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Chapter 5 vines.

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Vines are climbing plants that can add much interest to the landscape when carefully selected and located in the garden. Vines climb in many ways, including aerial roots, adhesive discs, twining stems, tendrils, and leaf petioles. Some will climb on solid surfaces, while others require either support or attachment. Fruiting varieties can serve as screens, while providing fruit to the family. Evergreen vines give a year-round effect, while deciduous vines often die completely to the ground in winter. Other common uses of vines are as follows:

* Specimen plants on bare wall space, posts, or poles.

* Screens or privacy plants when grown on fences or other supports.

* Overhead shade for patios or decks when used on trellises or arbors.

* Ground covers (some species) to take the place of turf.

Akebia quinata

(uh-kee-bee-uh kwi-nay-tuh)

Fiveleaf Akebia

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 20' to 30'

WIDTH: 20' to 30'

FRUIT: 2" to 3" fleshy pods; somewhat attractive.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Broad-spreading; climbs by twining.

FAMILY: Lardizabalaceae

LEAF COLOR: Blue-green in summer; tinged purplish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: PALMATELY COMPOUND, leaflets 2" to 3" long and 1" to 1 1/2" wide, leaflets elliptic in shape with entire margins, usually 5 leaflets, rarely 3 or 4, ALTERNATE arrangement of compound leaves.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Brownish purple, 1" long in loose racemes (female). Male flowers in center of raceme are smaller and lighter in color. Fragrant; somewhat showy. Flowers in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Grows best in sun or part shade. Adaptable to any well-drained soil; not demanding as to fertility or moisture. Some pruning might be necessary to control growth, especially in smaller gardens. Very agressive; capable of attaining huge size.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alba'--Has white flowers and white fruit. 'Variegata' Has green and white varigated leaves and pink flowers.

RELATED SPECIES: A. trifoliate--Compound leaf has 3 leaflets.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Akebia makes an excellent vine for fences and arbors, and it should be more widely used by designers. It should be noted that this plant is SEMIEVERGREEN or DECIDUOUS in the NORTHERNMOST ZONES.

Bignonia capreolata

(big-no'-nee-uh cap-re-o-la'-tuh)

Crossvine

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: Indefinite (50")

WIDTH: Indefinite

FRUIT: 6" flat, pod-like brown capsule.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Climbing by means of tendrils.

FAMILY: Bignoniaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; purplish to reddish in winter.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 5" long and one-third as wide, oblong-elliptic shape with entire or slightly undulating margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellow-red with paler throat, funnel-shaped with 5-parted corolla, appearing in small axillary cymes. Flowers in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun to shade. Prefers well-drained organic soil, but will tolerate moisture. Pruning is usually necessary to control or confine. Prune after flowering.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Jekyll'--Has orange flowers with yellow throats, reported to be more cold hardy. 'Tangerine Beauty'--Has tangerine colored flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Crossvine, so named due to cross shape of stem in horizontal cross-section, is a hardy and easy-to-grow vine. It can be used anywhere a vine is desirable in the landscape. This includes screening when a surface or support is provided. Great plant for naturalizing! Some authorities classify this under the genus Anisostichus.

x Fatshedera lizei

(x fats-hed'-er-uh liz'-e-eye)

Bushivy

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 6' to 8'

WIDTH: Variable

FRUIT: 1' bluish berry; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: A vine-like shrub, needing support when used as a vine.

FAMILY: Araliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 5" to 10" long and wide, petiole 5" or longer, palmately lobed with five deep-cut lobes, somewhat star-shaped, ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Light green, tiny in 1" spherical umbels. Umbels form a panicle that is 3" to 5" wide. Not fragrant. Flowers in fall (October).

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full shade or part shade. Thrives in any well-drained soil of average moisture and fertility. Will climb, but often needs support. Pruning is restricted to shaping or training, as desired.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Variegata'--Green leaves with white margins. Not as hardy as the species.

RELATED SPECIES: X F. undulata--Ruffled Leaf Wonder. This species has a more leathery texture and wavy, undulating leaves.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Bushivy is often used to fill bare wall space that has a narrow planting strip. It may be trained to a trellis or espaliered to the wall. Great accent plant, especially near an entry. This plant is an INTERGENERIC cross between Fatsia japonica and Hedera helix.

Ficus pumila

(fi'-cuss pew'-mill-uh)

Climbing Fig

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ZONES: 8, 9, sometimes 7

HEIGHT: Indefinite

WIDTH: Indefinite

FRUIT: Yellow-green, pear-shaped; VERY RARE.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Rapid, once established.

HABIT: Very flat, dense vine. Climbs by aerial roots.

FAMILY: Moraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dull medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 1 1/2" long and 1/2" to 3/4" wide, heart-shaped (cordate) with entire margins, ALTERNATE arrangement. Older leaves can grow to 3" or longer.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Tiny and inconspicuous. RARELY FOUND.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Needs full shade or part shade. It is tolerant of any well-drained soil, but prefers moderately high moisture. When located properly, it is a rapid grower that needs regular pruning to maintain its refined character and to control or confine.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Minima'--Tiny leaves to 1/2" or smaller. Very refined character. Good indoor plant. 'Snow Flake'--Green leaves with bold, white margins. 'Variegata'--Green and white leaves. Less cold hardy than the species.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Climbing Fig is a beautiful foliage plant, having a more refined, formal appearance than most vines. It is a great choice for covering brick walls or stonework, but should never be used on painted surfaces. The plant can survive in Zone 7, if grown against heated wall space and protected from wind. This plant is often used in formal gardens of the south, and it makes an outstanding background for statuary.

Gelsemium sempervirens

(gell-see'-mi-um sim-per-vi'-renz)

Carolina Jessamine

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: 20' to 30'

FRUIT: 1" to 2" 2-valved capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Twining, bushy vine. Needs support for climbing.

FAMILY: Loganiaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 3" long and 1/2" to 1 1/4" wide, ovate-lanceolate shape with entire margins, glossy, OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Bright yellow, 1" long and fragrant. Bugle-shaped (funnel-shaped) appearing as a single flower or in small cymes. Flowers in late winter or early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Grows in sun or shade. Tolerant of different soil types, but prefers moist, well-drained, organic soil. Should be sheared after flowering to control or maintain shape. Will climb or drape over walls. Can be used for erosion control as a ground cover on sloping ground.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Plena'--Produces double flowers. Also listed as 'Pride of Augusta'.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Carolina Jessamine can be used as a vine on fences, arbors, trellises, lamp posts, and other structures that allow twining. It is noted for its fragrant yellow flowers in early spring, but has equally attractive foliage.

Lonicera x heckrottii

(lon-iss'-er-uh x heck-rot'-e-eye)

Goldflame Honeysuckle

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 15'

WIDTH: Variable

FRUIT: Red berry; VERY, VERY RARE.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Twining; needs support.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bluish-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 3" long and 1" to 2" wide, oval or elliptic shape with entire margins, OPPOSITE arrangement. Leaves near the tip are fused. Stems of plant are purplish.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Coral-pink outside and yellow inside, 2" long and funnel-shaped in spikes. Begins flowering in spring and continues for several weeks. Fragrant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Needs full sun or part shade. Should be planted in well-drained soil with moderate moisture. Prune to control or maintain shape. Easy to grow.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: L. periclymenum--(Woodbine). This species has creamy-white flowers with purplish tint; has red berries in fall.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Goldflame Honeysuckle is one of the most popular climbing Honeysuckles. It should be featured in a well-chosen spot in the garden. It is SEMI-EVERGREEN to DECIDUOUS in the NORTHERNMOST zones.

Rosa banksiae

(rose'-uh bank'-see-eye)

Lady Bank's Rose

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 12' to 18'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: NONE

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Irregular vine; needs support or attachment.

FAMILY: Rosaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND, leaflets 1 1/4" to 3" long and 1/2" to 1 1/4" wide, leaflets broad lanceolate shape with serrulate margins. ALTERNATE arrangement to the compound leaves.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 1" flowers, white or light yellow, in multi-flower umbels, single or double. Flowers in April, May, and June. Very attractive.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Needs full sun or light shade. Thrives in most well-drained soil types. Needs pruning to control. Requires less care than many rose species. Reliable.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Albo-plena'--Has miniature, white double flowers. 'Lutea'--Has canary-yellow double flowers. 'Snowflake'--Has single white flowers. LANDSCAPE NOTES: Lady Bank's Rose is an excellent climber, but must be espaliered or supported. It is a great choice for arbors since it grows rapidly and produces dense shade. It is often used on fences as a focal point or screen. It is mostly thornless. It is SEMI-EVERGREEN or DECIDUOUS in the NORTHERNMOST zone.

Smilax lanceolata

(smi'-lacks lan-see-o-lay'-tuh)

Smilax, Jackson Brier

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: to 20'+

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: 3/8" reddish-brown berry; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Climbs by tendril pairs; roots spread by rhizomes.

FAMILY: Liliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bright green and lustrous.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3 1/2" long and 1" to 2" wide, lanceolate-ovate to ovate shape with entire, often undulating margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white to yellowish, tiny in axillary umbels. Not abundant and not showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. The plant prefers moist, well-drained, organic soils. pH adaptable. Prune during any season to control growth. NOT LOW-MAINTENANCE.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Smilax is a handsome woody vine that can be used effectively on arbors, trellises, fences, or walls. Its outstanding attribute is the lustrous green foliage that is used in floral arrangements and other decorations. This is an often-overlooked vine of outstanding ornamental potential.

Trachelospermum asiaticum

(tra-key-lo-spur'-mum a-she-at'-e-kum)

Asiatic Jasmine

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 12' to 15'

WIDTH: 12' to 15'

FRUIT: Pod; RARE; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Spreading, rooting along stem. Twining stems.

FAMILY: Apocynaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green; new growth reddish.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 2" long and 1/2" wide, veins lighter in color than the blade, ovate shape with entire margins, OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 1/2" to 3/4", pale yellow, star-shaped, fragrant. Flowers in May and June.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Plant in part shade. Prefers soil that is fertile, moist, and organic. May need pruning to confine. Will not climb on solid surfaces, but twines on posts and trees.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Elegant'--More refined with smaller leaves that are more lustrous. 'Nortex'--Has lance-shaped foliage. 'Solo'--Slower growing and not as tall. Narrow, pointed foliage. 'Variegatum'--Variegated creamy white. Develops burgundy tinge in fall.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Asiatic Jasmine is an interesting dual-purpose plant that can be used as a ground cover or vine. It is not a true climber, and is probably used more often as a ground cover.

Trachelospermum jasminoides

(tra-key-lo-spur'-mum jaz-men-oy'-deez

Confederate Jasmine, Star Jasmine

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ZONES: 8, 9

HEIGHT: 10' to 20'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: 2 1/2" pod; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Fine to medium.

GROWTH RATE: Moderately rapid.

HABIT: Twining; needs support for climbing on solid surfaces.

FAMILY: Apocynaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green leaves having darker veins.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1" to 3" long and 1/2" to 1 1/2" wide, ovate shape with entire margins, OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 1" wide, white, fragrant flowers. Star-shaped (five-petaled), appearing in loose clusters in May and June.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Needs part shade or full shade. This plant is tolerant of a wide range of soils and moisture conditions. Will flower even in dense shade. Prune after flowering to control, as needed.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Madison'--More hardy form that will grow in Zone 7. 'Variegatum'--Leaves are green and white. 'Yellow'--Similar to the species but with yellow flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This plant grows well on fences, trellises, arbors, posts, and trees. Especially noted for its fragrance and attractive foliage. Can be used as a VINE or GROUND COVER.

Campsis grandiflora

(camp'-siss gran-duh-floor'-uh)

Chinese Trumpetcreeper

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ZONES: 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 20' to 25'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: 3" to 4" capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Dense, irregular climber; climbing by aerial roots.

FAMILY: Bignoniaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; turning yellowish in fall before dropping.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND, leaflets 2" to 3" long and 1" to 1 1/2" wide, ovate shape with coarsely serrated margins and acuminate tip, 7 to 9 leaflets, leaves having OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 1 1/2" to 3" long, orange-red with 5 lobes. Several flowers bunched into drooping panicles during summer and continuing through September.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Grows in sun or part shade. This plant is adaptable and will grow almost anywhere. Very easy to grow, but sometimes difficult to control. Should be planted in a location that allows freedom (space) to accomodate frequent pruning.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, scale, chewing insects. None serious.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: C. radicans--Trumpetvine. Very similar to above, but has smaller flowers. Zone 5. C. x tagliabuana--Cross between C. grandiflora and C. radicans. Salmon red flowers. Zone 5.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: All of the trumpetcreepers make excellent accent plants for the garden, as long as they are controlled. This is an excellent plant for naturalizing.

Clematis hybrida

(clem'-uh-tiss hi'-brid-uh)

Hybrid Clematis, Large-flowered Clematis

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 5' to 25'; cultivars vary.

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: Small, one-seeded; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Twining; needs support for climbing.

FAMILY: Ranunculaceae

LEAF COLOR: Most often green, but sometimes blue-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND, sometimes simple at stem tips, leaflets 1" to 4" long and 1/2" wide, leaflets ovate with entire margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 2" to 8" wide, borne solitary or in cymes of 2 or 3, many shades of white, pink, red, blue, lavender, or violet. Flowers spring through summer. Flowers vary by cultivar.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Part shade is best. Top needs warmth, roots need cooler environment; it is essential to provide mulch. Prefers well-drained, organic soil that receives regular moisture. Provide supplemental water during dry periods. Occasional pruning desired.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf spots, stem rot, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Comtesse de Bouchard'--Silvery-rose 6" flowers. 'Elsa Spath'--Blue flowers in late summer. 'Henryi'--7" white flowers, June to September. 'Mrs. N. Thompson'--Violet with scarlet bar. 'Marie Boisselot'--Pale pink, becoming white. 'Nelly Moser'--7" pale pink flowers with red bar. 'Niobe'--Deep ruby-red with gold stamens. 'Pink Champagne'--6" to 7" rosey-red flowers. 'William Kennett'--7" lavender-blue flowers.

RELATED SPECIES: C. x jackmanii - One of the best! Very large, velvety purple flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Hybrid Clematis cultivars are some of the most noticeable specimen plants in landscaping. They are most often used on lamp posts, mail boxes, and trellises, but can be adapted to a number of areas. The biggest problem is choosing between the hundreds of fine cultivars that are available.

Clematis terniflora

(clem'-uh-tiss tern-uh-flor-uh)

Sweetautumn Clematis

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 20' to 30'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: Gray, one-seeded, plume-like; ATTRACTIVE.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Twining stem and petioles; needs support in order to climb.

FAMILY: Ranunculaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bright green to blue-green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND, leaflets 2 1/2" to 4" long and 1" to 2" wide, leaflets ovate shape with cordate base and entire margins, 3 to 5 leaflets. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 1" white flowers in panicles arising from leaf axils. Abundant, giving a lacy effect. Attractive. Flowers in August and continues into October.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers well-drained, organic soil that receives regular moisture. Prune in early spring to remove unwanted wood and to encourage heavy flowering. This plant is considered easy to grow and is reliable.

PEST PROBLEMS: Spider mites.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sweetautumn Clematis is very easy to grow, and it provides fragrant, delicate flowers late in the season. It can be trained on posts, fences, trellises, and arbors for screening or focalization. A favorite of many home gardeners.

NOTICE: Sweetautumn Clematis was first listed as C. paniculata and later changed to C. maximowicziana. Now it is listed as C. terniflora. You might find any of these botanical names in the nursery trade publications for many years.

Clematis virginiana

(clem'-uh-tiss ver-gin-e-a'-nuh)

Virginsbower

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 18'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: Small, gray, one-seeded achene.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Twining stems and petioles; needs support for climbing.

FAMILY: Ranunculaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bright green in summer; purple-tinged in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND, 3 leaflets, each leaflet 2 1/2" to 3 1/2" long and 1" to 2" wide, leaflets ovate shape with both entire and coarsely serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 1" off-white flowers in 4" to 5" panicles that arise from the leaf axils. Very abundant. Flowers in mid-summer through early fall.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers well-drained, organic soil. Needs plenty of moisture for best appearance. Prune as desired to control spread or to train. Easier to control than C. maximowicziana.

PEST PROBLEMS: Mites, scale, whiteflies. None serious.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: C. Montana--Anemone Clematis. Has white, 4-petaled flowers. Various colored cultivars available. C. tangutica--Golden Clematis. Has large yellow flowers in June and July. C. viticella--Italian Clematis. Has funnel-like 2" flowers in summer. Cultivars of red, purple, or violet.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Virginsbower, while not spectacular, is attractive and reliable. Good plant for naturalizing.

Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris

(hi-dran'-gee-uh uh-nom'-uh-la subsp. pet-a-o-lar'iss)

Climbing Hydrangea

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 50' to 60'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: Brown capsule; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Slow when first established.

HABIT: Climbing, without support, by aerial roots.

FAMILY: Saxifragaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3 1/2" long and 2" to 3" wide, wide ovate in shape with serrated margins. Petioles almost as long as leaves. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1" to 1 1/2" across, borne in several-branched, flat-topped corymbs that are 6" or broader, the outer flowers being sterile. Fragrant. Flowers in early summer.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Needs sun or part shade. Will not bloom as well in deeper shade. Does best in porous soil that is high in organic matter and somewhat moist. Responds favorably to moderate fertilization. Easier to control than most vines.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Climbing Hydrangea is excellent for naturalizing. It was taken from the wild, and it looks best in a less formal setting. Great for climbing on stonework, rustic boards, poles, and garden trees.

Lonicera sempervirens

(lon-iss-er-uh sim-per-vi-renz)

Trumpet Honeysuckle, Coral Honeysuckle

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 15' to 20'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: 1/4" red berry; not spectacular.

TEXTURE: Medium-fine

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Twining; needs support.

FAMILY: Caprifoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Blue-green in summer; new growth reddish.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" long and 1" to 2" wide, oblong or ovate shape with entire margins, OPPOSITE arrangement, leaves near tip are perfoliate or connate (fused).

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: 1 1/2" to 2", reddish-orange with yellow throat, funnel-shaped, whorled in spikes at the ends of shoots. Flowers in spring and summer. Very fragrant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Needs full sun or part shade. Should be planted in well-drained soil that receives reasonable moisture. Prune after flowering to control or shape. Considered easy to grow and worth the effort.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alabama Scarlet'--Scarlet-red flowers. 'Bonneau'--Red flowers spring through fall. Leaves have silver undersides. 'Magnifica'--Scarlet-red flowers with yellow throats. Later flowering. 'Sulphurea'--Has solid yellow flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Unusual foliage and flowers make this a plant to feature. Can be trained to climb on trellises or fences.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

(par-thin-o-sis-us kwin-kun-fo-le-uh)

Virginia Creeper

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 25' to 40'

WIDTH: Varies with the structure.

FRUIT: Blue-black berries in fall.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Climbing by tendrils, having adhesive discs that literally "glue" themselves to any surface.

FAMILY: Vitaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green in summer; turning reddish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: PALMATELY COMPOUND having 5 whorled leaflets, 4" to 5" long and half as wide, leaflets ovate to elliptic with acuminate tips, serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, INCONSPICUOUS, in cymes under the foliage. Flowers in summer.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Will grow in full sun to shade. Easy to grow in almost any conditions, including poor, stony soils and sand. Will act as ground cover when it has nothing to climb on. Commonly found in the wild due to bird attraction to the berries.

PEST PROBLEMS: Mildews, beetles. None serious.

SELECTED VARIETIES: var. engelmannii--Has smaller leaflets. var. saint-paulii Has smaller leaflets and clings better to surfaces.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Virginia Creeper is a beautiful climbing vine often mistaken for Poison Ivy, which has only 3 leaflets. Fall color is brilliant, and it is great for naturalizing. Can be used as a VINE or GROUND COVER.

Parthenocissus tricuspidata

(par-thin-o-sis'-us try-cuss-pe-day'-tuh)

Boston Ivy

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 25' to 35

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: 1/4" blue-black berries.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Climbing by tendrils with disc-like adhesions.

FAMILY: Vitaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and shiny in summer; red in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 5" to 8" long and wide, 3-lobed margins that are coarsely serrated. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish in cymes, NOT COMMON and NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Grows in almost any soil except waterlogged, and will withstand drought. Very easy to grow and hard to get rid of when renovating. Pruning is necessary in order to control. Grow on large structures that are easily accessible.

PEST PROBLEMS: Aphids on new growth, mites, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Green Showers'--Larger rich green leaves. Burgundy in fall. Ice-blue fruits. 'Lowii'--Small-leaved Boston Ivy. Much smaller leaves and easier to control. 'Purpurea'--Has red-purple leaves throughout the growing season. 'Veitchii'--Very dense, bright green, maple-like leaves. Turns orange or scarlet in fall.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Boston Ivy is an excellent climbing plant for large walls and structures. It is especially attractive on brick walls and fences. The effect is quite dramatic, and one should plan its use carefully with a degree of commitment. Used often in estate-type landscapes. It is not a good choice for the small home garden. Outstanding vine that will climb on anything.

Polygonum aubertii

(po-lig'-o-num awe-bur'-tee-eye)

Silver Lace Vine

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 25' to 30'

WIDTH: 30' to 35'

FRUIT: Small achenes; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Twining; requires support. Multiplies by rhizomes.

FAMILY: Polygonaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 3" long and 1" to 1 1/2" wide, ovate shape with hastate base, margins entire or undulating, OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, infrequently pinkish, 1/4", appearing in panicles near branch ends in mid-summer. Fragrant and attractive.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Grows in almost any soil that is not waterlogged. Can be trained on fences, arbors, trellises, and other non-solid structures. Requires pruning to control. Considered very easy to grow.

PEST PROBLEMS: Japanese beetles and other chewing insects.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Silver Lace Vine covers itself in mid-summer with panicles of lace-like whitish flowers. It performs especially well on wooden fences, and should be located on borders of the yard or other areas where space is generous. This vine will succeed where other vines fail. Will grow to 15" in one season. An excellent vine that has proven itself over the years.

Wisteria floribunda

(wis-teer'-e-uh floor-uh-bun-duh)

Japanese Wisteria

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 25' to 30'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: 6" brown pod; bean-like and pubescent.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Climbs by twining stems on poles, arbors, or trees.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green in summer; green to yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD PINNATELY COMPOUND, 13 to 19 leaflets, leaflets 2" to 3" long, ovate-elliptic shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Violet to violet-blue (red, pink, or white cultivars), 3/4" long in dense, pendulous, terminal racemes to 18". Flowers in spring with the leaves. Fragrant and very showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun or light shade. Prefers moist, well-drained soil, but is tolerant of a wide range of soil pH values. Prune after flowering to shape or control growth. NOT LOW MAINTENANCE.

PEST PROBLEMS: Mildew, webworms, scale.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Alba'--Has dense, white flower racemes. 'Issai Perfect' Has white flower racemes, even on very young plants. 'Ivory Tower'--Produces abundant white flowers that are more fragrant than the species. 'Rosea'--Has fragrant, rose-pink racemes to 18". 'Royal Purple'--Has bright, violet-purple racemes. 'Texas Purple'--Has violet-purple racemes at an earlier age.

RELATED SPECIES: W. sinensis--Chinese Wisteria (see next page). LANDSCAPE NOTES: Japanese Wisteria is a vigorous twining vine that can be used as an arbor plant, espalier, or as a shrub in lawn areas. This is an attractive, showy plant while in bloom, but should be grown with the understanding that regular maintenance is required to control growth.

Wisteria sinensis

(wis-teer'-e-uh si-nin'-sis)

Chinese Wisteria

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: Around 35'

WIDTH: Indeterminate

FRUIT: A stiff, velvety pod to 6" long; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid, once established.

HABIT: Spreading and mounded, with arching branches; twines on posts and trees.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: COMPOUND, usually 11 leaflets, leaflets 2" to 3" long and 1" to 2" wide, ovate-lanceolate in shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement to compound leaves.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Bluish-violet, 1" long in racemes that are approximately 1" in length. Flowers before the leaves appear in early spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Needs full sunlight for best flowering. Will grow in a wide range of soil types and pH conditions. Needs pruning to restrain. If not restrained, can take over areas of the yard, especially trees. Not a low-maintenance plant under most conditions.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

RELATED CULTIVARS: Var. alba--Has white flowers. 'Augusta's Pride'--Lavender to lilac flowers. 'Black Dragon'--Flowers are double, dark purple. 'Jako'--White, fragrant flowers. 'Purpurea'--Flowers purplish-violet.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Wisteria is an excellent landscape plant, valued for its spectacular floral display in spring. The plant, with a little attention, can be controlled. Its best use is as a vine for arbors and trellises, or as a shrub in the lawn area, away from other trees. An "old timey" plant that has proven itself.
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Title Annotation:SECTION 2 Landscape Plants
Author:Bridwell, Ferrell M.
Publication:Landscape Plants, Their Identification, Culture, and Use, 2nd ed.
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:4502
Previous Article:Chapter 4 ground covers.
Next Article:Chapter 6 dwarf shrubs.
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