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Chapter 7 Plant selection.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to

* describe the origins and forms of the plants used in landscapes

* explain plant nomenclature

* describe the factors relevant to proper plant selection

Of all the features in the designed landscape, none is likely to attract as much attention from the client as the selection of the plants that will become all or part of the walls, ceiling, and floors of the outdoor room. Logic may or may not prevail at this stage of design development. Sentimentality, pretentiousness, or economics may outweigh horticultural reality in determining what plants will be specified, purchased, installed, and maintained in the landscape. Every landscape designer and landscape architect must learn the plants of the region where he or she practices if clients are to be served most professionally. Regrettably, too few schools of landscape architecture give adequate emphasis to this important training detail, causing many graduates of these programs to believe that their site planning and engineering expertise is all that they owe to their clients. Add to this problem clients who have strong but unqualified opinions about plants, and the resulting plant specifications for a landscape design can be limited, inappropriate, dated, or disastrous.

The Origins of Landscape Plants

Plants have found their way into American landscapes from the farthest reaches of the world. The diversity of our national flora is far greater today than it was when the Mayflower dropped anchor at Plymouth. As people from across the world have converged on America, they have brought with them seeds, plants, and propagative stock to recreate in this country's fertile soils the favored plants of their homelands. Thus, the plant palette from which modern landscape designers can select includes literally thousands of choices.

Native plants have evolved naturally within a certain geographic location over a long period of time. Examples are the eastern white pine of the northeastern United States and the Douglas-fir of the Pacific Northwest.

Exotic plants have been introduced into an area by some means other than nature. For example, many of the junipers and yews common to American landscapes actually are native to China and Japan. Brought back by plant collectors either directly or as imports via other countries, many exotics have adapted very well to growing conditions in the United States and constitute an important group of plants under production in our nurseries and greenhouses.

Naturalized plants entered the country as exotics, but have adapted so well that in many areas they have escaped cultivation and are often mistaken for native plants. They now are commonly found both in and out of landscaped settings. The bird of paradise is such a plant. Native to South America, it grows like a native plant in the desert of the southwestern United States.

Plant Forms Available

The nursery industry works closely with the landscape industry to produce the plant materials required for the country's private and public landscapes. While some plants are collected in the wild and others may be acquired from private sources, most landscape plants are produced for sale in field nurseries and greenhouses. Inventoried, described, and priced in catalogues provided by wholesale nurseries, the plants are itemized according to whatever system best categorizes the material grown. Some catalogues will distinguish the plants as coniferous (cone-bearing) or flowering; others may separate trees from shrubs and groundcovers from vines. Herbaceous (non-woody) plants may be listed as annuals or perennials, depending upon whether they live only one growing season or will survive the winter to bloom again the following year.

Trees, shrubs, vines, and many groundcovers are known collectively as woody plants. Other groundcovers may be herbaceous, as described above, a term which also applies to some vines, grasses, and nearly all of the plants used to create floral displays. The common term for this latter group of herbaceous landscape plants is simply, flowers.

How Landscape Plants Are Sold

Woody plants grown in nurseries are sold in one of three forms: bare rooted, balled and burlapped, or containerized. Each form has certain advantages and disadvantages that landscapers should be aware of before selecting plants for installation.

A bare-rooted plant is one that has been dug from the nursery field, then had the soil washed away from the root system, Figure 7-1. To prevent excessive drying of the roots until the plant is purchased and installed, the root system may be wrapped in damp moss and inserted into a plastic bag, or the roots may be dipped in wax. Plants sold in bare-rooted forms are usually deciduous species that are small and are dormant at the time of harvest.

[FIGURE 7-1 OMITTED]
BARE-ROOTED PLANTS

Advantages           Disadvantages

* Lightweight        * Harvesting technique
                       reduces the root system
                       and slows new growth

* Least expensive    * Transplanting season
                       is limited to the early
                       spring and late fall


Balled and burlapped (or B & B) plants are dug at the nursery with a ball of soil intact around the root system, Figure 7-2. The size of the ball is determined by the size of the plant and is further governed by standards established by The American Nursery and Landscape Association. These industry standards assure that the plants will have the greatest opportunity for successful transplanting and protect the landscaper from inadvertently receiving plants with too little root system to survive the transplant. Once the root ball is dug, it is wrapped with burlap and tied or pinned to prevent the soil ball from breaking apart. A more recent harvest trend, especially suited for larger plants, replaces or supplements the burlap with a wire basket around the root ball, Figure 7-3. This gives added strength to assure that the soil ball remains intact around the roots. Plants sold in B & B form are heavier and more cumbersome to handle, but the technique allows plants of nearly any size and type to be successfully transplanted. B & B soil balls are nearly essential for the successful transplant of all types of evergreens and large deciduous woody plants.

[FIGURE 7-2 OMITTED]
BALLED AND BURLAPPED PLANTS

Advantages              Disadvantages

* Less disturbance to   * Added weight
  root system             makes handling
                          more difficult
* Allows a longer
  season for            * More costly
  transplanting

* Allows large plants
  to be moved and
  installed


Containerized plants are grown and sold in containers such as metal cans, plastic buckets, bushel baskets, plastic bags, and wooden boxes, Figure 7-4. Since they are sold in the same containers they have been grown in, there is no loss of roots. Therefore they transplant readily, with little or no transplant shock and no growth time lost. Containerized landscape plants are young plants, seldom more than three or four years old. Although usually smaller than balled and burlapped plants, containerized plants can also be installed at almost any time of the year since their entire root system is intact.

[FIGURE 7-3 OMITTED]
CONTAINERIZED PLANTS

Advantages                  Disadvantages

* Usually small and         * Large plants
  easy to handle              seldom available
* Entire root system        * Plants become
  is intact. No               rootbound if in
  harvest injuries            container too long
  to impede transplanting
  success
* Few restrictions
  on time of transplant


Herbaceous plants are sold in a variety of forms, some of which are best suited to amateur gardeners, while others are more appropriate for professional landscape installations. Commonly known simply as flowers these plants may be started from seeds, which is often the way that home gardeners obtain their plants. It is the least expensive way to produce the colorful annuals and perennials that they desire for their gardens, Figure 7-5. However, landscape contractors and landscape management professionals are more likely to use flowers that are already growing and ready to begin blooming when they are installed. In this form, the flowers are collectively termed bedding plants. The plants are started in commercial greenhouses in late winter and are ready for sale to landscapers by early spring. The containers may be plastic or pressed peat moss. The peat container is biodegradable and allows the plant and its container to be installed directly into the soil without injury to the root system. The plant is able to continue growing almost without interruption. Non-biodegradable containers must be removed before the bedding plants are installed.

Bulbous perennials are available to both amateurs and professionals as propagative structures known collectively as bulbs. Homeowners may purchase bulbs in small quantities at their nearby garden centers, while professional landscapers usually acquire theirs in larger quantities from wholesale suppliers. Bulbous perennials may be either tender or hardy, depending upon their time of planting, time of bloom, and ability to survive the winter. Tender bulbs, such as gladiolus and begonia, will not survive the winter in most parts of the country, so they are planted in late spring, bloom in the summer, and are dug up and stored indoors until the next year. Hardy bulbs, such as tulip, crocus, and daffodil, will survive most American winters, so they are planted in the fall and flower the following spring. They do not need to be dug up and brought indoors at any time.

[FIGURE 7-4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7-5 OMITTED]

Other herbaceous plants, including vines and ornamental grasses, are grown by wholesale nurseries and made available to the landscape industry in assorted containers that may include any of those described above.

Plant Nomenclature

Most plants have two names. One is a common name, by which the plant is known within a country or region of a country. Winged euonymus or grey dogwood are examples of common names. The other name is the botanical name of the plant, a name that is used and recognized internationally. The botanical name is expressed in Latin and is assigned to the plant by a taxonomist (a person who specializes in the classification of plants and animals). Plant taxonomy is governed by the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, which are established by an international botanic congress. Botanical names are recognized in all countries, regardless of native language. In the examples above, the botanical name of winged euonymus is Euonymus alatus, and that of grey dogwood is Cornus racemosa.

In plant nomenclature (naming of plants), each plant in the world has a unique name. Each identical plant sharing that two-part name, termed a Latin binomial, is referred to as a species. The first part of the name (such as Cornus) is called the genus. The second part is called the epithet (such as racemosa).

NOTE: Many texts and individuals use the word species to mean epithet as well as using the term to refer to the complete binomial.

A genus (plural is genera) name may be applied to several closely related types of plants. For example, all pines are in the genus Pinus. The epithet eliminates all other types but one and creates the unique species. Thus, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus resinosa, Pinus nigra, and Pinus strobus are four distinctly different plants.

Landscapers should know both the common and botanical names of the plants with which they work. The common name is most recognizable to clients. However, to assure that the nursery provides the correct plant for installation, the landscaper must specify it by its botanical name. This is necessary because many common names are localized in their usage, and because a single plant may have numerous common names, even within one locality. Conversely, the botanical name of a plant is the same around the world.

Selecting the Proper Plant

Even after the landscape designer has defined the general type of plants needed for the landscape, the selection of exact species remains. Too often the designer abbreviates this important phase of design development or simply does it incorrectly. Plants may be selected for reasons of sentimentality, easy availability, low price, or trendiness. While those reasons may have occasional validity if the chosen plants are appropriate in other more important ways, it is unlikely that plants will serve the landscape properly if selected for only those reasons.

Selection Factors

Plants have great diversity, and as such they must be matched against criteria established by the designer if they are to fill their specified roles in the landscape. While not intended to be a complete listing, here are some common factors that must be considered when selecting a specific plant for the landscape.

[FIGURE 7-6 OMITTED]

Role Factors. What function will it serve in the landscape?

a. Is it to be an architectural element serving as a wall, ceiling, or floor component of the outdoor room? Will it totally or partially control the views into and out from the landscape? Will it add privacy? Will it create an enframed setting for the house or other buildings, Figure 7-6?

b. Is it to be an engineering element that will aid in the solution of problems such as erosion control, traffic control, diverting winds, retaining moisture, or blocking glare, Figures 7-7 and 7-8?

c. Is it to serve in climate control by filtering or blocking sunlight, or softening the impact of a prevailing breeze, Figure 7-9?

d. Is its role primarily aesthetic, contributing one or more sensory qualities such as color, fragrance, texture, or taste, as shown in the color photo section of this text?

[FIGURE 7-7 OMITTED]

Hardiness Factors. Will it survive the winter in the region of the country where the landscape is located? One of the most reliable measurements of a plant's potential for survival is its hardiness rating. The United States Department of Agriculture has prepared, and periodically updates, a Hardiness Zone Map, Figure 7-10, which shows the average annual minimum temperatures of the 50 states and much of Canada and Mexico. It divides the continent into 11 hardiness zones. On the most detailed maps, every county within the 48 adjacent mainland states is shown, along with its hardiness zone rating.

Each hardiness zone has an average annual minimum temperature variation of 10 degrees Fahrenheit. As the hardiness zone number increases, so does the temperature minimum. For example, northern Kansas temperatures (Zone 5) drop to between -10 and -20 degrees F in the winter, but southern Kansas (Zone 6) drops only to between 0 and -10 degrees F during the same months. Zones 1 and 11 represent the coldest and warmest regions of the country and are the least common zones within the United States. On color coded and detailed Hardiness Zone Maps, Zones 2 through 10 are further divided into a and b zones. The a zone represents the colder half of the 10-degree variance, and the b zone represents the warmer half of the 10-degree variance.

NOTE: The a and b zones do not show on the map in this text.

[FIGURE 7-8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7-9 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7-10 OMITTED]

When a plant is assigned a hardiness zone rating, it means that the plant may survive the winter in that zone or in zones with a higher numbered rating. Thus a tree or shrub rated as a Zone 5 plant may survive the winters in Zones 5 through 11, but not in Zones 4 through 1. However, there are also upper temperature limits to a plant's hardiness. Certain plants cannot survive or grow normally in climates that are too warm. That is why there are no apple trees in the Florida Keys. Still other plants can have unreliable hardiness zone ratings when grown in microclimate areas, regions with atypical growing conditions. For example, some plants will survive the winter because they are buried under heavy snow and escape the severe cold or drying winds that would otherwise kill them. If a winter fails to provide the protective snow cover, the plants would be unable to survive.

Heat Zone Considerations. While hardiness zone ratings for plants have been and continue to be studied and adjusted for many years, in response to the earth's natural climatic changes, there has been little research into the impact of excessive warmth on plant growth and survival. In the mid-90s, the American Horticultural Society began the development of data that tracked the number of days that various regions of the United States experienced temperatures over 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius). Termed a heat day, it represents the point at which a plant will begin to experience physiological injury because of the temperature. Using a county-specific map, similar to the USDA Hardiness Zone Map, the AHS has divided the nation into 12 heat zones. A heat zone represents the average number of heat days per year for that region. The Plant Heat Zone Map divides the country into 12 zones, with Zone 1 having no heat days and Zone 12 averaging 210 heat days. Plants can then be described not only on the basis of the coldest hardiness zone in which they will survive, but the warmest heat zone that they can tolerate without injury.

Several factors complicate the current use of the AHS Plant Heat Zone Map. First, it does not have the popular recognition and longtime familiarity that the Hardiness Zone Map has, so many people are simply unaware of it. Second, far fewer plants are coded for heat tolerance than for cold tolerance, so finding the appropriate heat zone rating for a specific species can be difficult. Eventually there will be ample information, but for now it is uneven. Third, the current trend toward global warming, whether short-term or long-term, seems certain to change the configuration of the Heat Zone Map even before it reaches its desired level of public and professional appreciation. Finally, the heat zone coding assumes that the plants are growing with adequate water supplies and with no factors that will create stress or provide an artificially supportive microclimate. Given the variances that are introduced into a region by periodic drought, elevation differences, disturbances to the soil from construction, compaction, or other causes, changes in the natural vegetation, or the addition of buildings and other structures, it is predictable that plants will often be asked to grow in conditions that are more or less favorable than those envisioned when they were coded.

A few texts on heat zone gardening are beginning to appear, and their number can be predicted to increase in the next few years. As more plants are coded for their heat zone tolerances, that information will appear in the popular and trade publications, giving proper and overdue recognition to the role that heat plays in plant survival. However, ratings for cold and heat tolerances will always be generalizations, so it is wise to avoid selecting plants that are at the limits of their tolerance range. To view or purchase a copy of the Heat Zone Map, visit the Web site of the American Horticultural Society at <http://www.ahs.org>.

Physical Factors. Closely associated with the role of a plant are its physical features, which enable it to fulfill the role or perhaps make it unsuitable. Some of the features of plants that determine their suitability for particular uses include

a. mature size and rate of growth.

b. density of the canopy, with and without leaves.

c. branching habit.

d. thorns.

e. shape or silhouette.

f. leaf size and thickness.

g. leaf pubescence.

h. type of root system.

i. flowering characteristics.

j. seasonal variation.

Unless the landscape designer or landscape architect is also a knowledgeable horticulturist, some plants selected may grow to a mature size unsuitable for their place in the landscape. Just as puppies begin life small, but some grow to be toy poodles while others become German shepherds, so too do nursery plants grow to vastly different sizes. The shrub that matures to a height of eight feet and a width of ten feet is incorrectly used beneath a residential picture window. Yet it may be the perfect plant for creating a high, dense screen to block an unsightly view. A tall tree can seem threatening if planted too close to a low, single-story house. However, if the intent is to create a cathedral ceiling effect with a high canopy for the outdoor room, then that same tall tree may fit perfectly, Figure 7-11. Also to be considered when comparing the mature size of a possible plant choice is its rate of growth. Depending upon the species, the length of the growing season, and the growing conditions, some species will attain full size in only a few years. Others may require a century to reach maturity. The designer must match a plant's rate of growth with the expected time that the plant is to be of significance in the landscape. For example, most oaks are very large at maturity, but they grow much more slowly than ash trees, which are also large at maturity. For a residential estate, the ash tree might be a preferred choice if the design called for a large tree, simply because it would be large sooner. However, if the site is a large park or cemetery, where a stronger, longer-lived species is preferred and where there is not the same need for rapid effect as in a residential setting, then the oak might be the proper selection.

Canopy density results from a combination of leaf size and the extensiveness of the branches. Obviously, more branches with large leaves will create a denser canopy than will smaller leaves and/or more open branching. Denser canopies allow less sunlight and water to reach the surface of the ground. That may or may not be desired, so it must be considered by the landscape designer or landscape architect at the time of plant selection. It would not be appropriate for shrubs and flowers requiring dense shade to be planted beneath trees that offered filtered sunlight. Canopy density also affects both what can and cannot be seen through a planting, and the amount of air that can pass through the planting. When screening or wind control is the role of the plants selected, canopy density becomes an important selection factor. While the canopy density of evergreens is consistent year round, deciduous trees and shrubs change with the seasons, becoming less dense as their leaves fall. That may mean a reduction in the amount of privacy provided by a planting. With deciduous trees, the change in canopy density resulting from the change of seasons may mean that the shade provided to the house during the hot summer becomes the welcomed warming sunshine of winter, Figure 7-12.

[FIGURE 7-11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7-12 OMITTED]

The branching habit of plants is a combination of the number of branches, the average size of the branches, the flexibility of the branches, and the vertical or horizontal direction of their growth. This plant characteristic becomes important when traffic control is the role of the species being selected. Species such as the spireas have small, thin branches that bend easily and are readily trampled. They are inappropriate for traffic control roles. However, plants such as winged euonymus with dense, thick, inflexible branches stand up better against invaders and are good choices in such situations. Another example where branching habit must be considered is when species are being used as formal hedges. The shaping and shearing used to create and maintain such plantings dictates the need for species that mass well and that have some vertically oriented branches. Horizontal branching species may work well as informal, unsheared hedges, but they do not do well in formal roles.

The presence of thorns makes certain species suitable for certain roles in the landscape and equally unsuitable for other roles. When traffic control is the role, the presence of thorns may be a positive supplement to the branching habit of potential species. If safety or ease of litter cleanup is a concern, then the thorniness of a species otherwise well suited may be a negative factor.

The shape or silhouette of a plant may also determine its suitability for use in the landscape. Figures 7-13 and 7-14 illustrate some of the shapes that trees and shrubs may take. Some of the more common species, their characteristics, and recommended uses are also listed. It is better to select plants that will provide the desired silhouette naturally than to select species that must be pruned and trained to do the job required in the landscape. Plants such as pin oaks and willows have low, sweeping branches as they mature, Figure 7-15. They make graceful lawn specimens where they can spread their branches fully. However, it is difficult to walk, park, or play beneath them, so they are unsuited for playgrounds or parking lots. When human activity is to occur beneath trees, a high-branching species should be selected. For example, small, vase-shaped trees (25 to 30 feet tall) make excellent outdoor ceilings for home patios. They provide shade while keeping the outdoor ceiling low and intimate. Large vase-shaped trees (50+ feet tall) function well as street tree plantings and in parking lots where cars can pass easily beneath them. Another example could be the formal approach to a commercial site where the intent of the design is to convey dignity and impress visitors. Lining both sides of a long entry drive with evenly spaced columnar forms of a single species might accomplish that design goal. With some species, the shape of the plant may suggest its best use in the design or how well it will fare during certain seasons. Many shrubs, especially needled evergreens, have rigid, geometric shapes. As such, they function well in the role of specimen or accent plants and must be used cautiously. Other shrubs are softer and less defined in their silhouettes. They mass easily and quickly lose their individual identity. Where heavy snow loads on top of plants are predictable, the most appropriate plants may be those that are more prostrate (with horizontal branches) since the branches can bend rather than break beneath the weight of the snow.

Leaf size affects the density of the canopy of trees and shrubs. It also determines the foliage texture of plants, with large leaves creating coarse textures and small leaves creating fine textures. Leaf thickness contributes to the texture of the foliage. In addition, thicker leaves tend to absorb sound and thereby can aid in noise reduction. When noise control is a function of the plants being selected for the landscape, the designer needs to know which plants will perform most satisfactorily. As noted before, that necessitates a familiarity with the plant palette of the region.

Pubescence is the presence of fine hairs on the surface of leaves. Some species are noted for having visible, tangible amounts of pubescence. Such leaves are more likely to collect dust, pollen, and other fine particulate matter from the air than leaves without pubescence. In dusty or sooty locations, leaf pubescence might make one plant species more suitable than others if a contribution to air quality was one of the roles assigned to the selected plant.

The root systems of plants range from total tap root systems, with a large single root growing straight down into the soil, to full fibrous systems, which have thousands of fine, hairlike roots spreading out in all directions from the center of the plant. Fibrous root systems are useful for trapping and holding soil particles. That is an attribute that plants with tap roots do not have. If the role of the plant being selected was to reduce soil erosion due to wind or water runoff, only fibrous rooted plant species would logically be considered.

Depending upon whether the plant is woody or herbaceous, perennial or annual, cone bearing or non-cone bearing, and numerous other differences, the flowering characteristics of landscape plants vary greatly. Some plants, especially woody plants, flower once each year in the spring or summer. The flower display may be bright and showy or comparatively inconspicuous, depending upon the species. Herbaceous plants may bloom throughout the growing season, as with annual bedding plants; or they may bloom for several weeks, then wane, as with bulbs and other perennials. Some plants produce sterile flowers, incapable of producing fruit. That may or may not be important. With sterile flowers, there is no crushed fruit to stain sidewalks, but also no food to attract wildlife to the garden. Some flowers have desirable fragrances, making them ideal for certain settings. Others have no fragrance or even an unpleasant one, making them undesirable in certain locations at certain times. Some flowers attract bees and other insects, while others will repel certain insects. Some plants require certain soil conditions or temperatures or day lengths to induce flowering. Others will thrive under a wide range of conditions. In short, flowering characteristics are diverse and can contribute positively or negatively to the landscape's design, depending upon how a particular species matches the role assigned it by the designer.

[FIGURE 7-15 OMITTED]

Seasonal variation includes the presence or lack of flowers, but involves other plant attributes as well. It addresses a concern for consistency. The selected plant species must meet its obligation as a component of the outdoor room throughout all of the seasons of use, not just for part of the year. If year-round privacy screening is required, it is unacceptable for the plants to drop their leaves and permit viewing through the planting. If a flower border is to offer color enrichment throughout the growing season, then the plants used must come into bloom at different times, rather than coming and going at the same time. If the role of a plant is to be a strong focal point, a two-week color display is not good enough; it needs to catch the eye every day of the year. Conversely, if changing focal points are planned for an area, then the short-term effectiveness of individual plants is desirable.

Cultural Factors. The requirements for the growth and maintenance of plantings are their cultural requirements. Some plants establish easily, require minimal maintenance, and grow satisfactorily in a variety of locations and under assorted conditions. Other plants can only be successfully transplanted within a narrow window of time each year. Still others have very exacting requirements for growth and/or maintenance if they are to make their maximum contribution to the landscape. The more soil conditioning, spraying, pruning, thinning, weeding, fertilizing, or other requirements that are necessary to sustain a planting, the more costly it is to the client. The cost may appear at the time of installation or it may not become apparent until after a season of growth, but it is an expense in the form of materials and labor.

To be certain that the cultural requirements of the plants selected for a landscape are appropriate for the site and the client, the designer should seek answers to questions such as these:

* Will the plants attain and hold the size and shape desired without the need for extensive pruning and training?

* How frequently do the plants need pruning to prevent legginess or to induce fullness or to eliminate water sprouts and sucker growth?

* Are the soil and drainage characteristics of the site suitable for good plant growth?

* Will these species transplant easily and at the time of year that this project will be installed?

* Are the plants susceptible to insects and diseases common to this region?

* Will spraying or dusting be necessary to keep the plants pest-free?

* Do all of the plants used in this section of the landscape have similar cultural requirements?

* If replacement becomes necessary, are similar plants commonly available from nearby sources?

* What are the clients' attitudes about garden maintenance? Are they hobby gardeners who will enjoy giving special attention to their plants, or are they more interested in the lowest maintenance possible?

Only after the cultural requirements of the possible plant choices are matched against these questions can the proper plants be selected for the landscape.

Computer-Aided Plant Selection

Several computer software programs have been developed to aid landscape designers and landscape architects in their selection of plants for projects. These programs allow the designer to enter into the computer the specific plant features required; then the program presents a selection of plants that meet those requirements. Some of the programs even provide full-color photos of the plants, turning the computer screen into a garden catalogue. While such technology is welcomed and used increasingly by designers, there is some danger that good plant choices may be overlooked because they are not programmed into the software. There is also the potential for overlooking microclimate variations unique to sites. Computer-aided plant selection should be regarded as a tool for use by landscape architects and designers, but not a substitute for experience and knowledge of the horticultural flora of the region.

Achievement Review

A. Define the following terms.

1. native plant

2. exotic plant

3. naturalized plant

4. bare root plant

5. B & B plant

6. containerized plant

7. Latin binomial

8. genus

9. hardiness

10. microclimate

B. Of the following characteristics, indicate which ones are typical of plants sold as (BR) bare rooted, (B & B) balled and burlapped, or (C) containerized.

1. most common with very large plants

2. the root system is totally intact

3. may be cumbersome to handle

4. more common with small deciduous plants

5. limited season for planting

6. roots may bind if kept too long in this form

7. heavy

8. lightweight

9. usually the least expensive

10. usually the most expensive

C. Explain why the use of botanical names is important when selecting plants for the landscape.

D. Identify the major categories of factors that must be evaluated when selecting specific plants for a particular project.

E. Indicate if the following statements are true or false.

1. A hardiness zone map and a heat zone map duplicate temperature information.

2. A heat zone is a measure of warm temperatures, whereas a hardiness zone is a measure of cold temperatures.

3. Heat zones are less susceptible to microclimatic variations than are hardiness zones.

4. Heat days are beneficial to plant growth and survival.

5. Apple trees will not grow in tropical climates. It is likely that the reason is related to the high number of heat days.

6. Palm trees will not grow outdoors in Maine. It is likely that the reason is related to the low number of heat days.

7. A plant species can have difficulty growing for reasons unrelated to either hardiness zones or heat zones.

8. The time of year can affect the probability of a plant surviving transplanting.

9. Plants that are hardy and heat tolerant are always more resistant to pests.

10. The root form of a plant is more related to its suitability for the landscape than to its survivability in the landscape.

Suggested Activities

1. Consult the Hardiness Zone Map to determine:

a. the hardiness zone rating of your home county.

b. other regions of the country having winter temperatures similar to those of your home county.

2. Compare the Hardiness Zone Map with a geographic map. Determine what can influence winter temperatures in an area besides the north-south location.

3. Determine why the coast of Maine has a warmer hardiness zone rating than upstate New York, even though Maine is farther north.

4. If a light meter is available, take readings beneath several different types of trees. Be sure that the day selected for taking the readings is clear and sunny. Temperature readings can be taken as well. Rate the foliage density of the trees tested.

5. Make a collection of tree flowers, fruits, or colored leaves. Rate them on the basis of how colorful they are.

6. Collect a number of plants in the same botanical genus, but of different species (Example: different kinds of pines or dogwoods or palms). Make a listing of all of the characteristics that are common to all of them. Then look for one characteristic of each species that makes it different from all of the others in the genus. This is how taxonomists separate plant species.

NOTE: Many of the distinctions are not easily noticed by the untrained eye.

7. Visit a nursery and compare the plants for sale based upon the form of their root systems. Compare the plant types with their methods of harvest and sale. Compare them on the basis of size, weight, price, suggested time of transplant, and any other factors that seem to illustrate differences based upon the form of the root system.

Jack E. Ingels

State University of New York

College of Agriculture and Technology

Cobleskill, New York
Figure 7-13 Typical tree silhouettes, characteristics, and
landscaping uses

Silhouette and           Characteristics         Possible Landscape
Examples                                         Uses

wide-oval                * spreads to be much    * focal point plant
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     wider than it is      * works well to frame
Flowering crabapple        tall                    and screen
Silk tree                * often a small tree    * can be grouped with
Cockspur hawthorn        * horizontal              spreading shrubs
Flowering dogwood          branching pattern       beneath
                         * branches low to
                           the ground

vase-shaped              * high, wide-           * excellent street
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     spreading branches      trees
American elm             * majestic              * allows human
                           appearance              activities
                         * usually gives           underneath
                           excellent shade       * frames structures
                         * an uncommon tree      * use above large
                           shape                   shrubs or small
                                                   trees

                                                 note: the American
                                                 elm is easily killed
                                                 by Dutch elm
                                                 disease; this limits
                                                 its use

pyramidal                * pyramidal             * accent plant
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     evergreen trees       * large, high-
Pines     Fir              are geometric in        branching trees
Spruce    Hemlock          early years             allow human
Filbert   Sweetgum       * pyramidal               activity beneath
Pin oak   Sprenger         deciduous trees are   * older trees may be
            magnolia       less geometric          valued for their
                                                   irregular shapes
                         * pyramidal shape is
                           less noticeable as    note: avoid planting
                           the trees mature      large trees near
                                                 small buildings

round                    * width and height      * lawn trees
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     are nearly equal at   * mass well to create
Shinyleaf magnolia         maturity                grove effect
Cornelian cherry         * usually dense         * larger growing
  dogwood                  foliage                 species may be used
American yellow wood     * if the tree is          for street
Norway maple               large, a heavy          plantings
                           shade is cast         * smaller growing
                                                   species can be
                                                   pruned and used
                                                   for patio trees

columnar                 * somewhat rigid in     * useful in formal
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     appearance              settings
Columnar Norway          * much taller than      * accent plant
  maple                    wide                  * group with less
Columnar Chinese         * branching strongly      formal shrubs
  juniper                  vertical                to soften its
Fastigiate European                                appearance
  birch                                          * frames views and
                                                   structures

weeping                  * very graceful         * focal point plant
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     appearance            * screens
Weeping willow           * branching to the      * attractive lawn
Weeping hemlock            ground                  trees
Weeping cherry           * easily attracts the
Weeping beech              eye                   note: avoid
                         * grass or other        grouping with
                           plants cannot be      other plants
                           grown beneath them

Figure 7-14 Shrub silhouettes

Silhouette and           Characteristics         Possible Landscape
Examples                                         Uses

globular                 * as wide as it is      * accent plant
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     tall                  * use several with
Brown's yew              * geometric shape         a single pyramidal
Globe arborvitae         * attracts attention      shrub for strong
Burford holly            * does not mass very      eye attraction
Globosa red cedar          well                  * avoid overuse

low and creeping         * low growing           * use to edge walks
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]   * much wider than it    * cascades over walls
Andorra juniper            is tall               * controls erosion
Bar-Harbor juniper       * masses well             on banks
Cranberry cotoneaster    * irregular shape       * grown in front of
Prostrate holly          * loose, informal         taller shrubs
                           shape

spreading                * wider than it is      * use at outcurve
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     tall                  * place at corners
Hetz junipers            * medium to large         of buildings
Pfitzer junipers           shrub                 * useful for
Spreading yew            * masses well             screening, privacy,
Mugo pine                * usually dense           and traffic control
                           foliage

arching                  * wider than it is      * provides screening
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     tall                    and dense enclosure
Forsythia                * prevents the growth   * softens building
Beautybush                 of other plants         corners and lines
Vanhoutte spirea           beneath itself        * background for
Large cotoneaster        * graceful silhouette     flowers, statuary,
                         * usually requires        fountains
                           yearly thinning

pyramidal                * taller than it is     * accent plant
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     wide                  * focal point
Upright yew              * rigid and stiff       * use to mark entries
Pyramidal junipers       * attracts attention      and at incurves
False cypress            * geometric shape       * group with less
Arborvitae               * usually evergreen       formal spreading
                                                   shrubs

upright and loose        * taller than it is     * closely spaced for
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     wide                    privacy
Lilac                    * loose, informal       * use to soften
Smoke bush                 shape                   building corners
Rose of Sharon           * usually requires        and lines
Rhododendron               pruning to prevent    * useful for
                           leggy growth            screening and
                                                   framing views

columnar                 * width is about half   * accent plant
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]     the height            * foundation
Hicks yew                * geometric, flat         plantings
Italian cypress            topped, and dense     * closely spaced for
Arizona cypress                                    hedges
                                                 * mass closely
                                                   when a solid wall
                                                   is desired

A Guide to Landscape Trees

                     Tree

   Common Name            Botanical Name         Evergreen   Deciduous

Almond               Prunus amygdalus                            *

Amur Corktree        Phellodendron amurense                      *

Apples               Malus species                               *

Apricot              Prunus armeniaca                            *

Arborvitae           Thuja occidentalis              *

Ash                  Fraxinus species
  Arizona              F. velutina                               *
  Green                F. pennsylvanica                          *
  White                F. americana                              *
  Flowering            F. ornus                                  *

Beech                Fagus species
  American             F. grandifolia                            *
  European             F. sylvatica                              *

Birch                Betula species
  Canoe                B. papyrifera                             *
  European             B. pendula                                *
  Sweet                B. lenta                                  *

Cherry               Prunus padus                                *

Chestnut, Chinese    Castanea mollissima                         *

Crabapple            Malus species
  Flowering                                                      *
  Fruiting                                                       *

Crape Myrtle         Lagerstroemia indica                        *

Cypress
  Italian            Cupressus sempervirens          *
  Monterey           Cupressus macrocarpa            *
  Sawara false       Chamaecyparis pisifera          *

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Flowering          C. florida                                  *
  Kousa              C. kousa                                    *

Douglas Fir          Pseudotsuga menziesi            *

Elm                  Ulmus species
  American             U. americana                              *
  Chinese              U. parvifolia                             *
  Pioneer              U. carpinifolia                           *
  Smoothleaf

Fig                  Ficus carica                    *

Fir                  Abies species
  Balsam               A. balsamea                   *
  White                A. concolor                   *

Fringe tree          Chionanthus virginicus                      *

Ginkgo               Ginkgo biloba                               *

Goldenchain          Laburnum watereri                           *

Golden Rain Tree     Koelreuteria paniculata                     *

Hawthorn             Crataegus species
  English              C. oxyacantha                             *
  Green                C. viridis                                *
  Washington           C. phaenopyrum                            *

Hemlock              Tsuga canadensis                *

Holly                Ilex species
  American             I. opaca                      *
  English              I. aquifolium                 *

Honeylocust,         Gleditsia triacanthos                       *
  Thornless          inermis

Hornbeam             Carpinus species
  American             C. caroliniana                            *
  European             C. betulus                                *

Larch                Larix laricina                              *

Linden               Tilia species
  American             T. americana                              *
  Little leaf          T. cordata                                *
  Silver               T. tomentosa                              *

Magnolia             Magnolia species
  Bigleaf              M. macrophylla                *
  Saucer               M. soulangeana                            *
  Southern             M. grandiflora                *
  Star                 M. stellata                               *
  Sweetbay             M. virginiana                             *

Maple                Acer species
  Amur                 A. ginnala                                *
  Hedge                A. campestre                              *
  Japanese             A. palmatum                               *
  Norway               A. platanoides                            *
  Red                  A. rubrum                                 *
  Sugar                A. saccharum                              *

Mountain Ash,        Sorbus aucuparia
  European                                                       *

Oak                  Quercus species
  Live                 Q. virginiana                 *
  Pin                  Q. palustris                              *
  Red                  Q. rubra                                  *
  Scarlet              Q. coccinea                               *
  White                Q. alba                                   *

Peach                Prunus persica                              *

Pear, Bradford       Pyrus calleryana Bradford                   *

Pecan                Carya illinoinensis                         *

Pine                 Pinus species
  Austrian             P. nigra                      *
  Loblolly             P. taeda                      *
  Red                  P. resinosa                   *
  Scotch               P. sylvestris                 *
  White                P. strobus                    *

Plum                 Prunus species
  Fruiting             P. domestica                              *
  Purple flowering     P. cerasifera pissardi                    *

Redbud, Eastern      Cercis canadensis                           *

Russian Olive        Elaeagnus angustifolia                      *

Sapodilla            Achras zapota                   *

Sik Tree             Albizia julibrissin                         *

Spruce               Picea species
  Blue                 P. pungens glauca             *
  Colorado             P. pungens                    *
  Golden White         P. glauca aurea               *
  Norway               P. abies                      *
  White                P. glauca                     *

Sweet Gum            Liquidambar styraciflua                     *

Sycamore             Platanus occidentalis                       *

Tulip tree           Liriodendron tulipifera                     *

Walnut               Juglans species
  Black                J. nigra                                  *
  English              J. cinerea                                *

Willow               Salix species
  Babylon weeping      S. babylonica                             *
  Corkscrew            S. matsudana tortuosa                     *
  Pussy                S. discolor                               *
  Thurlow weeping      S. elegantissima                          *

Zelkova,             Zelkova serrata                             *
  Japanese

                     Tree                            Maximum Height

   Common Name            Botanical Name          10'-25'     25'-60'

Almond               Prunus amygdalus                *

Amur Corktree        Phellodendron amurense                      *

Apples               Malus species                               *

Apricot              Prunus armeniaca                            *

Arborvitae           Thuja occidentalis                          *

Ash                  Fraxinus species
  Arizona              F. velutina                               *
  Green                F. pennsylvanica                          *
  White                F. americana
  Flowering            F. ornus                                  *

Beech                Fagus species
  American             F. grandifolia
  European             F. sylvatica

Birch                Betula species
  Canoe                B. papyrifera
  European             B. pendula                                *
  Sweet                B. lenta

Cherry               Prunus padus                                *

Chestnut, Chinese    Castanea mollissima                         *

Crabapple            Malus species
  Flowering                                          *
  Fruiting                                           *

Crape Myrtle         Lagerstroemia indica            *

Cypress
  Italian            Cupressus sempervirens
  Monterey           Cupressus macrocarpa
  Sawara false       Chamaecyparis pisifera

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Flowering          C. florida                      *
  Kousa              C. kousa                        *

Douglas Fir          Pseudotsuga menziesi

Elm                  Ulmus species
  American             U. americana
  Chinese              U. parvifolia                             *
  Pioneer              U. carpinifolia
  Smoothleaf

Fig                  Ficus carica                                *

Fir                  Abies species
  Balsam               A. balsamea
  White                A. concolor

Fringe tree          Chionanthus virginicus          *

Ginkgo               Ginkgo biloba                               *

Goldenchain          Laburnum watereri               *

Golden Rain Tree     Koelreuteria paniculata         *

Hawthorn             Crataegus species
  English              C. oxyacantha                 *
  Green                C. viridis                    *
  Washington           C. phaenopyrum                            *

Hemlock              Tsuga canadensis

Holly                Ilex species
  American             I. opaca                                  *
  English              I. aquifolium

Honeylocust,         Gleditsia triacanthos
  Thornless          inermis

Hornbeam             Carpinus species
  American             C. caroliniana                *
  European             C. betulus                                *

Larch                Larix laricina

Linden               Tilia species
  American             T. americana
  Little leaf          T. cordata                                *
  Silver               T. tomentosa                              *

Magnolia             Magnolia species
  Bigleaf              M. macrophylla                            *
  Saucer               M. soulangeana                *
  Southern             M. grandiflora                            *
  Star                 M. stellata                   *
  Sweetbay             M. virginiana                             *

Maple                Acer species
  Amur                 A. ginnala                    *
  Hedge                A. campestre                              *
  Japanese             A. palmatum                   *
  Norway               A. platanoides                            *
  Red                  A. rubrum
  Sugar                A. saccharum

Mountain Ash,        Sorbus aucuparia
  European                                                       *

Oak                  Quercus species
  Live                 Q. virginiana                             *
  Pin                  Q. palustris                              *
  Red                  Q. rubra
  Scarlet              Q. coccinea
  White                Q. alba

Peach                Prunus persica                              *

Pear, Bradford       Pyrus calleryana Bradford                   *

Pecan                Carya illinoinensis

Pine                 Pinus species
  Austrian             P. nigra
  Loblolly             P. taeda
  Red                  P. resinosa
  Scotch               P. sylvestris                             *
  White                P. strobus

Plum                 Prunus species
  Fruiting             P. domestica                  *
  Purple flowering     P. cerasifera pissardi        *

Redbud, Eastern      Cercis canadensis                           *

Russian Olive        Elaeagnus angustifolia          *

Sapodilla            Achras zapota                               *

Sik Tree             Albizia julibrissin             *

Spruce               Picea species
  Blue                 P. pungens glauca
  Colorado             P. pungens
  Golden White         P. glauca aurea                           *
  Norway               P. abies
  White                P. glauca                                 *

Sweet Gum            Liquidambar styraciflua

Sycamore             Platanus occidentalis

Tulip tree           Liriodendron tulipifera

Walnut               Juglans species
  Black                J. nigra
  English              J. cinerea

Willow               Salix species
  Babylon weeping      S. babylonica                             *
  Corkscrew            S. matsudana tortuosa                     *
  Pussy                S. discolor                   *
  Thurlow weeping      S. elegantissima                          *

Zelkova,             Zelkova serrata
  Japanese

                     Tree                         Maximum     Time of
                                                  Height     Flowering

                                                    60'        Early
   Common Name            Botanical Name          and up      Spring

Almond               Prunus amygdalus

Amur Corktree        Phellodendron amurense

Apples               Malus species                               *

Apricot              Prunus armeniaca                            *

Arborvitae           Thuja occidentalis

Ash                  Fraxinus species
  Arizona              F. velutina
  Green                F. pennsylvanica
  White                F. americana                  *
  Flowering            F. ornus

Beech                Fagus species
  American             F. grandifolia                *
  European             F. sylvatica                  *

Birch                Betula species
  Canoe                B. papyrifera                 *           *
  European             B. pendula                                *
  Sweet                B. lenta                      *           *

Cherry               Prunus padus                                *

Chestnut, Chinese    Castanea mollissima

Crabapple            Malus species
  Flowering
  Fruiting

Crape Myrtle         Lagerstroemia indica

Cypress
  Italian            Cupressus sempervirens          *
  Monterey           Cupressus macrocarpa            *
  Sawara false       Chamaecyparis pisifera          *

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Flowering          C. florida                                  *
  Kousa              C. kousa                                    *

Douglas Fir          Pseudotsuga menziesi            *

Elm                  Ulmus species
  American             U. americana                  *
  Chinese              U. parvifolia
  Pioneer              U. carpinifolia               *
  Smoothleaf

Fig                  Ficus carica                                *

Fir                  Abies species
  Balsam               A. balsamea                   *
  White                A. concolor                   *

Fringe tree          Chionanthus virginicus

Ginkgo               Ginkgo biloba

Goldenchain          Laburnum watereri

Golden Rain Tree     Koelreuteria paniculata

Hawthorn             Crataegus species
  English              C. oxyacantha
  Green                C. viridis
  Washington           C. phaenopyrum

Hemlock              Tsuga canadensis                *

Holly                Ilex species
  American             I. opaca
  English              I. aquifolium                 *

Honeylocust,         Gleditsia triacanthos           *
  Thornless          inermis

Hornbeam             Carpinus species
  American             C. caroliniana
  European             C. betulus

Larch                Larix laricina                  *

Linden               Tilia species
  American             T. americana                  *
  Little leaf          T. cordata
  Silver               T. tomentosa

Magnolia             Magnolia species
  Bigleaf              M. macrophylla
  Saucer               M. soulangeana                            *
  Southern             M. grandiflora
  Star                 M. stellata                               *
  Sweetbay             M. virginiana

Maple                Acer species
  Amur                 A. ginnala                                *
  Hedge                A. campestre                              *
  Japanese             A. palmatum                               *
  Norway               A. platanoides                            *
  Red                  A. rubrum                     *           *
  Sugar                A. saccharum                  *           *

Mountain Ash,        Sorbus aucuparia
  European

Oak                  Quercus species
  Live                 Q. virginiana
  Pin                  Q. palustris
  Red                  Q. rubra                      *
  Scarlet              Q. coccinea                   *
  White                Q. alba                       *

Peach                Prunus persica                              *

Pear, Bradford       Pyrus calleryana Bradford

Pecan                Carya illinoinensis             *

Pine                 Pinus species
  Austrian             P. nigra                      *
  Loblolly             P. taeda                      *
  Red                  P. resinosa                   *
  Scotch               P. sylvestris
  White                P. strobus                    *

Plum                 Prunus species
  Fruiting             P. domestica                              *
  Purple flowering     P. cerasifera pissardi                    *

Redbud, Eastern      Cercis canadensis

Russian Olive        Elaeagnus angustifolia                      *

Sapodilla            Achras zapota

Sik Tree             Albizia julibrissin

Spruce               Picea species
  Blue                 P. pungens glauca             *
  Colorado             P. pungens                    *
  Golden White         P. glauca aurea
  Norway               P. abies                      *
  White                P. glauca

Sweet Gum            Liquidambar styraciflua         *

Sycamore             Platanus occidentalis           *

Tulip tree           Liriodendron tulipifera         *

Walnut               Juglans species
  Black                J. nigra                      *
  English              J. cinerea                    *

Willow               Salix species
  Babylon weeping      S. babylonica                             *
  Corkscrew            S. matsudana tortuosa                     *
  Pussy                S. discolor                               *
  Thurlow weeping      S. elegantissima                          *

Zelkova,             Zelkova serrata                 *
  Japanese

                     Tree                          Time of Flowering

                                                   Late        Early
   Common Name            Botanical Name          Spring       Fall

Almond               Prunus amygdalus                *           *

Amur Corktree        Phellodendron amurense          *

Apples               Malus species

Apricot              Prunus armeniaca

Arborvitae           Thuja occidentalis

Ash                  Fraxinus species
  Arizona              F. velutina                   *
  Green                F. pennsylvanica              *
  White                F. americana                  *
  Flowering            F. ornus                      *

Beech                Fagus species
  American             F. grandifolia
  European             F. sylvatica

Birch                Betula species
  Canoe                B. papyrifera
  European             B. pendula
  Sweet                B. lenta

Cherry               Prunus padus

Chestnut, Chinese    Castanea mollissima             *

Crabapple            Malus species
  Flowering                                          *
  Fruiting                                           *

Crape Myrtle         Lagerstroemia indica                        *

Cypress
  Italian            Cupressus sempervirens
  Monterey           Cupressus macrocarpa
  Sawara false       Chamaecyparis pisifera

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Flowering          C. florida
  Kousa              C. kousa

Douglas Fir          Pseudotsuga menziesi

Elm                  Ulmus species
  American             U. americana                  *
  Chinese              U. parvifolia                 *
  Pioneer              U. carpinifolia               *
  Smoothleaf

Fig                  Ficus carica

Fir                  Abies species
  Balsam               A. balsamea
  White                A. concolor

Fringe tree          Chionanthus virginicus          *

Ginkgo               Ginkgo biloba

Goldenchain          Laburnum watereri               *

Golden Rain Tree     Koelreuteria paniculata                     *

Hawthorn             Crataegus species
  English              C. oxyacantha                 *
  Green                C. viridis                    *
  Washington           C. phaenopyrum                *

Hemlock              Tsuga canadensis

Holly                Ilex species
  American             I. opaca
  English              I. aquifolium

Honeylocust,         Gleditsia triacanthos
  Thornless          inermis

Hornbeam             Carpinus species
  American             C. caroliniana                *
  European             C. betulus                    *

Larch                Larix laricina

Linden               Tilia species
  American             T. americana                  *
  Little leaf          T. cordata                    *
  Silver               T. tomentosa                  *

Magnolia             Magnolia species
  Bigleaf              M. macrophylla                *
  Saucer               M. soulangeana
  Southern             M. grandiflora                *           *
  Star                 M. stellata                               *
  Sweetbay             M. virginiana                 *

Maple                Acer species
  Amur                 A. ginnala
  Hedge                A. campestre
  Japanese             A. palmatum
  Norway               A. platanoides
  Red                  A. rubrum
  Sugar                A. saccharum

Mountain Ash,        Sorbus aucuparia
  European                                           *

Oak                  Quercus species
  Live                 Q. virginiana
  Pin                  Q. palustris
  Red                  Q. rubra
  Scarlet              Q. coccinea
  White                Q. alba

Peach                Prunus persica

Pear, Bradford       Pyrus calleryana Bradford       *

Pecan                Carya illinoinensis             *

Pine                 Pinus species
  Austrian             P. nigra
  Loblolly             P. taeda
  Red                  P. resinosa
  Scotch               P. sylvestris
  White                P. strobus

Plum                 Prunus species
  Fruiting             P. domestica
  Purple flowering     P. cerasifera pissardi

Redbud, Eastern      Cercis canadensis               *

Russian Olive        Elaeagnus angustifolia                      *

Sapodilla            Achras zapota                   *

Sik Tree             Albizia julibrissin

Spruce               Picea species
  Blue                 P. pungens glauca
  Colorado             P. pungens
  Golden White         P. glauca aurea
  Norway               P. abies
  White                P. glauca

Sweet Gum            Liquidambar styraciflua

Sycamore             Platanus occidentalis           *

Tulip tree           Liriodendron tulipifera         *

Walnut               Juglans species
  Black                J. nigra                      *
  English              J. cinerea                    *

Willow               Salix species
  Babylon weeping      S. babylonica
  Corkscrew            S. matsudana tortuosa
  Pussy                S. discolor
  Thurlow weeping      S. elegantissima

Zelkova,             Zelkova serrata
  Japanese

                     Tree                            Fruiting Time

                                                               Good
                                                   Late        Fall
   Common Name            Botanical Name           Fall        Color

Almond               Prunus amygdalus

Amur Corktree        Phellodendron amurense

Apples               Malus species

Apricot              Prunus armeniaca

Arborvitae           Thuja occidentalis

Ash                  Fraxinus species
  Arizona              F. velutina                               *
  Green                F. pennsylvanica
  White                F. americana
  Flowering            F. ornus

Beech                Fagus species
  American             F. grandifolia                            *
  European             F. sylvatica                              *

Birch                Betula species
  Canoe                B. papyrifera                             *
  European             B. pendula                                *
  Sweet                B. lenta                                  *

Cherry               Prunus padus

Chestnut, Chinese    Castanea mollissima

Crabapple            Malus species
  Flowering                                                      *
  Fruiting                                                       *

Crape Myrtle         Lagerstroemia indica

Cypress
  Italian            Cupressus sempervirens
  Monterey           Cupressus macrocarpa
  Sawara false       Chamaecyparis pisifera

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Flowering          C. florida                                  *
  Kousa              C. kousa                                    *

Douglas Fir          Pseudotsuga menziesi

Elm                  Ulmus species
  American             U. americana
  Chinese              U. parvifolia
  Pioneer              U. carpinifolia
  Smoothleaf

Fig                  Ficus carica

Fir                  Abies species
  Balsam               A. balsamea
  White                A. concolor

Fringe tree          Chionanthus virginicus

Ginkgo               Ginkgo biloba                               *

Goldenchain          Laburnum watereri

Golden Rain Tree     Koelreuteria paniculata         *

Hawthorn             Crataegus species
  English              C. oxyacantha
  Green                C. viridis
  Washington           C. phaenopyrum                            *

Hemlock              Tsuga canadensis

Holly                Ilex species
  American             I. opaca                      *
  English              I. aquifolium                 *

Honeylocust,         Gleditsia triacanthos
  Thornless          inermis

Hornbeam             Carpinus species
  American             C. caroliniana                            *
  European             C. betulus                                *

Larch                Larix laricina                              *

Linden               Tilia species
  American             T. americana
  Little leaf          T. cordata
  Silver               T. tomentosa

Magnolia             Magnolia species
  Bigleaf              M. macrophylla
  Saucer               M. soulangeana
  Southern             M. grandiflora
  Star                 M. stellata                               *
  Sweetbay             M. virginiana

Maple                Acer species
  Amur                 A. ginnala                                *
  Hedge                A. campestre
  Japanese             A. palmatum                               *
  Norway               A. platanoides
  Red                  A. rubrum                                 *
  Sugar                A. saccharum                              *

Mountain Ash,        Sorbus aucuparia
  European                                                       *

Oak                  Quercus species
  Live                 Q. virginiana
  Pin                  Q. palustris                              *
  Red                  Q. rubra                                  *
  Scarlet              Q. coccinea                               *
  White                Q. alba

Peach                Prunus persica                              *

Pear, Bradford       Pyrus calleryana Bradford                   *

Pecan                Carya illinoinensis

Pine                 Pinus species
  Austrian             P. nigra
  Loblolly             P. taeda
  Red                  P. resinosa
  Scotch               P. sylvestris
  White                P. strobus

Plum                 Prunus species
  Fruiting             P. domestica
  Purple flowering     P. cerasifera pissardi

Redbud, Eastern      Cercis canadensis

Russian Olive        Elaeagnus angustifolia

Sapodilla            Achras zapota

Sik Tree             Albizia julibrissin

Spruce               Picea species
  Blue                 P. pungens glauca
  Colorado             P. pungens
  Golden White         P. glauca aurea
  Norway               P. abies
  White                P. glauca

Sweet Gum            Liquidambar styraciflua                     *

Sycamore             Platanus occidentalis           *

Tulip tree           Liriodendron tulipifera

Walnut               Juglans species
  Black                J. nigra
  English              J. cinerea

Willow               Salix species
  Babylon weeping      S. babylonica                             *
  Corkscrew            S. matsudana tortuosa
  Pussy                S. discolor
  Thurlow weeping      S. elegantissima                          *

Zelkova,             Zelkova serrata                             *
  Japanese

                     Tree

                                                 Hardiness
                                                   zone
   Common Name            Botanical Name          Rating

Almond               Prunus amygdalus                8

Amur Corktree        Phellodendron amurense       4 to 8

Apples               Malus species                4 to 8

Apricot              Prunus armeniaca             5 to 5

Arborvitae           Thuja occidentalis           3 to 7

Ash                  Fraxinus species
  Arizona              F. velutina                5 to 9
  Green                F. pennsylvanica           3 to 9
  White                F. americana               3 to 9
  Flowering            F. ornus                   5 to 9

Beech                Fagus species                5 to 9
  American             F. grandifolia             3 to 9
  European             F. sylvatica               3 to 9

Birch                Betula species               5 to 9
  Canoe                B. papyrifera              5 to 9
  European             B. pendula                 3 to 9
  Sweet                B. lenta                   3 to 7

Cherry               Prunus padus                 4 to 8

Chestnut, Chinese    Castanea mollissima          4 to 8

Crabapple            Malus species
  Flowering                                       4 to 8
  Fruiting                                        4 to 7

Crape Myrtle         Lagerstroemia indica         7 to 10

Cypress
  Italian            Cupressus sempervirens          7
  Monterey           Cupressus macrocarpa            7
  Sawara false       Chamaecyparis pisifera       3 to 8

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Flowering          C. florida                   5 to 9
  Kousa              C. kousa                     5 to 8

Douglas Fir          Pseudotsuga menziesi         4 to 7

Elm                  Ulmus species
  American             U. americana               3 to 9
  Chinese              U. parvifolia              5 to 9
  Pioneer              U. carpinifolia            5 to 8
  Smoothleaf

Fig                  Ficus carica                 6 to 10

Fir                  Abies species
  Balsam               A. balsamea                4 to 8
  White                A. concolor                4 to 8

Fringe tree          Chionanthus virginicus       4 to 8

Ginkgo               Ginkgo biloba                4 to 8

Goldenchain          Laburnum watereri            5 to 7

Golden Rain Tree     Koelreuteria paniculata      5 to 9

Hawthorn             Crataegus species
  English              C. oxyacantha              4 to 7
  Green                C. viridis                 4 to 7
  Washington           C. phaenopyrum             3 to 8

Hemlock              Tsuga canadensis             3 to 7

Holly                Ilex species
  American             I. opaca                   6 to 9
  English              I. aquifolium              6 to 9

Honeylocust,         Gleditsia triacanthos        4 to 8
  Thornless          inermis

Hornbeam             Carpinus species
  American             C. caroliniana             3 to 8
  European             C. betulus                 4 to 8

Larch                Larix laricina               2 to 6

Linden               Tilia species
  American             T. americana               3 to 8
  Little leaf          T. cordata                 3 to 8
  Silver               T. tomentosa               4 to 8

Magnolia             Magnolia species
  Bigleaf              M. macrophylla             6 to 9
  Saucer               M. soulangeana             5 to 9
  Southern             M. grandiflora             7 to 9
  Star                 M. stellata                5 to 9
  Sweetbay             M. virginiana              5 to 9

Maple                Acer species
  Amur                 A. ginnala                 3 to 8
  Hedge                A. campestre               4 to 7
  Japanese             A. palmatum                5 to 8
  Norway               A. platanoides             3 to 7
  Red                  A. rubrum                  3 to 9
  Sugar                A. saccharum               3 to 8

Mountain Ash,        Sorbus aucuparia
  European                                        3 to 8

Oak                  Quercus species
  Live                 Q. virginiana              7 to 9
  Pin                  Q. palustris               4 to 9
  Red                  Q. rubra                   4 to 8
  Scarlet              Q. coccinea                5 to 9
  White                Q. alba                    3 to 9

Peach                Prunus persica               5 to 8

Pear, Bradford       Pyrus calleryana Bradford    4 to 9

Pecan                Carya illinoinensis          5 to 8

Pine                 Pinus species
  Austrian             P. nigra                   5 to 7
  Loblolly             P. taeda                   6 to 9
  Red                  P. resinosa                2 to 7
  Scotch               P. sylvestris              2 to 7
  White                P. strobus                 3 to 7

Plum                 Prunus species
  Fruiting             P. domestica               4 to 8
  Purple flowering     P. cerasifera pissardi     4 to 9

Redbud, Eastern      Cercis canadensis            4 to 9

Russian Olive        Elaeagnus angustifolia       4 to 8

Sapodilla            Achras zapota               10 to 11

Sik Tree             Albizia julibrissin          6 to 9

Spruce               Picea species
  Blue                 P. pungens glauca          2 to 7
  Colorado             P. pungens                 2 to 7
  Golden White         P. glauca aurea            2 to 7
  Norway               P. abies                   2 to 7
  White                P. glauca                  2 to 7

Sweet Gum            Liquidambar styraciflua      5 to 9

Sycamore             Platanus occidentalis        3 to 9

Tulip tree           Liriodendron tulipifera      4 to 9

Walnut               Juglans species
  Black                J. nigra                   4 to 7
  English              J. cinerea                 6 to 8

Willow               Salix species
  Babylon weeping      S. babylonica              4 to 9
  Corkscrew            S. matsudana tortuosa      4 to 9
  Pussy                S. discolor                4 to 9
  Thurlow weeping      S. elegantissima           4 to 9

Zelkova,             Zelkova serrata              4 to 8
  Japanese

                     Tree

Common Name          Botanical Name              Comment

Almond               Prunus amygdalus            Edible fruit

Amur Corktree        Phellodendron amurense      Corky bark

Apples               Malus species               Does not fruit in
                                                 warmer zones

Apricot              Prunus armeniaca            Edible fruit

Arborvitae           Thuja occidentalis          Many types in wide
                                                 size range

Ash                  Fraxinus species
  Arizona              F. velutina               Seedless forms
  Green                F. pennsylvanica          are recommended
  White                F. americana
  Flowering            F. ornus

Beech                Fagus species               Low-branching. Beeches
  American             F. grandifolia            do poorly in city air
  European             F. sylvatica

Birch                Betula species              Often short-lived
  Canoe                B. papyrifera             because of certain
  European             B. pendula                insect damage
  Sweet                B. lenta

Cherry               Prunus padus                Edible fruit; attracts
                                                 wildlife

Chestnut, Chinese    Castanea mollissima         Edible fruit; disease
                                                 resistant

Crabapple            Malus species
  Flowering                                      Showy flowers and
                                                   fruit
  Fruiting                                       Edible fruit

Crape Myrtle         Lagerstroemia indica        Difficult to
                                                   transplant

Cypress
  Italian            Cupressus sempervirens      Pyramidal growth habit
  Monterey           Cupressus macrocarpa
  Sawara false       Chamaecyparis pisifera

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Flowering          C. florida                  Good patio tree
  Kousa              C. kousa

Douglas Fir          Pseudotsuga menziesi        Dense foliage;
                                                   pyramidal

Elm                  Ulmus species
  American             U. americana              Vase shaped; disease
                                                   prone
  Chinese              U. parvifolia             Good for residential
                                                   use
  Pioneer              U. carpinifolia           Disease resistant
  Smoothleaf

Fig                  Ficus carica                Edible fruit

Fir                  Abies species
  Balsam               A. balsamea
  White                A. concolor

Fringe tree          Chionanthus virginicus      May also be used as a
                                                   shrub

Ginkgo               Ginkgo biloba               Use only male trees

Goldenchain          Laburnum watereri           Somewhat short-lived

Golden Rain Tree     Koelreuteria paniculata     Coarse texture

Hawthorn             Crataegus species
  English              C. oxyacantha             Thorny
  Green                C. viridis
  Washington           C. phaenopyrum

Hemlock              Tsuga canadensis            Grows best in partial
                                                 sunlight

Holly                Ilex species                Male and female plants
  American             I. opaca                  are needed for fruit
  English              I. aquifolium             set; pyramidal

Honeylocust,         Gleditsia triacanthos       Good city tree;
  Thornless          inermis                     several varieties

Hornbeam             Carpinus species
  American             C. caroliniana            Shade tolerant
  European             C. betulus                Conical growth habit

Larch                Larix laricina              A deciduous, needled
                                                 conifer

Linden               Tilia species
  American             T. americana              Good street trees
  Little leaf          T. cordata
  Silver               T. tomentosa

Magnolia             Magnolia species
  Bigleaf              M. macrophylla            Very large leaves and
  Saucer               M. soulangeana            flowers
  Southern             M. grandiflora            Also usable as a
  Star                 M. stellata               large shrub
  Sweetbay             M. virginiana

Maple                Acer species
  Amur                 A. ginnala                Good fall foliage
  Hedge                A. campestre              color
  Japanese             A. palmatum               They make good lawn
  Norway               A. platanoides            trees
  Red                  A. rubrum
  Sugar                A. saccharum

Mountain Ash,        Sorbus aucuparia
  European                                       Susceptible to borer
                                                 insects

Oak                  Quercus species             Strong trees; used
  Live                 Q. virginiana             widely as lawn and
  Pin                  Q. palustris              shade trees
  Red                  Q. rubra
  Scarlet              Q. coccinea
  White                Q. alba

Peach                Prunus persica              Edible fruit

Pear, Bradford       Pyrus calleryana Bradford   Symmetrical and formal

Pecan                Carya illinoinensis         Nuts only mature in
                                                 warmer areas

Pine                 Pinus species
  Austrian             P. nigra                  Good for use as
  Loblolly             P. taeda                  windbreaks
  Red                  P. resinosa               Can be massed for
  Scotch               P. sylvestris             grove effects
  White                P. strobus

Plum                 Prunus species
  Fruiting             P. domestica              Edible fruit
  Purple flowering     P. cerasifera pissardi    Deep red leaf color

Redbud, Eastern      Cercis canadensis           Attractive, delicate
                                                 flowers

Russian Olive        Elaeagnus angustifolia      Silver foliage

Sapodilla            Achras zapota

Sik Tree             Albizia julibrissin

Spruce               Picea species
  Blue                 P. pungens glauca         Rigid, dense conifers;
  Colorado             P. pungens                they make excellent
  Golden White         P. glauca aurea           lawn trees, but give
  Norway               P. abies                  them plenty of room to
  White                P. glauca                 spread

Sweet Gum            Liquidambar styraciflua     Excellent fall color;
                                                 mixed tones

Sycamore             Platanus occidentalis       White, peeling bark

Tulip tree           Liriodendron tulipifera     Needs room to grow and
                                                 spread

Walnut               Juglans species
  Black                J. nigra                  Edible nuts;
  English              J. cinerea                detrimental to the
                                                 growth of nearby
                                                 plants

Willow               Salix species
  Babylon weeping      S. babylonica
  Corkscrew            S. matsudana tortuosa     Twisted stems;
  Pussy                S. discolor               specimen plant Willows
  Thurlow weeping      S. elegantissima          grow quickly, have
                                                 weak wood, and thrive
                                                 in wet areas

Zelkova,             Zelkova serrata             Often a substitute for
  Japanese                                       American elm

A Guide to Landscape Shrubs

                     Shrub

Common Name          Botanical Name              Evergreen   Deciduous

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa                           *

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid                      *
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu                          *
  Indica               R. indica                     *
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume             *
  Mollis               R. kosterianum                            *
  Torch                R. calendulaceum                          *

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi                              *
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi                              *
                         atropurpurea
  Wintergreen          B. julianae                   *

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica          semi

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens               *
  Little leaf          B. microphylla                *

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica                   *
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua                   *

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos                              *
                       orbiculatus

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata                              *
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis             semi
  Spreading            C. divaricata                             *

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis                            *

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas                                    *
  Grey                 C. racemosa                               *
  Red twig             C. stolonifera                            *

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea                 semi
  Formosa              P. koidzumii                  *

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata                                  *
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood                     *
  Showy border         F. intermedia                             *
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides            *

Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis              *
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus                               *

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta                    *
  Inkberry             I. glabra                                 *
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa            *

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel                       *
  Morrow               L. morrowii                               *
  Tatarian             L. tatarica                               *

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens                             *
                         grandiflora
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia                            *
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata                             *
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale               semi
  Florida              J. floridum                   *
  Winter               J. nudiflorum                             *

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa       *
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi            *
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens                 *
  Savin                J. sabina                     *
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis                  *
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris                            *

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei                     *
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium                 *

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis                     *

Nandina              Nandina domestica               *

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius                     *

Oleander             Nerium oleander                 *

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata                  *
  Red                  P. glabra                     *
  Red-tip              P. fraseri                    *

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica                   *
  Mountain             P. floribunda                 *

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta             *

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima           *

Pomegranate          Punica granatum                             *

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa                        *
(Cinquefoil)

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense                               *
  California           L. ovalifolium              semi
  Regal                L. obtusifolium                           *
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum                    *

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species
  Common               C. speciosa                               *
  Japanese             C. japonica                               *

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum               *
  Catawba              R. catawbiense                *
  Hybrid               R. hybrida                    *

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species                                *

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony                        *
                         Waterer
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia                             *
  Billiard             S. billardi                               *
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii                      *
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi                              *
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei                             *

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum                               *
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium                            *
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus                                 *
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum                    *
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum                           *
  Japanese             V. plicatum                               *
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum             *
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum                  *

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera                 *

Weigela              Weigela florida                             *

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus                             *

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus       *

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media                        *
    Anglo-Japanese
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield               *
    Japanese
  Spreading          T. cuspidata                    *
    Japanese
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata           *
  English            T. baccata                      *
  Canada             T. canadensis                   *

                     Shrub                           Mature Height

Common Name          Botanical Name                3'-5'       5'-8'

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa               *

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid          *
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu              *
  Indica               R. indica                                 *
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume             *
  Mollis               R. kosterianum                *
  Torch                R. calendulaceum              *

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi                              *
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi                              *
                         atropurpurea

  Wintergreen          B. julianae                   *

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens                           *
  Little leaf          B. microphylla                            *

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos                  *
                       orbiculatus

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata                  *
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis               *
  Spreading            C. divaricata                             *

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis                *

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas
  Grey                 C. racemosa
  Red twig             C. stolonifera

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea
  Formosa              P. koidzumii

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata                                  *
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood
  Showy border         F. intermedia
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides                        *

Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta
  Inkberry             I. glabra
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa                        *

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel
  Morrow               L. morrowii                               *
  Tatarian             L. tatarica

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens                 *
                         grandiflora
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia                *
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale
  Florida              J. floridum                   *
  Winter               J. nudiflorum                 *

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa       *
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi                        *
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens                 *
  Savin                J. sabina                                 *
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei                                 *
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium                 *

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis                     *

Nandina              Nandina domestica                           *

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius

Oleander             Nerium oleander

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata
  Red                  P. glabra
  Red-tip              P. fraseri

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica                               *
  Mountain             P. floribunda                             *

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta             *

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima

Pomegranate          Punica granatum

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa            *
(Cinquefoil)

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense
  California           L. ovalifolium
  Regal                L. obtusifolium                           *
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species

  Common               C. speciosa                               *
  Japanese             C. japonica                   *

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum                           *
  Catawba              R. catawbiense
  Hybrid               R. hybrida                                *

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species                    *

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony            *
                         Waterer
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia                             *
  Billiard             S. billardi                               *
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii          *
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi                  *
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei                             *

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum
  Japanese             V. plicatum
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum                         *
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera

Weigela              Weigela florida

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus                             *

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus       *

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media
    Anglo-Japanese
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield
    Japanese
  Spreading          T. cuspidata
    Japanese
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata
  English            T. baccata
  Canada             T. canadensis                   *

                     Shrub                        Mature     Season of
                                                  Height     Bloom **

                                                    8'         Early
Common Name          Botanical Name               and up      Spring

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa                           *

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu
  Indica               R. indica                                 *
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume
  Mollis               R. kosterianum
  Torch                R. calendulaceum

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi
                         atropurpurea

  Wintergreen          B. julianae                   *           *

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens
  Little leaf          B. microphylla

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica                   *           *
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua                   *

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos
                       orbiculatus

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis
  Spreading            C. divaricata

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas                        *           *
  Grey                 C. racemosa                   *           *
  Red twig             C. stolonifera                *           *

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea                   *
  Formosa              P. koidzumii                  *

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata                                  *
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood         *           *
  Showy border         F. intermedia                 *           *
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides

Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis              *
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus                   *

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta                    *
  Inkberry             I. glabra                     *
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel           *
  Morrow               L. morrowii
  Tatarian             L. tatarica                   *

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens
                         grandiflora
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata                 *
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale                 *
  Florida              J. floridum
  Winter               J. nudiflorum                             *

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens
  Savin                J. sabina
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis                  *
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris                *

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei                                 *
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium                             *

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis

Nandina              Nandina domestica                           *

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius         *

Oleander             Nerium oleander                 *

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata                  *           *
  Red                  P. glabra                     *           *
  Red-tip              P. fraseri                    *           *

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica                               *
  Mountain             P. floribunda                             *

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima           *

Pomegranate          Punica granatum                 *

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa
(Cinquefoil)

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense                   *
  California           L. ovalifolium                *
  Regal                L. obtusifolium
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum                    *

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species
  Common               C. speciosa                               *
  Japanese             C. japonica                               *

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum
  Catawba              R. catawbiense                *
  Hybrid               R. hybrida

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony
                         Waterer
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia                             *
  Billiard             S. billardi
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi                              *
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum                   *
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium                *
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus                     *
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum        *
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum               *
  Japanese             V. plicatum                   *           *
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera                 *

Weigela              Weigela florida                 *

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media                        *
    Anglo-Japanese
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield               *
    Japanese
  Spreading          T. cuspidata                    *
    Japanese
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata           *
  English            T. baccata                      *
  Canada             T. canadensis

                     Shrub                         Season of Bloom **

                                                   Late        Early
Common Name          Botanical Name               Spring       Fall

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu              *
  Indica               R. indica
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume             *
  Mollis               R. kosterianum                *
  Torch                R. calendulaceum              *

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi                  *
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi                  *
                         atropurpurea

  Wintergreen          B. julianae

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens
  Little leaf          B. microphylla

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua                               *

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos                              *
                       orbiculatus

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata                  *
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis               *
  Spreading            C. divaricata                 *

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis                *

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas
  Grey                 C. racemosa
  Red twig             C. stolonifera

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea                   *
  Formosa              P. koidzumii                  *

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood
  Showy border         F. intermedia
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides
                                                     *           *
Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis              *
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus                               *

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta
  Inkberry             I. glabra
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel           *
  Morrow               L. morrowii                   *
  Tatarian             L. tatarica                   *

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens                 *
                         grandiflora
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia                            *
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata                             *
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale                 *
  Florida              J. floridum                   *
  Winter               J. nudiflorum

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens
  Savin                J. sabina
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris                *

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis         *

Nandina              Nandina domestica

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius         *

Oleander             Nerium oleander                 *

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata
  Red                  P. glabra
  Red-tip              P. fraseri

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica
  Mountain             P. floribunda

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima                   late fall

Pomegranate          Punica granatum                 *

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa            *           *
(Cinquefoil)

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense                   *
  California           L. ovalifolium                *
  Regal                L. obtusifolium               *
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum                                *

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species
  Common               C. speciosa
  Japanese             C. japonica

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum               *
  Catawba              R. catawbiense                *
  Hybrid               R. hybrida                    *

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species                    *           *

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony            *           *
                         Waterer
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia
  Billiard             S. billardi                   *
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii          *
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei                 *

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum                   *
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium                *
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus                     *
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum        *
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum               *
  Japanese             V. plicatum
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum             *
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum                  *

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera

Weigela              Weigela florida                             *

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media
    Anglo-Japanese
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield
    Japanese
  Spreading          T. cuspidata
    Japanese
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata
  English            T. baccata
  Canada             T. canadensis

                     Shrub                          Light Tolerance

                                                               Semi-
Common Name          Botanical Name                 Sun        Shade

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa               *

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid          *           *
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu                          *
  Indica               R. indica                                 *
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume                         *
  Mollis               R. kosterianum                            *
  Torch                R. calendulaceum                          *

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi                  *           *
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi                  *           *
                         atropurpurea

  Wintergreen          B. julianae                   *           *

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica            *           *

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens               *           *
  Little leaf          B. microphylla                *           *

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica                               *
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua                   *           *

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos                              *
                       orbiculatus

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata                  *           *
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis               *           *
  Spreading            C. divaricata                 *           *

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis                *           *

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas                        *           *
  Grey                 C. racemosa                   *
  Red twig             C. stolonifera                *

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea                   *           *
  Formosa              P. koidzumii                  *

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata                      *
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood         *
  Showy border         F. intermedia                 *
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides
                                                     *           *
Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis              *
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus                   *           *

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta                    *           *
  Inkberry             I. glabra                     *           *
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa            *           *

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel           *           *
  Morrow               L. morrowii                   *           *
  Tatarian             L. tatarica                   *

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens                 *
                         grandiflora
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia                *
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata                 *           *
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale                 *
  Florida              J. floridum                   *           *
  Winter               J. nudiflorum                 *           *

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa       *
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi            *
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens                 *
  Savin                J. sabina                     *
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis                  *
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris                *

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei                                 *
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium                             *

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis         *

Nandina              Nandina domestica               *           *

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius         *

Oleander             Nerium oleander                 *           *

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata                  *           *
  Red                  P. glabra                     *           *
  Red-tip              P. fraseri                    *           *

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica                               *
  Mountain             P. floribunda                             *

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta             *           *

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima           *

Pomegranate          Punica granatum                 *           *

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa            *
(Cinquefoil)

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense                   *           *
  California           L. ovalifolium                *           *
  Regal                L. obtusifolium               *           *
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum                    *

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species
  Common               C. speciosa                   *           *
  Japanese             C. japonica                   *           *

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum                           *
  Catawba              R. catawbiense                            *
  Hybrid               R. hybrida                    *           *

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species                    *

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony            *           *
                         Waterer
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia                 *           *
  Billiard             S. billardi                   *           *
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii          *           *
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi                  *
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei                 *           *

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum                   *           *
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium                *           *
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus                     *           *
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum        *           *
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum               *           *
  Japanese             V. plicatum                   *           *
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum             *           *
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum                              *

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera                 *           *

Weigela              Weigela florida                 *

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus                 *           *

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus                   *

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media                        *           *
    Anglo-Japanese
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield               *           *
    Japanese
  Spreading          T. cuspidata                    *           *
    Japanese
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata           *           *
  English            T. baccata                      *           *
  Canada             T. canadensis                               *

                     Shrub                         Light
                                                 Tolerance
                                                               Good
                                                   Heavy       Fall
Common Name          Botanical Name                Shade       Color

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu
  Indica               R. indica
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume
  Mollis               R. kosterianum
  Torch                R. calendulaceum                          *

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi                              *
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi                              *
                         atropurpurea

  Wintergreen          B. julianae

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens
  Little leaf          B. microphylla

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua                   *

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos                              *
                       orbiculatus

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata                              *
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis                           *
  Spreading            C. divaricata                             *

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas                                    *
  Grey                 C. racemosa                               *
  Red twig             C. stolonifera                            *

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea                               *
  Formosa              P. koidzumii                              *

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood
  Showy border         F. intermedia
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides

Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta
  Inkberry             I. glabra
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel
  Morrow               L. morrowii
  Tatarian             L. tatarica

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens
                         grandiflora
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia                            *
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata                             *
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale
  Florida              J. floridum
  Winter               J. nudiflorum

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens
  Savin                J. sabina
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei                     *
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium                 *

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis

Nandina              Nandina domestica                           *

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius                     *

Oleander             Nerium oleander

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata
  Red                  P. glabra
  Red-tip              P. fraseri

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica
  Mountain             P. floribunda

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima

Pomegranate          Punica granatum                             *

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa
(Cinquefoil)

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense
  California           L. ovalifolium
  Regal                L. obtusifolium
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species
  Common               C. speciosa
  Japanese             C. japonica

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum
  Catawba              R. catawbiense
  Hybrid               R. hybrida

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony
                         Waterer
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia
  Billiard             S. billardi                               *
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi                              *
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei                             *

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum                               *
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium                            *
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus                                 *
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum                    *
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum                           *
  Japanese             V. plicatum                               *
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum             *
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera

Weigela              Weigela florida

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus                             *

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus                   *

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media
    Anglo-Japanese
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield
    Japanese
  Spreading          T. cuspidata
    Japanese
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata
  English            T. baccata
  Canada             T. canadensis

                     Shrub                         Zone
                                                    of
Common Name          Botanical Name              Hardiness

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa            4 to 8

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid       6 to 9
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu           7 to 9
  Indica               R. indica                  8 to 9
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume          6 to 9
  Mollis               R. kosterianum             6 to 9
  Torch                R. calendulaceum           6 to 9

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi               4 to 8
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi               4 to 8
                         atropurpurea

  Wintergreen          B. julianae                5 to 8

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica         2 to 6

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens            6 to 9
  Little leaf          B. microphylla             5 to 10

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica                7 to 9
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua                7 to 9

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos               2 to 7
                       orbiculatus

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata               4 to 8
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis            4 to 8
  Spreading            C. divaricata              5 to 8

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis             5 to 8

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas                     4 to 8
  Grey                 C. racemosa                4 to 8
  Red twig             C. stolonifera             2 to 8

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea                6 to 9
  Formosa              P. koidzumii               7 to 10

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata                   4 to 9
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood      5 to 9
  Showy border         F. intermedia              5 to 9
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides         8 to 10

Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis           9 to 10
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus                5 to 9

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta                 6 to 9
  Inkberry             I. glabra                  3 to 7
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa         5 to 8

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel        5 to 8
  Morrow               L. morrowii                4 to 8
  Tatarian             L. tatarica                3 to 8

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens              4 to 9
                         grandiflora
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia             4 to 9
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata              3 to 8
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale              7 to 9
  Florida              J. floridum                7 to 9
  Winter               J. nudiflorum              6 to 10

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa    3 to 8
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi         4 to 9
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens              4 to 9
  Savin                J. sabina                  3 to 7
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis               4 to 9
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris             3 to 7

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei                  6 to 8
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium              5 to 8

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis      4 to 9

Nandina              Nandina domestica            6 to 9

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius      2 to 7

Oleander             Nerium oleander              8 to 10

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata               7 to 9
  Red                  P. glabra                  7 to 9
  Red-tip              P. fraseri                 7 to 9

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica                6 to 8
  Mountain             P. floribunda              4 to 8

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta          2 to 7

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima        9 to 10

Pomegranate          Punica granatum              8 to 9

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa         2 to 7
(Cinquefoil)

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense                3 to 8
  California           L. ovalifolium             5 to 8
  Regal                L. obtusifolium            3 to 8
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum                 7 to 10

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species
  Common               C. speciosa                4 to 8
  Japanese             C. japonica                4 to 8

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum            6 to 8
  Catawba              R. catawbiense             4 to 8
  Hybrid               R. hybrida                 4 to 8

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species                 varies

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony         4 to 9
                         Waterer
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia              4 to 9
  Billiard             S. billardi                4 to 9
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii       4 to 9
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi               5 to 8
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei              4 to 8

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum                2 to 8
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium             3 to 8
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus                  4 to 8
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum     5 to 8
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum            5 to 7
  Japanese             V. plicatum                5 to 8
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum          5 to 8
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum               9 to 10

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera              7 to 9

Weigela              Weigela florida              4 to 8

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus              3 to 9

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus    5 to 9

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media                     4 to 7
    Anglo-Japanese
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield            4 to 7
    Japanese
  Spreading          T. cuspidata                 4 to 7
    Japanese
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata        4 to 7
  English            T. baccata                   6 to 7
  Canada             T. canadensis                2 to 6

A Guide to Landscape Shrubs

                     Shrub

Common Name          Botanical Name                     Comment

Almond, Flowering    Prunus glandulosa           Very showy blooms

Azaelas              Rhododendron species
  Gable                R. poukanense hybrid      Requires acidic soil
  Hiryu                R. obtusum Hiryu          condition and often
  Indica               R. indica                 iron chelate
  Kurume               R. obtusum Kurume         fertilizers
  Mollis               R. kosterianum
  Torch                R. calendulaceum

Barberry             Berberis species
  Japanese             B. thunbergi              Good plants for
  Redleaved            B. thunbergi              traffic control;
                         atropurpurea            thorny

  Wintergreen          B. julianae

Bayberry             Myrica pennsylvanica        Fragrant leaves and
                                                 berries

Boxwood              Buxus species
  Common               B. sempervirens           Prunes well; good for
  Little leaf          B. microphylla            hedges

Camellia             Camellia species
  Japanese             C. japonica               Fragrant
  Sasanqua             C. sasanqua

Coralberry           Symphoricarpos              Good for erosion
                       orbiculatus               control

Cotoneaster          Cotoneaster species
  Cranberry            C. apiculata              Fall color comes from
  Rockspray            C. horizontalis           bright red fruit
  Spreading            C. divaricata

Deutzia, slender     Deutzia gracilis            Delicate foliage;
                                                 white blossoms

Dogwood              Cornus species
  Cornelian Cherry     C. mas                    Also used as a small
  Grey                 C. racemosa               tree
  Red twig             C. stolonifera            Good for erosion
                                                 control

Firethorn            Pyracantha species
  Scarlet              P. coccinea               Fall color comes from
  Formosa              P. koidzumii              brightly colored fruit

Forsythia            Forsythia species
  Early                F. ovata                  Bright yellow flowers;
  Lynwood Gold         F. intermedia Lynwood     cascading branching
  Showy border         F. intermedia
                         spectabilis

Gardenia             Gardenia jasminoides        Fragrant flowers

Hibiscus             Hibiscus species
  Chinese              H. rosa sinensis          Also called Rose
  Shrub Althea         H. syriacus               of Sharon

Holly                Ilex species
  Chinese              I. cornuta                Fruit is dark blue and
  Inkberry             I. glabra                 not as showy as on the
  Japanese             I. crenata convexa        tree hollies

Honeysuckle          Lonicera species
  Blue leaf            L. korolkowii zabel
  Morrow               L. morrowii
  Tatarian             L. tatarica               Fragrant

Hydrangea            Hydrangea species
  Hills of Snow        H. aborescens             Coarse leaf texture;
                         grandiflora             showy blossoms
  Oak Leaf             H. quercifolia
  Pee Gee              H. paniculata
                         grandiflora

Jasmine              Jasminum species
  Common White         J. officinale
  Florida              J. floridum
  Winter               J. nudiflorum

Juniper              Juniperus species
  Andorra              J. horizontalis plumosa   Junipers grow well in
  Hetz                 J. chinensis hetzi        hot, dry soil; many
  Japanese Garden      J. procumbens             are tolerant of salted
  Savin                J. sabina                 soils and heavy snow
  Pfitzer              J. chinensis              loads.
                         pfitzeriana

Lilac                Syringa vulgaris            Large, fragrant
                                                 flowers

Mahonia              Mahonia species
  Leatherleaf          M. bealei                 Holly-like foliage
  Oregon-grape         M. aquifolium             Bluish, grape-like
                                                 fruit

Mockorange           Philadelphus virginalis     Creamy white fragrant
                                                 flower

Nandina              Nandina domestica           Both flowers and
                                                 fruits attractive

Ninebark             Physocarpus opulifolius

Oleander             Nerium oleander             All parts are
                                                 poisonous if eaten

Photinia             Photinia species
  Chinese              P. serrulata              Rapid growing; prone
  Red                  P. glabra                 to fungal diseases
  Red-tip              P. fraseri

Pieris (Andromeda)   Pieris species
  Japanese             P. japonica
  Mountain             P. floribunda

Pine, Dwarf Mugo     Pinus mugo compacta         Slow-growing

Poinsettia           Euphorbia pulcherrima       Long-lasting blooms

Pomegranate          Punica granatum             Colorful both spring
                                                 and fall

Potentilla           Potentilla fruticosa        Produces flowers all
(Cinquefoil)                                     summer

Privet               Ligustrum species
  Amur                 L. amurense               Prunes well;
  California           L. ovalifolium            popular hedge plants
  Regal                L. obtusifolium
  Waxleaf                regelianum
                       L. lucidum

Quince, Flowering    Chaenomeles species
  Common               C. speciosa               Densely branched;
  Japanese             C. japonica               thorny
                                                 Good for traffic
                                                 control

Rhododendron         Rhododendron species
  Carolina             R. carolinianum           Showy plants; require
  Catawba              R. catawbiense            well-drained, acidic
  Hybrid               R. hybrida                soil

Rose, Hybrid tea     Rosa species                Very diverse group of
                                                 plants; large blooms;
                                                 high maintenance

Spirea               Spiraea species
  Anthony Waterer      S. bumalda Anthony        Attractive when
                         Waterer                 flowering; most are
  Bridal wreath        S. prunifolia             resistant to insects
  Billiard             S. billardi               and diseases
  Frobel               S. bumalda Froebelii
  Thunberg             S. thunbergi
  Vanhoutte            S. vanhouttei

Viburnum             Viburnum species
  Arrowwood            V. dentatum               Attractive spring
  Black Haw            V. prunifolium            flowers; good fall
  Cranberrybush        V. opulus                 color; many provide
  Doublefile           V. plicatum tomentosum    good wildlife food
  Fragrant             V. carlcephalum
  Japanese             V. plicatum
    Snowball
  Leatherleaf          V. rhytidophyllum
  Sandankwa            V. suspensum

Wax Myrtle           Myrica cerifera             Tiny, waxy grey
                                                 berries

Weigela              Weigela florida             Blooms late

Winged Euonymus      Euonymus alatus             Crimson fall color

Wintercreeper        Euonymus fortunei vegetus

Yew                  Taxus species
  Spreading          T. media                    Excellent for
    Anglo-Japanese                               foundation plantings;
  Upright Anglo-     T. media hatfield           prunes well; long
    Japanese                                     lived; will not
  Spreading          T. cuspidata                tolerate poorly
    Japanese                                     drained soil
  Upright Japanese   T. cuspidata capitata
  English            T. baccata
  Canada             T. canadensis

* Semi-evergreen indicates that the plants retain their leaves all
year in warmer climates, but drop them during the winter in colder
areas.

** Where no rating is given, flowers are either not produced or are
not of importance.

A Guide to Groundcovers

              Groundcovers

Common Name         Botanical Name          Evergreen       Deciduous

Aaron's Beard       Hypericum                   *
                      calycinum

Ajuga or Bugle      Ajuga reptans                               *

Bearberry           Arctostaphylus              *
                      uvamursi

Bigleaf             Euonymus                    *
  Wintercreeper       fortunei radicans

Cast iron plant     Aspidistra elatior          *

Candytuft,          Iberis                      *
  Evergreen           sempervirens

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster                                 *
  Creeping            adpressa

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster               semi
  Rockspray           horizontalis

Himalayan           Sarcococca                  *
  Sweet Box           hookerana
                      humilis

Honeysuckle,        Lonicera                                    *
  Creeping            prostrata

Hosta               Hosta plantaginea                           *

Ivy, Baltic         Hedera helix                *
  English             baltica

Juniper             Juniperus                   *
  Blue Rug            horizontalis
                      wiltonii

Juniper             Juniperus                   *
  Jap Garden          procumbens

Juniper             Juniperus                   *
  Shore               conferta

Liriope             Liriope muscari             *
  Variegated          variegata

Mondo grass         Ophiopogon                  *
                      japonicus

Myrtle              Vinca minor                 *
  (Periwinkle)

Oyster plant        Tragopogon                                  *
                      porrifolius

Pachysandra         Pachysandra                 *
                      terminalis

Phlox (Moss Pink)   Phlox subulata              *

Purpleleaf          Euonymus fortunei           *
  Wintercreeper       coloratus

Wandering Jew       Tradescantia                *
                      albiflora

Weeping lantana     Lantana                     *
                      montevidensis

Yellowroot          Xanthorhiza                                 *
                      simplicissima

              Groundcovers
                                                             Optimum
Common Name         Botanical Name           Height          Spacing

Aaron's Beard       Hypericum                  18"          18 inches
                      calycinum

Ajuga or Bugle      Ajuga reptans              5"           6 inches

Bearberry           Arctostaphylus             10"          12 inches
                      uvamursi

Bigleaf             Euonymus                   18"           3 feet
  Wintercreeper       fortunei radicans

Cast iron plant     Aspidistra elatior         18"          10 inches

Candytuft,          Iberis                     12"          12 inches
  Evergreen           sempervirens

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster                12"           4 feet
  Creeping            adpressa

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster             18" plus         4 feet
  Rockspray           horizontalis

Himalayan           Sarcococca                 15"          18 inches
  Sweet Box           hookerana
                      humilis

Honeysuckle,        Lonicera                   12"           3 feet
  Creeping            prostrata

Hosta               Hosta plantaginea          18"          18 inches

Ivy, Baltic         Hedera helix               8"           12 inches
  English             baltica

Juniper             Juniperus                  6"            3 feet
  Blue Rug            horizontalis
                      wiltonii

Juniper             Juniperus                  18"           3 feet
  Jap Garden          procumbens

Juniper             Juniperus                  18"           3 feet
  Shore               conferta

Liriope             Liriope muscari            15"          18 inches
  Variegated          variegata

Mondo grass         Ophiopogon                 10"          10 inches
                      japonicus

Myrtle              Vinca minor                6"           12 inches
  (Periwinkle)

Oyster plant        Tragopogon                 12"          12 inches
                      porrifolius

Pachysandra         Pachysandra                8"           12 inches
                      terminalis

Phlox (Moss Pink)   Phlox subulata             5"           6 inches

Purpleleaf          Euonymus fortunei          18"           3 feet
  Wintercreeper       coloratus

Wandering Jew       Tradescantia               6"           12 inches
                      albiflora

Weeping lantana     Lantana                 18" plus        24 inches
                      montevidensis

Yellowroot          Xanthorhiza             18" plus        18 inches
                      simplicissima

              Groundcovers
                                           No. Needed
                                            to Plant          Light
Common Name         Botanical Name         100 sq. ft.      Tolerance

Aaron's Beard       Hypericum                  44             full/
                      calycinum                            partial sun

Ajuga or Bugle      Ajuga reptans              400           sun or
                                                              shade

Bearberry           Arctostaphylus             92            sun or
                      uvamursi                                shade

Bigleaf             Euonymus                   14            sun or
  Wintercreeper       fortunei radicans                       shade

Cast iron plant     Aspidistra elatior         144            shade

Candytuft,          Iberis                     92         full/partial
  Evergreen           sempervirens                             sun

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster                10              sun
  Creeping            adpressa

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster                10              sun
  Rockspray           horizontalis

Himalayan           Sarcococca                 44             shade
  Sweet Box           hookerana
                      humilis

Honeysuckle,        Lonicera                   14              sun
  Creeping            prostrata

Hosta               Hosta plantaginea          40             shade

Ivy, Baltic         Hedera helix               44             shade
  English             baltica

Juniper             Juniperus                  14              sun
  Blue Rug            horizontalis
                      wiltonii

Juniper             Juniperus                  14              sun
  Jap Garden          procumbens

Juniper             Juniperus                  14              sun
  Shore               conferta

Liriope             Liriope muscari            40             shade
  Variegated          variegata

Mondo grass         Ophiopogon                 144           partial
                      japonicus                               shade

Myrtle              Vinca minor                92             shade
  (Periwinkle)

Oyster plant        Tragopogon                 92            sun or
                      porrifolius                             shade

Pachysandra         Pachysandra                92             shade
                      terminalis

Phlox (Moss Pink)   Phlox subulata             400             sun

Purpleleaf          Euonymus fortunei          14            sun or
  Wintercreeper       coloratus                               shade

Wandering Jew       Tradescantia               92             shade
                      albiflora

Weeping lantana     Lantana                    25              sun
                      montevidensis

Yellowroot          Xanthorhiza                44              sun
                      simplicissima

              Groundcovers
                                              Zone
                                               of
Common Name         Botanical Name          Hardiness

Aaron's Beard       Hypericum                5 to 8
                      calycinum

Ajuga or Bugle      Ajuga reptans            4 to 9

Bearberry           Arctostaphylus           2 to 6
                      uvamursi

Bigleaf             Euonymus                 4 to 9
  Wintercreeper       fortunei radicans

Cast iron plant     Aspidistra elatior       6 to 10

Candytuft,          Iberis                   4 to 9
  Evergreen           sempervirens

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster              4 to 8
  Creeping            adpressa

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster              4 to 8
  Rockspray           horizontalis

Himalayan           Sarcococca               6 to 9
  Sweet Box           hookerana
                      humilis

Honeysuckle,        Lonicera                 5 to 9
  Creeping            prostrata

Hosta               Hosta plantaginea        3 to 9

Ivy, Baltic         Hedera helix             5 to 9
  English             baltica

Juniper             Juniperus                3 to 9
  Blue Rug            horizontalis
                      wiltonii

Juniper             Juniperus                4 to 9
  Jap Garden          procumbens

Juniper             Juniperus                5 to 9
  Shore               conferta

Liriope             Liriope muscari          6 to 9
  Variegated          variegata

Mondo grass         Ophiopogon               7 to 9
                      japonicus

Myrtle              Vinca minor              4 to 9
  (Periwinkle)

Oyster plant        Tragopogon                  9
                      porrifolius

Pachysandra         Pachysandra              4 to 8
                      terminalis

Phlox (Moss Pink)   Phlox subulata           3 to 9

Purpleleaf          Euonymus fortunei        5 to 9
  Wintercreeper       coloratus

Wandering Jew       Tradescantia             9 to 11
                      albiflora

Weeping lantana     Lantana                  9 to 11
                      montevidensis

Yellowroot          Xanthorhiza              5 to 7
                      simplicissima

              Groundcovers
                                          Flower or Fruit
                                          Color and Time
Common Name         Botanical Name        of Effectiveness

Aaron's Beard       Hypericum             Yellow flowers
                      calycinum           in late spring

Ajuga or Bugle      Ajuga reptans         Blue or white flowers
                                          in summer

Bearberry           Arctostaphylus        Pink flowers in spring
                      uvamursi

Bigleaf             Euonymus              Orange fruit in the fall
  Wintercreeper       fortunei radicans

Cast iron plant     Aspidistra elatior    Not noticeable

Candytuft,          Iberis                White flowers in spring
  Evergreen           sempervirens        and summer

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster           Pink flowers/spring;
  Creeping            adpressa            red berries in fall

Cotoneaster,        Cotoneaster           Pink in spring/red
  Rockspray           horizontalis        berries in fall

Himalayan           Sarcococca            Insignificant
  Sweet Box           hookerana
                      humilis

Honeysuckle,        Lonicera              Yellow flowers/
  Creeping            prostrata           spring; red berries/fall

Hosta               Hosta plantaginea     White flowers in
                                          late summer

Ivy, Baltic         Hedera helix          Insignificant
  English             baltica

Juniper             Juniperus             Insignificant
  Blue Rug            horizontalis
                      wiltonii

Juniper             Juniperus             Insignificant
  Jap Garden          procumbens

Juniper             Juniperus             Insignificant
  Shore               conferta

Liriope             Liriope muscari       Lavender flowers
  Variegated          variegata           in late summer

Mondo grass         Ophiopogon            White or pink flowers/
                      japonicus           late summer

Myrtle              Vinca minor           Blue flowers in spring
  (Periwinkle)

Oyster plant        Tragopogon            Insignificant
                      porrifolius

Pachysandra         Pachysandra           White flowers in spring
                      terminalis

Phlox (Moss Pink)   Phlox subulata        Varied pastel colors
                                          in spring

Purpleleaf          Euonymus fortunei     Insignificant
  Wintercreeper       coloratus

Wandering Jew       Tradescantia          Purple flowers
                      albiflora           spring/summer

Weeping lantana     Lantana               Lavender flowers all
                      montevidensis       year

Yellowroot          Xanthorhiza           Brown-purple flowers
                      simplicissima       in spring

A Guide to Vines

               Vines

    Common           Botanical      BroadLeaf
     Name              Name         Evergreen      Deciduous

  Actinidia,         Actinidia                         *
     Bower            arguta

  Actinidia,         Actinidia                         *
    Chinese          chinensis

   Akebia,            Akebia           semi
   Fiveleaf           quinata

  Ampelopsis,       Ampelopsis                         *
   Porcelain          brevi-
                    pedunculata

   Bignonia          Bignonia           *
  (Crossvine)       capreolata

 Bittersweet,        Celastrus                         *
   American          scandens

  Boston ivy      Parthenocissus                       *
                   tricuspidata

 Bougainvillea     Bougainvillea        *
                      glabra

   Clematis          Clematis                          *
                      hybrida

 Fig, Climbing         Ficus            *
                      pumila

 Honeysuckle,        Lonicera                          *
    Trumpet        sempervirens

  Hydrangea,        Hydrangea,                         *
   Climbing           anomala
                    petiolaris

 Ivy, English         Hedera            *
                       helix

   Jasmine,       Trachelospermum       *
     Star           jasminoides

  Lace vine,         Polygonum                         *
    Silver           aubertii

  Monks hood        Ampelopsis                         *
     vine          aconitifolia

   Rambling            Rosa                            *
     roses          multiflora
                      hybrida

   Trumpet            Campsis                          *
     vine            radicans

   Virginia       Parthenocissus                       *
    creeper        quinquefolia

   Wisteria,         Wisteria                          *
   Japanese         floribunda

   Woodbine,         Lonicera                          *
Chinese             tragophylla

               Vines

    Common           Botanical
     Name              Name           Height       Clinging

  Actinidia,         Actinidia         30'
     Bower            arguta

  Actinidia,         Actinidia         30'
    Chinese          chinensis

   Akebia,            Akebia           30'
   Fiveleaf           quinata

  Ampelopsis,       Ampelopsis         20'
   Porcelain          brevi-
                    pedunculata

   Bignonia          Bignonia          60'
  (Crossvine)       capreolata

 Bittersweet,        Celastrus         20'
   American          scandens

  Boston ivy      Parthenocissus       35'             *
                   tricuspidata

 Bougainvillea     Bougainvillea       20'             *
                      glabra

   Clematis          Clematis         varies
                      hybrida

 Fig, Climbing         Ficus           40'             *
                      pumila

 Honeysuckle,        Lonicera          20'
    Trumpet        sempervirens

  Hydrangea,        Hydrangea,         60'             *
   Climbing           anomala
                    petiolaris

 Ivy, English         Hedera           70'             *
                       helix

   Jasmine,       Trachelospermum      15'
     Star           jasminoides

  Lace vine,         Polygonum         25'
    Silver           aubertii

  Monks hood        Ampelopsis         20'
     vine          aconitifolia

   Rambling            Rosa            10'           Tied
     roses          multiflora        to 20'
                      hybrida

   Trumpet            Campsis          30'             *
     vine            radicans

   Virginia       Parthenocissus       40'             *
    creeper        quinquefolia

   Wisteria,         Wisteria          30'
   Japanese         floribunda

   Woodbine,         Lonicera          50'
Chinese             tragophylla

               Vines

                                     Twining
    Common           Botanical          or           Light
     Name              Name          Tendrils      Tolerance

  Actinidia,         Actinidia          *        full/partial
     Bower            arguta                          sun

  Actinidia,         Actinidia          *        full/partial
    Chinese          chinensis                        sun

   Akebia,            Akebia            *        full/partial
   Fiveleaf           quinata                         sun

  Ampelopsis,       Ampelopsis          *         semi-shade
   Porcelain          brevi-
                    pedunculata

   Bignonia          Bignonia           *        full/partial
  (Crossvine)       capreolata                        sun

 Bittersweet,        Celastrus          *        full/partial
   American          scandens                         sun

  Boston ivy      Parthenocissus                    sun or
                   tricuspidata                      shade

 Bougainvillea     Bougainvillea                      sun
                      glabra

   Clematis          Clematis           *         semi-shade
                      hybrida

 Fig, Climbing         Ficus                     sun or shade
                      pumila

 Honeysuckle,        Lonicera           *        full/partial
    Trumpet        sempervirens                       sun

  Hydrangea,        Hydrangea,                   full/partial
   Climbing           anomala                         sun
                    petiolaris

 Ivy, English         Hedera                      semi-shade
                       helix

   Jasmine,       Trachelospermum       *            shade
     Star           jasminoides

  Lace vine,         Polygonum          *           sun or
    Silver           aubertii                        shade

  Monks hood        Ampelopsis          *         semi-shade
     vine          aconitifolia

   Rambling            Rosa                           sun
     roses          multiflora
                      hybrida

   Trumpet            Campsis                         sun
     vine            radicans

   Virginia       Parthenocissus                    sun or
    creeper        quinquefolia                      shade

   Wisteria,         Wisteria           *        full/partial
   Japanese         floribunda                        sun

   Woodbine,         Lonicera           *            shade
Chinese             tragophylla

               Vines
                                    Hardiness
    Common           Botanical         Zone
     Name              Name           Rating

  Actinidia,         Actinidia        4 to 7
     Bower            arguta

  Actinidia,         Actinidia        7 to 9
    Chinese          chinensis

   Akebia,            Akebia          5 to 8
   Fiveleaf           quinata

  Ampelopsis,       Ampelopsis        4 to 7
   Porcelain          brevi-
                    pedunculata

   Bignonia          Bignonia         6 to 9
  (Crossvine)       capreolata

 Bittersweet,        Celastrus        2 to 8
   American          scandens

  Boston ivy      Parthenocissus      4 to 8
                   tricuspidata

 Bougainvillea     Bougainvillea     7 to 10
                      glabra

   Clematis          Clematis         4 to 8
                      hybrida

 Fig, Climbing         Ficus          8 to 9
                      pumila

 Honeysuckle,        Lonicera         4 to 9
    Trumpet        sempervirens

  Hydrangea,        Hydrangea,        4 to 8
   Climbing           anomala
                    petiolaris

 Ivy, English         Hedera          5 to 9
                       helix

   Jasmine,       Trachelospermum     8 to 9
     Star           jasminoides

  Lace vine,         Polygonum        4 to 9
    Silver           aubertii

  Monks hood        Ampelopsis        4 to 7
     vine          aconitifolia

   Rambling            Rosa           5 to 8
     roses          multiflora
                      hybrida

   Trumpet            Campsis         5 to 9
     vine            radicans

   Virginia       Parthenocissus      3 to 9
    creeper        quinquefolia

   Wisteria,         Wisteria         5 to 9
   Japanese         floribunda

   Woodbine,         Lonicera         5 to 8
Chinese             tragophylla

               Vines
                                    Flower or Fruit
    Common           Botanical      Color and Time
     Name              Name         of Effectiveness

  Actinidia,         Actinidia      White flowers in spring
     Bower            arguta

  Actinidia,         Actinidia      Insignificant
    Chinese          chinensis

   Akebia,            Akebia        Purple flowers in spring
   Fiveleaf           quinata

  Ampelopsis,       Ampelopsis      Multicolored fall fruit
   Porcelain          brevi-
                    pedunculata

   Bignonia          Bignonia       Orange-red flowers in
  (Crossvine)       capreolata      spring

 Bittersweet,        Celastrus      Yellow-red fruit in
   American          scandens       fall/winter

  Boston ivy      Parthenocissus    Insignificant
                   tricuspidata

 Bougainvillea     Bougainvillea    Multicolored in summer
                      glabra

   Clematis          Clematis       Spring color varies
                      hybrida       by species

 Fig, Climbing         Ficus        Insignificant
                      pumila

 Honeysuckle,        Lonicera       Orange flowers/
    Trumpet        sempervirens     summer

  Hydrangea,        Hydrangea,      White flowers in
   Climbing           anomala       summer
                    petiolaris

 Ivy, English         Hedera        Insignificant
                       helix

   Jasmine,       Trachelospermum   White flowers in
     Star           jasminoides     late spring

  Lace vine,         Polygonum      White flowers in
    Silver           aubertii       summer

  Monks hood        Ampelopsis      Yellow-orange fruit in
     vine          aconitifolia     fall

   Rambling            Rosa         Multicolored
     roses          multiflora      in summer
                      hybrida

   Trumpet            Campsis       Orange flowers/
     vine            radicans       summer

   Virginia       Parthenocissus    Insignificant
    creeper        quinquefolia

   Wisteria,         Wisteria       Purple flowers in spring
   Japanese         floribunda

   Woodbine,         Lonicera       Yellow flowers/
    Chinese         tragophylla     summer; red fruit/fall
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Title Annotation:SECTION 1 Landscape Designing
Author:Ingels, Jack E.
Publication:Landscaping Principles and Practices, 6th ed.
Date:Jan 1, 2004
Words:15423
Previous Article:Chapter 6 The outdoor room concept.
Next Article:Chapter 8 The principles of design.
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