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Chapter 8 large shrubs.

Juniperus scopulorum 'Gray Gleam'

(jew-nip'-er-us skop-u-lor'-um)

Rocky Mountain Juniper

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'+ WIDTH: 3' to 6'+

FRUIT: 1/4" dark blue, berry-like cone.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Upright and narrowly pyramidal; dense.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Silvery gray-blue, more intense in winter.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, tightly appressed, tips slightly pointed to non-pointed; waxy bloom intensifies silver-gray effect. Branchlets form flattened plates.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Does best in light, well-drained soil. Grows in acid or alkaline soils. This plant is drought-tolerant and does not like humid conditions. Grows dense, but can be sheared to a dense, smooth cone.

PEST PROBLEMS: Juniper blight, bagworms.

BARK/STEMS: Brown to gray in narrow stripes on older bark.

SIMILAR CULTIVARS: 'Blue Heaven'--A conical selection with blue-green foliage. Heavy crop of fruit all season. 'Moonglow'--Broad pyramid with silver-blue foliage. 'Pathfinder'--Has broader pyramidal form and blue-gray foliage. 'Wichita Blue'--Has more vivid blue foliage.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: 'Gray Gleam' Rocky Mountain Juniper is a beautiful plant for foliage effect during all seasons. Makes a nice screen, foundation plant, or accent plant to dull areas of the garden. The plant is somewhat formal and has limited use for naturalizing. A bright spot in a genus of green.

Leucothoe populifolia

(luko'-tho-e pop-u-li-fo'-le-uh)

Florida Leucothoe

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 4' to 6'

FRUIT: 5-valved, brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Multi-stemmed drooping plant.

FAMILY: Ericaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous medium green; new leaves reddish.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and one-third as wide, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate shape with serrated or entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Light yellow, tiny, in racemes. ATTRACTIVE. Flowers in May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Shade or part shade. This plant prefers moist, organic soils. Does well near streams and creeks. Easy to grow as an understory plant. Prune as desired, but looks best natural.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Leucothoe is an excellent plant for use in natural areas on shaded properties or along streams. It can be sheared to control size and thicken. Looks especially good in combination with native plants such as Rhododendrons, and it should be more widely used.

Ligustrum japonicum

(ly-gus'-trum juh-pon'-e-kum)

Japanese Privet, Japanese Ligustrum

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 5' to 7'

FRUIT: 1/4" black berries (drupes); Showy.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Dense; upright.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate shape with entire margins, VEINS RAISED ON UNDERSIDE (separates it from L. lucidum). OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 5" to 6" panicles. Flowers in spring. ATTRACTIVE and noticeable.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Grows well in any soil except wet soil. Easy to grow but not low-maintenance. Usually requires heavy pruning due to rapid growth.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Howard'--Very bold! New leaves bright yellow. Older leaves bright green. (Featured on next page.) 'Recurvifolium'--Has smaller, noticeably twisted leaves. Usually incorrectly listed as a L. lucidum cultivar. 'Rotundifolium'--(Featured in Chapter 6.) 'Variegatum'--Green leaves have creamy-white margins.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Japanese Ligustrum is a thick, vigorous plant that is a proven and reliable performer. A trend in recent years has been to tree-form it as a specimen plant or to use it as an espaliered or semi-espaliered specimen. The plant makes an excellent privacy screen or foundation plant. NOTE: The plant pictured here is semi-espaliered 1' from wall, and it is tree-formed.

Ligustrum japonicum 'Howard'

(ly-gus'-trum juh-pon'-e-kum)

Golden Japanese Ligustrum

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 5' to 7'

FRUIT: 1/4" black berries (drupes).

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Dense and upright; somewhat oval.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: New leaves golden yellow; older leaves green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and half as wide, ovate shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Tiny, white, in 5" panicles. Flowers in spring and is noticeable.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Grows well in any soil except wet soils. Pruning can be heavy due to rapid growth. Easy to grow, but not maintenance-free.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This is an interesting variation of the common Japanese Ligustrum. It makes a bold accent plant and is brightest during the warm season. Select the location very carefully, and use the plant in moderation.

Ligustrum lucidum

(ly-gus'-trum lu'-se-dum)

Waxleaf Privet, Waxleaf Ligustrum

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/3" bluish-black berries (drupes); noticeable.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright and open; oval to pyramidal.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and 1" to 2" wide, ovate to ovate-lanceolate shape with entire margins. Veins are sunken on underside (opposite of L. japonicum). OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 6" to 8" panicles. Flowers in early summer. NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Grows well in most soils except wet soils. Occasional pruning can be helpful to thicken the plant. Considered easy to grow, and is low-maintenance if ultimate height is not important.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Variegatum'--Has creamy white to white leaf margins.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Waxleaf Privet is often confused with Japanese Privet, and both have been used for similar purposes. However, they are not interchangeable, since Waxleaf grows much larger over time. It is probably best used for taller, unclipped hedges or screens. Anyone can grow this one.

Loropetalum chinense

(lor-o-pet'-uh-lum chi-nen'-se)

Chinese Fringe, Loropetalum

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 8'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Rounded and broad; somewhat irregular.

FAMILY: Hamamelidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and pubescent (hairy).

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to elliptic shape with entire margins. Pubescent on both surfaces. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White or cream colored, 1" wide in axillary clusters of up to 6 flowers, petals 1" long, very narrow, long and stringy. Flowers in early spring. VERY ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Does best in well-drained, organic soils. Does not like extremes of either very dry or wet conditions. Can be pruned to almost any habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Roseum'--Has rose-colored flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Chinese Fringe is the common name given because of the beautiful fringe-like flowers in spring. This plant is one of the best in landscaping for espalier or semi-espalier. It can be grown as a large, round shrub or in tree-form. It is best used as a specimen plant for bare wall space.

Myrica cerifera

(mi-ri'-kuh sir-if'-er-uh)

Southern Wax Myrtle

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 12'

FRUIT: Tiny, waxy-gray berries; in clusters. Attractive.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright; irregular and open.

FAMILY: Myricaceae

LEAF COLOR: Yellowish-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and one-fourth as wide, oblong-lanceolate shape with acute tip and serrated margins toward the tip. ALTERNATE arrangement.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. The plant is native to sandy wetlands and swamps, but can be grown under a variety of conditions and soil types. Best appearance is evident when not pruned. Easy to grow.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Nana'--A smaller, medium size shrub. (Featured in Chapter 7.)

RELATED SPECIES: M. pennsylvanica--Northern Bayberry. A dense, deciduous form that grows in Zones 2 to 6.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Southern Wax Myrtle is an excellent background plant for dwarf plants, expecially Junipers. It has an open, airy habit that gives great contrast in the garden. Provides a semi-private hedge when left natural. Can be sheared and grown as a foundation shrub, or it may be tree-formed to serve as an attractive, small evergreen tree.

Nerium oleander

(neer'-e-um o-le-an'-der)

Oleander

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ZONES: 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 6" to 8" follicles (pairs); NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright, rounded, and open.

FAMILY: Apocynaceae

LEAF COLOR: Grayish-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 6" long and one-fourth as wide, lanceolate shape with entire margins. Usually WHORLED (3 or 4), but sometimes OPPOSITE.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, or red, depending on cultivar. 1", 5-petaled flowers, appearing in clusters (cymes) in June and July.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Grows in almost any sandy soils from very dry to slightly wet. The plant is suitable for beach plantings, and is tolerant of urban conditions. Often used in street plantings. Looks best if not pruned.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale, mealybug.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Algiers'--Single, deep red flowers. 'Atropurpureum' Single, purple flowers. 'Calypso'--Single, cherry-red flowers. 'Casablanco'--Single, pure white flowers. 'Hardy Pink'--Single, salmon-pink flowers. 'Hardy Red'--Single, bright red flowers. Prolific. 'Isle of Capri'--Single, light yellow flowers. 'Mrs. Roeding'--Double, salmon-pink. 'Ruby Lace'--Single, ruby-red flowers to 3". Fringed petals. Outstanding. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction. 'Tangier'--Single, soft pink flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Oleander is a beautiful plant that performs well in the South, especially in coastal areas. Foliage, flowers, and habit are all notable. An excellent foundation or border plant. ALL PARTS OF THIS PLANT ARE POISONOUS IF EATEN.

Osmanthus x fortunei

(oz-man'-thus x for'-toon'-e-i)

Fortune Tea Olive

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: Small drupe; RARELY PRESENT.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, stiff, and oval.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and half as wide, oval to elliptic shape with spinose margins (often mistaken for holly). Very stiff and having prominent veins. OPPOSITE arrangement. (Hollies have alternate arrangement.)

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in clusters (cymes). Flowers in fall. Not greatly noticeable, but VERY PLEASINGLY FRAGRANT (similar to Gardenia).

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Tolerant of a wide range of well-drained soils. Reasonably drought-tolerant. Can be sheared to a variety of shapes, but looks best if pruning is minimal.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Fruitlandii'--Supposedly more hardy than the species.

RELATED SPECIES: O. fragrans--Very fragrant with larger leaves and fewer spines. Less cold hardy (Zone 8).

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Fortune Tea Olive has Holly-like leaves and white, fragrant flowers. It is a thick plant for foundation plantings or hedges. It is very easy to grow and makes an outstanding tree-form plant. A good plant to semi-espalier. NOTE: Fortune Tea Olive is a hybrid between O. fragrans and O. heterophyllus.

Photinia glabra

(fo-tin'-e-uh gla'-bruh)

Red Photinia

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" red berries (pome); maturing to black.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright and somewhat open.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green; red on new growth.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and 3/4" tol 1/4" wide, elliptic to obovate shape, usually with finely serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 3" to 4" clusters (corymbs). Flowers in spring; SHOWY.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers well-drained, moist, organic soil. Easy to grow but not drought-resistant. Needs annual fertilization for best color. Responds favorably to pruning (after flowering).

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spot fungus, CAN BE DESTRUCTIVE. SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Rubens'--Has more colorful, bright red foliage on new growth.

RELATED SPECIES: P. serrulata--(Featured on page 291.) P. x fraseri--(Featured on next page.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This is a versatile plant that is useful for foundations, clipped, and unclipped hedges. Very often used as a specimen plant in tree-form.

Photinia x fraseri

(fo-tin'-e-uh x fraz'-yer-i)

Red-tip Photinia, Fraser Photinia

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 20'

WIDTH: 5' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/4" red berries (pomes); maturing to black.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright; somewhat oval.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Reddish-green; new growth is bright red.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 5" long and one-third as wide, elliptic to obovate shape with cuneate base and acute tip. Margins are finely serrated. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 4" to 5" clusters (corymbs). Flowers in spring; VERY SHOWY.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soil. More cold-hardy than P. glabra. Responds well to fertilization and pruning.

PEST PROBLEMS: Fungal leaf spots, CAN BE DESTRUCTIVE.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Indian Princess'--More dwarf form with coppery-orange new growth. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Red-tip Photinia is a fast-growing, noticeable plant that makes a quick privacy screen. It makes a nice corner plant for taller structures and is widely used in tree-form. Flowers are abundant on mature, unclipped plants. Probably the best known (and used) plant in the South. A cross between P. glabra and P. serrulata.

Photinia serrulata

(fo-tin'-e-uh sir-u-l-a'-tah)

Chinese Photinia

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 8' to 12'

FRUIT: 1/4" red berries (pomes).

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Oval; somewhat irregular.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green; young leaves coppery-red.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 5" to 7" long and one-third as wide, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate shape with serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 5" to 6" clusters (corymbs). Flowers in spring; VERY ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Does best in well-drained, moist soil. Will not tolerate excessively dry or excessively wet soils. Easy to grow. Responds favorably to pruning (after flowering).

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, scale, mildew.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None of merit in the U.S.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Chinese Photinia makes a nice specimen plant or privacy hedge in the recommended zones. Has attractive exfoliating bark, and looks great in tree-form. Probably superior to Red-tip in many respects, except hardiness. Slightly less cold-hardy than Red-tip.

Picea abies 'Pumila'

(pi'-se-uh a'-beez)

Dwarf Norway Spruce

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 7' to 8' (after 25 years)

WIDTH: 4' to 5' (after 25 years)

FRUIT: 4" brown, pendulous, cylindrical cones.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Very slow.

HABIT: Globular and dense.

FAMILY: Pinaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bright green to bluish-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, thin and flat, 1/4" to 1/3" long, fine tip, 1 to 2 stomatic lines on lower surface; 4-angled and arranged in rows.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male flowers are axillary and female flowers are terminal; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soil but is adaptable to type. Pruning can be performed on new growth in spring, but is usually not necessary. Low-maintenance.

PEST PROBLEMS: Borers, spruce bud worm, two-spotted mites.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of P. abies, a large evergreen tree. LANDSCAPE NOTES: Dwarf Norway Spruce is an attractive specimen plant, rock garden plant, or foundation plant. The handsome twigs are a yellowish-brown color. The major limitation is extremely slow growth.

Picea abies var. microsperma

(pi'-se-uh-a'-beez var. mi-kro-spur'-muh)

Compact Norway Spruce

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 12' to 15'

WIDTH: 12' to 15'

FRUIT: 4" pendulous and cylindrical cones.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Very slow.

HABIT: Broad and conical, with ascending branches.

FAMILY: Pinaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bright green and glossy.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, S-curved, 1/4" long, sharp tip, 1 to 3 stomatic lines, 4-angled. Dense and crowded.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soil. Adaptable to type. Pruning is usually not necessary.

PEST PROBLEMS: Borers, spruce bud worm, two-spotted mites.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a variety of P. abies, a large evergreen tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This is a somewhat formal shrub that can be used as a specimen, foundation plant, or rock garden plant. It is slow-growing but well worth the wait. OUTSTANDING.

Picea pungens 'Compacta'

(pi'-se-uh pun'-genz)

Compact Colorado Spruce

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ZONES: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 10' to 12'

FRUIT: Blue-green 4" cone.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Globular and dense.

FAMILY: Pinaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bluish-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, approximately 1" long, radially arranged, curving slightly toward tip, stiff and sharply pointed, 3 to 4 stomatic lines on each side.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant prefers moist, well-drained soils that are cool. Mulching is recommended for moisture retention and cooling. Pruning is usually not recommended.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spruce bud worm, spider mites.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of P. pungens, a large evergreen tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Compact Colorado Spruce makes a nice specimen or foundation plant. It is especially suited to rock gardens and is maintenance-free, once established.

Pinus sylvestris 'Watereri'

(pi'-nus sill-ves'-tris)

Compact Scotch Pine

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ZONES: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: 1 1/2" to 2" oblong, pendulous, brown cones.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broadly conical with ascending branches.

FAMILY: Pinaceae

LEAF COLOR: Steel-blue or bluish-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, 3/4" to 1 1/4" long, stiff and twisted, radially arranged. Appearing in bundles (fascicles) of 2. Several stomatic lines on upper surface.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; female not noticeable, male noticeable in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. This plant will thrive in a variety of well-drained soil types. Reasonably drought-tolerant. Pruning is usually not necessary or recommended.

PEST PROBLEMS: Pine tip moth, borers.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of P. sylvestris, a large evergreen tree.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Fastigiata'--Columnar form to 20". 'French Blue'--More compact with brighter blue foliage. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Compact Scotch Pine is a specimen plant that looks good when underplanted with either dwarf conifers or dwarf broad-leaf shrubs. Can be used effectively as a foundation plant on corners of larger structures. Often used as Christmas trees.

Pittosporum tobira

(pit-o-spor'-um too-bi'-rah)

Pittosporum

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ZONES: 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 10' to 12'

FRUIT: Small brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Spreading and mounded.

FAMILY: Pittosporaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to obovate shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE or sometimes WHORLED.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, 1/2" to 1" in small clusters. FRAGRANT. Flowers in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Thrives in any well-drained soil from sand to clay. Will tolerate dry, hot conditions. Useful in coastal plantings. Has a dense habit of growth, but can be sheared heavily.

PEST PROBLEMS: Mealybugs.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: (Several described under P. tobira 'Wheelers Dwarf' in Chapter 6.) See page 154.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Pittosporum is a nice plant of limited hardiness that makes a beautiful foundation plant. It survives especially well in coastal planting in the South. Foliage is quite distinct and interesting. The plant is often used as an indoor plant for interior design.

Podocarpus macrophyllus var. maki

(po-do-car'-pus mac-kro-fill'-us var. mac'-e)

Podocarpus

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: Small, red seed attached to red aril.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Upright and somewhat columnar.

FAMILY: Podocarpaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE (resembles Yew), 1" to 2 1/2" long and 1/4 wide. Prominent midrib. Linear shape with acute tip and entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement, but appearing whorled.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; male catkins and female cones; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained soil and will not tolerate wet conditions. Will grow in sandy locations and is heat-tolerant. A good choice for beach plantings. Can be pruned into any shape or form, and is often used in topiary.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Podocarpus is often mistaken for Yew. It makes an interesting accent plant to contrast with broadleaf shrubs. Sometimes used to fill bare space in the foundation or as a corner plant.

Pyracantha coccinea

(pi-rah-can'-tha cock-sin'-e-ah)

Scarlet Firethorn

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 16'

WIDTH: 8' to 16'

FRUIT: 1/4" orange-red pomes in clusters; VERY ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Irregular shrub with thorny branches; dense.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and lustrous.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 2" long and 1/2" wide, lanceolate shape to narrow oblanceolate shape with serrulate margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1/4" across, borne in corymbs in late spring on previous season's growth. Somewhat fragrant, abundant, and VERY SHOWY.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soil. pH-tolerant and reasonably drought-tolerant. Prune with caution, since the stems have sharp, stiff thorns.

PEST PROBLEMS: Fire blight, twig blight, lacebugs, spider mites, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Aurea'--A yellow-fruited cultivar. 'Kasan'--Has orangered fruits and is hardier than the species. Widely used. 'Lelandei Monrovia'--This cultivar has orange-red berries in greater abundance than the species. 'Thornless' Red fruits produced in abundance on thornless stems.

RELATED SPECIES: P. koidzumi--(Featured on next page.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Scarlet Firethorn is spectacular in both bloom and fruit. It is a dense-growing shrub that is excellent for screening or as a border specimen. It is commonly used as an espalier for bare wall space. This plant is not low-maintenance, but is worth the effort.

Pyracantha koidzumii

(pi-rah-can'-tha koyd-zoo'-me-i)

Formosa Firethorn

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 10' to 15'

FRUIT: 1/4" orange to scarlet pome; abundant and showy.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Stiff and irregular; somewhat pendulous.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in all seasons.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" long and one-third as wide, oblanceolate shape with cuneate base, apex rounded or emarginate, entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1/4" and pubescent, 5-petaled, appearing in densely-flowered corymbs. Flowers in mid-spring and is VERY SHOWY.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun or light shade. Prefers well-drained, moist soil, but is reasonably drought-tolerant. Prune carefully after flowering. Thorn-like stems are hazardous. Grown as an espalier or allowed to be shrub-like.

PEST PROBLEMS: Fire blight, lacebugs, spider mites, scab.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems reddish, maturing to purple-tinged brown, smooth bark. Lateral stems are very stiff and when mature are thorn-like.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Low-Dense'--Mounding type, 3' to 5', with smaller leaves. Vigorous foliage growth often hides fruit. Useful on embankments. 'Santa Cruz'--Scab-resistant form that is prostrate to 3" to 4" in height. Large red fruits. 'Victory'--Scab-resistant form with large red fruits. Large shrub with extremely vigorous growth.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Formosa Firethorn is noted for its abundant fruiting habit. Fruits are very showy from fall to spring. It can be used as a large shrub for screening or as a lawn specimen. It is most often espaliered or semi-espaliered. Well-maintained espaliers are often magnificent in fruit. Unfortunately, this is not a low-maintenance plant.

Rhododendron catawbiense

(ro-do-den'-drun cuh-taw-buh-en'-se)

Catawba Rhododendron

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Dense and irregular with rounded character.

FAMILY: Ericaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 6" long and one-third as wide, elliptic to narrow elliptic shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Species is Lilac-rose. Many colors, depending on cultivar, 2" to 2 1/2" and long 4" to 6" racemes (trusses). Flowers in May. Abundent and attractive.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Light shade to shade. Rhododendrons must be grown in well-drained soils of acid pH. Consistent moisture level (not wet) must be maintained. When planting, dig shallow hole, if any, and mound with mulch. Maintain heavy mulch. Pruning is seldom necessary.

PEST PROBLEMS: Rhododendrons are bothered by many pests, including dieback, rootrot, leaf gall, nematodes, beetles, borers, leaf miners, blight, lace bugs, mealybugs, and scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Album'--(Featured). Has pure white flowers with yellowish throats. Very hardy. There are many more.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Rhododendrons are among the most beautiful of flowering shrubs. Catawba Rhododendrons are among the hardiest. They are among the best landscape plants for naturalizing. However, they are not considered care-free or low-maintenance. There are so many, covering almost any flower color (except black) that you should educate yourself as to what is available and suitable for your area. Contact the local extensive service and local nurseries.

Taxus x media 'Stricta'

(tax'-us x me'-de-ah)

Anglojap Yew

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 12' to 20'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: Pinkish to red aril with brown seed.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Somewhat slow.

HABIT: Erect and compact.

FAMILY: Taxaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and 1/8" wide, linear shape with entire margins. 2 yellowish bands beneath; 2-ranked.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained, sandy loam soil. Does not tolerate wet or hot locations in the garden. Has dense habit without pruning, but can be sheared to any shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Rootrot, scale; usually not serious.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of T. x media, a cross between T. cuspidata and T. baccata.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Densiformis'--Female. Broader than tall with light green foliage. One of the hardiest. 'Hatfieldii'--Male. Broad pyramid to 16" with dark green foliage. Radially arranged needles. 'Hicksii'--Male or female. Narrow column to 20". Dark green foliage with raised midrib. 'Kelseyi'--Female. Very dense and upright with abundant fruit.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Anglojap Yews are very versatile plants that make excellent foundation plants for taller corners. They are often used for hedges, both clipped and unclipped, and are good choices for topiary. Not for the South.

Ternstroemia gymnanthera

(tern-stro'-me-ah gym-nan'-ther-ah)

Cleyera

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 4' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/2" green berry; maturing to red; not especially ornamental.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and dense.

FAMILY: Theaceae

LEAF COLOR: Deep green; new growth very lustrous.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and 1" to 1 3/4" wide, elliptic to obovate shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement, appearing whorled at the tips.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1/2", appearing in pendulous axillary groups. Flowers in May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Shade or part shade. Grows in any well-drained soil. Heavy fertilizer will cause excessively long internodes. Responds favorably to pruning, but natural shape should be maintained.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Grevan'--Jade Tiara[R]. A very densely bled cultivar with smaller leaves. 'Variegata'--Leaf edges are deep yellowish color and variable.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Cleyera is an excellent large shrub having many uses in the landscape. It looks great in shady areas where many plants "thin out." The foliage and dense habit are its outstanding features. One of the best!

Thuja occidentalis 'Emerald'

(thu'-yuh oc-se-den-tah'-liss)

Emerald Arborvitae

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 10' to 12'

WIDTH: 3' to 4'

FRUIT: 1/2" brown, woody cone.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Compact and conical; sprays (plates) vertical or horizontal.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Glossy, bright emerald green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, to 1/10" long; scales on main branches are glandular (oil-secreting); 4-ranked.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; yellowish; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers well-drained, moist (not wet) soils, and is adaptable to sand or clay. Prefers humid conditions, but is heat- and drought-tolerant. Very responsive to shearing.

PEST PROBLEMS: Bagworms, spider mites, tip blight.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of T. occidentalis, a large evergreen tree.

RELATED SPECIES: T. orientalis--Similar to T. occidentalis, but the flattened sprays are vertical.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This plant has merit as a foundation plant, specimen, or screen. Relatively easy to grow and hardy. Plant in full sun for superior foliage.

Thuja occidentalis 'Holmstrup'

(thu'-yuh oc-se-den-tah'-liss)

Holmstrup Eastern Arborvitae

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 3 1/2' to 5'

FRUIT: 1/2" brown, woody cone.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Dense and conical; vertical foliage.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Apple-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, to 1/10" long; scales on main branches glandular (oil-secreting); 4-ranked.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; yellowish; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers well-drained, moist soil (not wet). It is adaptable to most soils from sand to clay and is reasonably drought- and heat-tolerant. Can be sheared to very dense character.

PEST PROBLEMS: Bagworms, spider mites, tip blight.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of T. occidentalis.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: 'Holmstrup' has especially tight, sturdy branches. It is useful as a specimen, foundation plant, or screen. It is considered one of the best cultivars of Eastern Arborvitae.

Tsuga canadensis 'Pendula' (var. sargentii)

(soo-'guh can-uh-den'-sis) (var. sar-gin'-te-i)

Sargent's Weeping Hemlock

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 10' to 12'

WIDTH: 20' to 25'

FRUIT: 3/4" brown cone; pendulous.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broad, dense, and weeping (pendulous).

FAMILY: Pinaceae

LEAF COLOR: New growth light green; mature growth dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, flattened, 1/4" to 1/2" long, linear shape, toothed. 2-ranked. 2 whitish bands on underside.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers moist, well-drained, acid soil. Does not like hot or windy conditions. Responds well to pruning, and is often sheared for dense habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: Borers, blister rust, leaf blight, mites, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of T. canadensis, a large evergreen tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sargent's Weeping Hemlock is one of the most dramatic accent plants. Location should be carefully selected to attract attention to desirable features in the garden.

Viburnum japonicum

(vi-bur'-num juh-pon'-e-kum)

Japanese Viburnum

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" red drupe.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and stiff.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and very glossy.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 6" long and 2" to 3" wide, ovate to elliptic shape with entire margins (sometimes slightly toothed). OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1/4" wide in 4" clusters (cymes), appearing in spring. Fragrant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers moist, well-drained, organic soil. Pruning is favorable to thicken or control shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: V. odoratissimum--Leaf is more oval in shape, and flowers appear in 4" panicles. Less cold hardy than V. japonicum.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Japanese Viburnum is a handsome foliage plant with large, shiny leaves. It makes a great foundation plant for taller corners, and contrasts well with fine-textured plants. OUTSTANDING.

Viburnum rhytidophyllum

(vi-bur'-num ri-ti-doe-fill'-um)

Leatherleaf Viburnum

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/3" red berries (drupes); clustered.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, irregular, and open.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, appearing wrinkled, 4" to 7" long and one-third as wide, narrow ovate to lanceolate shape with entire margins. Tomentose beneath. Minutely hairy above. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish-white, tiny, in 5" to 6" clusters (cymes). Flowers in May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Shade or part shade. Prefers well-drained, organic soils. Will not tolerate heat or windy locations. Prune as desired, after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED VARIETIES: var. roseum--Buds are pink before opening.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Leatherleaf Viburnum is popular for its wrinkled, leather-like leaves and abundant red berries that attract birds to the garden. It is best used as a filler plant for bare wall space on taller foundations, or as a border plant for naturalizing.

Viburnum tinus

(vi-bur'-num ti'-nus)

Laurustinus

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 6' to 10'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: Small blue drupe; maturing to black.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, open, and rounded.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and lustrous.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and 1" to 1 1/2" wide, oblong-ovate to oblong with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White to pink (pink in bud), appearing in 3" cymes in late winter to early spring. Fragrant and showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soil. pH-adaptable. Not drought-tolerant. Mulch for best performance. Prune, as needed, after flowering, or shear as a hedge.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Compactum'--A dwarf form to about one-half the size of the species. Has smaller leaves. 'Robustum'--Roundleaf Viburnum. This cultivar grows larger and has larger, more rounded leaves.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Laurustinus is a fine landscape plant, but is questionably hardy. Above Zone 9, it probably should be grown in a microclimate. It can be used in foundation plantings, garden borders, or as screening material. Makes a nice clipped hedge.

Yucca aloifolia

(yuk'-uh aloe-uh-fo'-le-ah)

Spanish Bayonet

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: Black capsule; NOT ATTRACTIVE.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Palm-like; stiff trunk and leaves.

FAMILY: Agavaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and 2" to 2 1/2" wide, narrow linear shape and minutely toothed, sharp margins. TIPS SHARPLY POINTED. Alternate in WHORLED pattern. FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 3" on 1" to 2' spikes, arising from crown of plant. Attractive. Summer.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Grows in almost any soil and is especially adapted to hot, dry, sandy conditions. Pruning is not recommended, except to remove seed stalk or sprouts.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Variegata'--has yellow leaf margins. LANDSCAPE NOTES: Yuccas make a bold accent plant in the garden. Spanish Bayonet is a tall-growing Yucca that sprouts from the lower trunk to form upright branches. Flower spikes are attractive. Plant well back in bed areas to prevent injury from spines. Very easy to grow and low-maintenance. Great for xeriscaping.

Aesculus parviflora

(ess'-ku-luss par-vuh'-flor-uh)

Bottlebrush Buckeye

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'+

WIDTH: 8' to 12'+

FRUIT: Dehiscent capsule; 2" to 3" long, pear shaped, light brown in mid-fall.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Slow to moderate.

HABIT: Broad spreading, multistemmed, small ascending branches. Broader than tall.

LEAF COLOR: Medium green, sometimes darker in summer; fall color ranges from yellow-green to bright yellow.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND (Palmately), 5 to 7 leaflets, narrow obovate leaflets, 4" to 8" long, acute to cuspidate tips, acute to cuneate bases. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, appearing in cylindrical panicles to 12" long and 3" to 4" wide. Individual flowers 1/2" with 4 petals, stamens pinkish with red anthers. Flowers in June to mid-July. Outstanding!

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Part-shade to sun. Does best in moist and deep organic soil with acidic pH. Adaptable to alkaline soil.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Grayish brown with noticeable lighter-colored lenticels.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Rogers'--This cultivar flowers later than the species with much longer panicles.

RELATED SPECIES: (See A. glabra and A. x carnea in Chapter 11.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Bottlebrush Buckeye is one of the most different, yet interesting, shrubs in all of landscape horticulture. It is quite simply awesome in flower, and fall color can be outstanding. It is a specimen plant useful as a focal point in garden borders or as a lawn shrub. It is a plant that looks great massed in larger properties. A beautiful specimen was seen several years ago on a shady site at the State Botanical Garden of Tennessee.

Azalea periclymenoides (Rhododendron periclymenoides) *

(uh-zay'-le-uh per-e-di-men-oy'-deez) (ro-do-den'-drun per-e-cli-men-oy'-deez)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 10'

WIDTH: 4' to 8'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Spreading and open.

FAMILY: Ericaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green in summer; brownish-yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and 3/4" to 1 1/2" wide, elliptic to oblong shape with entire margins. Midrib hairy. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, or violet, 1" to 2" long, funnel form, appearing in 6- to 10-flowered clusters. Flowers in spring (April). Fragrant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Shade. Prefers organic, moist, well-drained soil, but is adaptable to stony, dry soils. Pruning is minimal to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Pixterbloom is a great plant for naturalizing in wooded locations, since this is its native habitat. Often used along nature trails and streams. Best effect is attained in the home garden by planting in mass. This is a good, hardy, and reliable plant.

* COMMON NAME: Pixterbloom Azalea

Buddleia davidii

(bud'-le-ah d-a-vid'-e-i)

Butterfly Bush, Summer Lilac

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 10' to 12'

FRUIT: Tiny brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Open and rounded with arching branches.

FAMILY: Loganiaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green to gray-green. No fall color.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 5" to 8" long and one-fourth as wide, lanceolate shape with finely serrated margins, white tomentose (hairs) beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Lilac with orange "eye," appearing tightly in spikes to 10" long. Flowers in late summer through fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Prefers well-drained, moist, organic soils, but is durable and adaptable. Prune heavily in early spring, since flowers form on current season's growth. Easy to grow.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Black Knight'--Very dark, violet-purple flower panicles. 'Charming Summer'--Soft, lavender-pink flowers. Very prolific. 'Dubonnet'--Large panicles of dark purple flowers. Upright growth. 'Empire Blue'--Blue flowers and silvery-green foliage. Vigorous and upright. 'Nanho Alba'--White flower panicles on a compact, spreading plant. Medium size. 'Pink Delight'--Bright pink flowers on spikes to 15". Especially prolific. 'White Bouquet'--Sparkling white flowers with orange throats. var. nanhoensis--Smaller than the species (to 5") with much smaller leaves (4"). There are many more.

RELATED SPECIES: B. alternifolia--Has alternate leaves and grows larger and more open than B. davidii. It has a pendulous, weeping habit with lilac-purple blooms that appear earlier than B. davidii.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Butterfly Bush has a long bloom period and attracts many butterflies to the garden. This is an outstanding later summer specimen for garden borders or perennial plantings, and is especially useful for naturalizing.

Calycanthus floridus

(cal-e-can'-thus flor'-e-duss)

Sweetshrub, Carolina Allspice

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 10'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: Capsule-like with achenes; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Somewhat rounded and bushy.

FAMILY: Calycanthaceae

LEAF COLOR: Gray-green in summer; yellowish to brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 5" long and half as wide, ovate or elliptic shape with entire margins. Pale and tomentose on the underside. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dark reddish-brown. 2" wide. Solitary. Flowers in spring. Very fragrant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers loamy, moist soils, but is adaptable to all but wet soils. Very pH-adaptable. Prune after flowering to control or shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Purpureus'--Similar to the species but having purple leaves. 'Towe'--Has yellow flowers and larger leaves.

RELATED SPECIES: C. fertilis--Has glabrous leaves and less fragrance. C. occidentalis--Has larger leaves and flowers. Hardy only to Zone 8.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sweetshrub is an "old timey" plant that has been popular since Colonial days. This is a trouble-free plant that is great in sunny or shaded gardens. A good plant for garden borders or perennial gardens. Stems have a camphorlike smell when crushed.

Caragana arborescens

(car-e-ga'-nah ar-bo-ress'-enz)

Siberian Peashrub

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 10' to 15'

FRUIT: Brown pod; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright and somewhat rounded.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Light to medium green in summer; yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: EVEN PINNATELY COMPOUND, 6 to 12 leaflets, leaflets 3/4" to 1" long and half as wide, obovate to elliptic shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellow and pea-like, 3/4" to 1" long, 1 to 4 in clusters at terminal ends of branches. Flowers in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Adapts to a wide variety of soil types, except very wet soils. Flourishes on poor soil due to nitrogen fixation (legume). Should be pruned after flowering to maintain desired shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Lorbergii'--Extremely narrow linear leaflets with fernlike fine texture. 'Nana'--Dwarf form with contorted branchlets. 'Pendula'--Graceful, weeping form when grafted onto standards. Great for planters.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Peashrub is a nice plant for borders, as a screen, or as a background plant. It can be used as a border specimen when care is given to pruning and shaping. Its greatest asset is its hardy, rugged nature.
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Title Annotation:Juniperus scopulorum 'Gray Gleam'-Caragana arborescens
Author:Bridwell, Ferrell M.
Publication:Landscape Plants, Their Identification, Culture, and Use, 2nd ed.
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:6719
Previous Article:Chapter 8 large shrubs.
Next Article:Chapter 8 large shrubs.
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