Chapter 6: Guinea pigs.
After completing this chapter, the student should be able to
* properly house a guinea pig.
* provide appropriate client education to new guinea pig owners.
* provide a correct diet for a guinea pig.
* provide basic nursing care to a guinea pig.
* assist in the anesthesia of a guinea pig.
* demonstrate appropriate restraint techniques.
There are probably few children who don't know what a guinea pig is. They will tell you that guinea pigs are cute, soft, gentle, and make good classroom pets. Yet ask anyone where guinea pigs come from and the response is usually New Guinea. Their species name, porcellus, means little pig, but it is uncertain how this South American species came to be called a Guinea pig, when New Guinea is so distant from their natural habitat. Pig may be because of their pig-like squeals and chunky body type, but the derivation for the prefix guinea remains unknown.
The guinea pig is more accurately called a cavy, Cavia porcellus, and belongs to the suborder Hystricomorphic, or porcupine-like rodents. They are found throughout the western, mountainous regions of South America. They live in family groups with one dominant male, using rocky outcrops and ledges for shelter with no permanent dens or nesting sites. Strictly herbivorous, they forage from site to site, grazing on grasses and leafy plants.
Long used in research, the phrase does anyone volunteer to be a guinea pig is not without reason and indicates apprehension about what is to come. Guinea pigs have contributed greatly to the understanding of many human diseases and in the development of vaccines.
Today, there are guinea pig clubs and associations, guinea pig shows and exhibitions with nationally recognized judges and breed standards. This little pig has become a household favorite and makes an ideal small pet or 4-H project. They are docile and rarely bite in any situation. They are easy to handle and require little in the way of housing or specialized needs.
Because of their timid nature, they should be kept away from other household pets, including dogs, cats, and ferrets. However friendly the family dog may seem, to the guinea pig it is a predator and can cause a great deal of stress. Stress is a major contributor to health problems commonly seen in guinea pigs. Stress can be one cause of anorexia. Anorexia is more than simply going off feed and leads to major medical concerns and mortality.
The American Cavy Breeders Association recognizes 13 different breeds with many varieties in each category. Not officially recognized, two hairless mutations have been developed, the Skinnies and the Baldwins. Skinnies have no hair except on their heads and lower legs, while the Baldwins are born with a full coat that is completely lost by the time they are weaned.
There is great variety in the breeds recognized; the Silkie with its very long silky hair; the Abyssinian, a shorter-haired guinea pig with whorls all over its body; the Teddy, with short fuzzy hair; and the Textel, with a very kinky coat. There are numerous coat colors within each group and an endless assortment of patterns, patches, and markings, all contributing to their appeal (Figure 6-1).
[FIGURE 6-1 OMITTED]
Guinea pigs are not only social with each other but actively respond to human companionship and recognize different people. While their eyesight is poor, their hearing is highly developed and familiar footfalls often elicit a variety of chirps, whistles, and chuckles.
Guinea pigs produce a large range of vocal sounds. The whistle can be a call of greeting or of alarm, the exact meaning determined by length and pitch of the call. Owners closely involved with their guinea pigs are not only able to interpret situations, but know which guinea pig in a group is whistling. Chirps are lower pitched and equally varied in tone and modulation. They are the sounds of contentment. Very distinct from other sounds is drilling, a low, almost guttural and rapid d-r-r-r-r-r produced by their teeth. Drilling is a warning, an alert to other guinea pigs of possible danger. Boars in pursuit of a sow also drill, challenging other males. Drilling is also heard when a guinea pig is in pain. Drilling should never be interpreted as a contented purr.
While they rarely fight, two adult males placed together are likely to engage in minor, mostly bluff squabbles to establish dominance. A single boar with one or more sows is compatible, as are groups of two or more females.
Guinea pigs have large peri-anal sebaceous glands used for scent marking. These are especially pronounced in unneutered boars. They drag their rumps, pressing down on the floor surface and leaving a scent trail. When excessive marking occurs in males, a buildup of oil coats the hair around the glands, giving the hair a greasy appearance. The scent glands can easily become impacted with fecal and bedding material, resulting in a foul smell. The rump area should be checked regularly. Mineral oil can be applied with cotton-tipped swabs to help soften the impaction and the area gently cleaned with warm water.
Guinea pigs have little in the way of self-defense. Their oral cavity is small, which makes biting difficult. They have four clawed toes on the front feet and three on the rear. Scratches may be likely in an attempt to escape. The normal group (or herd) response to fear is to flee, to stampede. Often a single guinea pig will freeze in place, not moving at all until the perceived danger has passed. Attempts to capture a loose guinea pig can become very stressful to the animal. It is best to tempt them with food. In most instances, the guinea pig will approach and, if it has been handled regularly, it can be scooped up in two hands, one around the shoulders and the other supporting the rump. The guinea pig should be held close to the body where it feels more secure and is less likely to struggle (Figure 6-2).
[FIGURE 6-2 OMITTED]
Determining the sex of a guinea pig is fairly easy compared to some small mammals. The anogenital area of the sow is more rounded in appearance, and has a Y shape. The Y configuration extends from the anus to the vaginal opening (Figure 6-3).
[FIGURE 6-3 OMITTED]
Boars have prominent, slender testicles on either side of the anal area. However, due to their open inguinal canal, the testes are not always apparent and young guinea pigs may be sexed incorrectly. Applying gentle pressure with the thumb and a caudally directed stroke on the lower abdomen will cause the penis to protrude and confirm the sex. The anogenital distance is longer in the boar (Figure 6-4).
Early determination of sex is important to avoid unwanted litters. In the male, sexual maturity is reached at nine to ten weeks, while in the female it is unexpectedly earlier, at four to six weeks. If the boar is left with the group, father/daughter matings will occur.
[FIGURE 6-4 OMITTED]
Sows are polyestrous in that they have many breeding cycles throughout the year. Estrus cycles last an average of 16 days. A vaginal plug appears after copulation but falls away within a few hours after mating. The vaginal plug is common to many rodents, but the exact purpose is unknown. It is made up of ejaculate and thought to prevent sperm from leaking from the vagina, ensuring greater fertility or to prevent another male from mating with the same sow.
Both sexes have a single pair of inguinal nipples. Despite having only two mammary glands, sows are able to take care of an average sized litter of three or four young. Unweaned guinea pigs patiently await their turn with no aggression towards one another. It is not necessary to remove the boar from the presence of the neonates. Boars are very tolerant of their antics and will often groom the young guinea pigs.
Guinea pigs are born precocial after a gestation period of 63 days. Their eyes and ears are open, they have a full coat of hair, and their teeth are erupted. They are very active from birth and will start to nibble at hay and the fecal pellets of the adult within a few days of birth. Guinea pigs are coprophagic. Fecal ingestion by the pups is necessary to help establish normal gut flora (adults eat soft feces directly from the anus). Even though guinea pig pups are precocial, for the first seven to ten days, the sow licks the perineum to stimulate urination and defecation. Pups should be weaned at six weeks.
Guinea pigs can be housed simply. Elaborate cages with platforms and wire floors are not suitable. They do not climb or attempt to jump out. Any enclosed area with sides that are at least eight to ten inches high will keep them safely inside. The floor space should be at least 36 inches long, providing ample room for exercise and food bowls. Guinea pigs urinate and defecate without a location preference and bowls are frequently contaminated. Using a food hopper helps to prevent this.
Guinea pigs drink a lot of water and need to be provided with sipper bottles large enough to meet their daily needs. Water bottles should be cleaned out on a daily basis and checked frequently. Guinea pigs drink when they have mouthfuls of food, often pushing chewed material up into the sipper tube where it swells and totally blocks the water flow. Owners should be alerted to monitor water intake, as they can quickly become dehydrated.
All small animals should be provided with a hide box, a place to escape to and feel safe. Guinea pigs are no different. There are a variety of commercial small mammal hide boxes, half round logs, and plastic houses. Many items available are designed to appeal to people, rather than the animal. Guinea pigs are just as comfortable with an upside down cardboard box with an entrance cut into it.
There are a variety of cages available. A good choice would be one that has an easily removed wire frame cover which clamps down over a plastic tub. This allows for plenty of air circulation, is easy to clean, and provides some protection from other household pets (Figure 6-5).
[FIGURE 6-5 OMITTED]
Guinea pigs should not be housed in aquariums. In such enclosed environments, ammonia and nitrogen from their urine can quickly accumulate and cause respiratory problems. Cedar bedding should not be used for guinea pigs or any small animal. When cedar shavings become wet, they release toxic fumes that cause severe respiratory problems and can lead to death. Newspaper or aspen shavings are safe.
Guinea pigs are herbivores and can be fed a variety of fresh greens and vegetables. Daily offerings include guinea pig pellets supplemented with timothy or other varieties of grass hay. While appearing to be the same as rabbit pellets, guinea pig pellets have added vitamin C. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential part of the guinea pigs' daily diet as they are unable to synthesize it from other foodstuffs. Guinea pigs lack a specific liver enzyme, L-gulonolactone, an essential component of the d-glucose l-ascorbic acid pathway. Ascorbic acid is necessary for the metabolism of cholesterol, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Without adequate daily amounts in the diet, the signs of vitamin C deficiency can appear in a little as ten days to two weeks. Guinea pigs with vitamin C deficiency become weak and refuse to eat. Joints become swollen and they have severe lameness. They lose weight and rapidly deteriorate. If immediate veterinary assistance is not received and the diet corrected, the guinea pig will die.
This disease, known as scurvy, is easily prevented with a correct diet. Always check the expiration date on the bag when buying pellets. Although vitamin C is added, it has a relatively short shelf-life. The level of ascorbic acid can be reduced dramatically by exposure to light, heat, long-term storage, and dampness. Pellets should never be purchased from bulk bins or in quantities larger than can be used within three months.
There are a variety of vitamin C supplements available. There are drops and tablets and some of them are formulated to be added to the water. This can create problems, as many guinea pigs refuse to drink the treated water. Also, ascorbic acid is one of the water-soluble vitamins and so quickly degrades in water.
The best answer is always to ensure that the guinea pig receives an adequate amount of vitamin C in the foods offered. Foods high in vitamin C and readily consumed by guinea pigs are kale, parsley, beet greens, spinach, and broccoli. Once introduced to them, guinea pigs will also eat red and yellow peppers, tomatoes, kiwi fruit, and orange segments. Dandelions are always well received. It is important to be sure that the food has not been sprayed with weed killer and that it does not come from an area of lawn that has been fertilized. Care must be taken not to overwhelm guinea pigs with new foods or abrupt changes in diet. Both will cause diarrhea and lead to further problems with the digestive tract. Iceberg lettuce should never be fed as it has very little nutritional value and will cause intestinal upset.
Handling and Restraint
Guinea pigs are easy to handle and are often vocal when picked up. Unless fully supported, they may struggle in attempts to escape. Holding them securely with two hands and close to the body makes them feel more secure. There is very little scruff and attempting to use this method will only cause alarm and pain as it results in more of a pinch than a scruff. Care must be taken that they do not fall or walk off the edge of an examination table. Placing a towel on the table reduces the slippery surface for them, but still, one hand should always be on the body. When carrying a guinea pig, the rear legs can be cupped in one hand. This not only supports them securely, but reduces a possible scratch from the hind claws should they attempt to struggle. The other hand should be placed under the thorax and around the shoulders.
While guinea pigs are generally hardy if fed the correct diet and housed appropriately, there are some serious medical issues that can develop. Many complications arise from the gastrointestinal tract and are further complicated by sensitivity to antibiotics.
Guinea pigs are monogastric. The stomach is proportionally larger than that of a rabbit and the cecum is well developed. Because of the position and size of the stomach relative to the diaphragm, guinea pigs are unable to vomit. Normal gastrointestinal flora, necessary for digestion, is Gram positive. Any disruption of normal flora and gut motility can quickly lead to gut stasis and an overgrowth of toxin producing Gram-negative bacteria.
[FIGURE 6-6 OMITTED]
Clostridium is most commonly implicated in cases of bacterial enterotoxemia. Most incidences of gut stasis involve the cecum rather than the stomach and can be attributed to a diet low in fiber. Reduced fiber leads to reduced gut motility, which in turn causes gut stasis and may also account for pockets of air and gasses trapped within the intestinal tract (Figure 6-6). The combination of gut stasis and the overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria is a common cause of death. Gastrointestinal disorders occur rapidly and there may be few clinical signs. Diarrhea, anorexia, and decreased water consumption are always a cause for alarm. Fluid therapy is required for dehydration and short-term antibiotics may be used in an attempt to control the overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria. Probiotics, such as lactobacillus and live yogurt, can be fed in an attempt to restore normal microflora.
Many bacterial infections are seen in the guinea pig and treatment is difficult. They do not tolerate many of the commonly used antibiotics. Adverse reactions include endotoxemia and death due to the disruption of normal gut flora. Broad spectrum antibiotics and those which primarily target Gram-positive bacteria will destroy beneficial bacteria, while allowing the more pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria to flourish. Death may be acute or occur within a week or less. Many topical antibiotics should also be avoided as they may be licked off and ingested. Injectable antibiotics, e.g., enrofloxacin, should not be given orally because of the rapid and direct access to the gut.
FECAL PELLETS FROM A HEALTHY GUINEA PIG ARE SOMETIMES MIXED WITH A SUPPORTIVE DIET AND FED BY SYRINGE. Coprophagic therapy has been used incidentally and with some success. However, the risk of introducing salmonella to an already compromised guinea pig needs to be carefully considered.
Antibiotic choices and therapy protocol should only be made by the veterinarian. Owners need to be cautioned never to administer any antibiotic, for whatever reason, whether it is something recommended from a pet store or found in their own medicine cupboards. Safer choices which may be considered include enrofloxacin (injectable), chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfa, and the aminoglycocides that target Gram-negative bacteria. All antibiotic therapy should include frequent monitoring of blood serum levels and careful observation of the guinea pig for early signs of toxicity.
A common reproductive problem is dystocia. If the sow does not have her first litter before she is seven to nine months old, the cartilaginous pelvic midline, which normally relaxes prior to parturition, begins to ossify. Fat pads can also block the pelvic opening, preventing delivery. Caesarian delivery is necessary to prevent the death of the sow and her litter. The young develop in both uterine horns, rather than in the small body of the uterus.
Pregnancy toxemia is another reproductive disorder and is most often seen either during the last two weeks of gestation or in the first week postpartum. It is more common with obese sows. Signs are acute and include weakness and depression with accompanying ataxia, dyspnea, anorexia, and a dramatic drop in water consumption. The normally thick and slightly creamy consistency of urine becomes acidic and clear. If left untreated, this condition in the pregnant sow quickly progresses to abortion and seizures. With the onset of seizures, either in the gravid or postpartum sow, the prognosis is grave.
Medical intervention includes warmed IV fluids to help stabilize the sow and prevent the progression of toxic shock. Clinical values change dramatically as the sow becomes hypoglycemic, hyperkalemic, and ketonic. Sows at this stage may also develop hepatic lipidosis.
It is always better to guard against and possibly prevent this condition by feeding a correct diet and not allowing the sow to become obese. For a pregnant sow, vitamin C should be provided in greater amounts.
Ovarian cysts may also occur in females from two to four years old. They are a source of discomfort and pain. Cysts develop spontaneously and may only become evident when the sow shows signs of pain, warranting further investigation. An ovariohysterectomy may be required, but as with any surgical procedure for the guinea pig, the potential anesthesia complications need to be considered.
Poor husbandry contributes to poor health. Pododermatitis, commonly called bumble foot, is associated with animals, especially obese guinea pigs, housed on wire floors, and kept in unclean environments. The constant weight of the guinea pig's hairless, unprotected feet on the wire creates pressure sores that soon become inflamed and infected. The plantar surfaces of the feet become painful and swollen with crusty areas of dried blood and exudates. If left untreated, podo-dermatitis may progress to necrosis of the foot.
The guinea pig with pododermatitis should be provided with a solid floor, soft, nonabrasive bedding, and meticulous husbandry practices. Affected areas should be carefully cleaned and treated as open wounds. Staphylococcus is the most commonly found bacteria in cases of pododermatitis. This condition can be prevented with proper housing and careful husbandry practices. Children should be supervised to ensure that cage cleaning is frequent and complete with ample fresh, dry bedding.
Bordatella bronchiseptica is the same bacterial agent responsible for Kennel Cough in dogs and cats, but it causes severe upper respiratory tract infections in guinea pigs. It is also responsible for abortions and stillbirths in pregnant sows and mortality is high. It spreads via direct contact, fomite transmission, and through the air. Rabbits can be asymptomatic carriers of Bordatella and should never be housed with guinea pigs. Clinical signs include anorexia, dyspnea, and ocular and nasal discharge. As a further complication, Streptococcus pneumoniae often develops. The prognosis is grave. Sulfa drugs and warmed isotonic fluids can be used in an attempt to treat Bordatella.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Transmission is through direct contact or aerosol distribution of the bacteria from infected guinea pigs. Guinea pigs may be asymptomatic carriers or show multiple clinical signs including sneezing, nasal and ocular discharge, coughing, anorexia, and depression. The disease is progressive and the mortality is high. Streptococcus pneumonia is not always associated with Bordatella and can occur as an independent infection.
Guinea pigs are highly susceptible to salmonella infections. Salmonella infections are commonly associated with bacterial enteritis, which is transmitted, as are most salmonella infections, via the fecal/oral route. The most common routes of infection include eating infected feces, access to contaminated water, or contaminated food or bedding. In the guinea pig, salmonella bacteria can also enter through the conjunctiva (Hanes, POLA-cavia, 1999). The incidence may be higher than in other small mammals due to behavior. Being enclosed, frequently urinating and defecating in food and water bowls, and the normal consumption of fecal material are all contributing factors. Clinical signs include diarrhea, anorexia and associated weight loss, loss of coat condition, ocular discharge, and abortion in pregnant sows.
Dental exams can be difficult because of the small oral cavity. Guinea pigs do not have cheek pouches, but have cheek folds that accumulate food. Care must be taken when examining the oral cavity to prevent food in the mouth being pushed into the trachea.
All teeth are hypsodontic (open-rooted) and grow continually. Correct alignment of the incisors can easily be checked and may indicate potential problems if they do not appear straight and evenly worn (Figure 6-7). There are a total of 20 teeth, including the incisors. Mandibular teeth are directed toward the cheeks, while maxillary teeth are directed toward the soft palate. Both are convex. This arrangement can predispose guinea pigs to malocclusion. An otoscope can be used to assist in visualizing the molars. The rodent/rabbit dental packs can also be used with guinea pigs.
[FIGURE 6-7 OMITTED]
Submandibular abscesses occur in so many guinea pigs that the condition is commonly known as lumpy jaw. The correct term for this condition is Cervical lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes under the jaw become abscessed and cause the lumps. The abscesses occur when Streptococcus bacteria invade oral wounds and abrasions. A frequent cause is consumption of coarse feed items, hay stalks, straw, and the hulls of seeds and peanuts that penetrate or abrade the oral mucosa. (No seeds, peanuts, or nuts of any kind should ever be offered, but are frequently found in guinea pig mixed diets or have been recommended as a treat.)
Another cause of lumpy jaw is malocclusion, caused when teeth penetrate the buccal surface or when the guinea pig unintentionally bites into the cheek while trying to chew. Bacteria enter though these wounds, creating an abscess which drains directly into the cervical lymph nodes. Veterinary treatment involves a cutaneous incision to open the abscess, allowing it to drain and be thoroughly flushed. Follow-up care is often required, especially in cases caused by malocclusion.
Guinea pigs have small, fragile blood vessels that easily collapse. The lateral saphenous and cephalic veins are the most commonly used for blood sampling. Using a tuberculin or insulin syringe with a 25 gauge needle, no more than 0.5 to 0.7 ml/100 gm should be collected. Examination of the blood film should include recognition and recording of Kurloff bodies, which are cytoplasmic inclusions in some monocytes. They are normal in the guinea pig and may increase in number and become more obvious in a pregnant sow. The function of Kurloff bodies is unknown. Typically, guinea pigs have a relatively greater number of lymphocytes, compared to dogs or cats.
Peripheral catheters for fluid administration can be difficult because of the small, fragile vessels. Subcutaneous fluids can be given between the scapulas. The skin is tough, tight, with no scruff, and very little subcutaneous space. An intrascapular fat pad makes the procedure more painful than in other small mammals and the patient will vocalize loudly.
Guinea pigs are extremely difficult to intubate because of their small oral cavity. They can be masked down with either isoflurane or sevoflurane. Guinea pigs should not be fasted for more than two to four hours prior to general anesthesia. Though they lack the ability to vomit, regurgitation under anesthesia is common and may be frequent. As soon as a light plane of anesthesia is achieved, the oral cavity must be swabbed out, removing food debris from their cheeks and molars. This may be necessary several times during the procedure to prevent aspiration.
Recovery should take place in a quiet, undisturbed area with unobtrusive observation. Guinea pigs sometimes fail to recover due to dramatic metabolic changes and the stress that occurs during induction. Rapid induction decreases stress time. Guinea pigs with any medical concerns must be handled minimally because of the potentially catastrophic results of stress.
Guinea pigs are often presented with alopecia and need to be examined carefully for mites and lice. Some hair losses can be attributed to barbering by cage mates, either due to boredom or, more likely, hierarchal reinforcement. Clinical signs that warrant further investigation with skin scrapings and microscopic examination include intense scratching, secondary skin infections, and lesions.
Trixacarus caviae is a zoonotic burrowing mite that causes scabies in guinea pigs and should be a primary rule-out in any dermatological problem. There are two species of host-specific guinea pig lice, Gliricola porcelli and Gyropus ovalis. Transmission is through direct contact with infested guinea pigs or bedding. Guinea pigs with lice are usually kept in poor conditions and suffer from other illnesses. Oral or injectable ivermectin can be given upon the recommendation of a veterinarian. The environment must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected prior to the return of the guinea pig to eliminate the chance of reinfestation. Any wood items should be destroyed and the remaining bedding supply be thrown out.
Dermatophytosis occurs frequently in guinea pigs, especially those housed in crowded conditions. While it is a fungal infection rather than a parasite, ringworm transmission easily occurs through direct contact, contaminated bedding, and fomites. Facial lesions that are inflamed and hairless should always be carefully examined as ringworm has zoonotic potential. Positive diagnosis can be made with a black light or a DTM hair culture. The environment needs to be completely decontaminated. Affected guinea pigs should not be returned to the group until lesions are healed. Latex gloves should be worn to prevent human contact while applying a topical antifungal cream. Gloves should be removed so that they are turned inside-out and disposed of in a biohazard container.
(1) what is the importance of vitamin c in a guinea pig diet?
(2) describe pregnancy toxemia.
(3) why should antibiotics only be prescribed by a veterinarian?
(4) Rabbits should not be housed with guinea pigs. what is the reason?
(5) what are Kurloff bodies?
(6) describe lumpy jaw. what is it and what is the cause?
(7) why should a sow have her first litter before she is six to seven months old?
(8) what is drilling?
(9) which is better for guinea pigs, alfalfa or grass hay? why?
(10) why is it necessary to check the water bottle frequently?
fast FACTS Guinea Pigs WEIGHT * Boar: 900 to 1200 gm * Sow: 700 to 900 gm LIFE SPAN * 5 to 7 years REPRODUCTION * Sexual Maturity * Boars: 9 to 10 weeks * Sows: 4 to 6 weeks * Gestation: 63 days (average) * Litter Size: 2 to 5 pups * Weaning age: 3 weeks (21 days) VITAL STATISTICS * Temperature: 37.2 to 39.6 [degrees]C (99 to 103.1 [degrees]F) * Heart rate: 230 to 280/minute * Respiratory rate: 42 to 100/minute DENTAL * Dental formula 2 (I 1/1, C 0/0, PM 1/1, M 3/3) = 20 teeth total
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Girling, S. (2003). Veterinary Nursing of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Publishing/June 1999.
Guinea Pig Care. http://Saintfrancispetfoundation.org (accessed 2004).
Hanes, M., Diseases of Guinea Pigs. Department of Lab Animal Resources, University of Texas Health Science Center. Afip.org (accessed June 2006).
Hanes, M., Diseases of Guinea Pigs. Department of Lab Animal Resources, University of Texas Health Science Center, POLA-cavia 1999 (accessed August 2007).
Harkness, J. E. & Wagner, J. E. (1989). The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, 3rd Edition. Lea & Febiger.
Hoefer, H. L., (2006). Urolithiasis in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs. Conference Notes, The North America Veterinary Conference, 2006.
Mayer, J., (2006). Analgesia and Anesthesia in Rabbits and Rodents. Conference Notes, The North America Veterinary Conference, 2006, pp. 1740-1742.
O'Malley, B., (2005). Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of Exotic Species. Elsevier Saunders.
Quesenberry, K. E., Donnelly, T. M., & Hillyer, E. V. (2004). Biology, Husbandry and Clinical Techniques of Guinea Pigs and Chinchillas. In Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 2nd Edition (pp. 232-252). Imprint of Elsevier Science.
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|Title Annotation:||UNIT II|
|Publication:||Exotic Animal Care and Management|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2008|
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