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Chapter 7 medium size shrubs.

For the purposes of this text, medium shrubs are those that mature at 4 feet to 6 feet in height under normal landscape conditions. "Medium" is not rigidly defined in this text, and in some cases is purely a judgement call based on a combination of height and width.

There is much need for medium size plants in landscaping. In years past, many property owners planted large shrubs around the foundation, only to have overgrown plants that dominated after a few years. Medium size plants are more appropriate than larger shrubs for most modern properties, especially the smaller properties of today's suburban residence.

* Some common uses for medium shrubs are:

* Corner plants for one-story structures.

* Privacy hedges of lower maintenance.

* Foundation plants for higher foundations.

* Background plants for dwarf plantings.

* "Filler" plants for bare wall space.

Abelia x grandiflora (uh-bee'-li-uh x gran-dee-flor'-uh)

Glossy Abelia

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: Achene; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Spreading and dense with somewhat pendulous branches.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Reddish-green; purplish tinged in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate shape with dentate margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1/2" to 1" long, bugle-shaped, in small clusters. Flowers in summer and continues into late fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Adapts to a wide range of well-drained soil. Will bloom better if water is provided during drought. Prune anytime as it blooms on new growth.

PEST PROBLEMS: Aphids on new growth.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Edward Goucher'--(Featured on next page.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This is an outstanding, proven plant that makes a nice hedge or foundation plant. It flowers freely for several months and has interesting foliage year round. Often used for hedges. Note: Young stems have red pigmentation also.

Abelia x 'Edward Goucher' (uh-bee'-li-uh)

Edward Goucher Abelia

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: Achene; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Spreading and dense; branches pendulous.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Reddish-green; purplish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate shape with dentate margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Purplish-pink, 1/2" to 1" long, bugle-shaped, in small clusters. Flowers in summer and continues until late fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Does best in well-drained soil. Water during droughts for better flowering. Prune as needed for shaping; blooms on new growth.

PEST PROBLEMS: Aphids and ants on new growth.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar selection from the cross between A. x grandiflora and A. schumannii.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This plant is similar to A. grandiflora but has flowers that are a rich purple-pink throughout summer and fall. Leaves and stems have more red pigmentation.

Abies concolor 'Compacta' (a'-beez con'-cull-er)

Compact White Fir

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 4' to 4 1/2'

WIDTH: 3' to 4'

FRUIT: Greenish or purplish cones.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Extremely slow.

HABIT: Compact, dense, and irregular.

FAMILY: Pinaceae

LEAF COLOR: Grayish-green new growth, maturing to bright blue.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, 1" to 1 1/2" long, erect or curving, flattened and convex with 2 white stomata bands beneath, separated by a green band. 2-ranked.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Prefers sandy or stony soils to clay soils. More drought-tolerant than most coniferous evergreens. Practically maintenance-free.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of A. concolor, a large evergreen tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This is a rare plant that is easier to grow than to find. Slow growth is overshadowed by the beauty of this gourmet coniferous evergreen. Outstanding!

Aucuba japonica (ah-ku'-buh juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Green Aucuba, Japanese Aucuba

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: 1/2" red berries (female plants only, with nearby male plants).

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, irregular mound.

FAMILY: Cornaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 7" long and 1 1/2" to 3" wide, ovate to oblong shape with coarsely serrated margins near tip. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Off-white in panicles in early spring; NOT NOTICEABLE. Dioecious, male and female plants.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Shade only. Does best in well-drained soil. Cannot tolerate sunny exposures as upper foliage will burn to a black crisp. Prune carefully to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'--Featured on next page. Crassifolia'--Male plant with large thick leaves. 'Serratifolia'--Has narrow leaves that are coarsely serrated.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Aucuba is an outstanding, coarse-textured plant for shady areas of the garden. It can be used as a hedge or foundation plant. Berries are simply beautiful, but, unfortunately, one must plant both male and female plants. Plant has a tropical character.

Aucuba japonica 'Variegata' (ah-ku'-buh juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Variegated Aucuba, Gold-dust Tree

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/2" red berries (female plants only, in the presence of male plants).

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, irregular mound.

FAMILY: Cornaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green with numerous yellow specks or freckles.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 7" long and 1 1/2" to 3" wide, ovate to oblong-ovate shape with coarsely serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Off-white in panicles in early spring. NOT NOTICEABLE. Dioecious, male and female plants.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Shade only. Does best in moist, well-drained soil. Cannot tolerate sunny exposures as upper foliage will burn badly. Prune to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of A. japonica. RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Fructo Albo'--Leaves have white variegation and creamy pink fruits. Female. 'Picturata'--Has solid yellow blotch in center of leaf. 'Variegata Nana'--Leaves like 'Variegata' but grows to 2 1/2' to 3'.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: The variegated forms of Aucuba japonica are the most popular, and there are more than enough cultivars to "drive home" the point! However, there many beautiful plants to brighten dark areas of the landscape. To avoid "blackened" growth, the plant should be planted in bright areas that do not receive direct sunlight or placed in filtered light under pines or other thin-crowned plants.

Azalea x 'Glenn Dale' (Rhododendron x 'Glenn Dale') (uh-zay'-lee-uh) (ro-do-den'-drun)

Glenn Dale Azalea

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 4' to 5'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: Brown pod, rare; NOT NOTICEABLE.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Variable, but dense and somewhat rounded.

FAMILY: Ericaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2" long and half as wide, ovate to oblong-ovate shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, salmon, red, rose, purple, or lavender, depending on cultivar. 2 1/2" to 4 1/2" wide. Usually blooms in late April.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Light shade. Azaleas do best in well-drained, organic soil with acid pH. Add generous amounts of organic matter when planting. Drowns easily in wet soils. Prune after flowering in spring. Not as low-maintenance as acclaimed.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf gall, spider mites, lacebug.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: There are hundreds. 'Aphrodite'--Upright, with 2" rose-pink flowers. 'Buccaneer'--Orange-red flowers. 'Copperman'--Deep red flowers; red foliage in fall. 'H.H. Hume'--White with pale yellow throat. 'Martha Hitchcock'--White flowers with purple edge. BEAUTIFUL. 'Radiance'--Deep rose-pink flowers. 'Treasure'--White flowers with pinkish edges. 'Vesper'--White with yellow-green throat.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Glenn Dale Azaleas provide an excellent floral display, blooming later in the season than Kurume Azaleas. Blooms are large and come in many different colors and shades.

Azalea kaempferi (Rhododendron kaempferi) (uh-zay'-lee-uh camp'-fer-i) (ro-do-den'-drun camp'-fer-i)

Kaempferi Azalea

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: Brown pod, rare; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and dense.

FAMILY: Ericaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to oblong-ovate shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, pink, red, orchid, or purple, depending on the cultivar. 1 1/2" to 3"; funnel-shaped, usually. Flowers in April to May.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Light shade. Azaleas do best in well-drained, organic soil of acid pH. Plant higher than surrounding ground to prevent drowning. Prune after flowering, if needed.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf gall, spider mites, lacebug.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Barbara'--Deep pink flowers. 'Holland'--Deep red flowers. Late season bloomer. 'Silver Sword'--Flowers pink or red. 2" blooms. Green foliage with white margins.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This species tends to grow more upright than most, and blooms later. Kaempferi Azaleas are still blooming when the Kurumes are gone. Makes a good background for Kurume Azaleas.

Berberis julianae (bur'-bur-iss ju-le-a'-nuh)

Wintergreen Barberry

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: 1/2" blue-black berries; attractive.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Forms a dense, impenetrable mound.

FAMILY: Berberidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" long and one-fourth as wide, elliptic shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE, but appearing in whorls. Has 1 1/2" needle-like thorns under each leaf cluster.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellow, 1/4" to 1/2", appearing in clusters. Flowers in April. Attractive.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soil, but is adaptable and considered easy to grow. HAZARDOUS for small children. Prune after flowering, with caution!

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Nana'--Dwarf form to 3". Mounded habit.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Wintergreen Barberry is a versatile shrub having many uses. It is especially useful as a barrier hedge because of the sharp, needle-like thorns under each cluster of leaves. Impenetrable for man or beast. Great for traffic control. In addition, leaves, flowers, and fruits are all very attractive. Outstanding plant!

Buxus microphylla var. japonica (buck'-sus my-cro-fill'-uh var. juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Japanese Boxwood

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 4' to 6'

WIDTH: 3' to 5'

FRUIT: Black capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Compact, dense, and rounded.

FAMILY: Buxaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green; new leaves yellow-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1/2" to 1" long and half as wide, mostly obovate shape with obtuse or emarginate tip and cuneate base. Entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Terminal, in clusters; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Will grow in a variety of well-drained soils. Doesn't do as well in sunny, dry exposures. Prune as desired to any shape. May need frequent shearing.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf miner, rootrot, nematodes, spider mites, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Green Beauty'--More upright form with dark green foliage all year round.

RELATED CULTIVARS: B.m. 'Compacta'--Dark green foliage on very dwarf plants (to 1'). B.m. 'Kingsville Dwarf'--Very dwarf and slow-growing (to 1'). B.m. var. koreana 'Wintergreen'--Yellowish winter foliage on 2" plant. Zone 4. B.m. 'National'--Upright grower with dark green foliage all year. U.S.A. National Arboretum introduction. B. x 'Green Mountain'--Upright oval with small leaves. (Cross between var. koreana and B. sempervirens.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Selections of Buxus microphylla are varied and numerous. All are more formal than most plants, as they are symmetrical in habit and have fine texture. The plants can be used for a wide variety of purposes such as foundation plants, clipped hedges, border plants, and topiary.

Buxus sempervirens (buck'-sus sim-per-vi'-renz)

Common Boxwood, American Boxwood

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: Dehiscent capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Round globe; very dense.

FAMILY: Buxaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic to obovate shape with obtuse or emarginate tip. Entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Tiny, in axillary clusters; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Does best in well-drained soils with high organic matter content. Does not like hot, dry, and sunny conditions. Prune occasionally to maintain refined, global shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Boxwood leaf miner, blight, nematodes, rootrot.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Angustifolia'--Oblong leaves; tree-like growth habit. 'Argentea' - Green leaves with white variegation. 'Bullata'--Large, puckered leaves on large, open shrub. 'Fastigiata'--A columnar growing cultivar. 'Inglis'--Pyramidal shape and dark green foliage. 'Pendula'--Weeping branches on treelike growth. 'Welleri'--Broader than tall with large green leaves. Holds color year round.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Boxwood is somewhat formal in nature due to its global habit of growth. It is still a popular foundation plant and is especially appropriate with colonial architecture.

Camellia sinensis (kuh-mill'-e-uh si-nen'-sis)

Tea Plant

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: Variable; 5' to 6', usually.

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright; somewhat irregular.

FAMILY: Theaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and lustrous.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 5" long and 1" to 2" wide, elliptic shape with serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, with brush-like yellow stamens, 1" to 1 3/4" wide. Flowers in fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Part shade to shade. Not particular as to soil, but it does best in organic, well-drained soil. Will grow in sun, but performs best in shade. Pruning is minimal.

PEST PROBLEMS: Various scales, rootrot.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This is an underrated plant that should be more widely grown. It has interesting form and dainty flowers, and it has proven hardier (Zone 6) than both C. japonica and C. sasanqua. The plant can be used in foundation and borders or anywhere in the garden that fall flowering might be desirable. It is much smaller at maturity than the two mentioned, therefore it is more versatile. NOTE: This is the commercial tea plant grown on tea plantations.

Chamaecyparis pisifera 'Boulevard' (cam-e-sip'-uh-riss pi-sif'-er-uh)

Blue Moss Cypress

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: 1/4" round cones.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broad pyramid; symmetrical.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Silver-blue.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: AWL-SHAPED, 1/4" to 1/2" long, pointed and linear, curving inward at tips.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers well-drained, loamy soils that are lime-free. Requires minimal pruning, if any. Develops its own character. PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of C. pisifera, a large evergreen tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Blue Moss Cypress has many uses in the landscape. It makes a nice foundation plant, rock garden plant, or specimen plant. Soft, plume-like foliage and interesting color combine to make this an outstanding selection for residential or commerical landscapes. It may require some shearing to maintain size and compactness.

Euonymus kiautschovicus 'Manhattan' (u-on'-e-mus ki-ats-cho'-va-cuss)

Manhattan Euonymus

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: Capsule with exposed orange-red seed coat in fall.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright and open.

FAMILY: Celastraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green; glossy.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, obovate to oval shape with crenate-serrate margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white in loose 4" to 5" cymes. Flowers in summer.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Adaptable to a wide range of soils. Thrives in dry soil. Very responsive to fertilization. Prune anytime to shape. PEST PROBLEMS: Euonymus scale. Not as susceptible to scale as other species in the genus.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of E. kiautschovicus, a large semi-evergreen shrub.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Newport'--Similar in habit to 'Manhattan' but not as aggressive. 'Paulii'--More upright growth. Excellent, dark green foliage.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Manhattan Euonymus is a superior plant in its genus. It performs well as a foundation or border plant, and is superior as a hedge. It is tolerant of urban conditions, and thrives in Central Park, New York.

Fatsia japonica (fat'-se-uh juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Fatsia, Japanese Aralia

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 3' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" to 1/2" black drupes.

TEXTURE: Very coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded and open.

FAMILY: Araliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 6" to 12" long and 8" to 12" wide, palmately lobed (7 to 9), each lobe serrated. Long leaf petioles. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 1" to 2" umbels that form a large cluster. Flowers in fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Shade. Tolerant of most soils, but prefers organic, loamy soils. Will tolerate more moisture than most plants. Protect from sun and wind. Prune only to remove old or dead stems.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Moseri'--Smaller, compact plant with larger leaves. 'Variegata'--White variegation on tips of lobes and most of the margins.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Fatsia has foliage with a tropical appearance. It is outstanding for textural contrast in the garden and looks great against walls or fences. Very popular plant for use in swimming pool gardens. It can be used for indoor plantscaping.

Gardenia jasminoides (gar-de'-nee-uh jaz-min-oy'-deez)

Cape Jasmine, Gardenia

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ZONES: 8, 9, 10

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: Orange berry; not common.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded; upright.

FAMILY: Rubiaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and half as wide, elliptic to obovate shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE, sometimes whorled.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, to 3", solitary. Very fragrant. Flowers in May and June.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Requires organic soil that is well-drained and acid in reaction. Prune to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale, mealy bugs, white flies.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'August Beauty'--Blooms in May through November. Abundant flowers. 'Mystery'--Compact branching. Creamy-white flowers. 'Radicans' Super dwarf. (Featured in Dwarf Shrubs.) 'Veitchii'--Grows more upright. Abundant flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Gardenia has attractive foliage and large white, fragrant flowers. Distinctive fragrance is noticeable throughout the garden. Place near an entry or patio for family enjoyment. Prune lightly, and bring branches inside for fragrant arrangements.

Ilex cornuta 'Dwarf Burford' (i'-lex cor-nu'-tah)

Dwarf Burford Holly

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 7'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" deep red berries; not abundant.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright; somewhat pyramidal.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Deep, glossy green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with entire margins, except for one spine at the leaf tip. Puckered between veins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish, tiny 4-petaled in leaf axils; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Very adaptable to any well-drained soil. Very drought-resistant. Almost overused in low-maintenance landscapes. Prune, as needed, to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale, nematodes, leaf spot.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. cornuta 'Burfordii', a large evergreen shrub.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: One of the best Hollies, having many uses. It is an outstanding corner plant for foundation plantings and makes a beautiful unclipped hedge. Looks great in tree-form, also. It was developed as a substitute for Burford Holly, which is much larger. Used extensively in both residential and commercial landscapes.

Ilex crenata 'Convexa' (i'-lex cre-na'-tah)

Convexa Holly

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" black berries.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Round and dense.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1/2" long and half as wide, oval or elliptic shape with crenate or serrated margins, cupped (convex). ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, tiny, spring; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained heavier soils. Doesn't perform well in sand. An annual application of nitrogen encourages better color. Can be sheared into dense, Boxwood-like habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spider mites.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. crenata, a large evergreen shrub.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Convexa Holly is a widely used landscape plant that makes a good foundation plant or sheared hedge. It is sometimes confused with Boxwood, but has many differences. It is an outstanding plant when given a reasonable amount of attention and care. This cultivar is female and mature plants often produce heavy crops of black berries.

Ilex crenata 'Compacta' (i'-lex cre-na'-tah)

Compacta Holly

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 4' to 5'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: Black berries; not common.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Broadly rounded and dense.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1/2" to 3/4" long and half as wide, oval or elliptic shape with crenate or serrulate margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, tiny, spring; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Does best in slightly acid, well-drained soil. Easily pruned into compact, dense shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spider mites, rootrot.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. crenata.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Compacta Holly is one of the thickest growing Hollies. Contrary to public opinion, it becomes quite large over a period of years. Its dense nature can be obtained with a minimum of care. One of the best, but somewhat over-planted.

Ilex crenata 'Hetzii' (i'-lex cre-na'-tah)

Hetzi Holly

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: 1/4" black berries.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Spreading, round, vigorous shrub.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green new growth, maturing rapidly to lustrous dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3/4" to 1" long and half as wide, oval or elliptic shape with crenate or serrulate margins, cupped (convex). ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, tiny, spring; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers well-drained, moist soil with slightly acid reaction. Very dense. Easily pruned to maintain round shape. Prune anytime.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spider mites can be destructive.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. crenata.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: A compact, vigorous form of Convexa Holly that grows extremely dense without shearing. Leaves are darker green and larger than Convexa Holly. It makes a fine foundation plant, low hedge, or background plant in garden borders. It is easy to grow, and is one of the best I. crenata cultivars.

Ilex crenata 'Petite Point' (i'-lex cre-na'-tah)

Petite Point Holly

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: 1/4" black berries.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and pyramidal.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1/2" long and 1/4" wide, elliptic shape with crenate or serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, tiny, spring; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Grows best in well-drained, heavy soil. Can be easily pruned into pyramidal shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spider mites can be destructive.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. crenata.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Petite Point is a handsome foundation or specimen plant that resembles Convexa Holly, except that it has a more pyramidal shape. This is a female plant that often produces a heavy crop of black berries, usually hidden by the foliage.

Ilex crenata 'Rotundifolia' (i'-lex cre-na'-tah)

Round-leaf Holly

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 7'

WIDTH: 6' to 8'

FRUIT: NONE

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Round and open.

FAMILY: Aquifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/4" long and half as wide, oval to elliptic shape with serrulate margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, tiny, spring; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun to part shade. Very vigorous. Grows in any well-drained soil. Regular pruning may be necessary to control and maintain dense habit.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spider mites.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of I. crenata.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Round-leaf Holly is a rugged plant that has been widely planted or overplanted in residential landscapes. It should not be planted under windows where it requires heavy pruning. This cultivar is still in demand, but it has been mostly replaced by 'Compacta'. Actually, this is an old "standby" plant that has proven itself over the years, and should remain in cultivation.

Juniperus chinensis 'Blaauw' (jew-nip"-er-us chi-nen'-sis)

Blaauw's Juniper

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 4' to 6'

WIDTH: 2' to 4'

FRUIT: 1/3" brown cones; whitish bloom when young.

TEXTURE: Moderate to fine.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and often slightly irregular.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark bluish green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: AWL-LIKE on new branch growth, becoming SCALE-LIKE on older growth, 1/16" long. Scale-like leaves are OPPOSITE; awl-shaped leaves are mostly TERNATE.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Mostly dioecious, monoecious rare or not present. NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. Adapts to any well-drained soil and is drought tolerant. Prune minimally for uniformity.

PEST PROBLEMS: Twig blight, bagworm. Not usually bothered.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Blaauw's Juniper has a character all its own, although not quite as different as Hollywood Juniper. It makes a nice corner plant or as a background to provide contrast in combination with broad-leaved evergreens.

Juniperus chinensis 'Hetzii Glauca' (jew-nip'-er-us chi-nen'-sis)

Blue Hetz Juniper

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5'to 6'

FRUIT: Purplish-brown, 1/4" cones; whitish bloom.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Semi-erect; fountain-like.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Light frost blue.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE, with awl-shaped leaves on juvenile branches. Scale-like leaves OPPOSITE, juvenile leaves mostly ternate.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish, dioecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun only. Will grow in almost any soil or pH level, except wet soils. Very drought tolerant. Can be sheared, but looks best in natural shape. PEST PROBLEMS: Phomopsis blight, occasionally. Bagworms.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of J. chinensis, a large evergreen tree.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Hetzii Columnaris'--Tightly branched, columnar habit with bright green color. 'Maneyi'--Similar to 'Hetzii Glauca' with bluish-green foliage. 'Mint Julep'--Similar to 'Hetzii Glauca' with mint green foliage. A Monrovia introduction.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Blue Hetz Juniper and the related cultivars are excellent low-maintenance shrubs for sunny exposures. They can be effectively used as foundation plants, groupings, and semi-private hedges.

Juniperus chinensis 'Pfitzeriana' (jew-nip'-er-us chi-nen'-sis)

Pfitzer's Juniper

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 8' to 10'

FRUIT: 1/3" dark brown cones; whitish bloom.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderately rapid.

HABIT: Wide-spreading; somewhat open.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green to gray-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE on older branches, awl-shaped on juvenile branches, 1/16". Scale-like leaves OPPOSITE; juvenile mostly ternate.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish, dioecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun only. Adapts to any soil except wet soils. Can be sheared, but should be left natural.

PEST PROBLEMS: Twig blight, bagworms.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of J. chinensis.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Blue Vase'--Vase-shaped with steel-blue foliage. 'Pfitzeriana Aurea'--Gold Tip Pfitzer. Gray-green foliage, tipped with yellow. 'Pfitzeriana Compacta'--Dwarf form to less than 4". 'Pfitzeriana Glauca'--Silvery-blue foliage. Somewhat like 'Hetzii Glauca'. 'Robusta Green'--Irregular habit. Brilliant green and dense.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Pfitzer's Juniper is a large-growing plant that is useful for larger properties or structures. It is a very vigorous shrub. An "old standby" that has proven itself.

Juniperus chinensis 'Sea Green' (jew-nip'-er-us chi-nen'-sis)

Sea Green Juniper, Green Sea Juniper

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 4' to 6'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: NOT NOTICEABLE.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Somewhat vase-shaped and spreading; taller than broad.

FAMILY: Cupressaceae

LEAF COLOR: Deep mint green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SCALE-LIKE on older branches, awl-shaped on juvenile branches, 1/16". Scale-like leaves OPPOSITE; awl-shaped leaves mostly ternate.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish, dioecious; NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun only. Adapts to any well-drained soil. Drought tolerant. Prune to maintain natural shape.

PEST PROBLEMS: Twig blight, bagworms.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of J. chinensis.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sea Green Juniper has outstanding sea-green foliage throughout the year. This shrub can be used in the foundation plantings or as an unclipped hedge, and it looks nice in mass on larger properties or commercial properties.

Kalmia latifolia (kal'-me-uh lat-e-fo'-le-uh)

Mountain Laurel

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 7'

WIDTH: 5' to 7'

FRUIT: 1/4" brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Rounded and irregular; dense.

FAMILY: Ericaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and 1" to 1 1/2" wide, elliptic shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE or whorled in threes.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White to rose with purple markings inside, 1" or more in large terminal corymbs. Flowers in May through June.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Light shade or shade. The plant needs organic, well-drained soil with acid reaction. Heavy mulching is needed to insure consistent moisture. Plant high in shallow hole, then mound with mulch. Requires minimal pruning.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, lacebug, borers.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alba'--Has white flowers. 'Elf'--Dwarf cultivar. Bluish-white flowers. Heavy bloomer. 'Olympic Fire'--Fire red buds open to pale pink flowers. 'Ostbo Red'--Deep red buds that open to deep pink. 'Pink Star'--Light pink, star-shaped flowers. 'Pristine'--Good selection for the southeast. White flowers on compact plant. 'Royal Dwarf'--Super dwarf (1 1/2' to 2') with rose-pink flowers in spring and again in fall. 'Sarah'--Red flowers maturing to rosey-red. 'Silver Dollar'--Pink buds, opening white with flowers larger than the species. Dark green leaves. 'Tinkerbell'--Very dwarf (2 1/2') with deep pink flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Mountain Laurel is a native American shrub that is outstanding in bloom. It is useful as a foundation plant, but is great for naturalizing in shady areas of the garden. Looks great in mass groupings. The cultivars are much more compact than the species in the wild, and flower much more profusely. Outstanding species with many, many cultivars.

Ligustrum sinense 'Variegatum' (ly-gus'-trum si-nen'-se)

Variegated Privet

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/4" black drupes.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Rounded; open and spreading.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dull green with creamy border.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and half as wide, elliptic shape with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 2" to 4" panicles. Blooms in late spring. NOT SPECTACULAR.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Grows well in any well-drained soil. Tolerant of drought. Prune in summer for shaping.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, scale, rootrot.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of L. sinense, Chinese Privet, considered a weed by many horticulturalists.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This variegated plant is more open in growth and less noticeable than most variegated plants. It is a great choice as background material for other plantings, especially dwarf Junipers. It provides great contrast in form and color. NOTE: The plant is really semi-evergreen.

Mahonia bealei muh-hon'-ne-uh be'-le-i)

Leatherleaf Mahonia

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 6'

FRUIT: 1/2" blue-black berries in clusters; white bloom. Mature in summer and VERY SHOWY.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderately slow.

HABIT: Upright, open, and stiff.

FAMILY: Berberidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND (pinnate) with 11 to 17 leaflets, leaflets 4" to 5" long and half as wide, ovate shape with spinose margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellow, showy, in 3" to 5" racemes. Flowers in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Part shade to shade. Grows in any well-drained soil. Does well in sand or clay. Prune older "canes" to ground in early winter. STEMS ARE GOLDEN-YELLOW INSIDE.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Leatherleaf Mahonia is a strong accent plant that is best used in combination with fine-textured plants. In addition, the yellow flowers and blue fruit add interest to the plant. It should be more widely used in foundation plantings.

Mahonia fortunei (muh-hon'-ne-uh for-toon'-e-i)

Chinese Mahonia

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 8, 9, (7 with protection)

HEIGHT: 4' to 6'

WIDTH: 4' to 5'

FRUIT: 1/4" blue-black berry; NOT SHOWY.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and mounded.

FAMILY: Berberidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dull, deep green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND (pinnate) with 3 to 9 leaflets, each 4" to 5" long and 1/2" to 3/4" wide, lanceolate shape with cuneate base and spinose-serrate margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellow, tiny in 2" to 3" racemes. Flowers in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Part shade. Adaptable to most soils, except wet soils. Should be mulched heavily for best performance. Prune older "canes" to ground to stimulate new cane growth from base.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Chinese Mahonia has a more refined, feathery appearance than M. bealei; however, the blooms and fruits are not as spectacular. It is less hazardous than M. bealei with its sharp spines on the leaflets, while maintaining a degree of coarseness. It can be used as a background plant for fine-textured dwarf plantings in the border, as a specimen in the foundation planting, and in mass in shady areas of the landscape. Very nice species!

Myrica cerifera var. pumila (mi-ri'-kuh sir-if'-er-uh var. pu'-mill-uh)

Dwarf Wax Myrtle

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 5' to 8'

FRUIT: (Female plants) Tiny, grayish white; coated with waxy resin.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded; broad-spreading and open.

FAMILY: Myricaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and 3/4" to 1" wide, linear to oblanceolate shape with serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish. Male and female flowers on separate plants. NOT SHOWY.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Will thrive in almost any soil. Native to eastern wetlands. Does well in sandy soils of coastal areas. No pruning is recommended, except occasional "cleanup."

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of M. cerifera, a large evergreen shrub or small tree.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Dwarf Wax Myrtle makes a nice informal, unclipped screen or hedge. It is a great background plant for dwarf materials. Performs well on dunes or berms in combination with dwarf plants, especially Junipers. This is a great choice for naturalizing.

Nandina domestica (nan-de'-nuh do-mess'-te-cuh)

Nandina, Heavenly Bamboo

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 5' to 6'

WIDTH: 3' to 4'

FRUIT: 1/4" bright red berries in large panicles; VERY SHOWY.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and irregular; non-ranching canes.

FAMILY: Berberidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; brilliant red in winter.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND (tripinnate; 3 times divided), leaflets 1 1/2" to 2" long and half as wide, ovate shape with cuneate base. Entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, tiny, in 8" to 12" panicles. Showy. Flowers in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Plant prefers moist, fertile soil, but is adaptable. To prevent "leggy" appearance, prune some older canes to ground and some at different levels.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alba'--as white berries and lighter green foliage. 'Moyer's Red'--as deeper red fuits that peak 4 to 6 weeks earlier than the species. Winter foliage red with a hint of purple. Plum Passion[TM]--Sring foliage red with purple tinge, winter foliage purple with red tinge. 'Royal Princess'--Foliage (leaflets) much more narrow, giving plant a more refined character.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Nandina is a delicate, lacy green plant that turns red in winter. Brilliant clusters of red berries smother the plant in fall. It is an interesting plant where vertical growth is needed, and looks great in tree-form. This plant has been overshadowed by the obsession with dwarf Nandinas; however, it is still an outstanding plant that has proven itself over the years.
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Title Annotation:Abelia x grandiflora-Nandina domestica
Author:Bridwell, Ferrell M.
Publication:Landscape Plants, Their Identification, Culture, and Use, 2nd ed.
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:5885
Previous Article:Chapter 6 dwarf shrubs.
Next Article:Chapter 7 medium size shrubs.
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