Chapter 5 Planning job analysis.
We have determined organizational and individual needs. We have requested any existing documents (such as job descriptions) that will begin to identify position needs. In Chapter Five we will construct the instruments needed to identify the needs of each position. We will then develop a plan for analyzing each job, breaking it into sequential steps to assist us in the design of effective training. Through the job analysis process, we will also be looking at job design to enable us to modify the way jobs are done with an eye toward making them more efficient and effective.
Upon completion of Chapter Five, the student should be able to
* Describe the instructional design process.
* Describe the relationship between jobs, duties, and tasks.
* Describe how to develop a job list and how this list differs from a job description.
* Define task analysis and explain why it is important.
* Discuss work simplification and motion economy and how and why we utilize the principles in job design.
Instructional design is the systematic development of materials and methods for teaching a specific body of knowledge. Training design is instructional design aimed at teaching a person to do a specific job. Perhaps the best way to come to an understanding of instructional design is through examples. Have you ever taken a quiz and not finished all the questions because you had not been aware that there were additional questions on the backside of the paper? Have you ever handed in an exam and forgotten to put your name on it? These are examples of some of the little steps we want to remember to include in our instruction--steps that explain how to do the task or duty. They may not actually be part of the duty, but, if left out, may make its completion impossible. Adding a line for "Name" to an exam reminds students to put their name on the exam. "Continued," or, "more on the back," or, "turn page," all alert students to the fact that there are more questions to be answered. A poor grade because of a test-taking mistake rather than a knowledge mistake can and should be avoided by instructional designers.
Have you ever tried to follow directions to someone's house and found there was a street or a turn missing? Once we know how to get to the person's house, it is easy. But initially, without that step-by-step instruction, locating a person's house might involve driving around in circles till eventually stumbling upon the place only by accident. Avoiding such confusion is the idea behind instructional design. We make sure all the steps are there in the right order, that they are the right steps, and the directions for following the steps are complete and correct. We never assume that someone knows a step that is obvious to us. Every unnecessary assumption is a mistake waiting to happen.
Training design takes into consideration the organizational and individual needs but focuses on position needs. The steps at this point are to
1. Identify all the duties for each position.
2. Break down each duty into sequential steps.
3. Identify performance standards for each duty and step.
A job list identifies all the duties for a specific position. A server has a different job list than a cook because they have different duties. A duty is one specific task an employee does that is part of the total job. One duty of a server might be to fill the salt and pepper shakers, while one duty of a housekeeper could be to make the beds.
A good starting point for assembling a job list is a job description. A job description is a human resources management tool that lists all the main duties an employee does in a particular position. It describes the job. A job list is a list of all the duties of the position, so it is similar but much more complete. In start-up operations, it would make sense to obtain all the detailed information necessary for job lists and training design while doing the initial job analysis. In existing operations, however, we can begin with the job description and (using the same tools as for job analysis) then delve deeper into the job to result in a complete list of all duties performed in the particular position.
When we think about a server job, the main duties are usually taking and serving drink and food orders. A server, though, might do many other things as well, such as stock the wait station, make coffee, bus tables, set tables, prepare salads, fill salt and pepper shakers, dust the dining room, rearrange tables, clean chairs, seat guests, and/or do various cleaning side-work tasks. We have to find out exactly what servers actually do (or should be doing) in order to design training that instructs new servers how to do the job as prescribed by the organization.
In an existing operation we can ask the servers what they do--have them list all their duties. It is possible they could forget something or say something that they do not really do, so we want to cross-check by watching them do the job. That way we can compare what they say they do with what they actually do, and then see if there are any differences. We might want to watch a couple of different servers to see if they both do and say the same thing. We can also ask them if there are additional duties they think they should be doing or that they are doing that they do not think they should be doing. Finally, we can ask managers and/or supervisors for their opinions.
If all the information we collect is the same from all sources, we have an accurate job list. If there are variations, though, we must figure out what should be on the job list. We can do this by perhaps holding a meeting with servers and management. Together we can work out a reasonable and accurate job list. This is possible so long as the servers understand they are not being evaluated (and do not in any way feel threatened).
At the same time we should ask servers about training needs--i.e., what they have experienced and what they think new servers need in terms of training. Our employees often have a better grasp of training needs because they have to work with new employees, and it is in their best interest to have new employees who are well trained.
The job list is a list of all duties that make up the job or position. Once we have the job list, the next step is task analysis, or the breakdown of job duties into sequential steps. A task is one step in a duty. Task analysis is not difficult. It is tedious! Not everyone has the patience to do complete task analysis, but mistakes made from incomplete task analysis can be costly and frustrating later on. The findings from task analysis become the actual instruction that we incorporate into lesson plans for the training sessions.
Let us say that one duty on a server job list is setting tables. In order to train someone to set a table, we need to know how it is done and what the outcome should be (performance standard). We will break down the duty into sequential steps. This is task analysis. We can ask the servers, "What do you do first?"
The steps could be
1. Go to the wait station and get napkins, silverware, and bread and butter plates. [Then ask: How many place settings? Which pieces of silverware? How do you carry them to the table? Do you use a tray?]
2. Fold the napkins and place them on the table. [Then ask: How do you fold the napkins? Where and how are the napkins placed at each place setting?]
3. Place the silverware and bread and butter plates at each place. [Then ask: Where are they placed?]
4. Arrange the centerpiece and/or candle and salt and pepper shakers in the center of the table. [Then ask: How are they arranged? What should the set table look like? How long should it take to set the table?]
We need a job list, task analysis, and training information for each of the positions we are going to design training for. Part of task analysis is the performance standard, or, precisely how the duty should be performed and/or what it should look like when completed. The performance standard for setting the table could be in the form of a diagram of what the set table should look like. In the server example, we can either obtain all the information at one time or interview them several times for different purposes. Interviews of this nature could be rather time consuming. Time will have to be allotted for interviews, and it should not interfere with the employees' work.
If there are no apparent problems with the way employees currently are performing their jobs, we may choose to collect all the information at one interview. For new operations or operations with needs that include redesign of positions, we would first need to establish an accurate job list and then ascertain how each duty should be performed. No matter which way we decide to analyze each position, though, we must prepare a plan (ordered questions we will ask to result in desired outcomes).
Work Simplification and Motion Economy
If there is an indication that changes in job design might be necessary, we must determine what the changes should be before training is designed. Work simplification is the study of duties and tasks to determine the most efficient methods of performance. We analyze duties and tasks to reduce work time and eliminate unnecessary aspects of the task. Activities may also be analyzed to improve product quality, and to help develop more skill in performing the task, so that the activity may be made more pleasurable (thus, reducing stress).
When designing jobs for a new operation, management might hire a consultant to do complex formal motion studies. We, however, can use an informal method to analyze the duties and tasks. Motion study, regardless of the method, has the overall objective of developing motion-mindedness in those who work. All approaches are based on principles of body motion economy and body mechanics and aim either to develop better motions or to eliminate motions.
If methods and procedures have not been periodically reviewed (to determine if they are still efficient and necessary), we might want to incorporate work simplification and motion economy analysis into our job analysis process.
The steps in work simplification include
1. Select the duty.
2. Break down the duty into all the steps or tasks.
3. Question each portion of the task (what, why, how, when, where, by whom).
4. If possible, devise a better method for doing it.
5. Apply the new method.
When determining a better method, it is useful to recognize the three major areas that can be changed: the product, the work environment, and the worker. Changes in the product may result either from the use of different raw materials (frozen vegetables instead of fresh), or by using the same ingredients but changing the product (like making a large casserole instead of individual ones), or by changes in both raw ingredients and finished product (making a large casserole with frozen vegetables).
Changes in work environment might include the basic rearrangement of large kitchen equipment, new cabinets, a working surface of the proper height, organizing storage space, and so on.
Principles related to effective storage areas are
1. Place all materials and equipment used in a single type of process in the general area in which the process is carried on.
2. Store equipment and supplies at the place of first use.
3. Duplicate inexpensive equipment needed in more than one area.
4. Store items so they are easy to see, reach, and grasp.
5. Determine the worker's limits of reach.
6. Keep storage areas flexible for adaptation to changing needs.
Changes in the worker involve body positions and motions. Feelings of comfort and/or discomfort result from the repetitive use of certain muscles and strain on the worker's internal framework. Good posture--keeping the body parts in alignment--results in stability when various body weights are correctly positioned, each centered over the base of support. In correct posture, whether standing, sitting, or using a tool, muscles designed for certain uses are able to perform without injury. In incorrect posture, muscles are not aligned and strain occurs. When any part of the body gets out of line, muscular effort is required to maintain body balance in addition to whatever work the body is doing. Permanent injury may also result.
Body mechanics may be defined as the science dealing with body forces and motions. Among its major principles are
1. Using muscles effectively.
2. Using good posture.
3. Taking advantage of momentum.
Changes in activities of the body involve changes in hand and body motions. The sequence of steps in the duty may be changed. A change in motion might be putting away dishes with two hands instead of one, elimination of useless dabbing with the spoon when serving, using rhythmic motions in sweeping, any improvements in body mechanics (posture, etc.), pushing cut food from the cutting board into a bowl instead of scooping it into the hands and lifting into the bowl, and so forth.
The sequence of steps in a task may need to be ordered differently, or combined, or even eliminated. The routing of steps may be changed. For effective routing, the logical direction of the sequence of steps from beginning until completion of a task must be discovered. The goal is reduction in total distance and number of needless repetitions. Each step of a duty is to be performed with the next one in mind. For example, routing in hand dishwashing requires that stacking be done in such a place and manner as to anticipate ease in washing, drying, and storage of dishes.
Fitting steps closely together, known as dovetailing, may be illustrated by setting the table for the next meal (after dishwashing) without putting washed dishes away from the preceding meal. By preparing several baked products in succession, mixing bowls and utensils can be utilized more than once simply by rinsing without drying and putting away between usages. A change in the order of steps may shorten the pathway. Completing the making of a bed from one side before going to the other side is also an example.
Principles of Work Simplification
Incorporating motion economy and work simplification principles can help us to develop better and more efficient ways for employees to perform their jobs. Because the hospitality industry can be so labor intensive, it is important to analyze jobs periodically to make sure they are being done in the best ways possible. Employees may be performing duties and utilizing methods out of habit rather than need or efficiency.
The principles of work simplification are
1. Make rhythmic and smooth motions.
2. Make both hands productive at the same time.
3. Make hand and body motions few, short, and simple.
4. Maintain comfortable conditions and positions.
5. Locate material for efficiency.
6. Use the best available equipment.
7. Store materials in an orderly manner.
To determine a better method,
1. Eliminate duties or tasks.
2. Combine steps.
3. Rearrange steps, and/or simplify duties or tasks.
The Garden Terrace Inn--Job Analysis Plan
Job analysis in training design is utilizing research methods for obtaining information to result in job lists, task analysis of job list duties, performance standards, and training needs. The initial interview with the general manager (GM) (conducted to determine organizational needs) indicated that training was to be designed for the line positions of cook, dishwasher, housekeeper, front desk, night auditor, and server.
We requested existing relevant documents for all positions from the GM and department heads and subsequently received job descriptions, some policy and procedure manuals, and a few training materials. The research methods we will use to analyze the six positions will be analysis of existing documents, interviews, and observations. We will begin with the position of cook.
From the employee questionnaire we found that all six cooks were high school graduates with little or no formal training or education after high school. Most had worked at GTI between one and three years. Their prime motivations were money and job security. They were satisfied with the level of responsibility and supervision, and two indicated an interest in becoming trainers.
The following is the job description for the position of cook. Chef Paul told us that he has written recipes but that the training is individual, and there are no written documents available. He said the job description is accurate, up to date, and that no one is hired who does not have the qualifications listed on the document. There are two cook shifts (6:00 AM-2:30 PM, and 1:00-9:30 PM) each day, seven days a week. Cooks rotate through both shifts and all are trained for both shifts. Chef Paul says the shifts are "pretty routine" except when there are special events going on. He feels that if cooks are well trained for the regular routine, they will be able to follow his directions for special events without additional training.
Job Title: Cook
Supervisor: Executive Chef or Sous Chef
General Summary: Prepare menu items for The Garden Room, conferences, room service, and special events
PRINCIPAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:
1. Prepare, cook, assemble, and plate menu items as per the directions of the Chef or Sous Chef.
2. Clean all preparation areas throughout the day.
3. Leave walk-in and dry storeroom neat and clean, with leftovers labeled and dated.
4. All pans, cooking utensils, cooking areas, and equipment (including range, ovens, steam kettle, etc.) must be left clean at shift's end.
5. Put away stock and take inventory at the direction of the Chef or Sous Chef.
REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND ABILITIES:
1. Must be able to work well with entire kitchen staff
2. Must be able to follow the direction of the Chef or Sous Chef
3. Must be able to work fast and efficiently while maintaining high quality standards
EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE:
1. Must be able to read and write at tenth grade level.
2. Must be able to follow recipes.
3. Must have basic cooking skills.
4. Must have equivalent of one year full-time experience cooking in any forum.
Interview with a Cook
We will interview one cook in depth and check the interview results with the Sous Chef, who was previously a cook, and the Chef. If there is a discrepancy between the Cook, Sous Chef, and Chef, we will interview an additional cook. We asked both the Sous Chef and the Chef which cooks were most representative of the job being done exactly as it should be. They agreed that Tasha was the most talented and creative of all the cooks, but that Andi was closest to the ideal. It was arranged for Andi to come in on her day off and spend three-plus paid hours to help us analyze the cook's job. Andi will be reminded of the purpose of needs assessment and again reassured that she is not being evaluated, and that we need her help in the design of training that will perfectly match the job.
Questions for Andi:
1. What time do you arrive at work?
2. What time are you scheduled to begin work?
3. What are your job duties?
4. What do you do first?
5. What time do you do it?
6. What do you do after that?
(Keep asking questions and assemble a list of sequential duties. Show Andi the list and get her input. Is there anything else that she does that is not on the list? Ask about both cooking shifts. Note the time her breaks/lunch or dinner occur.)
For each duty on the job list, we will ask Andi step-by-step how she does it. We will use the following form for each duty and write the step, how to do it, the performance standard (how we determine if the standard is met, such as comparing the table setting to a picture of how it is to be done), and how long it takes to do it.
We will then ask Andi:
1. How were you trained for this job?
2. Were there any duties for which you did not receive training that you should have?
3. Was there any training for duties that you really did not need?
4. What was particularly effective about the way you were trained?
5. What would you change in the training?
6. Are there any parts of your job that need to be changed or that could be improved?
7. Do the jobs in the kitchen work well together? What about the rest of GTI's departmental jobs? Would you make any changes? If so, what would they be?
The job list, task analysis, performance standards, and other information about the job will be the results of the interview with Andi. We do not want to assume that this information is complete and totally correct. The entire training program for the cook will be based on this information, so we will want to corroborate our interview findings with other sources.
We will observe Andi doing her job using an observation checklist that we will develop based on task analysis. We will also ask the Sous Chef and Chef to review the job list and task analysis documents for their input. If there are discrepancies between the sources, we will have to determine (perhaps through a joint discussion) the correct duties and procedures.
An observation checklist is a list of sequential duties that we will be looking for in the observation. We can check the particular duty as we see it performed. We can also indicate on the checklist whether or not the duty is performed in the sequence and in the same way and time as indicated in the interview. We can note how the performance of job duties for the cook position fit and flow with other positions. The observation checklist is a tool that helps us know what to look for and to give the observation some structure. The purpose of the observation is to note discrepancies between what is said in the interview and what is actually done on the job. The checklist helps us to do this.
Every step of the instructional design process takes time and effort, and thus is expensive. A plan is necessary to assure that we obtain the correct information, from the right person, and do it in an efficient manner. To determine the position needs we first must devise a job list (which is similar to a job description, but includes every duty). We then break down each duty on the job list into the sequential steps it takes (the procedures) and determine the performance standards. We look for additions or subtractions from the job list, and differences in the way duties are performed by utilizing several different sources and methods for obtaining information. In this chapter, we developed a plan and the instruments for obtaining the information. The next chapter will focus on the implementation of the plan.
CHAPTER THOUGHT QUESTIONS
1. Review and define position needs from Chapter Three. Describe the process for determining position needs. What information is needed? Where do you find this information? From whom do you find it? How do you find it? What tools do you use to find this information?
2. Define job list, duty, and task, and describe how they are related to each other and what they have to do with training design.
3. Task analysis is tedious work. Please define it, describe the process, and discuss why it is important and why it must be done.
4. Review the concept of triangulation from Chapter Three, and discuss triangulation in task analysis.
5. How are job lists and job descriptions similar and different? In an existing operation we might begin task analysis with the job description. What would we do in a new operation where there is no job description?
6. Define performance standards and describe how they are determined and how we find out what the performance standard is for any specific duty.
7. Define and describe job simplification and motion economy. Why are they important, and how do they relate to training design?
8. Think about the route you drive or walk to school, work, or any place you go regularly. What are alternative routes? Draw little maps of the routes. Which route is faster, more direct, more pleasant, and so forth? Is there a better route you could travel?
9. Compare and contrast task analysis with work simplification/motion economy analysis. Could they be done together as one process? Why or why not? If yes, how?
10. Discuss why all the numerous steps in instructional design (training design) are so necessary. Justify the incredible amount of work that goes into designing good formal training.
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|Publication:||Training Design Guide for the Hospitality Industry|
|Article Type:||Professional standards|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2003|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 4 Implementing needs assessment.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 6 Implementing job analysis.|