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Chapter 33 Rabbit ration formulation.

TERMINOLOGY

Workbook A workbook is the spreadsheet program file including all its worksheets.

Worksheet A worksheet is the same as a spreadsheet. There may be more than one worksheet in a workbook.

Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is the same as a worksheet.

Cell A cell is a location within a worksheet or spreadsheet.

Comment A comment is a note that appears when the mouse pointer moves over the cell. A red triangle in the upper right corner of a cell indicates that it contains a comment. Comments are added to help explain the function and operations of workbooks.

Input box An input box is a programming technique that prompts the workbook user to type information. After typing the information in the input box, the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER to enter the typed information.

Message box A message box is a programming technique that displays a message. The message box disappears after the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER.

EXCEL SETTINGS

Security: Click on the Tools menu, Options command, Security tab, Macro Security button, Medium setting.

Screen resolution: This application was developed for a screen resolution of 1024 X 768. If the screen resolution on your machine needs to be changed, see Microsoft Excel Help, "Change the screen resolution" for instructions.

HANDS-ON EXERCISES

RABBIT RATION FORMULATION

Double click on the RabbitRation icon. The message box in Figure 33-1 displays.
Figure 33-1

Macros may contain viruses. It is advisable to disable macros, but if
The macros are legitimate, you may lose some functionality.
Disable Macros or Enable Macros or More Info


Click on Enable macros.

The message box in Figure 33-2 displays.
Figure 33-2

Function keys F1 to F8 are set up. You may return to this location from
anywhere by striking ENTER, then the F1 key. Workbook by David A.
Tisch. The author makes no claim for the accuracy of this application
and the user is solely responsible for risk of use. You're good to go.
TYPE ONLY IN THE GRAY CELLS! Note: This Workbook is made up of charts
and a worksheet. The charts and worksheet are selected by clicking on
the tabs at the bottom of the display. Never save the Workbook from a
chart; always return to the worksheet before saving the Workbook.


Click OK.

Input Rabbit Procedure

Click on the Input Rabbit button. The input box shown in Figure 33-3 displays.
Figure 33-3

1. Growing
2. Gestating or bucks in service
3. Lactating
4. Maintenance (dry does, bucks not in service)
5. Angora or other long-hair rabbits

ENTER THE APPROPRIATE NUMBER:


Click OK to choose the default input of #1, a growing rabbit. The input box shown in Figure 33-4 displays.
Figure 33-4

Enter measured DMI per rabbit (pounds) if available, or click OK to
accept the predicted value at CX26:


Click OK to accept the predicted dry matter intake. The message box shown in Figure 33-5 displays.
Figure 33-5

Enter the appropriate cell inputs in column CX.


Click OK.

The Cell Inputs

Enter the cell inputs shown in Table 33-1.

The comment behind the cell containing the "Rabbit age in weeks (4-42)" label is shown in Figure 33-6.
Figure 33-6

Meat rabbits are generally marketed by 8 weeks of age. No additional
nutrients are included with age inputs of greater than 10 weeks. Ration
amount and energy density may need to be adjusted with older rabbits
depending on body condition.


The comment behind the cell containing the "Temperature in degrees F" label is shown in Figure 33-7.
Figure 33-7

Temperature is used to predict energy requirement and dry matter/feed
intake.


Strike ENTER and F1.

Select Feeds Procedure

Click on the Select Feeds button. The message box in Figure 33-8 displays.
Figure 33-8

Nutrient content expressed on a dry matter basis. Feedstuffs are listed
first by selection status; then, within the same selection status, by
decreasing protein content; then, within the same protein content,
alphabetically.


Click OK.

Explore the table. Note the nutrients listed as column headings. Note also that the table ends at row 200. You select feedstuffs for use in making two different products: (1) a blend to be mixed and sold bagged or bulk and (2) a ration to be fed directly to the animal.

Select the feedstuffs in Table 33-2 by placing a 1 in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. All unselected feedstuffs should have a 0 value in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. If you wish to group feedstuffs but not select them, you would place a value between 0 and 1 to the left of the feedstuff name.

Strike ENTER and F2.

Selected feedstuffs and their analyses are copied to several locations in the Workbook.

Make Ration Procedure

Click on the Make Ration button. The message box shown in Figure 33-9 displays.
Figure 33-9

ENTER POUNDS TO FEED IN COLUMN B. TOGGLE BETWEEN
NUTRIENT WEIGHTS AND CONCENTRATIONS USING THE F5
KEY, RATION AND FEED CONTRIBUTIONS USING THE F6 KEY.
WHEN DONE STRIKE F1. Cell is highlighted in red if nutrient
provided is poorly matched with nutrient target. The lower limit is
taken as 95 to 98 percent of target, depending on the nutrient. Where
available, the upper limit of acceptable mineral is taken from the
National Research Council, 1980. Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals.
National Academy Press. This publication gives safe upper limits of
minerals as salts of high bioavailability. The upper limit for vitamins
is taken from the NRC, 1987. Where no information is available, the
upper limit is based on unreasonable excess and the expense of
unnecessary supplementation. See Table 33-4 for specifics.


Click OK. The message box shown in Figure 33-10 displays.
Figure 33-10

The Goal Seek feature may be useful in finding the pounds of a specific
feedstuff needed to reach a particular nutrient target:

1. Select the red cell highlighting the deficient nutrient

2. From the menu bar, select Tools, then Goal Seek

3. In the text box, "To Value:" enter the target to the right of the
 selected cell

4. Click in the text box, "By changing cell:" and then click in the
 gray "Pounds fed" area for the feedstuff to supply the nutrient

5. Click OK. You may accept the value found by clicking OK or reject it
by clicking Cancel.

WARNING: Using Goal Seek to solve the unsolvable (e.g., asking it to
make up an iodine shortfall with iron sulfate) may result in damage to
the Workbook.

IMPORTANT: If you return to the Feedtable to remove more than one
feedstuff from the selected list, you will lose your chosen amounts fed
in the developing ration.


Click OK.

In the gray area to the right of the feedstuff name, enter the pound values shown in Table 33-3.

The Nutrients Supplied Display

The application highlights ration nutrient levels, expressed as amount supplied per rabbit per day, that fall outside the acceptable range.

The lower limit for dry matter intake and DE is 95 percent of the target. The lower limit for all other nutrients is 98 percent of the target. Table 33-4 shows the upper limits of the acceptable range for the various nutrients.

Energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, and vitamin targets have been met with minimal excesses.

The cost of this ration using initial $/ton values is $0.03 per rabbit per day.

First limiting amino acid: Arg (Arginine)

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-11.
Figure 33-11

This is the amino acid that exists in the ration at a level that is
farthest from the level required, or the amino acid whose requirement
is most narrowly met.


Ca:Ptotal ratio: 2.33

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-12.
Figure 33-12

In some species, excess calcium interferes with the absorption of other
minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium and zinc. However, with
rabbits a calcium-to-phosphorous ratio as high as 12 calcium to 1
phosphorus did not depress growth and resulted in normal bone ash
(rabbit NRC, 1977).


Ca:Pavail ratio: 3.33

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-13.
Figure 33-13

Though there is no information specifically for rabbits, in swine
nutrition, when the calcium-to-phosphorous ratio is based on available
phosphorus, the recommendation is to have two to three times as much
calcium as phosphorus.


The Nutrient Concentration Display (strike F5)

The nutrients in the ration and the predicted nutrient targets are expressed in terms of concentration. That is, the nutrients provided by the ration are divided by the amount of ration dry matter and the nutrient targets are divided by the target amount of ration dry matter. Concentration units include percent, milligrams per kilogram or parts per million, calories per pound, and international units per pound.

Electrolyte balance: 435

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 33-14.
Figure 33-14

The electrolyte balance is used to assess the impact of the ration's
mineral content on the body's efforts to regulate blood pH through
urinary excretion. High intake of mineral cations has been associated
with urolithiasis in rabbits. The electrolyte balance is calculated
here as mEq of excess cations: (Na + K - Cl)/kg of diet dry matter.
Because rabbits are unusual in that they excrete calcium through
urinary rather than fecal means, this formula may not be suited to
rabbits. The ideal balance among these electrolytes has not been
defined for rabbits. The optimal electrolyte balance in the diet for
pigs has been suggested to be 250, as fed (Austic & Calvert, 1981)
or 278, dry matter. However, in pigs, optimal growth has been found
to occur over the range of 0 to 667 mEq/kg of dry matter diet. The
electrolyte balance is of no value if requirements for Na, K and Cl
have not been satisfied.


Strike F5.

The Feedstuff Contributions Display (strike F6)

Shown here are the nutrients contributed by each feedstuff in the ration. This display is useful in trying to troubleshoot problems with nutrient excesses.

Strike F1.

The Graphic Display

At the bottom of the home display are tabs. The current tab selected is the Worksheet tab. Other tabs are graphs based on the current ration.

DMI&DE&NDF

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Dry Matter Intake, DE and NDF.

CP&aa

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Crude Protein and Amino Acids.

Macro

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Macrominerals.

Micro

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Microminerals.

Vit-H20

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Water-Soluble Vitamins.

Vit-Fat

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

Click on the Worksheet tab.

Blend Feedstuffs Procedure

Click on the Blend Feedstuffs button. The message box shown in Figure 33-15 is shown.
Figure 33-15

YOU MUST HAVE ALREADY SELECTED THE FEEDSTUFFS YOU
WANT TO BLEND. When your analysis is acceptable, strike ENTER
and F3 to name and file the blend.


Click OK.

The amounts to blend are the same as the amounts to feed (Table 33-3). These amounts have been copied from the Make Ration section. Note that to the left of the amounts entered is a column that has converted these amounts to a pounds-per-ton basis. Feed mill mixer capacities are rated in tons so formulas to be mixed should be expressed on a pounds-per-ton basis.

Strike ENTER and F3. The input box in Figure 33-16 displays.
Figure 31-16

ENTER THE NAME OF THE BLEND (names may not be composed of
only numbers):


Name the blend RabbitGrower and click OK. The message box in Figure 33-17 displays.
Figure 33-17

The new blend has been filed at the bottom of the feed table.


Click OK.

View Blends Procedure

Click on the View Blends button. The message box in Figure 33-18 displays.
Figure 33-18

Cursor right to view the blends. Cursor down for more nutrients. DO
NOT TYPE IN THE BLUE AREAS.


Click OK. Confirm that the RabbitGrower formula and analysis have been filed.

Strike F1.

Using the Blended Feed in the Balanced Ration

Select Feeds Procedure

Click on the Select Feeds button. Unselect all feedstuffs that were in the RabbitGrower by entering a 0 to the left of the feedstuff name. Select the RabbitGrower at the bottom of the feed table (row 200) (Table 33-5).

Strike ENTER and F2.

Make Ration Procedure

Click on the Make Ration button. Enter the ration shown in Table 33-6.

The amount of the RabbitGrower to feed is the total amount of its Component ingredients in the balanced ration. That value is:

0.0004 + 0.04 + 0.17 + 0.04 + 0.05 + 0.01 + 0.0000076 + 0.000053 + 0.000000078 + 0.000013 + 0.0000028 + 0.003 + 0.00023 + 0.000013 + 0.000038 + 0.0000073 = 0314.

This value is recorded at View Blends under Formula, as entered. The ration is balanced as it was when the components of RabbitGrower were fed unmixed.

Strike ENTER and F1.

Print Ration or Blend Procedure

Make sure your name is entered at cell Cl. Click on the Print Ration or BI end button. The input box in Figure 33-19 displays.
Figure 33-19

Are you printing a rabbit ration evaluation or a blend formula and
analysis? (1-RATION, 2 -BLEND):


Click OK to accept the default value of 1, a ration. A two page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.

Click on the Print Ration or BI end button. Type the number 2 to print a blend. Click OK. The message box in Figure 33-20 displays.
Figure 33-20

Click on the green number above the blend you want to print and press
F4. Scroll right to see additional blends.


Click OK.

Find the RabbitGrower blend, click on the green number above it, and strike F 4. A one page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.

ACTIVITIES AND WHAT IFS

In the Forms folder on the companion CD to this text is a RabbitInput.doc file that may be used to collect the necessary inputs for use of the RabbiRation.xls file. This form may be printed out and used during rabbitry visits to assist in ration evaluation activities.

1. To ensure pellet quality if no pellet binder is to be included in the formulation, feed mills often include at least 40016. of wheat middlings per ton. View the RabbitGrower formula at View Blends. What can you say about the need for inclusion of a pellet binder in this formulation?

2. The vitamin A value in this ration is in excess of the rabbit's requirements. What is the source of the vitamin A value in this ration? What would you say about the potential for vitamin A toxicity in the rabbit fed this ration?

3. Remake the ration described in Table 33 3 for the rabbit described in this chapter. What is the cost of feeding a growing rabbit this ration for 1 day? What are the top three feedstuffs contributing to the cost of this ration?

REFERENCES

Austic, R. E. & Calvert, C. C. (1981). Nutritional interrelationships of electrolytes and amino acids. Federation Proceedings. 40, 63-67.

National Research Council. (1977). Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 2nd revised edition. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (1980). Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (1987). Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Table 33-1
Inputs for the rabbit ration
formulation example

5     Rabbit age in weeks (4-42)
70    Temperature ([degree] F)
yes   Is there significant relief from the heat at night? (yes/no)
      N/A
      N/A
      N/A
      N/A
      N/A
      N/A
      N/A
      N/A
      N/A

Table 33-2

Feedstuffs to select for the
rabbit ration formulation
example

Methionine, DL
Soybean meal, 44%
Alfalfa meal, 17%
Wheat middlings
Oat grain
Molasses, cane
Calcium pantothenate
Niacin
Potassium iodide
Pyridoxine HCl (B6)
Riboflavin
Salt (sodium chloride)
Vitamin D supplement
Vitamin E supplement
Vitamin K (MSB premix)
Zinc oxide

Table 33-3
Inclusion rates for feedstuffs
in the rabbit ration
formulation example

Methionine, DL                0.0004
Soybean meal, 44%             0.04
Alfalfa meal, 17%             0.17
Wheat middlings               0.04
Oat grain                     0.05
Molasses, cane                0.01
Calcium pantothenate          0.0000076
Niacin                        0.000053
Potassium iodide              0.000000078
Pyridoxine HCl ([B.sub.6])    0.000013
Riboflavin                    0.0000028
Salt (sodium chloride)        0.003
Vitamin D supplement          0.00023
Vitamin E supplement          0.000013
Vitamin K (MSB premix)        0.000038
Zinc oxide                    0.0000073

Table 33-4
Upper limits for ration nutrients used in the rabbit ration application

                   Upper Limit

DMI                6% over predicted requirement
DE                 6% over predicted requirement
Fat                No upper limit
ADF                No upper limit
CP                 30% over predicted requirement
Arg                No upper limit
Gly+Ser            No upper limit
His                No upper limit
Ile                No upper limit
Leu                No upper limit
Lys                No upper limit
Met                No upper limit
Met+Cys            No upper limit
Phe                No upper limit
Phe+Tyr            No upper limit
Pro                No upper limit
Thr                No upper limit
Trp                No upper limit
Val                No upper limit
Ca                 4.5% of ration dry matter
Ptotal             1% of ration dry matter
Pavail             The upper limit has not been
                     established
Na                 1.2% of ration dry matter
Cl                 2% of ration dry matter
K                  3% of ration dry matter
Mg                 0.3% of ration dry matter
Cu                 300 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter
I                  300 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter
Fe                 500 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter
Mn                 400 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter
Co                 10 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter
Zn                 500 mg/kg or ppm of ration dry matter
Vitamin A          4 x the predicted requirement
Carotene           No upper limit
Vitamin D          4 x the predicted requirement
Vitamin E          20 the predicted requirement
Vitamin K          1,000 x the predicted requirement
Choline            10 x the predicted requirement
Folacin            No upper limit
Niacintotal        No upper limit
Niacinavail        350 mg/kg body weight
Pantothenic acid   100 x the predicted requirement
Riboflavin         20 x the predicted requirement
Thiamin B1         1,000 x the predicted requirement
Pyridoxine B6      50 x the predicted requirement
Vitamin B12        No upper limit

                   Source

DMI                Author
DE                 Author
Fat                --
ADF                --
CP                 Author
Arg                --
Gly+Ser            --
His                --
Ile                --
Leu                --
Lys                --
Met                --
Met+Cys            --
Phe                --
Phe+Tyr            --
Pro                --
Thr                --
Trp                --
Val                --
Ca                 Rabbit NRC, 1977
Ptotal             Rabbit NRC, 1977
Pavail             --
Na                 NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                     1980-rabbit; based on limit for salt (sodium
                     chloride)
Cl                 NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                     1980-rabbit; based on limit for salt (sodium
                     chloride)
K                  NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980
Mg                 NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980
Cu                 Author
I                  Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980-value
                     used for poultry
Fe                 NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980
Mn                 NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980
Co                 NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals, 1980
Zn                 NRC:Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                     1980-poultry
Vitamin A          NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Carotene           --
Vitamin D          NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin E          NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin K          NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Choline            Author
Folacin            NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Niacintotal        --
Niacinavail        NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Pantothenic acid   Author
Riboflavin         Author
Thiamin B1         NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Pyridoxine B6      NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin B12        NRC:Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987

DMI: dry matter intake; DE: digestible energy.

Table 33-5

Feedstuff to select for rabbit
ration formulation example

RabbitGrower

Table 33-6

Inclusion rate for feedstuff in
rabbit ration formulation
example

RabbitGrower   0.314
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Article Details
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Author:Tisch, David A.
Publication:Animal Feeds, Feeding and Nutrition, and Ration Evaluation
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:3281
Previous Article:Chapter 32 Feeding rabbits.
Next Article:Chapter 34 Feeding fish.
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