spring, catkins 1" to 2" long, silky soft. Flowers in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part-shade. The plant is adaptable as to soil type, but moisture requirement is higher than for most plants. Can be grown on poorly drained soils.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf-eating insects, canker.

BARK: Yellow-brown to brown with visible lenticels.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: "Pendula"--A weeping form of mounded habit.

RELATED SPECIES: S. discolor--This is the native species found in wet areas. Poor in quality compared to other Pussy Willows.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Pussy Willows are nice plants for naturalizing in damp or wet areas in the garden. The plant does well on stream or creek banks. The male catkins are handsome and are often used in floral arrangements.

Spiraea prunifolia 'Plena'

(spi-ree'-uh prun-e-fol'-e-ah)

Bridal Wreath Spirea

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 8'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: Dehiscent follicle; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Open and spreading; arched branches.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous green in summer; reddish-orange in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to elliptic shape with coarsely serrated margins, downy underneath. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, double, 1/4" to 1/2" across, tightly bunched, appearing in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. This is a rugged plant that will grow almost anywhere. Prune heavily and thin stems to ground level after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: S. prunifolia f. simpliciflora--The single-flowered version. LANDSCAPE NOTES: Considered by many to be outdated, this plant certainly has a place in modern design. Very few plants are as reliable or bloom as heavily as Bridal Wreath. Can be massed or grown as an early spring specimen in borders.

Spiraea x vanhouttei

(spi-ree'-uh x van-hoot'-e-i)

Vanhoutte Spirea

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 6' to 10'

WIDTH: 8' to 12'

FRUIT: Dehiscent follicle; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Spreading; arched branches.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Blue-green in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and 2/3" to 1" wide, rhombic to obovate shape with coarsely serrated margins, sometimes shallowly lobed. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1/2" in 3" to 4" domed clusters; prolific. Flowers in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Thrives under a wide range of soils and conditions. Severe pruning or shearing can be accomplished after flowering as desired.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Vanhoutte Spirea makes a nice specimen plant or border plant for a massed effect. It is an early bloomer and adds interest to the garden during a dull part of the season. This species is one of the most common. It should be pruned to its natural shape.

Syringa vulgaris

(si-ring'-guh vul-gare'-iss)

Common Lilac

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 6' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 9'

FRUIT: Dehiscent capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and open; sometimes leggy.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; no fall color.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 5" long and 1 3/4" to 4" wide, ovate shape with cordate base and entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Lilac color (species), cultivars variable, tiny, in lateral panicles to 10" long. VERY FRAGRANT. Flowers in April to May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Prefers organic soil that is neutral or alkaline in reaction. Tolerant of all but wet conditions. Prune selectively after flowering. PEST PROBLEMS: Bacterial blight, leaf spots, mildew, lilac borer, lilac scale. Many of these can be destructive.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: Note: Hundreds exist, but some of the best are described here. 'Angel White'--Clusters of pure white flowers. Great for warmer zones. 'Belle de Nancy'--DOUBLE. Pink flowers. 'Blue Skies'--Excellent, light lavender-blue panicles. Rapid grower. Great for warmer zones. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction. 'Charles Joly'--Deep, wine-red flowers. 'Lavender Lady'--Lavender flowers. Requires little chill. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction. 'President Lincoln' Pure blue. OUTSTANDING. 'Sensation'--Florets purplish-red, edged with white.

RELATED SPECIES: S. persica--Persian Lilac. More compact species having abundant but smaller blooms. Many cultivars exist.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Lilacs have been popular for their outstanding blooms and fragrance for many years. The current emphasis is on cultivars for the southernmost zones. This is definitely a plant to feature in the garden.

Tamarix ramosissima

(tam'-uh-ricks ram-o-i sis'-e-mah)

Salt Cedar

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 10' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Open and airy; irregular and upright.

FAMILY: Tamaricaceae

LEAF COLOR: Light to medium green in summer; brownish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, tiny and scale-like with salt-secreting glands, Juniper-like. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Pink, 5-petaled, tiny, in slender 2" terminal racemes that form panicles. Flowers in summer.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Prefers well-drained, sandy soils. Thrives very well in humid or arid conditions. Prune to keep natural, open habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: Mildew, rootrot, scale.

BARK/STEMS: Reddish-brown and noticeable due to open habit of growth.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Rosea'--Rosey-pink flowers. Late flowering. 'Rubra' Deeper pink; almost red.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Salt Cedar is an excellent plant for naturalizing in garden borders or raised beds. Does well in beach plantings or desert plantings. Great for XERISCAPING.

Viburnum dilatatum

(vi-bur'-num di-la-ta'-tum)

Linden Viburnum

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 7' to 8'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: Clustered, bright red berries (drupes).

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and dense.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; reddish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and half as wide, oval to obovate shape with coarsely serrated margins. Hairy (downy) on both surfaces. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 4" to 5" clusters (cymes). Flowers in May and June.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soils. Pruning is minimal to maintain shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Catskill'--A more compact selection with red, orange, or yellow fall color. 'Xanthocarpum'--Has yellow fruit in the fall.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Linden Viburnum is a plant to feature in the garden border as an accent plant or in massed plantings. It is desirable for its attractive flower clusters in early summer and for its bright red berries in fall. The coarse texture provides additional contrast. This is a low-maintenance plant.

Viburnum lantana

(vi-bur'-num lan-tan'-ah)

Wayfaring Tree

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 12'

FRUIT: Clustered red drupes; maturing to black.

TEXTURE: Somewhat coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and rounded.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; purplish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 5" long and 2" to 4" wide, ovate shape with dentate to serrated margins, pubescent on both surfaces. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, appearing in 4" cymes in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers well-drained, organic soil and is pH-tolerant. Pruning is minimal in order to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Mohican'--This cultivar is more compact than the species with thicker, darker green leaves and carmine red fuits. 'Rugosum'--Has larger leaves and larger flower clusters.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Wayfaring Tree is valuable for its flower clusters and fruit, which attracts native birds. It should be used in the border as a specimen or in mass as a screen or background plant. Very hardy!

Viburnum macrocephalum

(vi-bur'-num mac-ro-seff'-ah-lum)

Chinese Snowball

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES:

6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: Non-fruiting

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and irregularly rounded.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; brownish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1" florets forming a round 6" to 10" snowball-like cyme. Flowers in May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Adapts to most well-drained soils. Prune after flowering to remove weak branches or to shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Chinese Snowball is a descriptive name for this attention-getting specimen plant. Probably best grown as a specimen in garden borders, or as a lawn specimen as a substitute for small trees. Spectacular in bloom.

Viburnum opulus 'Sterile'

(vi-bur'-num op"-u-lus)

Eastern Snowball, Snowball Bush

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 9' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 15'

FRUIT: Non-fruiting

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and rounded; somewhat arching.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; purplish-red in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and broad, Maple-like, 3 to 5 lobes, pubescent beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, florets forming 3" to 5" snowball-like cymes. Flowers in May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Adaptable to almost any soil type or pH level. Prune after flowering to shape. Very easy to grow.

PEST PROBLEMS: Aphids

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of V. opulus, European Cranberry Viburnum, having 3" flat-topped cymes. Not as showy as 'Sterile'.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Nanum'--Dwarf form of the species to 4" or less. Has flat-topped blooms like the species.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Eastern Snowball has blooms similar to Chinese Snowball, but they are less numerous and smaller in size. This makes the plant more useful in the average garden because it is less dominating. Very choice plant.

Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum

(vi-bur'-num pli-ka'-tum var. to-men-to'-sum)

Doublefile Viburnum

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 9' to 10'

WIDTH: 10' to 12'

FRUIT: 1/4" red drupes, maturing to black.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broad-spreading; horizontal branching.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; brownish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 4" long and half as wide, ovate to ovate shape with coarsely serrated margins. Pubescent beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1" in 3" to 4" fat cymes, outer flowers showy, infertile inner flowers not showy, rising above the foliage giving a layered effect. Flowers in April or May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers well-drained, moist, organic soil. Very sensitive to overwatering. Prune carefully after flowering to maintain horizontal branching.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Mariesii'--Flowers larger and standing taller above the foliage. 'Shasta'--Lower-growing (6") and very dense. Flowers are 1 1/2 times as large. Great for smaller gardens.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Doublefile Viburnum offers a beautiful flower display, followed by an abundant berry crop. However, it is especially interesting for its horizontal, layered effect. It should be given a prominent place in the landscape.

Viburnum setigerum (vi-bur'-num se-tig'-er-um)

Tea Viburnum

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 10' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 9'

FRUIT: 1/4" bright red drupes; OUTSTANDING.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and open.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bluish-red in spring, green in summer, and orange in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 5" long and one-third as wide, ovate-oblong shape with sparsely serrated margins. Veins downy underneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, appearing in 2" diameter cymes. Flowers in May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Requires well-drained soil, preferably loamy. Prune after flowering to maintain natural shape and to prevent legginess.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Aurantiacum'--Has orange-yellow fruits.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Tea Viburnum was once used in China to make tea. Today, it certainly has a place in home gardens. It is an interesting plant that produces abundant fruit and attracts many species of birds.

Viburnum x burkwoodii 'Mohawk'

(vi-bur'-num x berk-wood'-e-i)

Mohawk Burkwood Viburnum

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 7'

WIDTH: 6' to 7'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" bright red drupes.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and irregular.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; orange-red in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and half as wide, ovate to oblong-ovate shape with sparsely serrated margins, tomentose (hairy) beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White (buds red before opening), tiny, in 3" to 4" cymes. Flowers open in spring. VERY FRAGRANT.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun to light shade. Prefers well-drained, moist, organic soil of any pH. Will not tolerate wet soils. Prune carefully to maintain natural appearance. Can be sheared if desired.

PEST PROBLEMS: Nematodes

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of V. x burkwoodii, which has pink buds and less fragrance. In addition, it grows 1/3 larger than 'Mohawk'.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Chenault'--Flowers have a slight rose tint, fading to white. Foliage is bronze in fall.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Mohawk Viburnum is probably the best of the Burkwood Viburnums. The red buds are slow in opening, giving this specimen plant a long period of interest in the natural garden border.

Vitex agnus-castus

(vi"-tex ag"-nus-cas'-tus)

Vitex, Chaste Tree

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12' WIDTH: 8 to 12'

FRUIT: Tiny drupe; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Multi-stemmed; open and irregular.

FAMILY: Verbenaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green to gray-green in summer; no fall color.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND (palmate with 5 to 7 leaflets; usually 5), leaflets oblong-elliptic to lanceolate shape with occasional teeth (serrated) toward the tip. Grayish tomentose beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Lilac to lavender color, small, in panicles to 12" long, appearing summer through early fall. Showy but subdued. Fragrant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Prefers well-drained loamy soil, but is adaptable to dry, sandy exposures. Prune to control size, but do not destroy natural, open habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alba'--Has white flower panicles. 'Latiflolia'--Compound leaves are shorter and broader. 'Rosea'--Has pink flower panicles.

RELATED SPECIES: V. negundo--This species attains greater size (to 20") and has leaflets of three rather than five.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Chaste Tree is a late-blooming plant that blends into the border nicely without dominating. It is great for beach plantings, and has possibilities for XERISCAPING. Should be more widely used.

Weigela florida

(wi-ge'-la flor'-e-dah)

Weigela

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 6' to 10'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Erect with arching branches.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; brownish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 4" long and half as wide, obovate to elliptic shape with finely serrated margins, sometimes undulating. Veins pubescent underneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Rose-pink (cultivars vary), 1" in small clusters. Flowers in April to May. Very abundant and showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant is adaptable to most well-drained soils. Easy to grow. Prune to remove dead branches or to control.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alba'--Has white flowers. 'Bristol Beauty'--Ruby-red flowers with a long bloom period. 'Eva Supreme'--Medium size (to 5") and having deep crimson flowers. 'Java Red'--Buds carmine-red; flowers deep pink. Dwarf form (4"). 'Minuet'--Very dwarf (2" to 3") with rose-pink flowers and dark green foliage. Foliage is purple-tinged. 'Red Prince'--Medium size (6") with rich red flowers. 'Variegated Nana'--Very dwarf (2" to 3"). Leaves edged in yellow. Deep rose flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Weigela is valued for its use as a specimen plant or border plant. It blooms profusely during spring and is spectacular. A low-maintenance plant that should not be used as a foundation plant. Variegation is bland compared to many variegated plants.
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Title Annotation:Cercis chinensis-Weigela florida
Author:Bridwell, Ferrell M.
Publication:Landscape Plants, Their Identification, Culture, and Use, 2nd ed.
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:7382
Previous Article:Chapter 8 large shrubs.
Next Article:Chapter 9 Small trees.
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