Chapter 8 Beef cattle.
* Learn the primary breeds of beef cattle in the United States
* Learn the retail and wholesale beef cuts
* Understand the basic structure of the beef cattle industry in the United States
Cattle were domesticated around 6,500 B.C., and have been integral to human survival. Cattle provide meat, milk, hide, and bone, all of which have been used for food, tools, and clothing. When Europeans were colonizing different parts of the world, they brought their familiar breeds of cattle with them. In areas where native breeds existed, new breeds were often developed from crossbreeding the cattle types. Beef is a significant portion of the U.S. diet, and beef producers in the United States strive to produce a high-quality, nutritious product that will meet the evolving needs of consumers. In 2005, the United States had over 770,000 beef operations (see Figure 8-1).
BREEDS OF BEEF CATTLE
Many breeds of cattle contribute to the beef industry in the United States. Some breeds are very populous, and others fill a niche market. Most commercial animals are crossbred animals that are derived from the following breeds to maximize the qualities of each breed. Breeds are categorized by the geographical region of their origin.
American Beef Breeds
Cattle are not indigenous to the United States, and American breeds are founded on breeds from other parts of the world. The following breeds were developed in the United States from seedstock brought into America with immigration or later importation.
Beefmaster The Beefmaster was developed in Colorado in the 1930s by crossing Herefords, Shorthorns, and Brahmans. Breeders sought animals with good growth that tolerated the climactic conditions of the western United States. The breed comes in a variety of colors, and may be either horned or polled (po-led), which means they genetically do not have horns. Three associations register Beefmaster cattle: Beefmasters Breeders Universal, Foundation Beefmaster Association, and the National Beefmaster Association (see Figures 8-2 and 8-3).
Black baldie The black baldie is not a recognized breed, but a cross between the Hereford and the Angus. The animals are of moderate size, gain weight rapidly, and have the high-quality meat characteristic of both base breeds. They have black bodies with white faces and white markings similar to the Hereford. This cross is one of the most common in the United States, and many feedlots are full of black baldie animals.
Braford (bray-ferd) The Braford was developed in Florida by crossing Brahman and Hereford cattle. Brafords have the coloring of Herefords, with reddish bodies and white faces. The breed was developed because purebred Herefords did not thrive in the heat and humidity of Florida. Brafords grow quickly to market weight and produce high-quality meat (see Figure 8-4).
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Brahman (bra-mehn) Brahmans were developed in the southwestern United States to tolerate the dry, hot weather, by crossing zebu (ze-boo) cattle (Bos indicus) from the subcontinent of India, with the British breeds that made up the bulk of the U.S. beef industry. Brahmans range from light gray to almost black in color. The most distinctive characteristics of Brahmans are the hump on the shoulders and their large, drooping ears. Brahmans are very tolerant of heat and have a natural resistance to disease and insects. They are used primarily in crossbreeding programs with traditional beef breeds. Purebred Brahmans can be difficult to handle, and have excitable dispositions. Many bulls used in rodeo bull-riding have at least some Brahman breeding (see Figures 8-5 and 8-6).
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Brangus (brayng-guhs) The Brangus was developed by crossing Brahman and Angus cattle. The breed was developed in Louisiana to combine the meat quality of the Angus, with the heat and disease tolerance of the Brahman. Brangus cattle are black and polled. The Red Brangus is similar to the Brangus, with the exception of being red instead of black. Animals registered with either the International Brangus Breeders Association or the American Red Brangus Association must meet registration standards for conformation and size. The name Brangus is trademarked, and only registered animals can be identified with the Brangus name (see Figures 8-7 and 8-8).
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Santa Gertrudis (sahn-tah g r-troo-dihs) The Santa Gertrudis was developed on the King Ranch in southern Texas in the early 1900s. Brahman cattle were crossed with a variety of breeds, seeking a cross that was tolerant of the climate of south Texas, and that still produced the quality of meat needed for market. The combination of Shorthorn and Brahman blood produced the bull, Monkey, who became the foundation sire of the breed. Santa Gertrudis cattle are a uniform red in color with a short, tight-hair coat. Their skin is loosely fitting, and bulls have a modified hump (see Figure 8-9).
British Beef Breeds
Many of the breeds we are most familiar with in the United States are of British origin. As a group, the cattle are of moderate size, are well-muscled, and have manageable temperaments. This group of cattle has high-quality meat that is well marbled and highly palatable.
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Angus (ayng-gehs) Officially known as the Aberdeen Angus, Angus cattle originated in Scotland in the early 1700s. The first Angus cattle were imported into the United States in 1873. The Angus is the most populous breed in the United States, and is often used in both purebred and crossbred breeding programs. The Angus can be either black or red, and are always polled. The Red Angus cannot be registered in the American Angus Association, but can be registered in the Red Angus Association. The red gene is recessive to the black gene, and other than coat color, the Angus and Red Angus are very similar. Both breeds produce high-quality meat that is highly palatable and well marbled (see Figures 8-10 and 8-11).
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Devon (dehv-en) One of the oldest of the British breeds, Devon cattle are a reddish color and of moderate size and muscling. They were brought to the United States in 1623 as a multipurpose animal, and were used for meat, milk, and draft. Over time, breeders have focused on the breed for its beef qualities. The breed is registered by the Devon Cattle Association, Inc.
Galloway (gahl-weigh) Galloways are a relatively small breed of cattle, but are very hardy and can tolerate harsh weather conditions. The cattle were originally bred in Scotland, and imported into the United States in 1870. The cattle have soft, relatively long and wavy hair, and come in a variety of colors (see Figures 8-12 and 8-13). The Belted Galloway is a popular strain characterized by black bodies with a wide white belt around the middle.
Hereford (her-ferd) The Hereford is one of the most easily recognizable of the beef breeds. The bodies of Herefords are a rich reddish color, with distinctive white faces, and white markings on the underbelly and legs. Herefords were first bred in the county of Hereford in England. They were imported to the United States in the early 1800s, and quickly became a very popular breed. Herefords are naturally horned, with horns that grow parallel to the ground and curve back toward the face. Herefords are registered with the American Hereford Association. Polled Herefords were developed in 1910, when an Iowa breeder collected a group of naturally polled Hereford cattle, and began breeding them. Polled Herefords have the same characteristics as Herefords, with the exception of the horns. Polled Herefords can be registered either with the Polled Hereford Association, or the Hereford Association, and many animals are registered with both (see Figure 8-14).
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Red Poll The Red Poll breed was developed in England by crossing native cattle from the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The resulting animals are solid red in color, with some white hair in the tail. Cattle were first imported into the United States in the late nineteenth century. The cattle are primarily dual purpose, although the recent focus has been on meat production. The American Red Poll Association is the registering body.
Scotch Highland The Scotch Highland was developed in the northern islands of Scotland and imported to the United States in the early 1900s, after centuries of breeding in Scotland. The animals are of moderate size and are horned, with a long coat that comes in a variety of colors. This breed is very hardy, and does well in harsh weather (see Figure 8-15).
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Shorthorn The Shorthorn breed was developed in the seventeenth century in northern England, where they were originally known as Durham cattle. The breed was developed as a dual-purpose breed, for both meat and milk production, and was introduced to the United States in 1783. The cattle are red, white, or roan, or a combination of the colors, and bulls weigh up to 2,400 pounds. Although the focus of breeding in recent generations has been on developing beef traits, Shorthorns are still known as excellent milk producers and mothers. The Shorthorn has been used successfully in breeding programs, and many modern breeds have at least some Shorthorn in their backgrounds. There are both polled and horned varieties of Shorthorns, with the presence of horns being the only significant difference (see Figure 8-16).
Texas longhorn The Texas longhorn was developed from the Spanish Andalusian (ahn-dah-loozh-uhn) cattle that Christopher Columbus brought to the New World. The breed developed primarily in the wild state, when cattle that were taken from the Caribbean islands to Texas with the explorers escaped and adapted to the southwestern climate. The cattle are characterized by a wide variety of colors and patterns, and their distinctive horns can have a spread of more than four feet. The Texas longhorn is the breed that was most often driven on the famous cattle drives after the Civil War. Although longhorns are very tolerant of the heat and insects, the meat quality and slow maturing rate is less desirable than that of the European breeds. Longhorns nearly became extinct in the early 1900s, but are making a comeback as breeders are using them to improve the heat and disease tolerance of other breeds of cattle. The Texas Longhorn Breeding Association of America handles longhorn registration.
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The Continental breeds are those that came to the United States from the Western European continent. Many of these breeds were part of the Breeds Revolution, a period of time in the late 1960s and early 1970s when many new breeds were introduced to the U.S. beef industry. These breeds were introduced in an effort to increase the size and scale of the existing breeds in the country, and to develop animals that were well suited to the feedlot system of finishing cattle.
Charolais (shar-lay) The Charolais is a French breed that was first imported to North America in 1930. The Charolais is a large breed, with mature adults weighing 2,000 pounds or more. This breed is especially heavily muscled in the loin area, and has been used extensively in crossbreeding programs to increase the size and muscling of other breeds. The American-International Charolais Association is the registering body for Charolais cattle. Charolais have an open herdbook, which means that crossbred animals can be registered. Refer to the rulebook requirements for precise rules (see Figures 8-17 and 8-18).
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Chianina (ke-ah-ne-nah) The Chianina, known casually as the Chi (key), was developed in Italy in ancient times. Semen was first imported to the United States in 1971. Chianina cattle are white with a black switch at the end of the tail. Chianina are a very large breed of cattle; bulls may weigh up to 4,000 pounds, and are used extensively in crossbreeding programs to increase size of the offspring (see Figure 8-19).
Gelbvieh (gehlp-fe) The Gelbvieh was developed in Germany from native cattle in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. They were originally developed as a multipurpose breed, but the modern Gelbvieh is a beef animal. The animals are reddish in color with no white markings, and can be either horned or polled. Gelbviehs are registered with the American Gelbvieh Association.
Limousin (lihm-o-zen) The Limousin is an ancient breed that was developed in France. The famous cave paintings in Lascaux depict cattle that are similar in appearance to the Limousin. Limousin cattle were first imported into the United States in 1968. Limousins are large cattle, with bulls exceeding 2,000 pounds. Limousins are often used in crossbreeding programs to increase the leanness of the carcass, and the size of the offspring (see Figure 8-20).
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Maine-Anjou (man ahn-joo) The Maine-Anjou was developed in France as a draft animal in the 1840s. Since that time, breeding programs have focused on developing beef traits. Maine-Anjou cattle are a horned breed that is red and white in color. Mature bulls weigh over 2,500 pounds. The first Maine-Anjou crossbred calves were born in the United States in 1972 from semen imported from Canada. The American Maine-Anjou Association registers Maine-Anjou cattle (see Figure 8-21).
Marchigiana (mar-key-jah-nah) An Italian breed that was developed in ancient Rome from native cattle, including the Chianina, the Marchigiana is grayish-white, and large. Bulls weigh over 3,000 pounds. The cattle are known for their ease of calving and for being reproductively sound. Marchigianas are registered by the American International Marchigiana Society, and are used extensively in crossbreeding programs (see Figure 8-22).
Salers (sah-lair) The Salers were developed in France thousands of years ago as a dual-purpose breed. Cave paintings in southern France depict animals believed to be ancestors of the modern Salers. Salers evolved as a very versatile breed, with uses for milk and meat, as well as serving as draft animals. Salers have been in North America since the 1970s, when they were first imported into Canada. The animals are of good size, with horns and a dark red coat color. They are used primarily in crossbreeding programs (see Figure 8-23).
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Simmental (sihm-eh-tahl) The Simmental is a large breed that was developed in Switzerland in the Middle Ages. Bulls may weigh up to 2,600 pounds. The Simmental is one of the most popular breeds of beef cattle in Europe, and was imported to the United States in the late 1960s. The cattle have brown to red bodies with white faces and legs. Cows are excellent producers of milk, and Simmentals grow quickly. The American Simmental Association registers animals that meet registration requirements (see Figure 8-24).
Although the majority of the beef breeds in the United States are of European origin, cattle have been successfully imported from other regions of the world. These breeds tend to fit into niche markets and specialty breeding programs, and do not constitute a large percentage of the U.S. beef industry. The following are some of those breeds:
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Murray Grey Developed in Australia from crossing Shorthorn and Angus cattle, the Murray Grey semen was introduced to the United States in 1969. Although it is not a significant part of the U.S. beef industry, the Murray Grey is very popular in its native Australia. The animals are a grayish color, and are of moderate size and good temperament. The calves grow well and have good temperaments. They are used primarily for crossbreeding, and qualified animals can be registered with the American Murray Grey Association (see Figure 8-25).
Norwegian Red The Norwegian Red was developed as a dual-purpose animal in Norway. Although a minor breed in the United States, it is the most popular breed in Norway. Norwegian Reds are red, or red and white and are horned. Bulls weigh up to 2,600 pounds at maturity. Cattle are registered with the American Norwegian Red Association.
Senepol (sehn-eh-pol) The Senepol was developed in the Caribbean by crossing the Red Poll and the N'Dama from Africa. The cattle are reddish in color, and bring many of the same characteristics to crossbreeding programs as Brahmans, with a more manageable disposition. Although the Senepol is not a populous breed, its usefulness in subtropical regions is being explored.
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Meat is the primary product of the beef cattle industry. However, the production of beef cattle also results in the production of many marketable by-products. The beef cattle industry generates over 20 percent of the total cash receipts for agriculture. In 2004, that 20 percent equaled $40 billion dollars. Beef cattle are raised in every state in the United States, but the beef cattle industry thrives in geographical areas with adequate grazing land to maintain the cattle, or with by-products of grain production that can be fed to cattle at an economical cost (see Figure 8-26). As ruminants, cattle can consume grasses, crop residues, and other plants that are not suited for human consumption, and convert them to a highly palatable and nutritious product, beef. Often, cattle are grazed on land that cannot support crop agriculture, due to the topography, insufficient or excess water, and soil quality. The following terms relate to the processing and production of meat from beef cattle:
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Aging The practice of waiting between slaughter and consumption to allow the enzymes in the meat to increase tenderness. The two primary methods of aging are dry aging and wet aging.
Dry aging The traditional way of aging beef by maintaining the meat in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. The meat loses moisture during the dry-aging process, which intensifies the flavor of meat. Dry aging is an expensive process because of the space and environmental management requirements.
Wet aging The meat is vacuum-packed in its own juices during the aging process. The same enzymes tenderize the meat, but the wet process does not intensify the flavor of the meat. Wet aging is less expensive than dry aging and does not require the level of environmental control required by dry aging.
Backfat The fat that is under the skin and on the surface of the meat.
Carcass (kahr-cuhs) The body of the animal after the head, hide, and internal organs have been removed in processing.
Dark cutter An undesirable characteristic in meat that results in a darker than normal color and sticky texture. Dark cutter meat is believed to be a result of stress on the animal prior to slaughter. Although the meat is still safe to consume, it is not appealing to the consumer, and carcasses with this characteristic will be penalized in quality grading.
Grain-fed beef Those animals that have been fed primarily a grain-based diet prior to slaughter. These animals may have been raised on a primarily grass diet earlier, and then converted to a grain diet for the finishing phase prior to slaughter. Grain-fed beef is more tender and has an improved flavor compared to grass-fed beef, but it more expensive to produce.
Grass-fed beef Animals that are fed a forage- or grass-based diet through all aspects of growth and up to slaughter.
Hide The skin of the animal. The skin is tanned into leather, and then further processed into everything from belts and shoes to wallets and briefcases.
Marbling Intramuscular fat. Marbling is a crucial component of high-quality graded beef. More marbling results in a higher quality grade, and a more tender and flavorful cut of meat. The degrees of marbling, from most marbling to least are: very abundant, moderately abundant, slightly abundant, moderate, modest, small, slight, traces, and practically devoid (see Figure 8-27).
Quality grade A quality grade can be assessed both on live animals and on the carcass. The quality grades from highest to lowest are: prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter, and canner (see Figure 8-28).
Carcass quality grade The quality grade assessed on the actual carcass, which considers the amount of marbling in the cut and the age of the animal.
Live animal quality grade Based on the amount and quality of muscling and fat, as well as the age of the animal. Animals in the "prime" and "choice" quality grade are less than 42 months of age.
Shrinkage The amount of weight lost when transporting cattle to market.
Side of beef One half of the beef carcass.
Veal (vel) Meat from calves less than three months of age that have been fed an exclusively milk diet. The flavor of veal is lighter than the flavor of other beef products.
Yield The weight of a chilled carcass as a percentage of the live weight of an animal. The higher the yield, the more desirable the carcass.
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Yield grade A grading system for beef carcasses based on the amount of fat present. The more fat that is present, the more fat that will need to be trimmed from the finished cut, resulting in a lower yield grade. Yield grade ranges from one for the most lean, to five for the most fat (see Figure 8-29).
Retail and Wholesale Beef Products
Convenience foods A growing segment of the retail market is in foods that are ready to eat, or quickly and easily prepared. The beef industry lags behind the pork and poultry industry in production of these products, but is making progress.
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Ground beef Meat that is ground and combined into a homogeneous product. Ground beef (hamburger) can be from an assortment of cuts and trimmings. If a specific cut is ground, it will be indicated in the name (for example, ground round, ground chuck, ground sirloin). Ground beef can also have a wide variation in the fat content. Because of the increased surface area of ground products, they have the highest risk of carrying pathogens. It is especially important to properly handle, store, and prepare ground meat products.
Primal cuts Also known as wholesale cuts, primal cuts are the large segments of the carcass from which retail cuts are made (see Figure 8-30). The following are the primal cuts of beef:
Brisket primal The front third of the underline. The major retail cut is the brisket.
Chuck primal The front shoulder. The major retail cuts are chuck roasts, chuck steaks, shoulder roasts, and shoulder steaks.
Flank primal The rear third of the underline. The flank steak is the retail cut.
Loin primal The loin region. Major retail cuts are the porterhouses, T-bones, loin and tenderloin steaks, and tenderloin roasts.
Plate primal The middle third of the underline. The skirt steak is a retail cut.
Rib primal The thoracic vertebrae region. Major retail cuts are rib and rib eye roasts, rib and rib eye steaks, and back ribs.
Round primal The hind leg. Major retail cuts are bottom round roasts and steaks, top round steaks, eye round roasts and steaks, round tip roasts and steaks, sirloin tip center roasts and steaks, and sirloin tip side steaks.
Shank primal The front leg. The major retail cut is the shank cross cut.
Sirloin primal The top of the hindquarter. Major retail cuts are the tri-tip roasts steaks, and top sirloin steaks.
Roast A large piece of meat that can serve several people. The type of roast depends on where the meat came from on the animal. Roasting is also a method of cooking.
Steak A smaller cut of meat than a roast. The steak often comes from the roast of the same name.
Sweetbreads The pancreas and thyroid.
Testicles Usually eaten fried. Also known as Rocky Mountain oysters, prairie oysters, or calf fries.
Tripe (trip) Stomach.
The following are terms common in the beef industry:
Auction Method of selling cattle by bidding in a public venue. Auctions are most often used for selling small numbers of animals.
Backgrounding The time between weaning and going to the feedlot when a calf is fed primarily a roughage diet.
Beef checkoff A federal program where one dollar from every beef animal sold goes to state and national organizations to promote the beef industry and fund research related to the beef industry.
Beef cycle The fluctuation in the number of cattle owned in the United States. In approximately 10-year cycles, the beef cattle numbers rise and fall due to economic pressures and the normal generation interval of cattle.
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Branding The use of a tool to leave a permanent identifying mark on an animal. Most animals are branded with a hot brand, or by freeze-branding. Breed character Characteristics unique to a breed.
Composite breed A new breed developed from combining established breeds.
Condition The amount of fat cover on a breeding animal.
Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) CAFOs are large operations that raise animals in a limited amount of space. Facilities that are identified as CAFOs must comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines regarding the disposal of waste. For details on the CAFO requirements, refer to the EPA Web site.
Corral (coh-rahl) An area enclosed by a fence for holding animals.
Creep-feeding The practice of providing feed to young animals in a way that adult animals cannot reach the feed. The feed may be in an area that the adult animals are too large to enter, or in a feeder that adult animals are too large to use.
Dehorning The chemical or mechanical removal of horns.
Ear tag An identifying tag that is inserted in the ear. This is not a permanent method of identification, as tags can be pulled out or lost (see Figure 8-31).
Ear tattoo A permanent form of identification where marks are made on the inside of the ear.
Estrus synchronization The practice of using hormones to have multiple cows come into estrus at the same time. This allows increased efficiency of artificial insemination and produces calves of a more uniform age.
Feed efficiency The efficiency with which an animal turns feed into growth and meat. Increased feed efficiency results in a higher profit margin for producers, as feed is usually the most expensive input on a livestock facility.
Finish The fat on a market animal, which can be either a steer or heifer.
Finishing phase The final stage of preparation for market. Usually includes feeding a grain-based diet.
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Frame The skeleton of the animal. Animals are judged to be large-framed or small-framed depending on the size of their skeletons.
Graze (graz) To eat grass.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HAACP) A government plant that works with packing plants to identify and resolve issues at potential areas where carcasses could be contaminated with pathogens during processing. HAACPs are also implemented on a voluntary basis in many feedlots as the beef industry strives to provide a safe food product to consumers.
Implant A device inserted in the ear that provides a slow release of hormones to an animal. The use of an implant increases feed efficiency in animals.
Least-cost ration A ration formulated to meet an animal's nutritional needs with the lowest cost for ingredients.
Market animal An animal being raised for sale to a slaughter market.
Muscling The amount of muscle throughout an animal's body.
National Animal Identification System (NAIS) NAIS is a program of the USDA that was put in place after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center to develop a system to identify and track the movement of animals. According to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), implementation of NAIS will assist with "disease control and eradication, disease surveillance and monitoring, emergency response to foreign animal diseases, regionalization, global trade, livestock production efficiency, consumer concerns over food safety, and emergency management programs."
Pasture (pahs-cher) A large enclosed area with grass for animals to eat.
Performance testing Evaluating an individual animal based on its production in a desired area. Animals can be performance tested based on milk production, growth rate, racing speed, or any of many other characteristics.
Preconditioning Preparation of a calf for moving to a feedlot. Preconditioning includes vaccination, castration, tattooing or branding, deworming, weaning, and treatments for internal and external parasites.
Private sale The sale of an animal directly at a set price. Negotiation occurs between a buyer and a seller.
Range Large tracts of land for raising animals. This term is used most often to refer to land in the Western or Plains states.
Sex character The animal shows the characteristics of its gender. Bulls typically show more muscling and are heavier in the neck and shoulders than cows.
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Squeeze chute A form of restraint for an animal. Animals walk into chutes, where their heads are restrained in head gates. The animals can then be safely handled with minimal stress to the animals or the handler. Squeeze chutes are often used when doing routine health maintenance practices such as vaccination (see Figure 8-32).
Terminal markets A place where cattle are gathered and sold for slaughter. Also called a stockyard. Producers pay a yardage fee for having their animals at the stockyard until they are sold.
Tilt table Similar to a squeeze chute, the tilt table can be tilted, which is especially useful when it is necessary to treat or trim an animal's feet.
Weaning (wen-ing) The practice of permanently separating a mother from her offspring, or removal of milk from an offspring's diet. A young animal that has been weaned is called a weanling (we-n-ling).
The beef industry is a vital part of animal agriculture in the United States, and is undergoing constant change as producers strive to meet the demands of consumers. Beef is an excellent source of nutrition, and producers are using a variety of breeds and crossbreeds to raise lean animals that produce quality meat with tenderness and flavor.
STUDY QUESTIONS Match the breed with the place of origin. Place of origin may be used more than once. 1. -- Salers a. France 2. -- Hereford b. England 3. -- Angus c. Scotland 4. -- Santa Gertrudis d. Germany 5. -- Limousin e. India 6. -- Chianina f. United States 7. -- Zebu g. Australia 8. -- Beefmaster h. Switzerland 9. -- Simmental i. Italy 10. -- Murray Grey j. Texas 11. Which of the following breeds is used extensively in crossbreeding to increase heat and disease tolerance? a. Hereford b. Brangus c. Brahman d. Simmental 12. What beef breed also has a dairy breed associated with it? a. Hereford b. Shorthorn c. Murray Grey d. Angus 13. The following crossbred is a result of breeding Angus and Herefords: a. Beefmaster b. Brangus c. Simmental d. Black baldie 14. What term describes an animal's skeletal size? a. Frame b. Stature c. Mass d. Conformation 15. -- is the method of feeding young calves that prevents older animals from accessing the feed. 16. List three beef breeds that are composite breeds, and the breeds that were combined to develop them. 17. List the primal, or wholesale, cuts of beef. 18. From what primal cut do we get T-bone and porterhouse steaks? 19. What is the current price per pound that producers are receiving for beef? Compare to the current cost per pound for beef in the grocery store. FIGURE 8-1 Number of U.S. beef cattle operations and the inventory of cattle in 2005 (Courtesy of USDA) Number of operations Percent of Inventory 1-49 Hd 597 27.9 50-99 Hd 95 19 100-499 Hd 73 38.5 500+ Hd 4.1 7.9 Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Publication:||An Illustrated Guide to Animal Science Terminology|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2008|
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