Printer Friendly

Chapter 7 Planning United States flight itineraries.


At the conclusion of this chapter, you should be able to

* determine the air client's wants and needs.

* identify the various flight patterns.

* recognize the different types of trips.

* interpret a basic GDS flight availability display.

* calculate time comparison and elapsed flying time.

* make flight reservations.

* recognize unethical booking practices.

* use reference sources to assist in planning air travel itineraries.



back-to-back ticketing

booking classes


circle trip

city pair


direct flight

double connections

duplicate bookings

elapsed flying time

end transaction

en route stops

excursion fare

fictitious bookings

fictitious return

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)


International Date Line (IDL)

itinerary field


minimum connecting time

name field

nonstop flight

normal fare

offline connection

one-way trip

online connection

open-jaw trip

open-jaw with side trip

optional PNR fields


phone field

qualify the traveler

received from field

record locator



single connection

speculative bookings

surface segment

ticket date field

time comparison

time zones

A traveler calls a Chicago travel agency and says, "I want a flight to New York in two weeks. I don't want to change planes and I want the cheapest fare." The travel counselor immediately accesses fares and flight schedules in the GDS and within a minute or two, the travel counselor is rattling off fares and flight times. Is it likely that this transaction will be concluded quickly? Is it likely that this prospective client will purchase travel at all from this travel counselor?


The travel counselor in the scenario did almost everything wrong. The travel counselor simply did not have enough information to begin researching flights and fares. The traveler said that he wanted a flight to New York, but the counselor does not know into which New York airport he wants to arrive. The travel counselor assumed he will depart from Chicago, but even if this is true, the agent does not know from which Chicago airport.

The traveler said that he wants a flight in two weeks. This is too vague and an actual travel date should have been established. Is he returning or is he traveling one-way? Again, the travel counselor does not know. This information is very important because round-trip fares are almost always less expensive than one-way fares.

The travel counselor has failed to understand that the traveler's primary priority, "cheapest fare," and the fact that he does not want to change planes may be contradictory. An airline with schedules that require a change of planes may have lower fares than an airline that offers direct flights. If that is true in this scenario, what is more important to the prospective client?

During the initial contact with a prospective client, the travel counselor must qualify the traveler by asking the right questions. These questions should result in specific information about what the client wants and how willing he is to be flexible in order to satisfy his primary priority. For most air travelers, the primary priority is either getting the lowest fare or obtaining the most convenient schedule.

Leisure travelers, those visiting family or taking a vacation, will usually put greater emphasis on obtaining the lowest fare. People traveling on business or for family emergencies generally select convenient schedule as the primary priority. It is the travel counselor's responsibility to establish what is more important to the traveler.
Important Industry Web Sites

Association of Business Travelers:
International Association of Conference Centers: http://

International Association of Convention & Visitors

National Business Travel Association:
Society of Incentive and Travel Executives:

What questions should the travel counselor have asked in the previous scenario?

After the travel counselor knows clearly what the potential client wants, then the travel counselor can select the correct flight pattern, type of trip, flight schedule, and airfare.


All flight schedules fall into one of three categories: nonstop, direct or through, or connection. The action of the flight after it departs the origin city determines the category into which it falls.

A nonstop flight, as the term implies, makes no stops between the origin and destination cities. For example, a nonstop flight is shown as

LAX [right arrow] BOS

A direct flight, sometimes called a through flight, makes one or more en route stops between the origin and destination cities, but there is no change of planes. At the en route stop, passengers may get off or on the flight, and the flight may take on fuel or catering. Many travelers will say they want a direct flight when. In fact, what they want is a nonstop. A direct flight is shown as

LAX [right arrow] STL [right arrow] BOS

A connection schedule requires at least one change of planes between the origin and destination cities. Schedules with one plane change are called single connections whereas schedules with two plane changes are called double connections. Every connection is either an online connection, that is, the same airline is used on all flights, or it is an offline connection and different airlines are used. The least convenient type of connection schedule involves the use of different airports at the connection point. A single connection is shown as

LAX [right arrow] STL

STL [right arrow] BOS

Every connection has a minimum connecting time; that is, the least amount of time that must be allowed for a change of planes. The minimum connecting time is based on the airline(s) used and the airport where the connection will be made. For example, a plane change from one Delta flight to a different Delta flight at CVG may require a minimum of 20 minutes. But, changing from an American flight to a United flight at SFO may require a minimum of 60 minutes. Internationally, security procedures, immigration, and customs increases minimum connecting time to as much as two hours or more.

All flight schedules shown as connections in the GDS as well as in the OAG (Official Airline Guide) Flight Guide have been checked to be sure the minimum time has been met. If the travel counselor obtains flight schedules on a flight-by-flight basis and constructs his own connection, minimum connecting time must be verified. The travel counselor can access minimum connecting time requirements in the GDS or in the OAG Flight Guide.

When making flight reservations, each flight, commonly referred to as a leg or segment, is booked separately. Each segment is identified by a city pair, that is, the origin city and the city where the passenger first deplanes. Nonstop and direct flights consist of one segment and one city pair. Connection service consists of two or more segments and city pairs.

From the perspective of passenger convenience,

* select a nonstop flight first

* select a direct flight second

* select an online connection third

* select an offline connection fourth

* select a multiple airport connection fifth

However, if obtaining the lowest fare is the traveler's primary priority, keep in mind that the most convenient schedule may not result in the lowest fare. Perhaps the most important fact to remember when selecting flight schedules is that none of the lowest airfares allow different airlines to be combined.


Understanding the types of trips and being able to recognize each type of trip directly affects the travel counselor's ability to price the trip correctly. In some cases, the definition of a type of trip depends on the type of fare that will be used. To better understand the trip definitions, you should understand one aspect of fares. That aspect is that all airfares are identified as either a normal fare or an excursion fare.

A normal fare is priced at a one-way amount and if it is to be used for a round-trip, the amount is doubled. Generally, normal fares carry very few, if any, restrictions or limitations and are the most expensive type of fare.

An excursion fare is priced at a round-trip amount and can never be sold on a one-way basis for half the amount. Excursion fares are usually the least expensive type of fare, but they can be very restrictive. All excursion fares, with very few exceptions, have the following requirements:

* the same airline must be used on all segments

* reservations must be made and travel purchased in advance

* there is a minimum stay requirement

* there is a maximum stay limitation

* travel is nonrefundable and there is a penalty for making changes

* all flight segments must be confirmed (no waitlisting or open segments)

Now we can discuss the five basic trip types: one-way, round-trip, open-jaw, circle trip, and open-jaw with side trip.

Having said all that, the current trend in airfares is rather different that it has been over the past few decades. Today, excursion fares are few and far between. Actually, they exist only in a few markets. Most airfares can presently be purchased on a one-way basis and have only a few restrictions. But, because airline policies, airfares in particular, can be rather fickle, we will cover fare construction with the idea that excursion fares are the least expensive.

One-Way Travel

The one-way trip is the most simple of the five trip types, and it is also the most expensive. A one-way trip is always defined as a trip from the origin city to the destination city. Figure 7-1 illustrates a one-way trip.
FIGURE -1 One-way trip example.

SFO [right arrow] PIT

Keep in mind that the one-way trip can utilize a nonstop, direct, or connection service. It is only the fact that the traveler is not returning to the origin city that makes this a one-way trip.

Round-Trip Travel

The round-trip is the most common type of trip. Perhaps 85 percent of all travel takes the form of a round-trip. A roundtrip is defined as a trip from the origin city to the destination city and back to the origin. The portion of the trip from the origin to the destination is known as the outbound. The portion of the trip from the destination back to the origin is known as the inbound. Figure 7-2 illustrates a round-trip.
FIGURE 7-2 Round-trip example

SFO [right arrow] PIT
SFO [left arrow] PIT

In most cases, it does not matter if nonstop, direct, or connection service is used, especially if using normal fares. If excursion fares are used, the same airline must be used on the complete trip, the restrictions listed previously may apply, and there may be restrictions on the routing.

Open-Jaw Travel

An open-jaw trip consists of the origin city and two destination cities and travel between one of the city pairs must be other than air. Figure 7-3 illustrates two examples of open-jaw trips.


The nonair segment of an open-jaw trip is called a surface segment. In reality, travel between the city pair on the surface segment can be by train, private jet, hot air balloon, or even roller blades. The point is that there is no commercial flight on this segment.

When normal fares are used, the airline, flight pattern, and distance between the cities are of no consequence. But, when excursion fares are used, all of these factors are important.

A travel counselor who cannot recognize an open-jaw trip sees it as two one-way trips. This oversight causes the counselor to use normal fares. Overlooking the possibility of using excursion fares could cause the traveler to pay a much higher fare than is necessary.

Circle-Trip Travel

A circle trip has two distinct definitions, both determined by the type of fare that is used. If normal fares are used, a circle trip is defined as a trip that has two or more destinations and all segments are by commercial air. The airlines and flight patterns do not matter.

If excursion fares are used, a circle trip is defined as a trip that has two destinations (no more, no less) and all segments are by commercial air. As with round- and open-jaw trips, using excursion fares on a circle trip means that certain flight patterns or routing may be required. Figure 7-4 illustrates the circle trip for excursion fares.


Travel counselors who are unable to recognize a circle trip for what it is may not realize that in certain circumstances excursion fares can be used. If a circle trip qualifies for excursion fares, but the travel counselor sees the trip as a combination of one-way trips, the counselor will likely use normal fares, charging far more than is necessary.

Open-Jaw with Side Trip

An open-jaw with side trip is the combination of the standard open-jaw and one-way trips. Of the five trip types, this is the least common. If normal fares are used, each segment is priced as a one-way and choice of airlines and routing do not matter. If excursion fares are used, the open-jaw portion is priced like any open-jaw trip, but the side trip must be priced as a one-way. Figure 7-5 illustrates an open-jaw with side trip.



After the travel counselor has determined the traveler's needs and priorities and visualized the type of trip the traveler is proposing, the next step is to offer flight options. Flight schedules are usually obtained in the GDS, and various Web sites, but nonautomated agencies, may select schedules from the OAG Flight Guide, known simply as the OAG.

Using the OAG

The OAG is offered in two volumes: the North American edition and the worldwide edition. The North American edition contains flights between cities in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean and is published bimonthly. The worldwide edition contains flights worldwide including those listed in the North American edition and is published monthly. Depending on the edition, an annual subscription costs between $300 and $600. The worldwide edition is also available on a stand-alone CD-ROM with monthly updates and costs approximately $350 per year.

The OAG is also online with free access to flight schedules at This site can also be accessed via Travel Weekly, directories section, at http://www.
Web Activity

Your GDS is down and isn't expected to be functional for several
hours, and your agency does not subscribe to the OAG. You have
several bookings that must be made right away. Do any of the
major U.S. airlines have an area on their Web site where travel
agency bookings can be made?

GDS Flight Availability Displays

As you learned in Chapter 6, there are four GDSs used by U.S. travel agencies: Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre, and Worldspan. Each GDS has its own format that must be typed before flight availability will be displayed, but fortunately, all GDS availability displays look basically the same. So, if you can interpret a flight availability display from one, you can interpret them all.

The GDS arranges schedules by showing nonstop and direct flights first. Because the GDS format usually includes a desired departure time, the GDS arranges these flights so that those departing nearest the requested time are shown first. As the travel counselor scrolls, or moves down, flights further away from the requested departure time are shown.

After nonstop and direct flights are shown, connection service begins. Again, the requested departure time is a factor in determining the order in which the connections are shown. As the travel counselor scrolls the connections, offline connections and connections using multiple airports may be shown. Generally, the most convenient schedules are shown on the first or second screen.

It is important to note that each travel agency can change its GDS display and sort criteria. For example, an agency that has an override commission agreement with a particular airline may set the GDS to display that airline before showing flights on other airlines.

Figure 7-6 is a GDS flight availability display from Washington Reagan National to Los Angeles. Because the first few screens include nonstop and direct flights only, Figure 7-6 is actually a compilation of the data from multiple screens.

Before we can take our first look at GDS flight schedules, a brief discussion about booking classes is in order. Each flight listing indicates the booking classes that are offered. Each booking class indicates the aircraft cabin category and a fare type:

F or P = first class

A = discounted first class

C or J = business class

Y, S, or W = coach class

M, K, V, L, Q, etc. = discounted coach class

A thorough explanation of booking classes can be found in the next chapter. For now, all you have to know about booking classes are the listed codes.


At some point in our lives, we have all had to know what time it is in another part of the country. Calculating the time difference between two locations is called time comparison. As a travel counselor, airline reservationist, or other travel professional, you will be working with passengers traveling to all points in the United Sates, as well as internationally. It is, therefore, extremely important to understand time zones and their effect on travel.

In the United States, the 48 contiguous states are divided into four time zones: Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific. Alaska and Hawaii have their own time zones (see Figure 7-7).

Each time zone around the world is referenced to the Greenwich Meridian, an imaginary vertical line near London, England. The Greenwich time zone is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and is shown as a zero. Each time zone west of GMT is expressed as a negative number because the time is earlier than it is at GMT. Each time zone east of GMT is expressed as a positive number because the time is later than it is at GMT. The stopping point for determining east and west is another imaginary line called the International Date Line (IDL) (see Figure 7-8).


By looking at Figures 7-7 and 7-8, you can see that all U.S. time zones are expressed as negative numbers, each number representing the number of hours the zone is behind, or earlier than, the time at GMT. To determine the number of hours difference between two cities in the United States, you simply subtract the smaller number from the larger. For example, Boston is expressed as -5 and San Francisco is expressed as -8; therefore, there is a three-hour time difference between the two cities.

If the current time in Boston is 9:30 A.M., what time would it be in San Francisco? First, you must understand that because San Francisco is west of Boston, it is earlier in San Francisco. Armed with that information, you now know that you must subtract the three-hour time difference from 9:30 A.M. So, it is 6:30 A.M. in San Francisco.

The expressions shown in Figures 7-7 and 7-8 represent standard time, which is used throughout this text. Most of the world observes daylight savings time, generally between March and October, and during that period the expressions are different. For example, during daylight savings time, GMT is shown as +1, U.S. Eastern time is -4, Central is -5, Mountain is -6, and Pacific is -7.
U.S. Time Comparison

Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relation to

Step 2: Subtract the smaller number from the larger number
to determine the number of hours difference between the two

Step 3: Is the city where you do not know the time west or
east of the known city? If the unknown city is west, you subtract
the number of hours difference from the known time. If
the unknown city is east, you add the number of hours difference
to the known time.




When looking at flight schedules in the OAG or in a GDS display, the departure and arrival times are local. That is, the departure time is local for the departure city and the arrival time is local for the arrival city. For this reason, eastbound flights appear to take much longer than they actually do and westbound flights appear to take practically no time at all. That is why it is important for travel counselors to know how to calculate the actual flight time, known as elapsed flying time.

To calculate elapsed flying time within the United States, you begin with the same steps you used to calculate time comparison. First, you determine how each city is expressed in relationship to GMT. Then, subtract the smaller number from the larger to calculate the number of hours difference between the two cities. The next step involves calculating the apparent flying time; that is, how long does the flight appear to take? This step is accomplished by subtracting the departure time from the arrival time. For example,
Arrival time          10:55 A.M.
Departure time        -8:22 A.M./
Apparent flying time  2 hours, 33 minutes

When calculating apparent flying time, there are some important points to remember. Because time is based on the number 60, you cannot use a calculator for math calculations. Always add or subtract minutes from minutes, and hours from hours. To demonstrate another potential problem, take a look at the next example.
Arrival time          8:15 P.M. (borrow 1 hour
                      and convert it to minutes)          7:75 P.M.
Departure time        6:55 P.M.                          -6:55 P.M./
Apparent flying time                              1 hour, 20 minutes

The last step in calculating elapsed flying time is to add or subtract the number of hours difference between the two cities from the apparent flying time. If the flight is westbound, add the hours and if the flight is eastbound, subtract the hours.
Elapsed Flying Time

Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relationship
to GMT.

Step 2: Subtract the smaller number from the larger number
to determine the number of hours difference between the two

Step 3: Subtract the departure time from the arrival time to
determine the apparent flying time.

Step 4: If the flight is westbound, add the hours difference
to the apparent flying time. If the flight is eastbound, subtract
the hours difference from the apparent flying time.


After the client and travel counselor have selected appropriate flight schedules, a reservation can be made. Although most flight reservations are made in the GDS, there are circumstances when they must be made on an airline Web site.

Regardless of how the reservation is made, either in the GDS or by phone, the finished product is a passenger name record, or PNR.

GDS Reservations

Each area of PNR data is known as a PNR field and each field contains the same type of data. The primary PNR fields are itinerary, name, phone, ticket date, and received from.

When making a GDS reservation, the flights are booked in the computer, creating the PNR's itinerary field. This field can also contain rental cars, hotels, tours, and cruises that have been booked, or sold, in the GDS. A surface segment, as in an open-jaw trip, is part of the itinerary field and is shown as ARUNK or ARNK.

The travel counselor enters the passenger's name, exactly as it appears on his photo ID or passport, creating the PNR's name field. This field can also contain titles or passenger type codes, known as PTCs.

The phone field should contain at least two items, the agency's phone and a home number for the traveler. It is also a good idea to include the traveler's business phone number and a contact for the passenger at his destination.

The ticket date field indicates the date when a ticket or electronic ticket will be processed and paid for. Depending on the GDS, this field may also show the validating airline or other ticketing-related information.

Depending on the GDS, the received from field may be mandatory for the completion of a PNR. This field identifies the name of the person from whom the travel counselor received the booking instruction. This could be the passenger herself, or an other person such as a family member, business associate, secretary, or personal assistant.

Other fields are considered optional PNR fields because they are not required before a PNR can be saved. Optional fields include form of payment, passenger address, seat assignments, special requests, and remarks. It is important to note that although these fields may be considered optional to the GDS, the travel agency may consider them mandatory for all PNRs.

Finalizing or saving the PNR after it is completed is called end transaction. Without this step, nothing has actually been booked. When the travel counselor ends the transaction, the PNR is saved and booking messages are electronically sent to the appropriate airline.

At this point, the GDS selects a combination of six letters or numbers, called a record locator. The record locator is the GDS's unique identification for the particular PNR. Figure 7-9 shows a completed PNR that was booked in Sabre.
FIGURE 7-9 Sample Sabre PNR.

  1 UA 576Q 05JAN W DFWORD HK2 805A 1013A HRQ //DCUA /E
  3 AA2339H 07JAN F ORDDFW HK2 330P 600P HRS //DCAA /E

  1. TAW08AUG/

  1. DFW214-555-1834-ABC TRAVEL/TAMMY
  2. DFW214-555-1134-H JULIUS MEIJER
  3. DFW214-555-8162-B JULIUS MEIJER

  4./DALLAS TX 75220
  5.-*AX111112223334444[double dagger]12/09

  GT63.GT63*A12 0915/01OCT06

Unethical Booking and Ticketing Practices

Every booking made in the GDS creates revenue for the GDS because each vendor (airline, hotel, car rental, cruise, and tour company) pays the GDS a booking fee. Unethical booking practices cause the vendors to pay booking fees without generating revenue for the vendor.

Some travelers and travel counselors may make two or more reservations for the same trip, called duplicate bookings. When the traveler decides which booking he wants, the other bookings may or may not be cancelled. This practice not only creates additional booking fees, but can also create a no-show problem if the unwanted reservations are not canceled.

Another unacceptable booking practice is the creation of fictitious bookings, also called speculative bookings. In this instance, one or more reservations are made in the hope that the traveler will purchase one of the trips. Again, this practice results in unnecessary booking fees and if the fictitious bookings are not cancelled, the no-show factor is increased. Many travel agents use the 50/50 guideline: If the agent is more than 50 percent sure that the client will purchase travel, a booking can ethically be made.

Most of the lower airfares require the purchase be made within 24 hours of when the reservation is made. If the traveler has not made a final decision within that time, the travel counselor may cancel and immediately rebook the flights. This practice is called churning. Churning causes airline fees for the initial booking as well as for every cancellation and rebooking. Some airlines have begun billing travel agencies for the fees incurred as a result of churning.

One-way airfares are generally more expensive than round-trip fares. Because of this, a traveler may ask that a fictitious return be booked for her one-way trip so that she can pay the lower, round-trip fare. She uses the first portion of the trip, but not the return. Not only does this practice create unnecessary airline booking fees and a no-show situation on the return, it also can create problems for the travel agency. Some airlines are now charging the travel agency for the one-way fare that should have been used on the trip in addition to penalty amounts. Do not confuse this unethical practice with the legitimate pricing technique of breaking the fare that is discussed in Chapter 8.

Some travel counselors use a practice called back-to-back ticketing for clients who are traveling round-trip but do not qualify for the lower fares. This practice involves booking and ticketing two round-trips, each with a fictitious return. The client uses the first portion of each ticket but not the second. This practice creates the same problems as the fictitious return, multiplied by two. Do not confuse this unethical practice with the legitimate pricing technique, back-to-back excursions, which is described in Chapter 8.


In any travel counselor-traveler transaction, a variety of questions may arise. The true travel professional does not know all of the answers but does know where he can find them. The GDS can be used to obtain a variety of information but in many cases, the travel counselor relies on other sources.

In addition to flight schedules, the OAG contains a wealth of information. Many questions the travel counselor and traveler may have can be answered by turning to the appropriate section of the OAG. Here are some examples:
Other OAG Flight Guide North American
Edition Information

* aircraft seating information

* aircraft performance statistics including passenger capacity,
number and type of engines, body style, and pressurization

* airline codes and abbreviations

* airline corporate offices

* city and airport code list

* flight itineraries showing where each flight originates, stops
en route, and terminates

* minimum connecting times

* toll-free phone numbers for airlines

Another excellent source of travel information is the Business Travel Planner, published by Northstar Travel Media. This reference tool is available online at http://www. and it also comes in a printed version. Most users of this resource prefer the online version because it can be updated quickly as situations change. A single user access for the online site is $149 per year.

In addition to information on breaking news and risk assessments, this site features detailed and comprehensive destination data. You can obtain information on virtually every country and over 8,000 cities. The data includes a brief history, currency, climate, travel warnings, official Web site links, visa and passport information, air and ground transportation, airport diagrams, travel advisories, hotels, dining, and local attractions.

In addition to the Business Travel Planner, Northstar Travel Media publishes Travel Weekly, Hotel & Travel Index, Official Meeting Facilities Guide, Official Hotel Guide, and Travel Management Daily.
Some Important Industry Web Sites

Arthur Frommer's Budget Travel Online:
City guides:
City links:
Conde Nast Traveler:
Festival Finder:
Fodor's Guides:
International Protocol:
Las Vegas Show Guide:
Lonely Planet Guides:
Map Blast:
Map Quest:
Rough Guides:
Time Out:
Time Zone Converter:
The Travel Channel Online:
Tourism Offices:
U.S. Destination Guide:
Weather Forecasts:
World City Guide:
World Clock:
Worldwide Destination Guide:

? What Would You Do?

Your client tells you that he can depart from Nashville on either
Saturday or Sunday for his trip to Omaha. He wants to stay
three or four days and wants the least expensive fare.

1. What other information do you need from this client?

2. Do you think it would be less expensive for him to depart on
Saturday or Sunday?

3. Based on your answer to question 2, why do you think so?


Each client has different wants and needs. Additionally, the level of travel knowledge and experience varies from one client to another. The first step in any client transaction is learning this type of information. It is the most important job for the travel professional. Although some clients are flexible and will consider all options, others must depart and arrive at very specific times. A first-time traveler may need much more explanation than a person who has traveled many times in the past. The choices clients make affect the way in which the travel professional proceeds.

Being able to identify the types of air trips, such as oneway, round-trip, open-jaw, or circle trip, and using resources, such as the OAG Flight Guide or airline GDS, contributes to the counselor's accuracy and creativity in assisting clients. Accurately pricing itineraries depends on the counselor's ability to obtain information from the client and match airline flight schedules and fares to the client's objectives. The process of making flight reservations for clients must be accomplished efficiently and accurately, otherwise, the client will simply find another travel counselor and take her business elsewhere.

For additional Travel and Tourism resources, go to



EXERCISE 7-1 Establishing Priorities, Flight Patterns, and Types of Trips

1. PIT [right arrow] CVG [right arrow] RSW is an example of what type of trip?

2. PIT [right arrow] CVG [right arrow] RSW is an example of what type of flight pattern?

3. Your client says that he must arrive in Omaha in time for a noon meeting and he wants the lowest fare. What do you think his priority probably is?

4. SDF [right arrow] CHS is an example of what type of flight pattern?

5. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] is an example of what type of trip?

6. Your client says that she needs a flight to Washington, DC. One of the first questions you ask is

7. What is the difference between an online connection and an offline connection? In what way are they the same?

8. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] is an example of what type of trip?

9. Your client says that he wants to go Milwaukee on Tuesday or Wednesday, return after staying seven days, and he wants the lowest fare. What do you think his priority probably is?

10. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] is an example of what type of trip?

11. Your client says that she does not want to change planes and she wants the lowest fare. How will you handle this?

12. In what way is determining the client's flexibility relevant to obtaining the lowest fare?

13. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] is an example of what type of trip?

14. Asking the right questions at the initial client contact is called

15. Fly from PSP to ELP, fly from ELP to AUS, surface from AUS to DFW, and fly from DFW to PSP is an example of what type of trip?

16. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] is an example of what type of flight pattern?

17. Under what circumstances must you verify that a connection complies with minimum connecting time?

18. Define the term "city pair."

19. Each flight on an itinerary is commonly called

20. What is the difference between the outbound flight and the inbound flight?

EXERCISE 7-2 CRS Flight Availability Displays.
EXERCISE 7-2 CRS Flight Availability Displays.

Directions: Answer questions based on the following display.


1$WN2844      F4 Y4 H4 W4 B4 Q0 L4 K4  PHXSEA-   737A
2$AS 721      F4 Y4 B4 M4 H4 Q4 V4     PHXSEA    630A
3#UA2106      F6 A6 Y9 B9 M9 H9 Q9 V9  PHXSEA-   600A
4#CO2786      A8 F8 Y9 H9 K9 B9 V9 Q9  PHXPDX-   742A
5#CO8768      Y4 H4 K0 B0 V0 Q0 T0     SEA       1200N


6$AS 707      F4 Y4 B4 M4 H4 Q4 VR     PHXPDX    650A
7$AS2248      Y4 B4 M4 H4 Q0 V0 K0     SEA       1030A
8#UA2258      F0 A0 Y9 B9 M9 H9 Q9 V9  PHXSFO-   918A
9#UA1010      F7 A7 C7 Y9 B9 M9 H9 Q9  SEA-      1211P


1$WN2844      1035A      N      733      0
2$AS 721      918A       8      M80      0
3#UA2106      1034A      8      735      1
4#CO2786      1025A             733      0
5#CO8768      1250P             DH8      0


6$AS 707      932A       N      M80      0
7$AS2248      1120A             DH8      0
8#UA2258      1121A      N      733      0
9#UA1010      209P       6      733      0


1. What airline code and flight number represents the earliest nonstop flight from origin to destination?

2. How many nonstop flights are offered from origin to destination?

3. How many connections are offered from origin to destination?

4. Identify, by airline codes and flight numbers, the connection that would be the most convenient for the client.

5. Your clients want to use a QE21NR fare. Could you book them on HP 2844?

6. How often does AS 721 arrive on time?

7. How often does UA 2258 arrive on time?

8. Your clients want to travel in first class. Could you book them on the AS connection?

9. Identify by airline codes and flight numbers the two flights using regional aircraft.

10. This availability display is for what date and day of the week?

11. Your clients want to use a KXE14IP fare. Could you book them on the CO connection?

12. In what time zone is Seattle?

13. Identify by airline code and flight number the latest nonstop flight from origin to destination.

EXERCISE 7-3 Time Comparison

1. All locations are expressed as a plus or minus number. This number represents the location's relationship to

2. Why are all U.S. locations shown with negative numbers?

3. Name the four time zones, west to east, in the 48 contiguous states.

4. It is 2:00 P.M. in Miami (-5). What time is it in Chicago (-6)?

5. It is 3:15 P.M. in San Diego (-8). What time is it in Dallas (-6)?

6. It is 9:45 A.M. in Phoenix (-7). What time is it in Seattle (-8)?

7. It is 9:25 P.M. in New York (-5). What time is it in Boston (-5)?

8. It is 2:00 A.M. in Atlanta (-5). What time and day is it in Los Angeles (-8)?

9. It is 11:30 P.M. in Spokane (-8). What time and day is it in Pittsburgh (-5)?

10. It is 11:47 P.M. in Reno (-8). What time and day is it in Minneapolis (-6)?

11. It is 8:16 A.M. in Charleston, SC (-5). What time is it in Boise (-7)?

12. It is 2:07 P.M. in Bismark (-6). What time is it in Oklahoma City (-6)?

13. It is 8:19 P.M. in Richmond (-5). What time is it in El Paso (-7)?

14. It is 4:09 P.M. in Colorado Springs (-7). What time is it in Hartford (-5)?

15. It is 1:15 A.M. in Washington, DC (-5). What time and day is it in San Diego (-8)?

16. It is 4:48 P.M. in Chicago (-6). What time is it in Denver (-7)?

17. It is 1:30 A.M. in Palm Springs (-8). What time and day is it in Honolulu (-10)?

18. It is 11:25 A.M. in Sacramento (-8). What time is it in Salt Lake City (-7)?

19. It is 10:15 P.M. in Anchorage (-9). What time and day is it in Charlotte (-5)?

20. It is 9:15 A.M. in New Orleans (-6). What time is it in Maui (-10)?

EXERCISE 7-4 Elapsed Flying Time

1. A flight departs Dallas (-6) at 1:07 P.M. and arrives in Pensacola (-6) at 3:36 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

2. A flight departs Baltimore (-5) at 10:00 A.M. and arrives in Las Vegas (-8) at 1:32 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

3. A flight departs Detroit Metro (-5) at 5:30 P.M. and arrives in Ft. Myers (-5) at 10:10 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

4. A flight departs Atlanta (-5) at 12:01 P.M. and arrives in Austin (-6) at 1:07 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

5. A flight departs Seattle (-8) at 8:45 A.M. and arrives in Calgary (-7) at 12:30 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

6. A flight departs Chicago O'Hare (-6) at 8:00 P.M. and arrives in Sarasota (-5) at 11:39 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

7. A flight departs Newark (-5) at 12:42 P.M. and arrives in Tampa (-5) at 3:37 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

8. A flight departs Boston (-5) at 4:05 P.M. and arrives in Los Angeles (-8) at 6:22 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

9. A flight departs Phoenix (-7) at 10:15 A.M. and arrives in Des Moines (-6) at 2:03 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

10. A flight departs Houston Bush Intercontinental (-6) at 8:52 A.M. and arrives in Boston (-5) at 12:06 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

11. A flight departs Anchorage (-9) at 7:00 A.M. and arrives in Seattle (-8) at 11:28 A.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

12. A flight departs Honolulu (-10) at 1:30 P.M. and arrives in Boston (-5) at 9:10 A.M. the next morning. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

13. A flight departs Los Angeles (-8) at 8:30 A.M. and arrives in Honolulu (-10) at 11:03 A.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

14. A flight departs New York (-5) at 1:05 P.M. and arrives in St. Johns, Newfoundland (-3 1/2) at 6:55 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

15. A flight departs Indianapolis (-5) at 9:45 A.M. and arrives in Cancun (-6) at 12:50 P.M. What is the actual elapsed flying time?

EXERCISE 7-5 Making Flight Reservations

1. Why might a travel counselor make flight reservations on an airline's Web site rather than in the GDS?

2. What is a PNR?

3. One type of unethical booking practice is called a speculative booking. What is it?

4. Each PNR consists of areas or sections known as

5. Give some examples of optional PNR fields.

6. What is the purpose of a res sheet?

7. The primary PNR fields are

8. One type of unethical booking practice is called a fictitious return. What is it?

9. How is a surface segment shown in a PNR?

10. What information is or might be shown in the ticket date field of a PNR?

11. What types of items are included in a PNR itinerary field?

12. Explain how unethical booking and ticketing practices are costly to the airlines.

13. What is the purpose of the received from field in a PNR?

14. What two items should always be included in the PNR phone field?

15. In what way might unethical booking and ticketing practices be costly to the travel agency?

16. What is a record locator?

17. Finalizing a completed PNR in the CRS is called


Review Questions

1. What questions might you ask during the qualification process with a potential air client?

2. Identify and explain five types of unethical booking and ticketing practices.

3. It is 9:37 A.M. in Honolulu (-10). What time is it in Wichita (-6)?

4. It is 11:45 P.M. in Cincinnati (-5). What time is it in Anchorage (-9)?

5. Using airport codes, draw examples of

* a one-way trip

* a round-trip

* an open-jaw trip

* a circle trip

* an open-jaw with side trip

6. Identify the five primary PNR fields and explain the data contained in each field.

7. A flight departs Vancouver (_8) at 8:50 P.M. and arrives in Atlanta (_5) at 5:40 A.M. the next morning. What is the elapsed flying time?

8. A flight departs Anchorage (_9) at 12:45 A.M. and arrives in Seattle (_8) at 5:07 A.M. What is the elapsed flying time?

9. Using airport codes, draw examples of

* a nonstop flight

* a direct flight

* a single online connection

* a single offline connection

* a double connection

* a multiple airport connection

10. In order, list the data given when making a flight reservation by phone.

11. What is an excursion fare?

12. What are the typical restrictions and limitations of an excursion fare?

13. What is a normal fare?

14. The portion of a trip from the origin to the destination is called

15. The return portion of a round-trip is called

16. Identify the booking classes that represent

coach class first class

business class discounted coach class

17. What is a change of gauge flight?
COPYRIGHT 2007 Delmar Learning
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:SECTION III United States Air Travel
Author:Gorham, Ginger; Rice, Susan
Publication:Travel Perspectives, A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2007
Previous Article:Chapter 6 Air travel basics.
Next Article:Chapter 8 United States airfares and other charges.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters