Chapter 6 Hospitality orientation and training programs.
LORET CARSON, Senior Vice President of Human Resources/Chief People Officer, Left At Albuquerque
"There is nothing training cannot do. Nothing is above its reach. It can turn bad morals to good; it can destroy bad principles and recreate good ones; it can lift men to angelship."
"The classroom should be an entrance into the world, not an escape from it."
Orientation and training: familiar words to most students in hospitality administration. Your human resources have been successfully recruited, selected, hired, and placed into vacant job positions. The next step in the human resources process is to properly orient and train your new employees. Unfortunately, too many food service and lodging organizations underestimate the overall value of having a well-planned orientation and training program. Both programs relate directly to the success of the new employees as well as the success of your hospitality organization.
As a manager assuming human resources responsibilities, it will be your job to prepare your employees to perform their jobs. You've both made a commitment to work together. The orientation program will be the new employees' first taste of your role as team leader. It is here that they will begin to develop the sense of teamwork, enthusiasm, and drive that makes your hospitality organization a special place to work. The training program will give you an opportunity to capitalize upon the natural attributes of the new employees, which are, after all, the reason you hired them in the first place!
At the conclusion of the chapter you will be able to:
1. Describe why a good orientation program is a necessity in a hospitality operation.
2. Identify the characteristics of a beneficial orientation program.
3. Explain the importance and goals of a training program.
4. Identify when and what types of training are needed in your hospitality corporation.
5. Understand the importance and role of literacy initiatives in the workplace.
6. Describe some steps you can take to implement a workplace education program in your hospitality organization.
7. Develop a training program.
8. Distinguish among several types of training methods.
9. Explain the importance of the Internet as a training medium.
10. Define distance learning and its role in training.
11. Identify the elements of a successful training program.
12. Explain why the School-to-Work Opportunities Act is important for the hospitality industry.
13. Differentiate between orientation and training.
All new employees should be given a well-planned orientation that will help them in getting off to a positive start in their new job. A thorough orientation program will acquaint the new employee to the hospitality organization, his or her specific work unit, and job position. In its broadest sense, the orientation process can be thought of as an extension of the recruitment and selection processes.
Just because a person is now an employee, it doesn't mean that they know what they are supposed to do, how they are supposed to behave, or even where they are supposed to be at any given time. Although an orientation should take place every time an employee begins a new position or takes on new responsibilities, we will be discussing new hire orientation in this chapter.
What Do You Do with a New Employee?
What is orientation? A good way to think of orientation is as a way of introducing new employees to the hospitality organization. Can you recall your first day on the job you have now? Even if that job was one you had performed for another hospitality company, such as bartender or room service waitstaff, didn't you feel at least a slight apprehension when going to work on that first day? We can relate to those feelings of anxiety with each of you; the "first day" means that you are entering into the unexpected.
So what can you, as a manager with human resources responsibilities, do to make the "first day" experience a pleasant one for your newly hired human resources? You can begin by making the employees feel at home with each other and their new hospitality work environment.
We define an orientation program as a method of familiarizing or acquainting new employees to the hospitality organization, their work unit or department, and to their job positions. This is done in an effort to minimize problems so that the new employee can make a maximum contribution to the work of the hospitality operation while at the same time realizing personal satisfaction. We want our new employees to fit in with the proper ways of doing business. Those "proper" ways depend upon your hospitality organization's goals, policies, and standard operating procedures.
By defining orientation in this way we begin to see the importance and value of planned programs. In too many situations, hospitality managers are content in turning over the responsibility of orientation to the new employee's coworkers. This unstructured orientation process can, in the long term, be very destructive to the success of the hospitality organization. Not only is this type of orientation unplanned, but it can also be misleading. Because this is the newly hired employee's first impression of how you do things, you want it to be positive, upbeat, and very organized. The worst thing that could happen in an orientation is that the new hire begins to wonder if he or she made a bad decision in accepting your job offer. This could happen if your orientation program comes across as unorganized or haphazard. An effective orientation program is one that is carefully planned and comes across to your new employees as a cooperative effort to make them feel welcome to your company. The more time and effort you invest in helping new employees feel welcome, the more likely they are to become loyal, well-adjusted, and long-term members of your hospitality organization.
Goals of Hospitality Orientation Programs
The purpose of a new hire orientation program is to give new employees an idea of the culture, behavior, facilities, and people skills necessary to make it through their first few months of employment. Orientation programs vary in both length and content based upon the job position for which the employee was hired, but need to be thorough enough to enable the employee to function fully and effectively as a member of the hospitality work team.
Communicating expectations and eliminating preconceptions are perhaps the most important goals of an orientation program. Helping employees to understand what is expected of them is the most valuable message you can communicate. Never assume that people know about your hospitality organization or the job for which they have been hired. These assumptions can seriously hinder employee performance once on the job. Not making any assumptions about what the employees know or don't know can help ensure that their initial progress is successful and prevent problems in the future.
An additional goal of orientation programs is to attempt to provide successful experiences. As you learn in Chapter 7, coaching and team building are part of your job when assuming human resources responsibilities. During the orientation it is important that your new recruits begin to feel like they will be making an important contribution to the team. Not only will your new human resources become contributing members of the team more quickly, many of their anxieties will be relieved when they are guided toward achieving initial successes. Confidence levels also will be boosted along with future productivity. By designing positive experiences into the orientation program, motivation will be fostered that will promote early success.
Hospitality managers are becoming increasingly aware of the fact that orientation programs are beneficial. The more thorough the orientation program, the more quickly the human resources become productive, contributing members of the organization. In addition, you will find a reduction in tardiness and absenteeism. It makes sense that the less job entry anxiety new hires experience, the more positive they are going to feel about your company, their new job, and the people they will be working with. This will translate into a more positive working attitude.
Commitment. This will require a commitment and involvement from unit level managers and senior management to make the new employees feel like they are part of your hospitality organization.
Participation in the orientation program by all levels of management is one way to show the new hires that they are important members of the team. It is also an excellent way for them to meet key people in your hospitality organization, so they can place the names with actual faces. Having all levels of management participating in the orientation allows them to become role models for all those entering your organization. If top management is actively involved in operational functions, the hourly human resources will tend to support them with greater enthusiasm.
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK When new employees successfully complete a thorough, well-thought-out, well-executed orientation program, they are positioned for success in their new job. Loret Carbone believes that this process allows new employees to understand what is expected and what they can expect from management. It also teaches employees everything they need to know technically about their job. The goal of orientation is that the new employees know what to expect of you and what you expect of them.
WHAT TO COVER ...
What are the mission statement, goals, and objectives of the organization? What does it expect of you as an employee? What can you expect the hospitality organization to provide for you? These are all some examples of the types of questions that people entering an organization or operation for the first time might have, and these questions should be covered in an effective orientation program.
For Whom and By Whom
Orientation programs should be developed and implemented for hourly employees as well as for management trainees. Upon graduation, many of you will experience a management training orientation. This chapter focuses primarily on the orientation programs you will be conducting for the hourly employees in your hospitality operation. Though many of the elements are similar to what you will experience, the program for management trainees is likely to be longer and more intensified.
For example, at Left At Albuquerque, entry level managers experience an extensive orientation and training program in which they are rotated through each hourly job position. Additionally, they receive training in the culture of the organization, they learn company systems and standards, and they attend seminars on management and leadership. If you are a trainee and wish to become an entry level manager, you are rotated through each of the hourly job positions. You learn how the hotel or restaurant is run, how each department operates, and pick up on a variety of management styles. This type of program is an extensive orientation and training program.
Orientation programs are not always just for the new employee, although that is their primary function (Figure 6-1). Orientation programs are also important in hospitality organizations that undergo changes in structure or policies, or following a merger or an acquisition. Acquisitions require a special orientation so that the employees of the acquired company feel a part of the parent organization.
Orientation programs can be conducted by either the human resources department, the individual department manager, or by the supervisor. To maximize effectiveness, there needs to be a great deal of cooperation from all departmental areas. Typically, the orientation in large, more complex hospitality organizations would be implemented so that the human resources department would describe company-wide policies. The departmental manager or supervisor would then orient the employee to the department he or she will be working in.
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The orientation process is so important that care must be taken to make the new employee comfortable and relaxed so that the maximum amount of information can be relayed to him or her. You certainly want to make a favorable first impression upon your new employees, and at the same time you want to create what Loret Carbone calls "a safe learning environment." This environment encourages questions about anything the new employee might need clarified or repeated. Remember that the goal here is for the new employees to learn and to become better informed. If they are afraid or too intimidated to ask questions, this goal will not be achieved. Icebreaker exercises work well in relaxing a group of employees and making them feel more comfortable. Your friendly, open attitude when conducting the orientation will also help abate fears.
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK Loret Carbone suggests the following icebreaker that she uses. "Have the trainees pair up with someone who was born in the same month as they were. (If the months don't exactly match, you can pair them up in a fun way by saying, 'You are June and you are October? That's close enough!') Then have them decide who will be 'A' and who will be 'B'. Have the 'As' spend 60 seconds interviewing the 'Bs' finding out what their name is, where they last worked, what their position is, what their hobbies are (you can be creative in this list.) Then switch and have the 'Bs' interview the 'As'. Finally, have everyone introduce their partner to the group, using the information they just learned about them."
Great care must be taken not to load the new employee with too much information at one time or information overload will occur. Taking the time to develop a formalized orientation program specifically for your hospitality organization prevents this from occurring. It also ensures that all the necessary information is contained in the program.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WELL-DESIGNED ORIENTATION PROGRAMS
In the hospitality business, it is important that our human resources have a global view of our hospitality organization. Emphasis should be placed on the culture of the organization, and why it's important. The Disney experience is probably the best example of a company that makes sure that each of its employees knows and understands the corporate culture. Disney World treats their orientation program like a process that they believe is beneficial because "... treating it as a single event ignores the development stages that new employees go through." (1) A large part of the orientation program is spent on the traditions, values, language, and culture of Disney.
The employees must be able to see how their specific job relates to other jobs and departments within the hospitality operation. Let's look, for example, at the importance of the relationship between the front office job position and the position of housekeeper. For the new employee who is going to work in housekeeping, an orientation of the front desk should be provided. Showing the human resources working in housekeeping how the front desk operates will give them a better understanding of where their work fits into the total goals of the hotel. It will demonstrate more clearly the awkward position the room clerks are in when they have guests waiting to check in, but do not have enough clean rooms ready. Likewise, showing the room clerks what it takes to clean a room will give them a better appreciation of why all the rooms are not ready for check-in by 10:00 a.m.!
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK Loret Carbone points out the importance of the relationship between the host staff and the servers in your dining rooms. "The host staff has to understand the time demands placed on a server when a new table of guests is seated in their assigned work station. Having the host follow a server during their shift would provide them with some empathy when two or even three tables get seated at the same time in one station."
Even though each of the human resources working in a hospitality operation has a specific job position, the nature of our business finds these employees walking around the operation. This means that our employees frequently come into direct contact with our guests in areas outside of their immediate work area. As a service to our guests, our human resources need to be informed about many of the operation's functions and activities so that they can correctly answer questions and inquiries made to them by our guests. Table 6-1 identifies some of the characteristics that a well-designed hospitality orientation program should contain.
The new employee who is made to feel welcome and immediately a part of the work team is sure to make the guests in your hospitality operation also feel welcome. Hospitality is a service industry, and if we are to excel in service to our guests, then our operations must have employees with what Loret Carbone calls a "high hospitality quotient" meaning a strong, positive service attitude. Don't tell them what hospitality is; show them! One way might be to give all new hires a certificate for a dinner for two before their first day on the job. Not only is this a warm welcome to your company, it also gives them a familiarity with your operation from the guest's perspective. You can use this during the orientation to describe how you expect them to treat the guests they will be encountering.
Throughout the orientation, then, the importance of good service and your guests is the theme of all discussions. Although orientations (see Table 6-2) vary somewhat depending upon the specific job position, they should at a minimum include the following:
At this point it is appropriate to discuss the operation's history and development. This can lead into a discussion of the hospitality organization's structure and organization chart. A thorough description of the organizational goals and operational objectives should be presented, including the mission statement. The importance of the contribution the new human resources are expected to make to those goals and objectives should be made clear. Loret Carbone explains that what you are looking for is an emotional buy-in and commitment to the company from the new employee. This is the first step to a successful partnership and long-term relationship between the new employee and the hospitality organization.
Survival Information. Though not the most exciting information you share with the new employee, survival information certainly is some of the most important you can share. Care must be taken so that no specifics are overlooked. What may be routine and obvious for present employees can become a major problem area for the new employee who lacks information.
Some of the necessary survival information includes the following:
* Check-in procedures; the use of time cards.
* Issuance of keys, uniforms, and necessary supplies.
* Medical insurance and other benefit forms. Assistance should be provided in filling out these forms, which can be confusing to even the most knowledgeable employee. As you learn in an upcoming chapter on benefits, this area is rapidly changing and becoming more complex. Table 6-3 identifies some of the employment papers that need to be filled out by new employees.
* Explanation of how to read the paycheck stub. This includes information on your compensation policy, such as when the employee will be paid and what deductions are taken.
* Locations of rest rooms, lockers, employee eating facilities/break room, vending machines, parking space, employee entrance, and time clock.
* Work hours and scheduling procedures; overtime, flextime, and comp-time policies.
This is a good time to distribute the organization's employee handbook, which should contain most of this information:
* Organizational policies. Time-off policy, vacation time and scheduling, paid holidays, call-in policy for illness, accrual of sick leave, substitute policy, meal and break policies.
* Operational policies. If you have done a good job explaining the hospitality company to the new employee, he or she will already have a good appreciation for why "the way we do things here" is so important. Every operation has values and traditions of which every new employee must be made aware. "We always refer to our customers as 'guests,'" or "we always greet our guests with a smile" are two examples of operational policies that might be part of your hospitality organization's corporate culture (Figure 6-2).
* Here you would also want to include information on your organization's policies relating to promotion, performance appraisals, career development opportunities, and behaviors that could result in termination.
* A tour. Familiarizing the new employee with the hospitality premises is important not only for his or her own knowledge, but just in case a guest asks for directions. The tour should include all areas that will help the new employee to perform his or her job more effectively. The locations of departments that interact with the new hire's department should be given special attention.
* Departmental responsibilities. Every employee needs to understand the contribution of his or her work unit to the hospitality operation as well as his or her department's relationship to other departments. Loret Carbone is quick to point out that this translates into teamwork. Introductions to other people the new employee will be working with should be made.
* Job responsibilities. This is an introduction to what the individual's job will consist of, including how it relates to other jobs in the department. The new employee is shown his or her work area along with any equipment the individual might be working with in his or her job position. An introduction to the employee's immediate supervisor should occur, if it has not been made already.
* Sanitation and safety procedures. Many hospitality organizations, especially those involved in the preparation and service of food, incorporate a session on sanitation procedures to all food service workers. Many others routinely include information on safety, as many departments in hospitality organizations contain equipment and chemicals that if not handled correctly and with great care could be dangerous to our human resources, and in some cases to our guests. OSHA federal guidelines require all operations to maintain a hazard communication program.
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Some hospitality organizations prepare a welcome kit that contains information useful to new employees. This can be given to them when they are hired. They should read the information and bring it to the first orientation session along with a list of questions they may have after reviewing the material. This can be read over at their leisure and can serve as a future reference guide when questions arise. The specific listing you develop for your hospitality organization will depend on its size, mission, and what management considers to be important information for new hires (see Table 6-4). In unionized operations, for example, it would be important to cover the significant provisions in the labor contract. In nonunionized operations, statements about remaining nonunionized might be included. A well-thought-out orientation helps new employees feel comfortable and at ease in their new job position.
FOLLOW-UP AND EVALUATION
Once the hospitality organization has formally established a good orientation program and checklist of items to cover, the responsibility does not end for assuring a successful orientation. It is extremely critical that during the first few weeks of employment some follow-up takes place. This is to ensure that the employee is adjusting to his or her new work environment with the least amount of job anxiety and problems possible.
A follow-up will also clarify any questions that might have arisen as a result of the orientation program. Once your new hire has been on the job for a few days, clarification might be needed on departmental rules or regulations; after he or she receives the first paycheck, another explanation of how to read the paycheck might be needed; another tour might be in order especially if your property is very large and complex. All these measures are taken to assist your new employees in assimilating into the hospitality workplace with as much ease as possible.
Unfortunately, orienting employees to the workplace and their jobs is frequently neglected in many hospitality organizations. All too frequently a newly hired person arrives and is expected to start working with very little guidance or instruction. Not only is this very stressful for the new hire, it translates into low productivity, the probability of mistakes, and poor guest relations. A solid, well-thought-out orientation program can help reduce the anxiety and stress commonly felt by a new employee when entering into a new, unfamiliar situation. It can help ensure that your new employee can go about the job with the assurance and confidence of knowing, not guessing, about what needs to be done. This allows the new employee to become productive more quickly and thereby can often reduce the costs associated learning on the job. In turn, employee turnover is reduced while retention rates improve. You have shown your people that your hospitality organization values their employees and that you want to help them to succeed in their job. Knowing what is expected of them, along with what they can expect of you, can only help your valuable human resources be successful.
Orientation programs, while separate from training, do compose an important part of the human resources planning and employment processes. The more quickly you can reduce the anxieties of your new hire, the more quickly that employee will become a productive member of the team. Orientation programs are about more than just the benefits, rules, and regulations; it is your opportunity to socialize the newest human resources in your hospitality organization and make them team members!
Training programs need to be distinguished from orientation programs. Whereas orientation programs provide information, training seeks to teach or improve skills and concepts. One of the main objectives of training is to sustain performance at or improve performance to acceptable levels. Orientation aids us in meeting this training objective, for without information about the organization, department, and job, we can hardly expect performance levels to be satisfactory.
In recent years, service--or the seeming lack of it--in American society has been making headlines. The hospitality industry has, along with other industries that provide service, had its share of negative publicity. When you think about it, it is really amazing that individuals who are willing to spend thousands and even millions of dollars building a new restaurant or renovating an old landmark hotel fail to allocate enough dollars for training.
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK Loret Carbone relates the following: "People love to tell you about terrible service experiences they have had in restaurants. One that I have heard recently is from a woman who entered a restaurant on a Monday at 2:00 pm and approached the host desk. The hostess, who was obviously talking and laughing with a friend on the phone, ignored the woman to the point where she actually turned her back to the guest to have more privacy on her call. The woman waited patiently. When the hostess hung up the phone she didn't even turn around to the guest, but rather walked away from the desk and went into the kitchen, never even acknowledging the presence of the guest. The woman continued to wait and when the hostess walked back up to the desk, she asked the woman, 'Just one?' From there she silently walked to the smallest table in the restaurant (there was only one other table occupied) and dropped the menu on the table, never pulling out the chair or wishing the woman a pleasant meal. The guest sat at the table patiently waiting for her server. After 10 minutes, the woman was so angry she got up and walked out of the restaurant. On her way out the door, the hostess said, 'Please come again.'"
How much do you think should be allocated per employee for training each year? A hundred dollars? A thousand dollars? Two thousand? Three thousand? Or less? Maybe twenty dollars for a self-study training manual? And how much would you allocate for a redesigned menu for your restaurant, new bed linens for the rooms, or updated software to handle your daily receipts? The last three items are all considered investments: items that improve the quality of the service you offer your guests. Similarly, you cannot afford to consider training any less of an investment. People are your most important asset! That is why we refer to them as human resources.
What It Is
With the growing emphasis on guest service in the hospitality industry, we must understand how to develop, implement, and maintain effective training programs. We define training as a systematic process through which the human resources in the hospitality industry gain knowledge and develop skills by instruction and practical activities that result in improved performance.
Training can be conducted at a number of different levels, making training an on-going activity in your hospitality operation. Upon graduation many of you will be experiencing the management candidate training program. At this level, training provides the management candidate with an overview of every department along with supervisory training experiences.
Training can also be conducted for supervisory human resources. These are individuals such as shift managers and floor supervisors, similar to foremen in other industries. Frequently, these people have been hourly employees who have exhibited great technical skills. The skills they need to develop relate more to interpersonal and leadership skills.
Training programs also need to be established for employees whom you deem to be promotable. These programs work to support the established job and career paths that we discuss at length in Chapter 7. Employees who you believe are promotable are the individuals who excel in their performance levels and are ready to accept more responsibility. Failing to provide this opportunity may result in the loss of some of your best people. These training programs become part of the development opportunities you provide for all of your human resources (Table 6-5). Remember that this is a highly competitive labor market.
Retraining needs might also occur with current employees who display a deficiency or need to be trained in a particular area. This could be due to a skill deficiency causing substandard performance, the need for new skills due to a change in job positions, or merely a refresher on skills that the employee has mastered but has not had cause to use. It is your responsibility, in human resources management, to pick up on signals that indicate a training need. What are some of those signals? Can you think of any? The following is a list of our ideas:
* Low Productivity. All hospitality organizations operate according to standards and policies. When you find that an employee is not keeping up with standards, such as a housekeeper who cannot consistently clean his or her assigned number of rooms each day, then you need to look into the reasons why productivity levels are not being maintained.
* High Waste. Whether it is too many onions being used in your restaurant, too many mixers in your bar, or too much window cleaner in your housekeeping department, high usages can indicate waste. Maybe your cooks don't know the proper way to peel onions, the bartender is using the wrong size glasses, or the housekeepers are using window cleaner to clean everything. Each of these situations could mean that a training need exists.
* Grievances and High Turnover of Employees. What is the cause of these grievances and high turnover? Though not always related to a lack of training, it could be a plausible reason. If you have ever worked in a job where you were not told what to do or how to do it, you know how frustrated and inadequate you can feel. No one wants to go to work and perform a job he or she really doesn't understand and is uncomfortable with doing for fear of making a mistake. People generally want to be successful, and it is our job to provide them with the proper tools to achieve that success.
* Guest Complaints. Listen to your guests and find out the reasons when they indicating that they are not satisfied. These reasons could spell T-R-A-I-N-I-N-G.
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK A manager's job is to service his or her employees, to help make them successful. According to Loret Carbone this idea is called "servanthood" and occurs when managers try give employees everything they need to be successful. She highly recommends Leadership Is An Art published in 1989 by Dell and written by Max DePree. According to Ms. Carbone, "DePree says that the first responsibility of the leader is to tell the truth and the last is to say thank you. In between the two, the leader must be a servant to her people. This means making sure employees have everything they need to be successful in their work. Some of these things are technical (plates, forks, food, glasses, a clean restaurant, etc.), but the more important ones are non-tangible. These are things like providing a psychologically safe environment. Let people know they are appreciated and create a safe learning environment. Treat people fairly, even when they make a mistake. Provide direct, honest feedback. Use discipline as a developmental tool. Resolve conflict calmly and fairly. The manager must learn the skills of communication, team building and leadership to become a 'servant leader.'"
Training should always strive to be responsive to the needs of the hospitality operation (Figure 6-3). This goes back to the human resources planning that we discussed earlier in this text. For the remainder of this chapter we examine training from the perspective of our new hires. Those new employees have successfully completed our well-thought-out orientation program, but have yet to start their job tasks, duties, and responsibilities. These individuals will work more effectively if we provide them with the proper training before placing them into their new job position.
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A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Once upon a time in the hospitality industry, you could tell an employee to do a task, in a specific manner, and he or she would. As we enter the twenty-first century, we find that people don't want to perform a task simply because you have told them to. They want to understand the reason why they are doing that task.
One of the first goals of training, in prehistoric times, was to teach others to use a tool to perform a task. "As man invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter and language, the need for training became an essential ingredient in the march of civilization." (2) When tools were simple, one training method was sufficient, but as the tools became more complex, different types of training were developed. On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the earliest types of training. In ancient times, the type of work that people performed was mostly unskilled or semiskilled work. OJT was used, probably because the people did not have to be able to read or write. Training methods, such as OJT, that involved one person showing another how to do a task was perfect for these situations.
Apprenticeships, although developed earlier, became widespread during the Middle Ages. They were developed to pass down the skills to perform various crafts. A young person would actually be bound to his or her employer by a legal agreement, and in exchange for work the apprentice would learn the craft from the skilled worker. The idea of apprenticeships is still prevalent in the hospitality industry in Europe today, and exists to a lesser degree in the United States, particularly in the area of culinary training.
Classroom training was developed in large part because of the new and unique training needs created by the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, the machines in the factories allowed goods to be produced quickly and in large numbers. Because there was a high demand for the goods the factories produced, the factories had a high need for employees who could be trained quickly and in large numbers. This training method required fewer trainers, unlike on-the-job training and apprenticeships.
Numerous training programs resulted from World War II efforts to rapidly train individuals to assist in our nation's defense. Among them are the job instructor training program, and the job safety training program. At the same time, the need for management training occurred and was met through the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training program (ESMWT).
Today training can no longer be thought of as a stop-gap activity. We can trace this increasing importance and value of training to the hospitality industry by examining training departments throughout the past several years.
OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING IN "THE NEXT CHAPTER"
The people who work for you have choices. The more frequently they make the right choices, the better off you, the manager, are. The better trained your human resources are, the more likely it is that they will make the right choices. Poorly trained human resources with low morale translate into poor quality service. The more you can maximize the abilities of your staff, the more successful they, and you, will be. We guarantee that you will have a lot more fun. Well-trained employees can assume more responsibility and that makes your job easier.
In the hospitality industry, regardless of job position, what is the most important job responsibility for each of your human resources? We want you to think very carefully about this question. The answer becomes the focus of all training activities. Maximizing guest satisfaction is the predominant job responsibility for each person you employ--even the dishwashers, who might never come into direct contact with the guests.
Before training actually takes place, the first thing you must tell your hourly employees is their job responsibilities. The job tasks that you are about to train them to perform are merely the means of achieving maximum guest satisfaction.
The following is a listing of specific training objectives that are commonly found in the hospitality industry. Please note that all can be related directly back to maximizing guest satisfaction.
* To make the hospitality operation a safe place for both employees and guests.
* To increase worker satisfaction.
--Reduction in turnover costs
* To provide the knowledge and skill levels necessary to perform assigned job position.
* To improve skill levels and performance abilities of our human resources.
--Improved labor efficiency
--Improved development and promotional opportunities
Training is important. Both the guest and the employee benefit from an effective training program. Table 6-6 identifies several of the advantages gained from training human resources in the hospitality industry.
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A GUIDE TO DEVELOPING YOUR HOSPITALITY TRAINING PROGRAM
As we have seen, there are numerous benefits that can be gained from an effective training program in the hospitality industry. But just what do we mean by "effective"? How do we get our training program to pay off with results? Planning and dedication to the training effort are required. Before you can start training, you must first assess the needs of your hospitality operation and then outline the training program so that it meets current and future needs. Figure 6-4 displays the development process of a training program.
Knowing When Training Is Needed
To initiate a training program, you need an outline of the topics to be covered. The training topics that will be taught are based upon the needs of your human resources. So first you must ask, "What are the needs of my trainees?" Once the needs are identified, the training program can then be designed to specifically address those needs. In order to be efficient and effective, all training programs should start with a needs assessment. The assessment seeks to identify "needs" or "gaps" between what is currently in place in the hospitality operation and what is needed. An example of a gap might be a difference between what the company expects to be happening and what is really happening. A gap could relate to a difference in job performance, between what is expected and what is happening. Or a gap could relate to a difference between the skills your human resources need and the ones that they actually have.
There are three areas that require analysis for your needs assessment: the hospitality organization, the job position, and the knowledge and skill level of the trainee. If your training program is going to be effective, it must meet the goals of the hospitality organization, it must be relevant to the particular job duties and tasks required of the job position, and it must satisfy a deficiency in the knowledge or skill level of the trainee.
* Organizational assessment. The assessment of your hospitality organization was discussed in Chapter 2. It was during the planning phase that we developed the mission statement for our hospitality enterprise, and from it prepared our organizational goals and operational objectives. Now we need to determine the effectiveness of our organization. Are we doing what we planned to be doing? The organizational assessment should identify:
--The need to address cultural or language barriers based upon the changing demographics in our work force
--Legislative changes and impacts such as sexual harassment and workplace discrimination
--New laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act
--Social issues that impact the workplace such as Welfare to Work and illiteracy
--Changing technology and increasing power of the Internet
--The effectiveness of the hospitality organization in meeting it's goals
* Job analysis. Job analysis provides valuable information for a variety of human resources functions. We have already seen the value of job analysis in the recruitment, selection, hiring, and placement functions. Now it serves us again as we attempt to determine the training needs.
Recall from Chapter 3 that job information was collected by a variety of methods for each job position in the hospitality workplace. A job listing was compiled that contained the specific tasks required in the performance of each job position. A sample task listing for a busperson is found in Table 6-7. From this information, job descriptions and specifications were written.
The information from the task analysis will give us an indication of the difficulty of learning the task. This will be useful to us in selecting the instructional methods and training media. Information is also obtained relating to the importance of the task in the performance of the job that will help us prioritize our training needs.
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* Assessment of our human resources. Our recruitment and selection efforts have provided us with the most-qualified individuals for the vacant job positions. Ideally they would walk into the workplace after orientation and have all the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform the job at a level equal to or higher than our stated performance standards. I cannot think of one case in my operational experience where this situation has occurred. So don't accuse those recruiters or that placement department with bringing you inferior new hires. Your job is now to take those human resources and assess their knowledge, skills, and abilities.
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK "Effective training begins with a well-thought-out plan," believes Loret Carbone. Once you have developed a thorough outline, it is an easy step to writing the training manual. With the manual in place, the training seminar development and worksheets fall quickly into place. Never underestimate the value of starting with a solid plan (Figure 6-5).
For those of you who work for a hospitality organization that requires preemployment testing, some of this work has already been done by the placement department. From the job analysis you know the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job. Whether through preemployment or diagnostic testing, you must now determine the performance levels of your trainees. Training needs are indicated by performance levels that are substandard to those required to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the job position.
Another indication of a training need is evidence of a conflict between the needs of the hospitality organization and the needs of the employees. Training is not only necessary when there is a deficiency in skills, it is also necessary to change or improve employee attitudes and behaviors.
This relates directly to our earlier discussion of maximizing guest satisfaction. Our employees have to be trained to maximize satisfaction for every guest who enters our hospitality operation (Figure 6-6). We can do this by reinforcing that message throughout the entire training program by relating everything we teach to the objective of maximum guest satisfaction. That is why the dishwashers must be sure to drain the dishmachine on a regular basis. That is why the housekeepers must recheck the room they just cleaned before leaving. That is why the bartenders must follow drink recipes.
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It is clear that completing a needs assessment is a logical first step in the development of a training plan. But if it is so logical, then why don't more hospitality organizations complete this critical step?
Completing needs assessments is a time-consuming process. Unfortunately, in the hospitality industry we need our new hires trained yesterday, and many managers feel that they simply cannot wait for a needs assessment to occur for every new hire. So instead--at best--everyone goes through a general orientation and generic training program with assurances that his or her supervisor will follow up with training in any deficiencies that they see while the employee is on the job. In the worst scenario, no training occurs and the new hire is simply shown his or her workstation and told to feel free to ask any questions. Not wanting to appear stupid, the new hire will either attempt to figure out procedures independently or become so frustrated that the first day at work is also the last. Then management is left wondering what happened. But worst of all, you have neglected your number one objective of maximizing guest satisfaction.
Another reason that needs assessments aren't performed more often is that many people don't have your understanding of what need assessments are and the results that they generate. Hospitality is an action-oriented industry, and if management does not see immediate results, they are likely to question how you are spending your time.
One cautionary note: When making observations for your needs analysis, care must be taken to differentiate between problems and needs that are the result of inadequate training and those that result from inadequate equipment, poor procedures, lack of feedback, or poor supervision. Training needs include only those problems that can be solved through training. Not all problems are training problems, nor are all needs training needs!
Training Goals and Objectives
Your analysis of the organization, the job, and the human resources has provided you with a list of training needs matched with trainees. If your training needs are numerous, you might want to consider prioritizing them into "A," "B," and "C" categories. Your "A" category would be those needs of primary importance for the day-to-day operations of your establishment. For the waitstaff this might consist of learning the proper serving procedures. "B" training needs would be secondary to the functioning of the operation, but critical in maximizing guest satisfaction. For the waitstaff this might include learning how each dish they will be serving is prepared. "C" needs have even a lower immediate priority, but again are necessary to set your hospitality operation above the competition. An example for the waitstaff could include knowing the characteristics of the most recently released wines available on the market.
It is important that your prioritized training needs and broad training goals such as maximizing guest satisfaction, providing basic job knowledge and skills, and providing a means to achieve job satisfaction are translated, in writing, to specific training objectives. The following is an example of a training objective for the busperson's position we identified when we conducted our needs analysis.
Sample Training Objective Objective: To clear and reset a table according to XYZ Company standards in sixty seconds.
You should always specify the behavior or performance desired at the end of the training program. Training objectives must be realistic and should provide for some form of evaluation to determine whether or not they have been obtained. Training objectives must be developed from the perspective of your own hospitality operation; you can't open a book to find a list of training objectives that will be suitable to your situation. The work you have accomplished so far will make the preparation of your training plan much easier.
Before we can train our people, we first need to know if they have the ability to learn. Each of us is born illiterate. Those of us who developed our literacy skills early are the most successful learners. Those people who do not develop reading skills at a young age are frequently unable to reach their potential in school, in the world, and in the workplace. The fact that you are able to read these written words means that you have developed literacy skills. However, not all adults can read these words.
The National Institute for Literacy estimates that 20 percent of the adult population read at or below a fifth-grade level. This is way below the level needed to earn a living wage. One result of these alarming statistics is the National Literacy Act of 1991. The purpose of the act is "to enhance the literacy and basic skills of adults, to ensure that all adults in the United States acquire the basic skills necessary to function effectively and achieve the greatest possible opportunity in their work and in their lives, and to strengthen and coordinate adult literacy programs." (3) Prior to this time the largest source of federal literacy services was in programs under the Adult Education Act.
The act furthered defined literacy as "an individual's ability to read, write, and speak in English, and compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job and in society, to achieve one's goals, and develop one's knowledge and potential." (4) In Section 102 this act established the National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), found at website www.nifl.gov, to be the center of national literacy efforts. In addition to serving as a resource for the literacy community, the Institute assists "in addressing urgent national priorities--upgrading the workforce, reducing welfare dependency, raising the standard of living, and creating safer communities." (5)
The United States is not alone in dealing with the problem of literacy. In Canada the literacy issue has become more prominent on the national agenda. The 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) studied training issues in Canada, the United States, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, and Sweden. Canada is using some of the data collected to determine the relationship between literacy and income security.
In the National Literacy Act of 1991, Congress emphasized the need for a "National Literacy Data Base." To that end the National Institute for Literacy has developed LINCS, the NIFL's Literacy Information and Communication System. LINCS is a national electronic literacy information retrieval and communication network that seeks to achieve the goals of national information and communication for the literacy community. It provides information about States Literacy Resources, the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center, as well as links to other literacy programs and resources. What this means to you is that there are numerous sources of data and information available, at your fingertips, that can assist hospitality managers and others in dealing with literacy-related issues and problems.
There are many different levels of literacy, many of which go beyond the scope of this brief introduction to literacy that we present here. The most recent focus is on "functional literacy," which refers to whether a person's educational level is sufficient to function in today's society. If a person is functionally illiterate, it means that the basic skills of reading, writing, and math are below the fifth-grade level. Below a fifth-grade level could mean that your dishwasher might not be able to read the words "rinse agent" or "soap." Does it matter which chemical they use where when they fill the automatic dispensers on the machine? Below a fifth-grade level could mean that your housekeeper might not be able to read a sign written by a guest requesting "Please do not empty water." That same housekeeper could pour the water glasses complete with contact lenses down the drain. Below a fifth-grade level could mean that your cooks can't read the recipes or measure the ingredients correctly. What is the difference between 1/4 tsp. and 1/4 cup; the difference between 1/4 and 1/2; the difference between a quart and a gallon? Below a fifth-grade level could mean that your cashier does not know how to count back change. Does this matter? Is this your problem as a manager with human resources responsibilities in the hospitality industry?
Literacy Initiatives in the Hospitality Industry
Fortunately, the hospitality industry has recognized the impact of the answers to those questions. We are an industry that hires a large number of unskilled and semiskilled people. The National Institute for Literacy states that about 20 percent of America's workers have low basic skills. We can assume that the literacy rates for our industry are, at best, the same. In response, a number of hospitality companies have instituted programs to help their human resources with their basic skills.
This is not to be confused with skills training, which we will discuss later in this chapter. This is teaching, or educating, people on the basic skills of reading, writing, and math. Sometimes these programs are referred to as workplace education. This term tends to be received more positively than does "basic skills program."
The key to these programs is to treat the employee with respect, start with what they know, and build upon the skills and knowledge that they have. These are not children, these are adults and need to be treated differently than you would if you were an elementary school teacher. You also need to differentiate between those employees with language deficiencies and those who cannot read or write. An employee who speaks English as a second language could possibly be mistaken for someone who is functionally illiterate. Being functionally illiterate does not make an employee stupid or mean that the employee has a learning disability or cannot learn English. Most often people who have reading or writing difficulties have not had an opportunity to obtain the skills they need to be successful on the job. And remember that literacy programs are not just for teaching remedial reading and writing. A good literacy program helps people develop the skills necessary to meet the demands of their jobs. With the computer revolution now surrounding each of us, sometimes our people have trouble being able to follow the computer's directions or understand how to process the information it provides them.
Workforce literacy programs have never been easier to start than today. They do not have to be expensive. Oftentimes there are federal and state grants and tax credits available. In 1996 the federal government provided $361 million for adult education and family literacy programs. As the shortage of qualified applicants continues, we need to do whatever we can to help the people who work for us to develop and reach their full potential. This is does not just benefit our hospitality organization and its people, it benefits the whole society in which we live.
THE TRAINING PLAN
The training plan could be considered the heart of the training program. It is an outline that takes the training needs, goals, and objectives--or what your operation must do with respect to training--and identifies when, where, by whom, and how the training will be accomplished. Where the training takes place is answered by selection of the training site. By whom is answered by the selection of the trainer. How the training will be accomplished is answered by selecting the instructional methods and the training media. When the training should occur is determined by the priority of the training need.
Many job positions in the hospitality industry require a great deal of decision making on the part of our human resources. They just simply cannot be trained for every possible situation that they will experience in the course of performing their job tasks. Part of the assessment of the individual trainee must take into account his or her decision-making abilities, and if deficient, the training plan must meet this critical need.
We are going to initiate our preparation of a training plan by first selecting the training site, then looking at the selection of the trainer, and finally discussing the variety of training methods and media available to assist you in meeting your hospitality organization's training needs.
The Training Location
Selecting the training location will be partially determined by the type of training method that you select, whether it is classroom or on-the-job training or both that you want to provide. The environment is a critical factor in determining the success of your training program (Figure 6-7). The area should be pleasant with a minimum of distractions.
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Think about the type of environment that you learned best in while you were at school. What do you consider distractions to learning? The environment temperature, humidity, lighting, your comfort at your desk or chair, the list could go on and on. If something in the environment causes the training experience to be less than it could be, then we bet that those same factors will affect the amount of learning your trainees will do. Without the proper environment and facilities, training will be harder and less effective.
The appropriate training aids also need to be available. Can you imagine your accounting professor giving a lecture without chalk and a chalkboard or an overhead marking pen and transparencies? Can you imagine training your busperson to clean and reset a table without cleaning supplies, cloths, silverware, or napkins? Of course not! Almost every training session will require tools, equipment, supplies, or materials of some type. These should be identified and gathered ahead of time so that they are ready for the training session. This would include any audiovisual equipment or materials that you might need.
Training the Trainer
Many of you who will be assuming human resources responsibilities will also find yourself in the role of trainer. And we also know that for some of you that will be a very uncomfortable position. Getting up in front of a group of people and giving a presentation is not an easy thing for many of us! Those of you who get nervous giving classroom speeches as part of your course work understand exactly what we mean.
Some of you might be planning on having your best employees train your new hires by using the "buddy system." It is generally felt that this is not the best training method. You, as manager, lose control over what learning takes place by the trainee. Shortcuts or other procedures that are not up to your performance standards may be taught instead of the correct way to perform a task.
If your hospitality organization is large enough, you might have a staff of trainers employed on your payroll. In most cases, the training will fall on your shoulders, and you should be prepared to assume these human resources responsibilities. The following characteristics are needed in a trainer:
* Knowledge of job skills
* Knowledge of trainee abilities and skill levels
* Knowledge of learning principles
* Ability to communicate effectively
* Ability to motivate
Your role as trainer will depend on the philosophy of the hospitality organization. Loret Carbone points out that many organizations place accountability for training with the management team. In smaller organizations the manager will wear the training hat more often than in larger hospitality organizations that might have a ful-time trainer. Very large organizations might have a team of trainers or training department. You can't expect people to train themselves, at least not in accordance with the standards and operating policies that you want to maintain in your hospitality organization. But if you don't train your new hires, they will still learn. Unfortunately, they won't learn what you want them to learn.
Selecting the Training Method
The next decision that you have to make is to determine which method to use in your training program to maximize the amount of learning that occurs for each of your trainees. The training of your human resources can take place in many ways in the hospitality industry. Some of these methods are formal and some are informal. Frequently, multiple methods are used to assist the trainees in developing their skills. Selection of a particular method depends on the training objective (what is to be learned), the number of trainees involved, the skill and ability levels of the trainees, and the training budget.
Although this chapter deals primarily with in-house training methods, the following vehicles can be used when in-house methods are not suitable for your particular situation:
* College/University courses. These frequently extend beyond the management development program that you are enrolled in. Many of the same courses that you take would serve as training vehicles for some job positions.
* Correspondence courses. The educational arms of both the American Hotel and Motel Association and the National Restaurant Association offer correspondence courses to which your hospitality operation could subscribe. State restaurant and lodging associations can also be quite helpful. There are several other organizations, frequently associated with universities, that also supply correspondence courses.
* Educational seminars. There are numerous hospitality groups that sponsor seminars throughout the year. Frequently you will find topics that are relevant to the training needs of your hospitality organization.
Each trainee responds differently to training, so as managers with human resources responsibilities, it is up to us to use the right method of training, at the right time for each of our human resources. Let's examine some of the various methods you can choose from when conducting an in-house training program.
The Lecture Method
We know that this is the method that each of you knows best! Its greatest advantage? The lecture method is very cost-effective when training large numbers of trainees. Its greatest disadvantage? Unless you're a very clever and witty speaker, it can be very boring and cause you to lose the attention of your audience. Trainee retention is also less than with other methods.
What can you do, then, to overcome the disadvantages of using the lecture method? Think about experiences you have had while in school. Audiovisual materials can be used to supplement the lecturer. Everything from films, slides, videotapes, flipcharts, and overheads to interactions with computer monitors can be incorporated to make the lecture method seem less tedious to the trainees. Another way you can pep up lectures is to encourage questions and feedback from the trainees to get them involved in the training session. This also helps you measure how well your message is coming across.
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On-the-job training (OJT) is designed so that learning occurs while the trainee is actually performing the tasks required of his or her job position (Figure 6-8). Those who advocate OJT believe that trainees learn best when faced with the actual job situation. Those who don't use OJT state the following as some of their reasons:
* A good way to pass along bad work habits.
* Can interfere with your objective of maximizing guest satisfaction if OJT takes precedence over, let's say, getting the food to the guest.
* Can cause an increase in waste and lost productivity.
* Training can take second place to the job being done and result in a less than satisfactory learning experience.
A good OJT design that is well implemented can overcome these potential problems.
Job Instruction Training
Even though job instruction training is really a form of on-the-job training, we want to discuss it in more detail, because it is the most typical technique used in the training of a new hire.
If you have taken a speech class, you know that the way to present new material to an audience is to tell them what you're going to tell them; tell them; and then tell them what you told them. Job instruction training is where the trainer tells the trainee how to do the task; shows the trainee how to do the task; observes the trainee doing the task; and then provides feedback to the trainee on how well he or she did the task.
We would like to incorporate our basic objective of maximizing guest satisfaction into the technique of job instruction training. When the trainee truly understands, without question, the reason why he or she is performing a task, the trainee will work with greater efficiency, increasing your chances of achieving maximum guest satisfaction. Furthermore, you should explain how the performance of that task affects your operation in relationship to guest satisfaction. For example, if the salad prep person does not rinse the fresh spinach three times using fresh warm water for each rinse, the guest is likely to be chewing sand in his or her fresh spinach salad: a very unpleasant guest experience!
At this point, you should explain to the trainee how his or her job performance can affect the jobs of other employees in your operation. It will probably be the waitstaff person who will incur the effects of the guest having a spinach salad with sand. As a final step in job instruction training it never hurts to ask the trainee to repeat the information back to you in his or her own words. Always use open-ended questions, those that cannot be answered with a "yes" or "no" response. This is your confirmation that the trainee knows what you are talking about. Remember that practice makes perfect. The training cycle is really quite simple: the trainer observes and provides feedback while the trainee practices. Observe-- Feedback--Practice--Observe--Feedback-- Practice--Observe--Feedback--Practice--
"perfect practice makes perfect"
Vestibule training or simulation training methods are those in which the real work environment is duplicated for the purpose of training. This has the advantages of on-the-job training without the potential of interfering, or negatively affecting, the day-to-day operations of your establishment. This experience is similar to the laboratory experience you had in your college program. The simulated approach works best with small groups. Its biggest disadvantage is the high cost of duplicating a work environment that is essentially nonrevenue producing. The long-term training effect should be evaluated to see if it results in a better return on investment (ROI) than other techniques.
Role playing is a training technique that stimulates learning by having the trainees act out real-life situations that they might face in the performance of their jobs. The advantage is that learning results from doing, which usually generates a higher retention than learning from merely observing. Role playing can be used to show trainees how to deal with difficult people, be they guests or other employees, as well as proper serving methods. Skills and behaviors both can be learned through role playing.
Choosing the Training Media
We have already discussed some of the more common training media available to you when we explained the lecture method of training. In "the next chapter" we have available many innovative training aids. Videotapes have replaced the use of filmstrips and slides in training presentations. Videotapes have been found to be an effective training medium. Many hospitality companies are building in-house and audiovisual libraries to use as a supplement with their on-the-job training programs.
Computer-based training programs (CBT) and electronic performance-support systems (EPSS) allow the trainee to advance through the training at his or her own pace. Computer-based training provides instruction via the medium of computers. It works in a fashion similar to the simulation method, only the computer serves as the simulator duplicating real-life industry experiences. Because the trainee can control the pace of the program, the individual can also go back and repeat segments that he or she feels need clarification. Computer-based training provides an opportunity to transfer information to trainees more quickly than in classroom training.
With EPSS the computer program actually guides the trainees through their work--while they are doing it. EPSS software directs the trainee to the appropriate resources, helps them make proper decisions, and helps keep them from making mistakes. These programs work best in jobs that are mental rather than physical and where employees use computers on a regular basis. In "the next chapter" look for an increasing application of these computer programs in the hospitality industry. A disadvantage is the lack of human interaction. Interactive video programs can be used to overcome this disadvantage.
All these methods of training are worthless unless management is behind the programs 100 percent. You can tell if you have management's commitment by their participation in the programs, their role as a trainer of the program, and the focus they give to each manager's performance objectives regarding people development. Understanding these new technologies (Figure 6-9) and how they are being used will be a major challenge for hospitality managers with human resources responsibilities in "the next chapter." After all it just might be up to you to decide which technologies are right for your organization.
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Web-Based Training Systems
Individualized instruction that is delivered over the World Wide Web (www) is a further development of computer-based training. Web-based training can be used with any type of computer that can access the Internet and has Web browser software. This gives hospitality companies the ability to economically institute training courses anytime, anywhere in the world, along with the ability to constantly upgrade or modify the training materials. In addition, trainers can provide individual feedback to their employees. Trainees can learn where and when they have the time and trainer interaction can be as easy as an e-mail message.
Several hotel companies have already discovered that "the future is today" and have incorporated aspects of web-based training into their training programs. Sheraton Hotels & Resorts has a CD-ROM--based Sheraton Guest Service Satisfaction 2000 program for their line-level employees. They find that the employees end up learning computer skills along with guest service skills as they undertake the program. Marriott International is currently using its website to prepare their human resources managers for accreditation from the Society for Human Resources Management. (6) The hospitality industry has just barely brushed the surface of the new technology that is and will be available in "the next chapter." Though web-based training is not the solution in all situations, it does provide hospitality organizations with another option to offer.
Distance learning is the application of technology of electronic means to educate in all areas of learning. The electronic delivery of education and company training can occur by satellite video, one-way and two-way video/ audio teleconferencing, video broadcast, audiographic, Internet, or other electronic means. The delivery of electronically mediated learning has opened new retraining opportunities for the hospitality industry.
Distance learning may be delivered in real time or it may be delayed. It has been proven to be as effective as traditional instruction methods in business training situations. Many companies, such as Hewlett-Packard, have saved millions of dollars by using distance learning to train employees more effectively and more efficiently than with traditional methods. As the nature of work has changed, so has training changed to support that work. Advances in technology allow us to look at training as we never have before.
Preparing the Trainee
Remember that for many of our hourly employees training is likely to be a new experience. They probably don't know what to expect, so it will be up to you, as trainer, to make them feel comfortable and at ease. It will help if they understand directly how this training will benefit them. Assure them that your job is to help and support them through the training program and that they will not be punished for their mistakes. They need to have confidence in you, so it is important that you have your act together and come to the training session well organized and prepared.
You might want to begin by giving them a brief overview of their new job position. As they begin to relax with you, they can turn their thoughts towards learning. Although they saw their workstation during orientation, now is the time to take them back to the work area and explain briefly the equipment that is found there. It is important that the trainee understands how each task fits into his or her total job.
During this overview you will also gain a more personal perspective on what the trainee knows, what equipment the trainee may have worked with before, and what kinds of skills he or she has used in pervious jobs. All of this serves to help generate employee interest in the training program.
Conduct the Training Session
In your role as trainer you will be facilitating the training of the new hire so that the trainee is able to learn the skills, duties, and responsibilities of his or her new job position as thoroughly and quickly as possible. As we have stated throughout this section, training should always be responsive to the needs of the hospitality organization. While you are aware of the importance of guest satisfaction, you cannot expect the trainee to have this awareness unless you incorporate it into your training program.
Conducting the training program requires the implementation of all elements of the training plan. After you present the job to the employee using the job task listings you developed, have the employee try out each of the tasks while you watch. Yes, we know that operational pressures and responsibilities can be enormous, yet you must keep in mind the importance of a well-conducted training session. It is up to you to instill in the trainee the commitment to persist when left on his or her own in the job.
Evaluate the Training
This step is perhaps the most critical in the training program. Once the transition has been made from training to job, follow-up and evaluation play an important part in maintaining acceptable job performance. Ideally, follow-up never really ends. Even under regular supervision and day-to-day activities, your employees deserve feedback on how well they are doing in their jobs.
Before leaving trainees on their own, they should be told to whom they can go if they have questions. You should make sure that they completely understand the standards of performance for all job tasks that they will be performing. After training is completed, try to be available and encourage questions. Performance should be checked frequently at first, with a gradual tapering off. Evaluating the trainees at the completion of the training program involves measuring the quality of their work based upon the specific performance standards of their job. Let the employees know how they are doing and where they need improvement.
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK Loret Carbone cautions, "Be patient." Let trainees progress on their own individual learning curves. Allow your people to feel successful, then build on those successes. But remember that learning and progress will be different for each person.
The purpose of evaluating the training program is to determine whether the training has achieved its goals and objectives. Both the training method and the results of the training program should be evaluated. Methods need to be implemented to determine if the training objectives were met. Does trainee performance match organizational performance standards? This in turn measures the success of the training plan.
On May 4, the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1995 was established for the purpose of establishing a national framework for the development of School-to-Work Opportunity systems among all of the states. The Congress of the United States found that 75 percent of high school students in this country enter the work force without baccalaureate degrees and without the necessary entry-level work skills to enable them to succeed in the workplace. They also found that although many students held part-time jobs while in high school, there was no linkage between those jobs and looking at those jobs as possible careers. They found that in 1992 there were approximately 3.4 million persons in the United States between the ages of 16 and 24 who had not completed high school and were not currently enrolled in school. This translated into an alarming 11 percent of all persons in that age group. The passing of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act was a response to those findings.
So, what exactly are school-to-work programs (STW)? The U.S. Department of Education defines a school-to-work program as a partnership between business, education, labor, government, and community organizations that helps to prepare students for high-wage, high-skill careers that are found in an increasingly global world. School-to-work represents a new approach to learning in America. It is based on the proven fact that students learn better when their lessons are applied to real-life, real-work situations as opposed to merely memorizing facts from a textbook.
STW programs are not another form of on-the-job training. Nor are they only for non-college-bound students. These programs aim to better prepare students for college or careers or just plain good citizenship. For the programs to work, a strong relationship between the schools and the workplaces is necessary. There needs to be a clear understanding from both organizations on what the students are expected to do and which organization (school or workplace) is responsible for providing what.
Work-oriented education has the possibility of being a huge asset to the hospitality industry in "the next chapter." It provides us with opportunities to "turn students on" to the idea of a career in the hospitality industry. Allowing students to learn by doing and improving their workplace skills can only serve as a benefit to hospitality managers with human resources responsibilities. The more the youth of tomorrow understand what is required to be successful, the better prepared they will be to make good decisions about their future.
MAXIMIZING YOUR TRAINING INVESTMENT
You have spent a lot of time and effort in the development and implementation of your hospitality training program (Figure 6-10). What are some of the things that you can do to make sure that you are getting the best return on your investment? One way of answering that question is to look at some of the errors made in training:
* Giving too much information at one time. Although the information presented might be common sense to you, none of the tasks is mere routine for the trainee. The trainee is digesting new concepts, and digestion takes time.
* Not tailoring the training to the specific needs of the job. Training cannot be packaged in a generic black-and-white box, put on a shelf, and dusted off when needed. Training needs to be continually updated. If you revise your menu or make other operational changes, you have to make sure that your training reflects those changes.
* Treating the training of hourly employees as less important than management training programs. Hourly employees are the eyes and ears of any hospitality operation. Their importance to our success cannot be overstated, hence training should be treated with great importance. Every employee should be treated as a career employee, which could result in a stronger development program.
* Trainers who are not qualified to conduct the training sessions. We've already stated the characteristics necessary to be a good trainer. Trainers who do not know the job position or do not have the skills necessary to perform the job tasks can damage your credibility with the new hires.
* Explanations that are too technical or use of terminology that is unfamiliar to the trainees. Always try to explain things in everyday language and define all hospitality terms and slang when used. Never tell when you can show.
* Lack of patience. As a trainer, you must recognize that learning is a slow process. This does not mean that your trainees are slow, but rather that we all learn at different rates of speed. Take care not to lose half of your training class. Each person has a unique, individual learning curve.
* Failure to build in feedback mechanisms. Always make it possible for the trainees to ask questions whenever they feel the need. Without some type of trainee feedback, you don't know whether they have truly learned. Another benefit of feedback mechanisms is that they help to reduce tension.
INDUSTRY EXPERTS SPEAK Loret Carbone says, "Make sure you check your training program to be sure it communicates your philosophies, policies and rules for employment. Nothing should be left to the imagination. Once the employee completes the training program, it should be very clear to them what they will have to do to be successful. Training sets the parameters for high performance."
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING
When we examine learning from a training perspective, we need to focus our attention specifically on adult learning. The reasons why adult men and women want to learn is a good place to start, as it is hard to improve the learning situation without understanding the motivations for adult learning. Adults want to learn when:
* They find that their work is interesting.
* They can feel important in what they are doing.
* They are challenged.
* They know that their work is recognized and appreciated.
* When they see that the satisfaction of their personal ambition is one of the benefits.
* Their focus is on realistic problems.
Adults learn what they feel is important and contributes to results that they value. This reinforces the need to relate the "whys" of training throughout the implementation of the training plan. Adults need to feel that they are productive contributors to the hospitality organization and its goals.
Barriers to Learning
There are many conditions that can keep our trainees from learning. When we train under these conditions effectiveness is reduced:
* Fatigue. It can reduce both our physical and mental effectiveness. The more fatigued our trainees are, the longer it takes to learn. This is why training sessions should not be conducted at the end of the work shift. The most beneficial sessions are kept short.
* Monotony. If you as the trainer find the session boring, it is highly likely that the trainees will also find it boring. What you are teaching may be routine to you, but it is not to your trainees. Keep the sessions lively and stimulating so that maximum learning can occur. Make the training highly interactive, fun and games.
* Distractions. Any distractions will inhibit the learning process. This can be a problem in on-the-job training when the daily activities of your operation are going on around you.
* Anxiety. People are usually tense when they enter into new situations and are with unfamiliar individuals. It is up to you to break the ice and get the trainee to relax, or learning will be inhibited.
There is much information that can be gained from a study of learning theory and methods. Many can be directly applied to training programs in the hospitality industry.
Orientation programs and training programs are two of the most valuable tools you have available to you as the human resources manager of a hospitality operation. We need to be the employer of choice, as we are all competing for the best and brightest. As competition increases, we have to look for ways to attract guests to our operation as opposed to all the others. Having a staff trained in maximizing guest satisfaction can be the deciding factor for many of our guests. People return to places where they feel at home, and where the staff takes care of their every request.
Successful training does not occur in a vacuum. Many other elements of the system are affected, such as performance appraisals, merit increases, pay-for-performance, and the like. Training impacts the total human resources management system. The more detailed and rigorous, fair but demanding your training program is, the higher the caliber of job applicant you will be able to hire. The interviewer will have to take into consideration whether the job applicant is good enough to pass your training program.
Training is management's responsibility. Training is a skill that takes practice. In too many cases we blame the problems on the poor quality of employees we have, when instead we should be blaming the lack of training. When planning the training program, the manager who assumes human resources responsibilities needs to keep in mind the goals of the organization, the theory of learning, the needs of the job and the trainee, the variety of training methods and media available to them, and a method of follow-up and evaluation.
Our human resources want to be involved in only high-quality training experiences. The quality of the service we provide cannot improve until the quality of our training programs improves. We encourage you to become the most competent trainer you can be. More than just the reputation of your business is at stake. Training is a tool used by management to increase the productivity of all human resources as well as teach them to learn how to react in whatever situation they may find themselves. Good service training can be achieved using the guidelines we've provided for you in this chapter.
CASE PROBLEM 6-1 Sara arrives for her first day of training at a restaurant that is part of a small company (six restaurants) located on the West Coast. She is excited about her new job and is looking forward to learning more about the company and its operational systems. When she arrives at 8:00 a.m. (she was requested to by the person who hired her), she finds the restaurant dark and the front door locked. She knocks on the door, even pounds on the door, but nobody is there. She waits. Finally, at 8:45 a.m. the opening manager, Bill, arrives and is surprised when Sara introduces herself and says she is there for her orientation and training. Bill obviously didn't know that she was coming. Bill lets Sara into the restaurant and tells her to wait at one of the tables by the door and walks away. He never even turns on the lights for her, so Sara sits in the dark for another twenty minutes before the manager returns. When Bill does, he gives her a menu and the Employee Handbook and says he will come back in "awhile." When Sara has read both of these, she gets up and tries to find Bill. When she does, he tells her that he wants her to work as a hostess today because the scheduled hostess called in sick. So, without any orientation or training, Sara tries her hardest to answer the phone, greet guests, seat guests, and answer their questions. At the end of the day, Sara asks Bill if he could answer some questions. Bill says he doesn't have time today but she should come tomorrow at 8:00 a.m. Sara doesn't come to work the next day. What happened? What went wrong? Identify some material that you would give Sara before her first day of orientation and training to prepare her for her first day. Develop a two-page agenda for Sara's first day. Include a time line, goals, and who would work with her. CASE PROBLEM 6-2 You have been rehired by a major lodging chain as an assistant manager and assigned to a property located in the heart of a major city in the Northeast. During your training, you are rotated among the various departments within the hotel property. Shortly after beginning your training rotation in the housekeeping department, you become aware of irregularities and inconsistencies in the procedures used by the housekeeping staff. When working with Sally, you clean the bathroom and then make the beds. When working with Susie, you make the beds and then clean the bathrooms. Although this did not bother you too much, you also noticed that the amount of cleaning solutions used, the time taken to clean a standard room, and the amount of linens being left in each guest room varied depending upon the housekeeper you were working with. You discuss the inconsistencies with the executive housekeeper. Upon doing so, you are informed that there have been no guest complaints and that the housekeeping department is ahead of budget with respect to payroll and supplies. "Though I am sure you mean well, the housekeeping department of this hotel has an excellent reputation! You must be mistaken." As you continue to work within the property, you suspect that the violations and inconsistencies in procedures are due, not to a lack of interest but to a lack of training. The housekeeping staff simply does not know the correct standards and procedures. Which of your observations could be caused by a lack of training? What are the indicators of a lack of training in each observation you identify? Why have there been no guest complaints? How is it that housekeeping is ahead of budget? Select one job performed in housekeeping and prepare a training objective for that specific job. Which training method would you select to implement your training? Why did you select this particular training method? CASE PROBLEM 6-3 During the initial few days of his training period, Ted studied all the written training material, manuals, and guidelines provided. He enjoyed the structure and discipline of the program and was happy that he was receiving such clear information. He couldn't wait to start the practical part of the training where he would actually perform the jobs. As he rotated through all of the stations in the kitchen, he realized that the standards outlined in the training materials were not being followed. When he asked employees about it, they said things like, "Nobody does it that way. Here is how we really do it." This bothered Ted a lot, but being a new trainee he didn't want to make waves. If you were in charge of this restaurant, how would you make sure the written training material and the actual work being done was integrated? Develop a two-page training program that ensures that the trainee receives a cohesive message about the systems and standards of the restaurant. How would you structure it so that you were sure that your employees who are training new employees are doing it "by the book"?
computer-based training programs (CBT)
job instruction training
in-house training methods
on-the-job training (OJT)
School-to-Work Opportunities Act
Chase, N. "Train, Don't Tell." Quality Magazine. www.qualitymag.com/articles/may98/0598++.html (3 July 1998).
Clemmer, J. "Why Most Training Fails." The Globe & Mail. www.clemmer-group..com/globe/training.htm (19 July 1998).
"The Evolving Workplace: Findings from the Pilot Workplace and Employee Survey." Ottawa: Statistics Canada for Human Resources Development, 1998.
Frazee, V. 1996. "Workers Learn to Walk So They Can Run." Personnel Journal 75(5): 115-120.
Gruner, S. 1998. "Lasting Impressions." Inc. Magazine (July): 126.
Kennedy, D. and F. Berger. 1994. "Newcomer Socialization: Oriented to Facts or Feelings." The Cornell Quarterly 35(4): 58-71.
Kirsch, I. S., A. Jungeblut, L. Jenkins, and A. Kolstad. 1993. Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Results of the National Adult Literacy Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Klien, C.S. and J. Taylor. 1994. "Employee Orientation Is an Ongoing Process at The Dupont Merck Pharmaceutical Co." Personnel Journal 73(5): 64-67.
Montigny, G., K. Kelly, and S. Jones. 1991. Adult Literacy in Canada: Results of a National Study. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
National School-to-Work Office. 1998. Managing the Risks of Work-based Learning: A Resource Guide. Washington, DC: National School-to-Work Office.
Shay, J. and J. B. Tracey. 1997. "Expatriate Managers: Reasons for Failure and Implications for Training." The Cornell Quarterly 38(1): 30-35.
Tas, R., S. V. LaBrecque, and H. R. Clayton. 1996. "Property Management Competencies for Management Trainees." The Cornell Quarterly 37(4): 90-96.
Tracey, J. B. and M. J. Tews. 1995. "Training Effectiveness: Accounting for Individual Characteristics and the Work Environment." The Cornell Quarterly 36(6): 36-42.
VanDerWall, S. "Training Enhances Job Satisfaction, Gallup Survey Finds." SHRM/HR News Online. www.shrm.org/hrnews/articles/110398.htm (11 November 1998).
Wilson, W. 1994. "Video Training and Testing Supports Customer Service Goals." Personnel Journal 73(6): 47-51.
Young, C. A. and C. C. Lundberg. 1996. "Creating a Good First Day on the Job Allaying Newscomers' Anxiety with Positive Messages." The Cornell Quarterly 37(5): 26-33.
RECOMMENDED WEB SITES
1. Training and Development FAQs: www.workindex.com/workindex/TrainingandDevelopment FAQs.html
2. American Society for Training and Development: www.astd.org
3. Training Supersite: www.trainingsupersite.com
4. National Alliance of Business: www.nab.com
5. Literacy Online: litserver.literacy.upenn.edu
6. National Skills Standards Board: www.nssb.org
7. Training Forum: www.trainingforum.com
8. National Institute for Literacy: www.nifl.gov
9. Teletraining Institute: www.teletrain.com
10. The Interactive Distance Learning Group, Inc.: idl.ncms.org
11. U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration: www.ttrc.doleta.gov
12. U.S. Distance-Learning Association: www.usdla.org
1. What is orientation? What is training?
2. Compare and contrast company orientation, department orientation, and job orientation.
3. List topics that you feel should be covered during a company orientation program for buspersons in a 200-seat family dining area.
4. What are some of the problems that can occur when we fail to properly orient new employees? What problems occur when training needs are ignored?
5. Discuss how training has changed since the days of apprenticeships.
6. Discuss how the employee, the supervisor, and the hospitality organization each benefit from training.
7. Why is it necessary to conduct an assessment of training needs? Describe in detail each of the three levels at which assessment must occur.
8. Describe the benefits of initiating literacy programs in hospitality organizations.
9. What is a workplace education program?
10. Identify and describe each of the components of a training plan.
11. Why do most hospitality organizations fail to evaluate their training programs?
12. What factors need to be taken into consideration when applying on-the-job-training methods?
13. How can managers with human resources responsibilities in the hospitality industry use the Internet as a training medium?
14. What is distance learning and how could it play an important role in training?
15. Discuss the importance of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act for hospitality companies.
16. Why is training more important in "the next chapter" than it was in the 1980s or 1990s?
Mary L. Tanke, Ph.D.
Florida International University
(1.) Jeff Brechlin, "Orienting New Employees," Training 28(April 1991): 45.
(2.) C. S. Steinmetz, "The History of Training," Training and Development Handbook (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976), 1-3.
(3.) 102nd Congress--1st Session, National Institute for Literacy Public Law 102-73 (Washington, DC: 1991), 1.
(5.) National Institute for Literacy, About NIFL. www.nifl.gov/nifl/aboutindex.htm (16 June 1998).
(6.) Robert T. Foley, "Train Smart, Not Hard." Lodging Magazine (April 1998). www.ei-ahma.org/webs/lodging/9805/human.htm (5 June 1998).
TABLE 6-1 Positive Characteristics of Hospitality Orientation Programs * Presents a complete overview of the hospitality operation/property * Recognizes the specific problems and needs the new employee might face and addresses those problems and needs * Orientation procedures are planned, well organized, and effectively administered * Orientation plans are adapted to the particular department and job position of the new employee * Keeps the focus on the benefits of the new employee * Provides a realistic look at the working conditions of the company * Presents an opportunity for the new employee to meet fellow employees within their department * Is continually evaluated and improved * Provides an explanation of the hospitality organization's culture, philosophies, values, vision, and mission * Presents a historical perspective * Presents a vision of where the hospitality organization and specific operation is headed TABLE 6-2 Orientation Program--Left At Albuquerque Manager greets trainee and welcomes them. Manager checks the trainee's uniform. Manager issues additional uniform items (apron, POS key or card, crumb scraper, etc.). Manager demonstrates how to punch in on time clock. Trainee completes all new hire paperwork. Manager reviews Employee Handbook. Manager reviews Employee Safety Manual. Manager reviews company's Sexual Harassment policies. Manager reviews appropriate job description. Manager reviews company mission statement and value statement. Manager reviews rules for personnel (uniform, appearance, attendance, tardiness, scheduling procedures, paydays, meals, breaks, vacation policy, security for personal possessions, personal phone calls, accidents, sidework, lost & found procedures, tip reporting, how walkouts are handled, pre-shift meetings, secret shopper reports, the importance of cleanliness and sanitation, how guest birthdays are handled, discipline and warning notices, emergency procedures, team work, and behavior that will result in immediate termination). Trainee is given a tour of the restaurant. Trainee attends pre-shift meeting. Trainee follows a trainer during the shift. Trainee eats training meal with manager. Trainee takes Orientation Test. Trainee punches out. (Courtesy of Left At Albuquerque, Palo Alto, CA) TABLE 6-3 Information Needed from New Hires * Employee application completely filled out, signed, and dated * Medical insurance forms * Life insurance forms * Federal Withholding form (Form W-4) * Signatures acknowledging: --receipt of keys --receipt of company's rules of conduct --receipt of policies and procedures manual --receipt of employee safety manual --receipt of sexual harassment policy * Proof of age (if required) * Medical examiners report (if required) * Health certificate TABLE 6-4 Sample New Employee Orientation Checklist * Words of welcome * History of the company * Company culture * Service philosophy of the company * Organizational structure of the company * Sexual harassment policy * Review of job descriptions, hours and days to work, job duties, and responsibilities * Rate of pay, pay policies, and periods * Gratuities and tip reporting * Employee benefits * Special uniform requirements * Break periods and meal hours * Review of rules of conduct and employee handbook * Unforeseen absences and tardiness * Review of Equal Employment Opportunity Policy * Fill out and sign W-4 * Tour of operation and work unit * Introduction to coworkers * To whom to report, when, and where * List of frequently called phone numbers * Sanitation and safety procedures * Performance evaluations and salary increases * Career development and opportunities for promotion * Progressive discipline * Grounds for termination * Emergency situations TABLE 6-5 Server Training Program Outline Day One Orientation (Follow server) Day Two Philosophy of Service (Follow server) Day Three The Details of Service (Follow busser and bartender) Day Four POS System (Follow server) Day Five Bar & Liquor (Follow server) Day Six Food (Follow expediter and runner) Day Seven Take Tables (Courtesy of Left At Albuquerque, Palo Alto, CA) TABLE 6-6 Benefits to Be Gained from the Implementation of a Training Program * Improved quality of guest services * Increased comradery and sense of teamwork * Improved quality * Reduced work conflicts * Relief of stress and tension * Reduced turnover and absenteeism * Improved performance resulting in cost savings * Preparation of employees for promotion * Improved self-esteem of our human resources * Growing sense of professionalism * Improved relationships between management and staff * Reduction in accidents * Increased productivity * Improved sanitation and cleanliness * Decreased fatigue * Improved sense of job security * Reduction in amount of supervision required * Happier work environment * Reduced waste * Fun * Higher morale among all people * Greater cooperation TABLE 6-7 Task Listing for a Busperson 1. Remove all dishes, glasses, and silverware from the table. 2. Wipe down the table with a clean damp cloth. 3. Wipe down chairs with a clean damp cloth. 4. Check to see if the floor surrounding and under the table needs to be swept. 5. Reset table with napkins and silverware. 6. Center condiments on the table. 7. Notify host station that table is reset. FIGURE 6-10 A page from Left At Albuquerque's training manual. (Courtesy of Left At Albuquerque, Palo Alto, CA) Left At Albuquerque Server Training Program Outline Day Two: Passion For Service That Dazzles Position Training: Busser & Bartender Time Activity Goals Handouts 9:00am - 9:05 * Trainee * Insure * Sample Lunch punches in trainee's Special Menu * GM greets uniform is in trainee compliance * GM checks * To explain uniform answers to * GM reviews Day missed items One Test from Day One Test 9:05 - 9:10 * Trainee * Understand * How To Use completes Map table numbers Squirrel Test & position * GM corrects numbers before Map Test & working as reviews busser results with trainee 9:10 - 9:45 * Trainee reads * Understand * Promo Server company's Categories Training passion for Program Day service Two Manual ("Passion for Service That Dazzles") 9:45 - 9:55 * GM reviews key * Understand * QSA points of Day company's Categories & Two Manual passion for Reporting * GM reviews service Busser * Understand Priority List busser priorities 9:55 - 10:45 GM presents The * Understand how * Gift Responsible Sale to sell Certificates of Alcohol alcohol seminar responsibly 10:45 - 10:55 * GM introduces * Meet today's * Home Office Certified Certified Meal Busser & Trainers Procedures Certified * Understand the Bartender goals for the Trainers shift * GM presents Day Two Goals 10:55 - 11:15 * Trainee * Understand * Home Office completes busser opening Meal Tickets opening duties sidework with Certified Busser Trainer 11:15 - 11:30 * Trainee * Understand * Server attends importance of Sidework Line-Up Line-Up Meeting Meeting 11:30 - 1:30pm * Trainee * Understand * Server follows busser systems Sanitation & Certified & procedures Hygiene Busser Trainer completing Day Two Goals 1:30 - 2:30 * Trainee meets * Begin to * The Service with Certified understand bar Time Line Bartender systems & Trainer, products completing Day Two Goals 2:30 - 3:00 * Trainee eats * Continue food Day Two training Training Evaluate Meal with GM & trainee's reviews the progress day's material & goals * Provide material to * Trainee study for Day completes Day Three Two Test * GM gives trainee Day Two Handouts Trainee punches out Total Training Hours: 6
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|Title Annotation:||SECTION 3 Human Resources Training, Development, and Evaluation|
|Author:||Tanke, Mary L.|
|Publication:||Human Resources Management for the Hospitality Industry, 2nd ed.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2001|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 5 Selection, hiring, and placement.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 7 Development programs, coaching, and team building.|