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Chapter 8 large shrubs.

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The large shrubs described in this text are species which grow over 6 feet in height and branch from ground level to apex. Large shrubs, especially those that have noticeable, ornamental flowers, are among the most beautiful of the woody ornamental plants. Many of these plants were parent plants of dwarf and medium size shrubs that are so popular in modern landscaping.

Some of the large shrubs in this text might be considered trees by some authorities. An attempt is made here to identify those plants that are often used in the landscape industry as shrubs. For example, many of the larger species in the Ilex genus (Hollies) are used as shrubs because of their shrub-like characteristics, but many become as large as some trees if not maintained as shrubs.

Large shrubs have many useful possibilities in landscaping, even though their use in small urban and suburban gardens must be limited. Some common uses of large shrubs are:

* Corner plants for two-story or larger structures.

* Background plants in shrub borders.

* Hedges and privacy screens.

* Windbreaks and sound-breaks.

* Tree-formed specimen plants.

Azalea indica (Rhododendron indica)

(uh-zay'-le-uh in'-de-cuh) (ro-do-den"-drun in'-de-cuh)

Southern Indian Azalea

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ZONES: 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 10'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: Brown pod; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and spreading.

FAMILY: Ericaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green; hairy on both surfaces.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2" long and 1/2" to 1" wide, narrow elliptic to oblong-ovate shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, red, orchid, or lavender, depending on cultivar. 1 1/2" to 3" long. Blooms in April.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Light shade to shade. Does best in well-drained, organic soil of acid reaction. Will drown in wet soils. PLANT HIGH. Prune only after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spider mites, lacebugs, leaf gall.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Brilliant'--Watermelon-red flowers. Single. 'Duc de Rohan'--Salmon-pink flowers. Single. 'Fielder's White'--Large, frost-white flowers. Single. 'Formosa'--Purple flowers. Single. 'G. G. Gerbin'--White flowers. Single. 'George L. Tabor'--Orchid and white. Single. 'Nuccio's Carnival'--Rose-red. Single or semi-double. 'Nuccio's Carnival Clown'--Large purple flowers. Single. 'Orange Ruffles'--Orange-red, ruffled flowers. Single. 'Rosea'--Rose-red. Semi-double. 'White Grandeur'--Snow-white, large flowers. Double.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Southern Indian Azaleas are outstanding plants for larger gardens in the South. These are the Azaleas for which Charleston, Savannah, and other historic southern towns are famous. Outstanding.

Camellia japonica

(ca-mill'-e-uh juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Japanese Camellia

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 7' to 8'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright; open to pyramidal.

FAMILY: Theaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 4 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, red, or variegated, depending on cultivar. 3 1/2" to 5 1/2" wide, double or single. Flowers in October through April, depending on cultivar.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Light shade to part shade. Plants need moist, organic, well-drained soil of acid pH. Mulch to hold moisture level. Prune after flowering or during flowering for table arrangements.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf gall, tea scale, rootrot, flower blight, thrips, mealy bugs. SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Colonel Fireye'--Dark red. Large and formal. 'Daikagura Variegated'--Rose-red splotched with white. Large peony type. 'Jordon's Pride'--Variegated; light pink with white and deep pink streaked margin. Semi-double. 'Magnoliaeflora' - Large blush-pink flowers. Semi-double. 'Mrs. Charles Cobb'--Dark red, semi-double flowers. 'Nuccio's Pearl'--White with pearl-pink margins. Fully double. 'Pink Perfection'--Light pink. Formal, double flowers. 'Silver Waves'--White flowers with wavy edges. Semi-double. 'Spellbound'--Coral-rose. Semi-double.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Camellias are among the most beautiful flowering plants. Thousands of cultivars provide an endless supply of different colors and size combinations of flowers. One of the favorites in the South for fresh flower arrangements. Available in single, semi-double, or double blooms.

Camellia sasanqua

(ca-mill'-e-uh sah-san'-kwa)

Sasanqua Camellia

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 10'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and dense.

FAMILY: Theaceae

LEAF COLOR: Deep green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2" long and 1/2" to 1" wide, elliptic shape with serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, or red, depending on cultivar. 1 1/2" to 2" long. Flowers in October and November.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Must be grown in moist, well-drained, acid soil. Incorporate organic matter at time of planting. Mulch for consistent moisture retention. Prune after flowering or during flowering for floral arrangements.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf gall, tea scale, rootrot, thrips, mealy bugs.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Apple Blossom'--White flowers with cerise-red edges. Golden-yellow stamens. Single. 'Cleopatra'--Rose-pink. Semi-double. 'Hana Jiman' White petals, tipped pink. Semi-double. 'Mine-No-Yuki'--White flowers. Semi-double. 'Setsugeka'--Compact upright growth. White ruffled petals with yellow stamens. Semi-double. 'Sparkling Burgundy'--Deep pink. Peony form. 'Yuletide' Bright red with yellow stamens. Single.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sasanqua is more refined than Japanese Camellia and provides excellent color during late fall and early winter. The plant is suitable for foundations, borders, and focal areas. It makes a beautiful tree-form plant and can be used as an espaliered specimen. Flowers are single or double.

Chamaecyparis obtusa 'Crippsii'

(cam-e-sip'-uh-riss ob-too'-suh)

Golden Hinoki Cypress

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: Orange-brown cone, 1/4' to 3/8'.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broad and conical; fan-shaped branchlets.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Golden yellow outer branches; yellowish-green on inside.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, 1/10", pressed to stem, whitish lines beneath. Arranged in OPPOSITE pairs.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Part shade to full sun. The plant prefers well-drained, moist, cool soil. It favors humid conditions, but not excessive heat or windy conditions. Do not prune, leave natural.

PEST PROBLEMS: Mites, scale. No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of C. obtusa, a large evergreen tree.

RELATED SPECIES: C. lawsoniana--Very large (to 150") evergreen tree with ascending branches that "nod" at the tips. Usually dense and conical with blue-green, scale-like foliage. Hundreds of cultivars exist.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Golden Hinoki Cypress is a noticeable specimen or accent plant. It is one of many lower-growing forms that can be grown in a limited space. Choose a location carefully for this bright and beautiful foliage plant. The plant has nice reddish-brown, exfoliating bark, which is usually hidden by foliage.

Chamaecyparis obtusa 'Gracilis'

(cam-e-sip'-uh-riss ob-too'-suh)

Slender Hinoki Cypress

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 12' to 16'

WIDTH: 4' to 6'

FRUIT: 3/8' orange-brown cone, 8 to 10 scales.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Conical and spreading; branchlets irregularly arranged.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous green; new growth is reddish.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, 1/10", whitish markings beneath. Closely pressed in OPPOSITE pairs.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun to part shade. Does best in moist, well-drained soil, lightly mulched. Prefers humid conditions, but does not like excessive heat or wind. Does well near walls. Pruning is not usually necessary or recommended. PEST PROBLEMS: Mites, scale. No serious pests.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Filicoides'--Foliage is dense on short, frond-like branchlets and is fern-like. Gives an Oriental effect.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of C. obtusa, a large evergreen tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Slender Hinoki Cypress makes a nice specimen plant due to its unique and interesting, frond-like branchlets. Can be used effectively as a foundation plant for taller structures, and is sometimes used as a container specimen.

Choisya ternata

(choiz'-e-uh ter-na'-tah)

Mexican Orange

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 9'

WIDTH: 5' to 9'

FRUIT: Small dehiscent capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Globular and dense.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: PALMATELY COMPOUND, 3 leaflets, leaflets 3" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic to obovate shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1" long, appearing in small terminal corymbs in mid-spring and continuing into summer. Fragrant, abundant, and showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Requires a moist, well-drained, organic soil of acid pH. Prune after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Mexican Orange is an attractive plant that is especially noticeable in flower. It can be used as a specimen in foundation plantings, garden borders, accent beds, or as screening material. It has nice foliage, and is very fragrant in bloom. This is a nice landscape plant that should be more widely used in the recommended zones.

Cotoneaster lacteus f. parneyi

(ko-taw'-nee-as-ter lack'-te-us f. par'-nee-i)

Parney's Cotoneaster

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/4' red pome; persisting.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and broad; pendulous branches.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green; whitish and hairy beneath.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with mucronate tip and entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 2" to 3" clusters (corymbs). Flowers in late spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers well-drained, acid, or slightly acid soil. The plant is reasonably drought-tolerant and hardy. Prune after flowering for shaping or control.

PEST PROBLEMS: Fire blight, spider mites, lace bug, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Parney's Cotoneaster is a nice plant for sunny exposures in the garden border. It has ornamental flower clusters in spring, followed by clusters of red fruit in fall. This is a nice plant for naturalizing.

Cryptomeria japonica 'Globosa Nana'

(crip-to-mer-e-ah juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Globe Japanese Crytomeria

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 9'

WIDTH: 5' to 10'

FRUIT: Small, brown globose cone.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broad cone; dense and compact.

FAMILY: Taxodiaceae

LEAF COLOR: Yellowish-green in summer; blue-green cast in winter.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: AWL-LIKE, curving inward, 1/8" to 1/4" long, appressed (close to stem), spirally arranged; 4-angled with stomata on each surface.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male flowers axillary, female flowers terminal; NOT SHOWY.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers moist, fertile, well-drained sites. Pruning is minimal, but plant will tolerate shearing. More cold hardy than the species.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf blight, stem blight.

BARK/STEMS: Branchlets ascending; trunk on older stems having reddish, exfoliating bark.

SELECTIVE CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of C. japonica, a large evergreen tree.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Elegans Compacta'--A dense, rounded plant with blue-green needles that are purple-tinged in winter.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Globe Japanese Cryptomeria is an excellent plant where dense foliage is desired, such as foundations or screening. It is also used as an accent specimen. This plant is somewhat formal, and is not the best plant for naturalizing. This is a superior plant where soil conditions are favorable.

Elaeagnus pungens 'Fruitlandii'

(-e-l-e-ag'-nuss pun'-jinz)

Fruitland Elaeagnus

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 10'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/2" red drupe; NOT COMMON.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Spreading with arching branches; dense.

FAMILY: Elaeagnaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green with silvery scales and undersides.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and one-third as wide, oval to elliptic shape with wavy margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Off-white, 1/4" to 1/2", funnel-shaped in small, axillary clusters. Fragrant. Flowers in fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant is adaptable to a wide range of soils from clay to sand. It is very drought-tolerant and is used in coastal plantings. Needs regular pruning due to rapid growth.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of E. pungens.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Aurea'--Bright yellow leaf margins. 'Aurea-variegata' Yellow blotch in center of leaf. 'Marginata'--Green leaves with silver-white margins.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Fruitland Elaeagnus is the best of the Elaeagnus genus. It makes an excellent unclipped hedge or background plant for other plantings. The silver undersides give an overall silver cast to the foliage. It should be pruned to allow its natural arching character. Good for espalier. Very easy to grow.

Euonymus japonica

(u-on'-e-mus juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Japanese Euonymus

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 4' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" pink capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Erect and oval.

FAMILY: Celastraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic to narrow oval shape with serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, tiny, in axillary cymes. Flowers in June; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Very adaptable to soil types from clay to sand. Very drought-resistant. Great for coastal plantings. Grows thickly with little pruning.

PEST PROBLEMS: Euonymus scale, crown gall, anthracnose. Note: Scale is highly destructive, and the plant must be sprayed regularly.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Albo-marginata'--Has white leaf margins. 'Grandifolia' Has larger leaves on a tightly branched plant. 'Ovatus-Aureus'--Has yellow margins. 'Silver King'--Featured in next section. 'Sun Spot'--Has thick green leaves with yellow centers. A Wight's Nursery introduction.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Euonymus is one of the most attractive large shrubs if one is persistent in watching for scale. Otherwise, this is a durable, easy to grow, versatile plant in the landscape. The majority of cultivars are variegated forms, but the species and a few green cultivars are outstanding, vigorous plants that are especially nice for screening and background plants.

Euonymus japonica 'Silver King'

(u-on'-e-mus juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Silver King Euonymus

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 4' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" pink capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, dense, and oval.

FAMILY: Celastraceae

LEAF COLOR: Leathery green with silver-white margins.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, tiny, in axillary cymes. Flowers June; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. The plant will grow in almost any soil except excessively wet soil. Very drought-tolerant. Needs little pruning to maintain character.

PEST PROBLEMS: Euonymus scale, crown gall, anthracnose.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of E. japonica.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Moness'--Silver Princess[TM]. A dwarf, upright form (to 3') with true-white leaf margins and green centers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Silver King Euonymus is a bold accent plant that is more adaptable in the landscape than the many yellow-variegated types. This is an older cultivar that is "easier to digest" and that has proven itself over the years.

Feijoa sellowiana

(fe-jo'-uh sell-lo-e-a'-nah)

Pineapple Guava

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ZONES: 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: 2" to 3" reddish-green berry; edible.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Rounded and spreading; somewhat open.

FAMILY: Myrtaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green; silvery and tomentose beneath.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic to elliptic-oblong shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White petals that are purplish within, having red stamens. 1" to 2" long and 4-petaled. Flowers in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun to light shade. Prefers well-drained, sandy soils. Does not perform in clay. Great for coastal plantings. Pruning is minimal to maintain shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Nazemetz'--Has larger fruits. 'Pineapple Gem'--Supposedly has more abundant fruits. 'Variegata'--Leaves green with white margins.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This is an excellent plant for foundations, screens, or borders. The foliage is very attractive, as are the flowers and fruits. This is a good plant for naturalizing and xeriscaping. Unfortunately, it is for tropical-like climates.

Ilex aquifolium 'Aureo-marginata'

(i'-lex ah-kwi-fo'-le-um)

Variegated English Holly

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: Slowly to 40'; usually much smaller.

WIDTH: Slowly to 30'; usually much smaller.

FRUIT: 1/4" red berries (drupes). Must have both male and female plants.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Pyramidal to broad-spreading.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green with yellow margins.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and half as wide, ovate to elliptic shape with undulating and spinose margins. Thick, shiny, and leathery. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; small, yellowish; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained, loamy soils. Does not perform well in deep sands. Prune to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. aquifolium, English Holly.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Argenteo-marginata'--Green leaves with creamy-white margins. 'Ciliata Major'--New growth purple; leaves bronzy-green with larger, curving spines. 'Monvila'--Gold Coast[TM]. Male form (no berries). Small evergreen shrub with small, green leaves, edged golden-yellow. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction. 'Monler'--Sparkler[R]. Upright form; vigorous. Produces abundant fruit at an earlier age. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Variegated English Holly is a fine variation of the ever-popular I. aquifolium. It makes a nice hedge, foundation plant for larger structures, or lawn specimen. Berry production is heavy when male pollinators are present. Branches are often used in Christmas wreaths and holiday decorations.

Ilex cornuta

(i'-lex cor-nu'-tah)

Chinese Horned Holly

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/4" bright red berries (drupes), on female plants. Showy.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow to moderate.

HABIT: Rounded, upright, and stiff.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and shiny.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3 1/2" long and half as wide, oblong to rectangular shape with 5 or more "horned" spines on margins. Very stout and thick. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; tiny, yellowish and 4-petaled; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Will grow in a wide range of soils and is very drought-tolerant. Can be sheared, as desired, to maintain shape. Harder to prune than most plants.

PEST PROBLEMS: Tea scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Ancient Delcambre'--Has long, narrow leaves with a single spine at tip. 'Berries Jubilee'--More dwarf, mounded form with heavy crop of large, red berries. A Monrovia Nurseries introduction. 'Burfordii'--(Featured on next page.) 'Cajun Gold'--Green leaves with golden-yellow margins. 'Dazzler'--Heavy fruiting, upright form. 'Needlepoint'--Very similar to 'Ancient Delcambre'. 'Willowleaf'--Has longer, twisted leaves.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Chinese Horned Holly is noted for its dark green and lustrous foliage as well as its bright berries. It is the "mother plant" for many cultivars and hybrids, and is often overlooked. An outstanding selection that makes a nice foundation plant or hedge. The plant is still worthy of landscape use.

Ilex cornuta 'Burfordii'

(i'-lex cor-nu'-tah)

Burford Holly

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 20'

WIDTH: 8' to 16'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" red drupes (on previous season's growth).

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Very dense; somewhat rounded.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic to obovate shape with a single spine at tip. Thick and stiff. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish; 4-petaled; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Very drought-tolerant. Adapts well to most soil types. Very difficult to transplant. Will tolerate heavy shearing. PEST PROBLEMS: Scale on new growth.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. cornuta.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Dwarf Burford'--(Described in Chapter 7.) The most popular Burford. 'D'Or'--Very nice, yellow-fruited form.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Burford Holly is a large, thick shrub that is taller than broad. It is extremely dense, and mature plants produce a heavy crop of berries. Size is a factor in its use, and it is difficult to keep below 10'. Makes a nice hedge or foundation plant. Looks great in tree-form also.

Ilex latifolia

(i'-lex lat-uh-fo'-le-uh)

Lusterleaf Holly, Magnolia-leaf Holly

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ZONES:

7, 8, 9

HEIGHT:

8' to 10'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" red to orange-red drupes; appearing in clusters at nodes.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Irregular pyramid; dense.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3 1/2" to 7" long and one-third as wide, oblong elliptic shape with sharply serrated margins. Thick and leathery. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish, tiny, in axillary panicles.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained, moderately moist soil. Not as drought-tolerant as I. cornuta. Prune as needed to maintain pyramidal shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Lusterleaf Holly is a good description of the plant. Its coarse yet shiny dark green foliage is especially attractive in the garden. It is an excellent foundation plant for corners or as a speciment plant, anywhere space is available to accomodate a large shrub. The plant is ideal for textural contrast when used in combination with smaller-growing fine-textured shrubs or ground covers. It is great for tree-forming, also.

Ilex opaca 'Croonenburg'

(i'-lex-o-pa'-ka)

Croonenburg American Holly

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ZONES:

6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 20'

WIDTH: 5' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/4" red drupes in fall.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Pyramidal or narrowly coneshaped.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in all seasons.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with spinose margins (fewer than the species). ALTERNATE arrangement. FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious and self pollinating; NOT ORNAMENTAL. EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soils of acidic reaction. Pruning is accomplished to maintain natural shape. Should be mulched more heavily in full sun.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, scale, leaf miner, mildews.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. opaca, a medium-sized evergreen tree.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Goldie'--Has large yellow fruits and is heavy-fruiting. 'Greenleaf'--(See next page). 'Jersey Delight'--Has glossy foliage and carmine-red fruits.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Croonenburg American Holly is one of several cultivars that are superior to the species. It can be used anywhere that height is required, such as screening or in taller foundations. It is self-pollinating.

Ilex opaca 'Greenleaf'

(i'-lex-o-pa'-ka)

Greenleaf American Holly

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 20'

WIDTH: 5' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/4" red drupes in fall and winter.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Pyramidal or narrowly cone-shaped.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in all seasons.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic to ovate shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious. Not showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers moist, well-drained, acid soil. Should be mulched in full sun. Prune to maintain natural shape or to thicken.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf miners, scales, mildews.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. opaca, the species, a medium evergreen tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Greenleaf American Holly is a popular cultivar of I. opaca. It is more compact than the species and sets fruit at a younger age. It is useful as a corner plant for multi-story structures or as screening material. It can be used as a lawn specimen, especially when tree-formed. NOT FOR XERISCAPING.

Ilex pernyi

(i'-lex pern'-e-i)

Pernyi Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 9' to 10'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: 1/4" red drupes.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Upright with drooping twigs.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1/2" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate shape with one spine at tip and 2 to 3 spines on each side. Very stiff. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish, 4-petaled, tiny, in axillary panicles.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Adapts well to most well-drained soils. Reasonably drought-tolerant. Prune annually to thicken and shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Compacta'--Grows denser than the species. 'Vetchii' Has larger leaves and fruits.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Drooping twigs and leaf tips combine to give an overall arching effect to this unusual Holly. It can be used as a specimen plant in the garden, or as a semi-espaliered plant. The foliage is more interesting than the plant outline. Its greatest value or contribution to landscape horticulture in recent years, is as a parent plant in hybridization. Some of these are superior plants. (As an example, see I. x Lydia Morris, page 273.)

Ilex vomitoria

(i'-lex vom-uh-tor'-e-uh)

Yaupon Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" translucent red berries (drupes); OUTSTANDING!

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and irregular.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to elliptic shape with crenate margins, ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish, tiny; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Tolerant of a wide range of soils from dry and sandy to wet. Native to swamps of coastal areas. Will tolerate heavy pruning. Very easy to grow.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Nana'--(Featured in Chapter 6.) 'Pendula'--(Featured on next page.) 'Pride of Houston'--A medium size shrub with heavy fruiting. 'Yawkey'--A large upright form with orange-yellow fruits.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Yaupon Holly is a native plant that is less formal than most of the Hollies. It is noted for its shiny, translucent berries that are abundant throughout the plant. It can be used as a foundation plant or specimen plant. Light gray bark is very attractive and very noticeable.

Ilex vomitoria 'Pendula'

(i'-lex vom-uh-tor'-e-uh)

Weeping Yaupon Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" translucent red drupes; OUTSTANDING!

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright; weeping branches.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to elliptic shape with crenate margins, ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish, tiny; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Very adaptable and tolerant of soils from wet to dry. Great in sandy soils. Light pruning ONLY to confine or shape. Do not destroy natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. vomitoria.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Weeping Yaupon is a plant to feature in the garden. Careful attention should be given to selection of the best location. Can be used as a foundation plant and looks especially nice near an entry or porch. The light, smooth gray bark on the pendant branches is very noticeable on this cultivar, along with the translucent red berries.

Ilex x attenuata 'Fosteri'

(i'-lex x ah-ten-u-a'-tah)

Fosteri Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" deep red drupes (on current season's growth).

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Slender, upright cone.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic to ovate-oblong shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish, tiny; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained soil with moderate moisture content. Fairly drought-tolerant, but performs better in organic soil that is mulched. Lateral branches can be sheared to thicken. Do not prune top of terminal growth until desired maximum height is attained.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'East Palatka'--A more open form that has fewer spines on the leaves than 'Fosteri'. 'Hume #2'--(Featured on next page.) 'Savannah'--(Featured later in this chapter.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Fosteri Holly is an excellent large shrub for tall, bare walls of the foundation. It can be used as a specimen or as an unclipped screen. It should be allowed to grow to its natural shape and trimmed accordingly. A cultivar of the cross between I. cassine and I. opaca, that is extremely popular in the recommended zones, almost to the extent of overplanting. It also makes a nice tree-form plant.

Ilex x attenuata 'Hume #2'

(i'-lex x ah-ten-u-a'-tah)

Hume Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 20' to 25'

WIDTH: 15' to 20'

FRUIT: 1/4" red berries (drupes).

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright; pyramidal to oval.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with entire margin except for one spine at tip. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained, fairly moist soil. Will perform during drought if mulch is provided. Should be pruned selectively to thicken or control size.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Hume #4'--This cultivar has larger leaves and fruit.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Hume Holly is similar in many ways to Native American Holly, but is smaller and has only one spine per leaf. It is generally considered superior to American Holly. A vigorous grower that should be more widely used.

NOTE: This cultivar is a selection of I. x attenuata, a hybrid of I. cassine and I. opaca.

Ilex x attenuata 'Savannah'

(i'-lex x ah-ten-u-a'-tah)

Savannah Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 25'

WIDTH: 8' to 12'

FRUIT: 1/4" bright red berries (drupes); ABUNDANT.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Pyramidal; loose.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dull medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish, tiny; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Grows under a wide range of conditions and well-drained soil types. Easy to grow. Will take heavy shearing, but do not top until desired height is achieved.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Savannah Holly is a fine shrub for two-story or taller foundations. It offers a contrast to plants having darker foliage. Fruiting is extra heavy on this female plant. It is often used as a specimen in tree-form, and can be sheared for thicker foliage.

NOTE: This cultivar is a selection of I. x attenuata, a hybrid of I. cassine and I. opaca.

Ilex x 'Emily Bruner'

(i'-lex)

Emily Bruner Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 18'

WIDTH: 10' to 15'

FRUIT: 1/3" bright red drupes, clustered at nodes. Sometimes hidden by foliage.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broad pyramid; extremely dense.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with spinose margins. Stiff and leathery. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish, tiny.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Adaptable to a wide range of well-drained soils. Will not tolerate wet soils. Very thick; needs very little pruning.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Emily Bruner Holly is one of the thickest growing Hollies in landscaping. The broad, flat leaves and abundant bright berries add to its interest. It is used for foundation plantings, and makes an excellent hedge or screen. A low-maintenance plant. The plant is a hybrid of I. cornuta and I. latifolia.

Ilex x 'Ginny Bruner'

(i'-lex)

Ginny Bruner Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 12' to 15'

WIDTH: 6' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/3" bright red berries (drupes) in clusters at nodes. Earlier ripening than 'Emily'.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Pyramidal to broad pyramidal.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous medium green to dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with spinose margins, stiff and durable. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; female plant with heavy production of tiny, yellowish-green flowers (axillary). NOTICEABLE but NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Adaptable to a wide range of soils, but MUST be well-drained. If located on a favorable site, the plant will grow extremely dense.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale insects during extremely humid weather.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems bright green; older bark gray and smooth.

SIMILAR CULTIVARS: See previous plant, I. X 'Emily Bruner'.

RELATED SPECIES: 'Ginny Bruner Holly' is a selected hybrid cultivar of the same cross as 'Emily Bruner' (I. cornuta X I. latifolia).

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Ginny Bruner Holly will become more available, hopefully, in the next few years. It is a nice corner plant for taller structures and is a great background plant for borders especially to provide contrast when used with fine-textured shrubs. It is a wise choice for hedges to control foot traffic without "stabbing" intruders. In addition, the plant is sometimes "tree-formed" into a handsome, multi-trunk, small evergreen tree. The leaves are more refined than 'Emily' and the fruits mature to bright red earlier.

Ilex x koehneana 'Wirt L. Winn'

(i'-lex x ko-ne-a'-nuh)

Koehne Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: 8' to 15'

FRUIT: 1/4"-1/3" red drupes in fall.

TEXTURE: Medium coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broad Pyramid; dense.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in all seasons.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. The plant prefers a moist, well-drained soil, but is reasonably drought-tolerant. Pruning is minimal to maintain shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This cross between I. aquifolium and I. latifolia combines the best of both plants. Stems are purplish as with I. aquifolium and has similar shape, but smaller size, than I. latifolia. This is a handsome plant which is adaptable to many uses in the landscape, provided sufficient space is available.

Ilex x 'Lydia Morris'

(i'-lex)

Lydia Morris Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" red drupes in fall.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow to moderate.

HABIT: Rounded; taller than broad.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Extremely dark, lustrous green in all seasons.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 2" long and wide, almost square (rhombic) with a downward-pointed spine and 2 to 3 lateral pairs. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained, acidic soil and is reasonably drought-tolerant. Pruning is minimal to maintain shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'John Morris'--The male pollinator form.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This cross between I. cornuta 'Burfordii' and I. pernyi is a handsome, dense shrub that makes a nice foundation, screening, or specimen plant. Very deep green foliage provides an interesting contrast with the lighter foliage of many other plants.

Ilex x 'Mary Nell'

(i'-lex)

Mary Nell Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" bright red drupes in fall.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Pyramidal and dense.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium to dark green and lustrous.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and half as wide, ovate shape with spinose margin. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious, female in axillary clusters. Tiny. NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained, moderately moist to somewhat dry soils. Drought-resistance is good once the plant is established.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: Mary Nell Holly is a second generation hybrid of three species. The first generation was a cross of I. cornuta x I. pernyi. The resulting hybrid was then crossed with I. latifolia.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Mary Nell Holly is one of many superior hybrids in the Ilex genus. The plant has a manicured look with a minimum of care and is great for almost any landscape setting in the recommended zones.

Ilex x meserveae 'Mesid' PP 4685

(i'-lex x me-serv'-i-e)

Blue Maid[R] Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" red berries (drupes).

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Dense; broad pyramid or oval.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green with faint bluish tint.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3/4" to 2" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Does best in well-drained, organic soil. Adaptable to clay. Prune to maintain shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. x meserveae, a cross between I. rugosa and I. aquifolium.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Blue Boy'--Male form that is a good pollinator. 'Blue Girl'--The first female form, having excellent fruiting. 'Mesan'--Blue Stallion[R] (PP 4804). Male form that is a good pollinator.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Meserve Holly represents a species of Holly that is more hardy than other popular species. The plants have excellent foliage and beautiful berries (female), and can be used as foundation plants, borders, and hedges.

Ilex x 'Nellie R. Stevens'

(i'-lex)

Nellie Stevens Holly

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: 10' to 15'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/3" bright red berries (drupes).

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Pyramidal; dense.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous Dark Green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 3 1/2" long and 1" to 2" wide, elliptic to somewhat rectangular shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; yellowish; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers rich, well-drained soil, but is adaptable. It is drought-resistant, once established. Prune to shape or control size.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Edward J. Stevens'--The male form that is useful as a pollinator.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Nellie Stevens Holly is one of the finest Hollies for taller foundations. It is a multi-purpose plant that makes an outstanding tree-form specimen. Absolutely one of the best!

NOTE: 'Nellie R. Stevens' is a hybrid cultivar selection from the cross of I. cornuta and I. aquifolium.

Illicium anisatum

(ill-iss'-e-um an-iss-say'-tum)

Japanese Anisetree

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 12'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 1" brown aggregate (follicle); NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and open.

FAMILY: Illiciaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and one-third as wide, thick and aromatic. Narrow elliptic shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement. Upright leaves.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White to yellowish-green. 1" with 15 to 25 petals. Fragrant. Flowers in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soil, but is adaptable to most soils except dry, hot soils. Does well in sandy soils if moist. Prune lightly to maintain natural habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: I. floridanum--Florida Anisetree. Has broader leaves and maroon to purplish-red flowers. 'Album' has white flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Japanese Anisetree is an interesting plant that is useful as a foundation shrub, natural (unclipped) hedge, or border plant. This is a good plant for naturalizing.

Juniperus chinensis 'Spartan'

(jew-nip'-er-us chi-nen'-sis)

Spartan Juniper

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/2" smooth brown cone.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Narrow pyramid; dense.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Rich green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, juvenile leaves awl-shaped, 1/16" to 1/4", 4-ranked in OPPOSITE pairs.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Will grow in almost any well-drained soil. Very drought tolerant. Pruning is generally not needed.

PEST PROBLEMS: Twig blight.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of J. chinensis. RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Columnaris'--A narrow columnar form with dark green foliage. 'Mountbatten'--Has gray-green foliage and narrow, pyramidal habit. 'Spearmint'--Has a dense columnar habit and bright green foliage. 'Wintergreen' Another cultivar with rich green foliage and columnar habit.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Spartan Juniper has rich bright green foliage, and assumes a dense pyramidal habit with little or no shearing. It eventually reaches small tree size. Avoid placing against one-story structures.

Juniperus chinensis 'Kaizuka'

(jew-nip'-er-us chi-nen'-sis)

Hollywood Juniper

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 8' to 12'

WIDTH: 5' to 7'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/2"; violet, waxy.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Irregular with twisted, cordlike branchlets.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Rich green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, 1/16", 4-ranked in OPPOSITE pairs.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Grows well in any well-drained soil. It does especially well in sandy soils and is often used in coastal plantings. Looks best when NOT pruned. Prune only to control size.

PEST PROBLEMS: Bagworms, twig blight, spider mites.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of J. chinensis.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Variegated Kaizuka'--Ends of some branchlets are variegated with creamy yellow.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Hollywood Juniper is a bold accent plant with a somewhat artistic, Japanese effect. Individual plants take on varied characters. Combines well with rock and stone structures. Use in moderation.
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Title Annotation:Azalea indica (Rhododendron indica)-Juniperus chinensis 'Kaizuka'
Author:Bridwell, Ferrell M.
Publication:Landscape Plants, Their Identification, Culture, and Use, 2nd ed.
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:6706
Previous Article:Chapter 7 medium size shrubs.
Next Article:Chapter 8 large shrubs.
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