Chapter 33 Rabbit ration formulation.
Workbook A workbook is the spreadsheet program file including all its worksheets.
Worksheet A worksheet is the same as a spreadsheet. There may be more than one worksheet in a workbook.
Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is the same as a worksheet.
Cell A cell is a location within a worksheet or spreadsheet.
Comment A comment is a note that appears when the mouse pointer moves over the cell. A red triangle in the upper right corner of a cell indicates that it contains a comment. Comments are added to help explain the function and operations of workbooks.
Input box An input box is a programming technique that prompts the workbook user to type information. After typing the information in the input box, the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER to enter the typed information.
Message box A message box is a programming technique that displays a message. The message box disappears after the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER.
Security: Click on the Tools menu, Options command, Security tab, Macro Security button, Medium setting.
Screen resolution: This application was developed for a screen resolution of 1024 X 768. If the screen resolution on your machine needs to be changed, see Microsoft Excel Help, "Change the screen resolution" for instructions.
RABBIT RATION FORMULATION
Double click on the RabbitRation icon. The message box in Figure 33-1 displays.
Figure 33-1 Macros may contain viruses. It is advisable to disable macros, but if The macros are legitimate, you may lose some functionality. Disable Macros or Enable Macros or More Info
Click on Enable macros.
The message box in Figure 33-2 displays.
Figure 33-2 Function keys F1 to F8 are set up. You may return to this location from anywhere by striking ENTER, then the F1 key. Workbook by David A. Tisch. The author makes no claim for the accuracy of this application and the user is solely responsible for risk of use. You're good to go. TYPE ONLY IN THE GRAY CELLS! Note: This Workbook is made up of charts and a worksheet. The charts and worksheet are selected by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the display. Never save the Workbook from a chart; always return to the worksheet before saving the Workbook.
Input Rabbit Procedure
Click on the Input Rabbit button. The input box shown in Figure 33-3 displays.
Figure 33-3 1. Growing 2. Gestating or bucks in service 3. Lactating 4. Maintenance (dry does, bucks not in service) 5. Angora or other long-hair rabbits ENTER THE APPROPRIATE NUMBER:
Click OK to choose the default input of #1, a growing rabbit. The input box shown in Figure 33-4 displays.
Figure 33-4 Enter measured DMI per rabbit (pounds) if available, or click OK to accept the predicted value at CX26:
Click OK to accept the predicted dry matter intake. The message box shown in Figure 33-5 displays.
Figure 33-5 Enter the appropriate cell inputs in column CX.
The Cell Inputs
Enter the cell inputs shown in Table 33-1.
The comment behind the cell containing the "Rabbit age in weeks (4-42)" label is shown in Figure 33-6.
Figure 33-6 Meat rabbits are generally marketed by 8 weeks of age. No additional nutrients are included with age inputs of greater than 10 weeks. Ration amount and energy density may need to be adjusted with older rabbits depending on body condition.
The comment behind the cell containing the "Temperature in degrees F" label is shown in Figure 33-7.
Figure 33-7 Temperature is used to predict energy requirement and dry matter/feed intake.
Strike ENTER and F1.
Select Feeds Procedure
Click on the Select Feeds button. The message box in Figure 33-8 displays.
Figure 33-8 Nutrient content expressed on a dry matter basis. Feedstuffs are listed first by selection status; then, within the same selection status, by decreasing protein content; then, within the same protein content, alphabetically.
Explore the table. Note the nutrients listed as column headings. Note also that the table ends at row 200. You select feedstuffs for use in making two different products: (1) a blend to be mixed and sold bagged or bulk and (2) a ration to be fed directly to the animal.
Select the feedstuffs in Table 33-2 by placing a 1 in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. All unselected feedstuffs should have a 0 value in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. If you wish to group feedstuffs but not select them, you would place a value between 0 and 1 to the left of the feedstuff name.
Strike ENTER and F2.
Selected feedstuffs and their analyses are copied to several locations in the Workbook.
Make Ration Procedure
Click on the Make Ration button. The message box shown in Figure 33-9 displays.
Figure 33-9 ENTER POUNDS TO FEED IN COLUMN B. TOGGLE BETWEEN NUTRIENT WEIGHTS AND CONCENTRATIONS USING THE F5 KEY, RATION AND FEED CONTRIBUTIONS USING THE F6 KEY. WHEN DONE STRIKE F1. Cell is highlighted in red if nutrient provided is poorly matched with nutrient target. The lower limit is taken as 95 to 98 percent of target, depending on the nutrient. Where available, the upper limit of acceptable mineral is taken from the National Research Council, 1980. Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. National Academy Press. This publication gives safe upper limits of minerals as salts of high bioavailability. The upper limit for vitamins is taken from the NRC, 1987. Where no information is available, the upper limit is based on unreasonable excess and the expense of unnecessary supplementation. See Table 33-4 for specifics.
Click OK. The message box shown in Figure 33-10 displays.
Figure 33-10 The Goal Seek feature may be useful in finding the pounds of a specific feedstuff needed to reach a particular nutrient target: 1. Select the red cell highlighting the deficient nutrient 2. From the menu bar, select Tools, then Goal Seek 3. In the text box, "To Value:" enter the target to the right of the selected cell 4. Click in the text box, "By changing cell:" and then click in the gray "Pounds fed" area for the feedstuff to supply the nutrient 5. Click OK. You may accept the value found by clicking OK or reject it by clicking Cancel. WARNING: Using Goal Seek to solve the unsolvable (e.g., asking it to make up an iodine shortfall with iron sulfate) may result in damage to the Workbook. IMPORTANT: If you return to the Feedtable to remove more than one feedstuff from the selected list, you will lose your chosen amounts fed in the developing ration.
In the gray area to the right of the feedstuff name, enter the pound values shown in Table 33-3.
The Nutrients Supplied Display
The application highlights ration nutrient levels, expressed as amount supplied per rabbit per day, that fall outside the acceptable range.
The lower limit for dry matter intake and DE is 95 percent of the target. The lower limit for all other nutrients is 98 percent of the target. Table 33-4 shows the upper limits of the acceptable range for the various nutrients.
Energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, and vitamin targets have been met with minimal excesses.
The cost of this ration using initial $/ton values is $0.03 per rabbit per day.
First limiting amino acid: Arg (Arginine)
The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-11.
Figure 33-11 This is the amino acid that exists in the ration at a level that is farthest from the level required, or the amino acid whose requirement is most narrowly met.
Ca:Ptotal ratio: 2.33
The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-12.
Figure 33-12 In some species, excess calcium interferes with the absorption of other minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium and zinc. However, with rabbits a calcium-to-phosphorous ratio as high as 12 calcium to 1 phosphorus did not depress growth and resulted in normal bone ash (rabbit NRC, 1977).
Ca:Pavail ratio: 3.33
The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-13.
Figure 33-13 Though there is no information specifically for rabbits, in swine nutrition, when the calcium-to-phosphorous ratio is based on available phosphorus, the recommendation is to have two to three times as much calcium as phosphorus.
The Nutrient Concentration Display (strike F5)
The nutrients in the ration and the predicted nutrient targets are expressed in terms of concentration. That is, the nutrients provided by the ration are divided by the amount of ration dry matter and the nutrient targets are divided by the target amount of ration dry matter. Concentration units include percent, milligrams per kilogram or parts per million, calories per pound, and international units per pound.
Electrolyte balance: 435
The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-14.
Figure 33-14 The electrolyte balance is used to assess the impact of the ration's mineral content on the body's efforts to regulate blood pH through urinary excretion. High intake of mineral cations has been associated with urolithiasis in rabbits. The electrolyte balance is calculated here as mEq of excess cations: (Na + K - Cl)/kg of diet dry matter. Because rabbits are unusual in that they excrete calcium through urinary rather than fecal means, this formula may not be suited to rabbits. The ideal balance among these electrolytes has not been defined for rabbits. The optimal electrolyte balance in the diet for pigs has been suggested to be 250, as fed (Austic & Calvert, 1981) or 278, dry matter. However, in pigs, optimal growth has been found to occur over the range of 0 to 667 mEq/kg of dry matter diet. The electrolyte balance is of no value if requirements for Na, K and Cl have not been satisfied.
The Feedstuff Contributions Display (strike F6)
Shown here are the nutrients contributed by each feedstuff in the ration. This display is useful in trying to troubleshoot problems with nutrient excesses.
The Graphic Display
At the bottom of the home display are tabs. The current tab selected is the Worksheet tab. Other tabs are graphs based on the current ration.
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Dry Matter Intake, DE and NDF.
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Crude Protein and Amino Acids.
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Macrominerals.
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Microminerals.
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Water-Soluble Vitamins.
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Fat-Soluble Vitamins.
Click on the Worksheet tab.
Blend Feedstuffs Procedure
Click on the Blend Feedstuffs button. The message box shown in Figure 33-15 is shown.
Figure 33-15 YOU MUST HAVE ALREADY SELECTED THE FEEDSTUFFS YOU WANT TO BLEND. When your analysis is acceptable, strike ENTER and F3 to name and file the blend.
The amounts to blend are the same as the amounts to feed (Table 33-3). These amounts have been copied from the Make Ration section. Note that to the left of the amounts entered is a column that has converted these amounts to a pounds-per-ton basis. Feed mill mixer capacities are rated in tons so formulas to be mixed should be expressed on a pounds-per-ton basis.
Strike ENTER and F3. The input box in Figure 33-16 displays.
Figure 31-16 ENTER THE NAME OF THE BLEND (names may not be composed of only numbers):
Name the blend RabbitGrower and click OK. The message box in Figure 33-17 displays.
Figure 33-17 The new blend has been filed at the bottom of the feed table.
View Blends Procedure
Click on the View Blends button. The message box in Figure 33-18 displays.
Figure 33-18 Cursor right to view the blends. Cursor down for more nutrients. DO NOT TYPE IN THE BLUE AREAS.
Click OK. Confirm that the RabbitGrower formula and analysis have been filed.
Using the Blended Feed in the Balanced Ration
Select Feeds Procedure
Click on the Select Feeds button. Unselect all feedstuffs that were in the RabbitGrower by entering a 0 to the left of the feedstuff name. Select the RabbitGrower at the bottom of the feed table (row 200) (Table 33-5).
Strike ENTER and F2.
Make Ration Procedure
Click on the Make Ration button. Enter the ration shown in Table 33-6.
The amount of the RabbitGrower to feed is the total amount of its Component ingredients in the balanced ration. That value is:
0.0004 + 0.04 + 0.17 + 0.04 + 0.05 + 0.01 + 0.0000076 + 0.000053 + 0.000000078 + 0.000013 + 0.0000028 + 0.003 + 0.00023 + 0.000013 + 0.000038 + 0.0000073 = 0314.
This value is recorded at View Blends under Formula, as entered. The ration is balanced as it was when the components of RabbitGrower were fed unmixed.
Strike ENTER and F1.
Print Ration or Blend Procedure
Make sure your name is entered at cell Cl. Click on the Print Ration or BI end button. The input box in Figure 33-19 displays.
Figure 33-19 Are you printing a rabbit ration evaluation or a blend formula and analysis? (1-RATION, 2 -BLEND):
Click OK to accept the default value of 1, a ration. A two page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.
Click on the Print Ration or BI end button. Type the number 2 to print a blend. Click OK. The message box in Figure 33-20 displays.
Figure 33-20 Click on the green number above the blend you want to print and press F4. Scroll right to see additional blends.
Find the RabbitGrower blend, click on the green number above it, and strike F 4. A one page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.
ACTIVITIES AND WHAT IFS
In the Forms folder on the companion CD to this text is a RabbitInput.doc file that may be used to collect the necessary inputs for use of the RabbiRation.xls file. This form may be printed out and used during rabbitry visits to assist in ration evaluation activities.
1. To ensure pellet quality if no pellet binder is to be included in the formulation, feed mills often include at least 40016. of wheat middlings per ton. View the RabbitGrower formula at View Blends. What can you say about the need for inclusion of a pellet binder in this formulation?
2. The vitamin A value in this ration is in excess of the rabbit's requirements. What is the source of the vitamin A value in this ration? What would you say about the potential for vitamin A toxicity in the rabbit fed this ration?
3. Remake the ration described in Table 33 3 for the rabbit described in this chapter. What is the cost of feeding a growing rabbit this ration for 1 day? What are the top three feedstuffs contributing to the cost of this ration?
Austic, R. E. & Calvert, C. C. (1981). Nutritional interrelationships of electrolytes and amino acids. Federation Proceedings. 40, 63-67.
National Research Council. (1977). Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 2nd revised edition. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. (1980). Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. (1987). Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Table 33-1 Inputs for the rabbit ration formulation example 5 Rabbit age in weeks (4-42) 70 Temperature ([degree] F) yes Is there significant relief from the heat at night? (yes/no) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Table 33-2 Feedstuffs to select for the rabbit ration formulation example Methionine, DL Soybean meal, 44% Alfalfa meal, 17% Wheat middlings Oat grain Molasses, cane Calcium pantothenate Niacin Potassium iodide Pyridoxine HCl (B6) Riboflavin Salt (sodium chloride) Vitamin D supplement Vitamin E supplement Vitamin K (MSB premix) Zinc oxide Table 33-3 Inclusion rates for feedstuffs in the rabbit ration formulation example Methionine, DL 0.0004 Soybean meal, 44% 0.04 Alfalfa meal, 17% 0.17 Wheat middlings 0.04 Oat grain 0.05 Molasses, cane 0.01 Calcium pantothenate 0.0000076 Niacin 0.000053 Potassium iodide 0.000000078 Pyridoxine HCl ([B.sub.6]) 0.000013 Riboflavin 0.0000028 Salt (sodium chloride) 0.003 Vitamin D supplement 0.00023 Vitamin E supplement 0.000013 Vitamin K (MSB premix) 0.000038 Zinc oxide 0.0000073 Table 33-4 Upper limits for ration nutrients used in the rabbit ration application Upper Limit DMI 6% over predicted requirement DE 6% over predicted requirement Fat No upper limit ADF No upper limit CP 30% over predicted requirement Arg No upper limit Gly+Ser No upper limit His No upper limit Ile No upper limit Leu No upper limit Lys No upper limit Met No upper limit Met+Cys No upper limit Phe No upper limit Phe+Tyr No upper limit Pro No upper limit Thr No upper limit Trp No upper limit Val No upper limit Ca 4.5% of ration dry matter Ptotal 1% of ration dry matter Pavail The upper limit has not been established Na 1.2% of ration dry matter Cl 2% of ration dry matter K 3% of ration dry matter Mg 0.3% of ration dry matter Cu 300 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter I 300 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter Fe 500 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter Mn 400 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter Co 10 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter Zn 500 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter Vitamin A 4 x the predicted requirement Carotene No upper limit Vitamin D 4 x the predicted requirement Vitamin E 20 the predicted requirement Vitamin K 1,000 x the predicted requirement Choline 10 x the predicted requirement Folacin No upper limit Niacintotal No upper limit Niacinavail 350 mg/kg body weight Pantothenic acid 100 x the predicted requirement Riboflavin 20 x the predicted requirement Thiamin B1 1,000 x the predicted requirement Pyridoxine B6 50 x the predicted requirement Vitamin B12 No upper limit Source DMI Author DE Author Fat -- ADF -- CP Author Arg -- Gly+Ser -- His -- Ile -- Leu -- Lys -- Met -- Met+Cys -- Phe -- Phe+Tyr -- Pro -- Thr -- Trp -- Val -- Ca Rabbit NRC, 1977 Ptotal Rabbit NRC, 1977 Pavail -- Na NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980-rabbit; based on limit for salt (sodium chloride) Cl NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980-rabbit; based on limit for salt (sodium chloride) K NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980 Mg NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980 Cu Author I Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980-value used for poultry Fe NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980 Mn NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980 Co NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980 Zn NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980-poultry Vitamin A NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Carotene -- Vitamin D NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Vitamin E NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Vitamin K NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Choline Author Folacin NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Niacintotal -- Niacinavail NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Pantothenic acid Author Riboflavin Author Thiamin B1 NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Pyridoxine B6 NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Vitamin B12 NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 DMI: dry matter intake; DE: digestible energy. Table 33-5 Feedstuff to select for rabbit ration formulation example RabbitGrower Table 33-6 Inclusion rate for feedstuff in rabbit ration formulation example RabbitGrower 0.314
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|Author:||Tisch, David A.|
|Publication:||Animal Feeds, Feeding and Nutrition, and Ration Evaluation|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2006|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 32 Feeding rabbits.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 34 Feeding fish.|