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Chapter 31 Cat ration formulation.

TERMINOLOGY

Workbook A workbook is the spreadsheet program file including all its worksheets.

Worksheet A worksheet is the same as a spreadsheet. There may be more than one worksheet in a workbook.

Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is the same as a worksheet.

Cell A cell is a location within a worksheet or spreadsheet.

Comment A comment is a note that appears when the mouse pointer moves over the cell. A red triangle in the upper right corner of a cell indicates that it contains a comment. Comments are added to help explain the function and operations of workbooks.

Input box An input box is a programming technique that prompts the workbook user to type information. After typing the information in the input box, the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER to enter the typed information.

Message box A message box is a programming technique that displays a message. The message box disappears after the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER.

EXCEL SETTINGS

Security: Click on the Tools menu, Options command, Security tab, Macro Security button, Medium setting.

Screen resolution: This application was developed for a screen resolution of 1024 X 768. If the screen resolution on your machine needs to be changed, see Microsoft Excel Help, "Change the screen resolution" for instructions.

CAT RATION FORMULATION

Double click on the CatRation icon. The message box in Figure 31-1 displays.
Figure 31-1

Macros may contain viruses. It is advisable to disable macros, but if
the re legitimate, you may lose some functionality.
Disable Macros or Enable Macros or More Info


Click on Enable macros. The message box in Figure 31-2 displays.
Figure 31-2

Function keys IT to FS are set up. You may return to this location
from anywhere by striking ENTER, then the F 1 key. Workbook by David A.
Tisch. The author makes no claim for the accuracy of this application
and the user is solely responsible for risk of use. You've good to go.
TYPE ONLY IN THE GRAY CELLS! Note: This Workbook is made up of charts
and a worksheet. The charts and worksheet are selected by clicking on
the tabs at the bottom of the display. Never save the Workbook from a
chart; always return to the worksheet before saving the Workbook.


Click OK.

Input Cat Procedure

Click the Input Cat button. The input box shown in Figure 31 3 displays.
Figure 31-3

1. Adultcat

2. Kitten

ENTER THE APPROPRIATE NUMBER


Enter the value 2 to select a kitten and click OK. The message box shown in Figure 3111 displays.
Figure 31-4

Enter measured DMI (pounds) if available or click OK to accept the
predicted value at CY16:


Click OK to accept the predicted dry matter intake (DMI). The message box in Figure 31-5 displays.
Figure 31-5

Enter the appropriate Cell inputs in column CX.


Click OK.

The Cell Inputs

Enter the cell inputs shown in Table 31-1.

The comment behind the cell containing the Kitten's weight label is shown in Figure 31-6.
Figure 31-6
Body weight (pounds)

Age (wks)   Male   Female

   10       2.4     2.0
   20       5.5     4.2
   30       7.7     6.0
   40       8.8     6.6


The comment behind the cell containing the Food type label is shown in figure 31-7.
Figure 31-7

The food type is important, not so much because of the water content,
but because energy content is assumed to vary as follows:

Food Type   Water Content (%)   ME, kcal/lb., Dry Basis

Dry                90                    1,610
Semimoist          70                    1,946
Canned             25                    1,996

This application uses assumed energy density to predict DMI. Nutrient
requirements are based on an assumed energy density of 1,814 kcal
ME/lb., dry basis.


Strike ENTER and F1.

Select Feeds Procedure

Click on the Select Feeds button. The message box in Figure 31 displays.
Figure 31-8

Nutrient content expressed on a dry matter basis. Feedstuffs are listed
first by selection status, then, within the same selection status, by
decreasing protein content, then, within the same protein content,
alphabetically.


Click OK.

Explore the table. Note the nutrients listed as column headings. Note also that the table ends at row 200. You select feedstuffs for use in making two different products: (1) a blend to be mixed and sold bagged or bulk, and (2) a ration to be fed directly to the animal.

Select the feedstuffs in Table 31-2 by placing a 1 in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. All unselected feedstuffs should have a 0 value in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. If you wish to group feedstuffs but not select them, you would place a value between 0 and 1 to the left of the feedstuff name.

Strike ENTER and F2.

Selected feedstuffs and their analyses are copied to several locations in the Workbook.

Make Ration Procedure

Click on the Make Ration button. The message box shown in Figure 31-9 displays.
Figure 31-9

ENTER POUNDS TO FEED IN COLUMN B. TOGGLE BETWEEN
NUTRIENT WEIGHTS AND CONCENTRATIONS USING THE F5
KEY, RATION AND FEED CONTRIBUTIONS USING THE F6 KEY.
WHEN DONE STRIKE F1. Cell is highlighted in red if nutrient
provided is poorly matched with nutrient target. The lower limit is
taken as 96 to 100 percent of target, depending on the nutrient. The
source of upper limits of acceptable mineral is the National Research
Council, 1986, Nutrient Requirements of Cats; the NRC, 1987, Vitamin
Tolerance of Animals; and the author, based on probable adverse
effects on health. For other nutrients, the upper limit is based on
unreasonable excess and the expense of unnecessary supplementation.
See Table 31-4 for specifics.


Click OK.

The message box in Figure 31-10 displays.
Figure 31-10

The Goal Seek feature may be useful in finding the pounds of a specific
feedstuff needed to reach a particular nutrient target:

1. Select the red cell highlighting the deficient nutrient

2. From the menu bar, select Tools, then Goal Seek

3. In the text box, "To Value:" enter the target to the right of the
selected cell

4. Click in the text box, "By changing cell:" and then click in the
gray "Pounds fed" area for the feedstuff to supply the nutrient

5. Click OK. You may accept the value found by clicking OK or reject it
by clicking Cancel.

WARNING: Using Goal Seek to solve the unsolvable (e.g., asking it to
make up an iodine shortfall with iron sulfate) may result in damage to
the Workbook.

IMPORTANT: If you return to the Feedtable to remove more than one
feedstuff from the selected list, you will lose your chosen amounts fed
in the developing ration.


Click OK.

In the gray area to the right of the feedstuff name, enter the pound values shown in Table 31-3.

The Nutrients Supplied Display

The application highlights ration nutrient levels, expressed as amount supplied per feline per day, that fall outside the acceptable range.

The lower limit for DMI, metabolizable energy (ME), and crude protein is 96 percent of the target. The lower limit for the amino acids and essential fatty acids is 100 percent of the target. The lower limit for minerals and vitamins is 96 percent of the target. Table 31-4 shows the upper limits of the acceptable range for the various nutrients.

The Nutrients Supplied display shows nutrient amounts in the diet and nutrient targets for the inputted kitten. All nutrient levels appear to be within acceptable ranges as established by the application.

The cost of this ration using initial $/ton values is $0.27 per head per day.

1st limiting amino acid: tryptophan

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 31-11.
Figure 31-11

This is the amino acid that exists in the ration at a level that is
farthest from the level required, or the amino acid whose requirement
is most narrowly met.


Ca:P: 3.0

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 31-12.
Figure 31-12

The ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio for cats appears to be between
0.9:1 and 1.1:1. However, assuming some of the phosphorus will be in
the relatively unavailable form of phytate, the acceptable ratio here
is taken as between 0.9:1 and 2.0:1.


Electrolyte balance: 157

The comment behind the cell containing this label is found in Figure 31-13.
Figure 31-13

The electrolyte balance is used to assess the impact of the ration's
mineral content on the body's efforts to regulate blood pH through
urinary excretion. It is calculated as mEq of excess cations: (Na +
K - Cl)/kg of diet dry matter. No specific recommendations have been
published for cats. However, a lower electrolyte balance creates a more
acidic urine and this is useful in helping to prevent urolithiasis, a
urinary tract problem common in cats. Note that the electrolyte balance
does not consider all possible compounds that would affect the pH of
the cat's urine. For example, dl-methionine is a common urine acidifier
for cats.


The Nutrient Concentration Display (strike F5)

The nutrients in the ration and the predicted nutrient targets are expressed in terms of concentration. That is, the nutrients provided by the ration are divided by the amount of ration dry matter, and the nutrient targets are divided by the target amount of ration dry matter. Concentration units include percent, milligrams per kilogram or parts per million, calories per pound, and international units per pound.

Strike F5.

The Feedstuff Contributions Display (strike F6)

Shown here are the nutrients contributed by each feedstuff in the ration. This display is useful in troubleshooting problems with nutrient excesses.

Strike F1.

The Graphic Display

At the bottom of the display are tabs. The current tab selected is the Worksheet tab. Other tabs are graphs based on the current ration.

DMI

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Dry Matter Intake

CP&AA

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Crude Protein and Amino Acids

E&FattyAcids

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Metabolizable Energy and Essential Fatty Acids

Macro

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Macrominerals or Major Minerals

Micro

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Microminerals or Trace Minerals

Vit-water

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Water Soluble Vitamins

Vit-fat

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Fat Soluble Vitamins

Click on the Worksheet tab.

Blend Feedstuffs Procedure

Click on the Blend Feedstuffs button. The message box in Figure 31-14 displays.
Figure 31-14

YOU MUST HAVE ALREADY SELECTED THE FEEDSTUFFS YOU
WANT TO BLEND. When your analysis is acceptable, strike ENTER
and F3 to name and file the blend.


Click OK.

The amounts to blend are the same as the amounts to feed (Table 31-3). These amounts have been copied from the Make Ration section. Note that to the left of the amounts entered is a column that has converted these amounts to a pounds-per-ton basis. Feed mill mixer capacities are rated in tons so formulas to be mixed should be expressed on a pounds-per-ton basis.

Strike ENTER and F3. The input box in Figure 31-15 displays.
Figure 31-15

ENTER THE NAME OF THE BLEND (names may not be composed of
only numbers):


Name the blend Kittenfood. Click OK. The message box in Figure 31-16 displays
Figure 31-16

The new blend has been filed at the bottom of the feed table.
Click OK.


View Blends Procedure

Click on the View Blends button. The message box in Figure 31-17 displays.
Figure 31-17

Cursor right to view the blends. Cursor down for more nutrients. DO
NOT TYPE IN THE BLUE AREAS.


Click OK. Confirm that the formula and analysis of the Kittenfood blend has been filed.

Strike F1.

Using the Blended Feed in the Balanced Ration

Select Feeds Procedure

Click on the Select Feeds button and select only the Kitenfood (row 200) (Table 31-5). Unselect all other foodstuffs by entering a 0 to the left of the feedstuff name.

Strike ENTER and F2.

Make Ration Procedure

Click on the Make Ration button. Enter 0.24 as the amount of Kittenfood to feed (Table 31-6).

The amount of Kittenfood to feed is the total amount of its component Ingredients in the balanced ration. That value is:

0.03 + 0.031 + 0.0005 + 0.03 + 0.00072 + 0.03 + 0.05 + 0.0006 + 0.003 + 0.00000005 + 0.00000027 + 0.0003 + 0.000004 + 0.00029 + 0.06 + 0.00015 + 0.000073 + 0.0000012 + 0.0000098 = 0.24.

This value is recorded at View Blends under Formula, as entered. The ration is balanced as it was when the components of Kittenfood were fed unmixed.

Strike ENTER and F1.

Print Ration or Blend Procedure

Make sure your name is entered at cell Cl. Click on the Print Ration or Blend button.

The input box shown in Figure 31-18 displays.
Figure 31-18

Are you printing a cat ration evaluation or a blend
formula and analysis? (1-RATION, 2 -BLEND):


Click OK to accept the default input of l, a ration. A mo-page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.

Click on the Print Ration or BI end button. Type the number 2 to print a blend. Click OK. The message box in Figure 31-19 displays.
Figure 31-19

Click on the green number above the blend you want to
print and press F4. Scroll right to see additional blends.


Click OK.

Find the Kittenfood blend, click on the green number above it and strike F4. A one-page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.

ACTIVITIES AND WHAT-IFS

In the Forms folder on the companion CD to this text is a CatInput.doc file that may be used to collect the necessary inputs for use of the CatRation.xls file. This form may be printed out and used during kennel visits to assist in ration evaluation activities.

1. Remake the ration described in Table 31-3 for the kitten described in this chapter. What type of feedstuff is the source of the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, 20:4(n-6) in this ration? What is the other omega-6 fatty acid required by the cat?

2. Remake the ration described in Table 31-3 for the kitten described in this chapter. What percent fat is in this ration? How many different sources of fat are in this ration? Which feedstuff provides the lion's share of the metabolizable energy in this ration? Discuss the importance of fat in the cat's diet relative to that of other domestic animals.

3. Remake the ration described in Table 31-3 for the kitten described in this chapter. What is the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio in this kitten ration? What is the ideal range for this ratio? Which feedstuff contributes the greatest amount of calcium to this ration? Discuss concerns regarding the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio as seen in this kitten ration.

REFERENCES

National Research Council (1986). Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (1987). Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Table 31-1
Inputs for the kitten ration
formulation example

       N/A
       N/A
       N/A
 3.5   Kitten's weight in pounds (2-9)
10     Kitten's age in weeks (10-40)
 3     Food type (1-dry, 2-semimoist, 3-canned)

Table 31-2

Feedstuffs and blend to select
for the kitten ration
formulation example

Fish meal, menhaden
Cattle livers, fresh
Taurine
Meat meal
Methionine, DL
Crab meal
Corn grain, ground
Choline chloride, 60%
Cod liver oil
EDDI (Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide)
Folate (folacin, folic acid)
Inositol
Niacin
Potassium chloride
Tallow
Thiamin hydrochloride
Vitamin E supplement
Vitamin K supplement (MSB premix)
Zinc sulfate (mono-)

Table 31-3
Inclusion rates for feedstuffs
and blend in the kitten ration
formulation

Fish meal, menhaden                     0.03
Cattle livers, fresh                    0.031
Taurine                                 0.0005
Meat meal                               0.03
Methionine, DL                          0.00072
Crab meal                               0.03
Corn grain, ground                      0.05
Choline chloride, 60%                   0.0006
Cod liver oil                           0.003
EDDI (Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide)    0.00000005
Folate (folacin, folic acid)            0.00000027
Inositol                                0.0003
Niacin                                  0.000004
Potassium chloride                      0.00029
Tallow                                  0.06
Thiamin hydrochloride                   0.00015
Vitamin E supplement                    0.000073
Vitamin K supplement (MSB premix)       0.0000012
Zinc sulfate (mono-)                    0.0000098

Table 31-4
Upper limits for ration nutrients used in the feline ration application

                           Upper Limit

DMI                        4% over the predicted requirement
Crude protein              50% of DMI
Arginine                   No upper limit
Histidine                  No upper limit
Isoleucine                 No upper limit
Leucine                    No upper limit
Lysine                     No upper limit
Methionine + Cystine       No upper limit
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine   No upper limit
Threonine                  No upper limit
Tryptophan                 No upper limit
Valine                     No upper limit
Taurine                    No upper limit
ME                         25% over the predicted requirement
Fat                        No upper limit
n-6 fatty acids            No upper limit
Arachidonic acid           No upper limit
Acid detergent fiber       No upper limit
Calcium                    10 x the predicted requirement
Phosphorus                 10 x the predicted requirement
Sodium                     3 x the predicted requirement
Chlorine                   10 x the predicted requirement
Potassium                  10 x the predicted requirement
Magnesium                  8.75 x the predicted requirement
Copper                     10 x the predicted requirement
Iodine                     10 x the predicted requirement
Iron                       100 x the predicted requirement
Manganese                  10 x the predicted requirement
Zinc                       500 mg/kg
Selenium                   50 x the predicted requirement
Riboflavin                 20 x the predicted requirement
Pantothenic acid           100 x the predicted requirement
Niacin                     350 mg/kg body weight
Vitamin [B.sub.12]         300 x the predicted requirement
Choline                    10 x the predicted requirement
Biotin                     10 x the requirement
Folacin                    1000 x the predicted requirement
Thiamin [B.sub.1]          1000 x the predicted requirement
Pyridoxine [B.sub.6]       50 x the predicted requirement
Myoinositol                25 x the predicted requirement
Vitamin A                  3,333 IU/kg body weight
Vitamin D                  4 x the predicted requirement
Vitamin E                  20 x the predicted requirement
Vitamin K                  1,000 x the predicted requirement

                           Source

DMI                        Author
Crude protein              Author
Arginine                   --
Histidine                  --
Isoleucine                 --
Leucine                    --
Lysine                     --
Methionine + Cystine       --
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine   --
Threonine                  --
Tryptophan                 --
Valine                     --
Taurine                    --
ME                         Author
Fat                        --
n-6 fatty acids            --
Arachidonic acid           --
Acid detergent fiber       --
Calcium                    Author
Phosphorus                 Author
Sodium                     Author
Chlorine                   Author
Potassium                  Author
Magnesium                  NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1986
Copper                     Author
Iodine                     Author
Iron                       Author
Manganese                  Author
Zinc                       Author
Selenium                   NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1986
Riboflavin                 Author
Pantothenic acid           Author
Niacin                     NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin [B.sub.12]         NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Choline                    Author
Biotin                     NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Folacin                    Author
Thiamin [B.sub.1]          NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Pyridoxine [B.sub.6]       NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Myoinositol                Author
Vitamin A                  NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1986
Vitamin D                  NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin E                  Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin K                  Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987

Table 31-5

Feedstuff to select for the cat
ration formulation example

Kittenfood

Table 31-6

Amount of Kittenfood blend
to feed

Kittentood 0.24
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Article Details
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Author:Tisch, David A.
Publication:Animal Feeds, Feeding and Nutrition, and Ration Evaluation
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:3147
Previous Article:Chapter 30 Feeding cats.
Next Article:Chapter 32 Feeding rabbits.
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