Chapter 31 Cat ration formulation.
Workbook A workbook is the spreadsheet program file including all its worksheets.
Worksheet A worksheet is the same as a spreadsheet. There may be more than one worksheet in a workbook.
Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is the same as a worksheet.
Cell A cell is a location within a worksheet or spreadsheet.
Comment A comment is a note that appears when the mouse pointer moves over the cell. A red triangle in the upper right corner of a cell indicates that it contains a comment. Comments are added to help explain the function and operations of workbooks.
Input box An input box is a programming technique that prompts the workbook user to type information. After typing the information in the input box, the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER to enter the typed information.
Message box A message box is a programming technique that displays a message. The message box disappears after the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER.
Security: Click on the Tools menu, Options command, Security tab, Macro Security button, Medium setting.
Screen resolution: This application was developed for a screen resolution of 1024 X 768. If the screen resolution on your machine needs to be changed, see Microsoft Excel Help, "Change the screen resolution" for instructions.
CAT RATION FORMULATION
Double click on the CatRation icon. The message box in Figure 31-1 displays.
Figure 31-1 Macros may contain viruses. It is advisable to disable macros, but if the re legitimate, you may lose some functionality. Disable Macros or Enable Macros or More Info
Click on Enable macros. The message box in Figure 31-2 displays.
Figure 31-2 Function keys IT to FS are set up. You may return to this location from anywhere by striking ENTER, then the F 1 key. Workbook by David A. Tisch. The author makes no claim for the accuracy of this application and the user is solely responsible for risk of use. You've good to go. TYPE ONLY IN THE GRAY CELLS! Note: This Workbook is made up of charts and a worksheet. The charts and worksheet are selected by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the display. Never save the Workbook from a chart; always return to the worksheet before saving the Workbook.
Input Cat Procedure
Click the Input Cat button. The input box shown in Figure 31 3 displays.
Figure 31-3 1. Adultcat 2. Kitten ENTER THE APPROPRIATE NUMBER
Enter the value 2 to select a kitten and click OK. The message box shown in Figure 3111 displays.
Figure 31-4 Enter measured DMI (pounds) if available or click OK to accept the predicted value at CY16:
Click OK to accept the predicted dry matter intake (DMI). The message box in Figure 31-5 displays.
Figure 31-5 Enter the appropriate Cell inputs in column CX.
The Cell Inputs
Enter the cell inputs shown in Table 31-1.
The comment behind the cell containing the Kitten's weight label is shown in Figure 31-6.
Figure 31-6 Body weight (pounds) Age (wks) Male Female 10 2.4 2.0 20 5.5 4.2 30 7.7 6.0 40 8.8 6.6
The comment behind the cell containing the Food type label is shown in figure 31-7.
Figure 31-7 The food type is important, not so much because of the water content, but because energy content is assumed to vary as follows: Food Type Water Content (%) ME, kcal/lb., Dry Basis Dry 90 1,610 Semimoist 70 1,946 Canned 25 1,996 This application uses assumed energy density to predict DMI. Nutrient requirements are based on an assumed energy density of 1,814 kcal ME/lb., dry basis.
Strike ENTER and F1.
Select Feeds Procedure
Click on the Select Feeds button. The message box in Figure 31 displays.
Figure 31-8 Nutrient content expressed on a dry matter basis. Feedstuffs are listed first by selection status, then, within the same selection status, by decreasing protein content, then, within the same protein content, alphabetically.
Explore the table. Note the nutrients listed as column headings. Note also that the table ends at row 200. You select feedstuffs for use in making two different products: (1) a blend to be mixed and sold bagged or bulk, and (2) a ration to be fed directly to the animal.
Select the feedstuffs in Table 31-2 by placing a 1 in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. All unselected feedstuffs should have a 0 value in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. If you wish to group feedstuffs but not select them, you would place a value between 0 and 1 to the left of the feedstuff name.
Strike ENTER and F2.
Selected feedstuffs and their analyses are copied to several locations in the Workbook.
Make Ration Procedure
Click on the Make Ration button. The message box shown in Figure 31-9 displays.
Figure 31-9 ENTER POUNDS TO FEED IN COLUMN B. TOGGLE BETWEEN NUTRIENT WEIGHTS AND CONCENTRATIONS USING THE F5 KEY, RATION AND FEED CONTRIBUTIONS USING THE F6 KEY. WHEN DONE STRIKE F1. Cell is highlighted in red if nutrient provided is poorly matched with nutrient target. The lower limit is taken as 96 to 100 percent of target, depending on the nutrient. The source of upper limits of acceptable mineral is the National Research Council, 1986, Nutrient Requirements of Cats; the NRC, 1987, Vitamin Tolerance of Animals; and the author, based on probable adverse effects on health. For other nutrients, the upper limit is based on unreasonable excess and the expense of unnecessary supplementation. See Table 31-4 for specifics.
The message box in Figure 31-10 displays.
Figure 31-10 The Goal Seek feature may be useful in finding the pounds of a specific feedstuff needed to reach a particular nutrient target: 1. Select the red cell highlighting the deficient nutrient 2. From the menu bar, select Tools, then Goal Seek 3. In the text box, "To Value:" enter the target to the right of the selected cell 4. Click in the text box, "By changing cell:" and then click in the gray "Pounds fed" area for the feedstuff to supply the nutrient 5. Click OK. You may accept the value found by clicking OK or reject it by clicking Cancel. WARNING: Using Goal Seek to solve the unsolvable (e.g., asking it to make up an iodine shortfall with iron sulfate) may result in damage to the Workbook. IMPORTANT: If you return to the Feedtable to remove more than one feedstuff from the selected list, you will lose your chosen amounts fed in the developing ration.
In the gray area to the right of the feedstuff name, enter the pound values shown in Table 31-3.
The Nutrients Supplied Display
The application highlights ration nutrient levels, expressed as amount supplied per feline per day, that fall outside the acceptable range.
The lower limit for DMI, metabolizable energy (ME), and crude protein is 96 percent of the target. The lower limit for the amino acids and essential fatty acids is 100 percent of the target. The lower limit for minerals and vitamins is 96 percent of the target. Table 31-4 shows the upper limits of the acceptable range for the various nutrients.
The Nutrients Supplied display shows nutrient amounts in the diet and nutrient targets for the inputted kitten. All nutrient levels appear to be within acceptable ranges as established by the application.
The cost of this ration using initial $/ton values is $0.27 per head per day.
1st limiting amino acid: tryptophan
The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 31-11.
Figure 31-11 This is the amino acid that exists in the ration at a level that is farthest from the level required, or the amino acid whose requirement is most narrowly met.
The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 31-12.
Figure 31-12 The ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio for cats appears to be between 0.9:1 and 1.1:1. However, assuming some of the phosphorus will be in the relatively unavailable form of phytate, the acceptable ratio here is taken as between 0.9:1 and 2.0:1.
Electrolyte balance: 157
The comment behind the cell containing this label is found in Figure 31-13.
Figure 31-13 The electrolyte balance is used to assess the impact of the ration's mineral content on the body's efforts to regulate blood pH through urinary excretion. It is calculated as mEq of excess cations: (Na + K - Cl)/kg of diet dry matter. No specific recommendations have been published for cats. However, a lower electrolyte balance creates a more acidic urine and this is useful in helping to prevent urolithiasis, a urinary tract problem common in cats. Note that the electrolyte balance does not consider all possible compounds that would affect the pH of the cat's urine. For example, dl-methionine is a common urine acidifier for cats.
The Nutrient Concentration Display (strike F5)
The nutrients in the ration and the predicted nutrient targets are expressed in terms of concentration. That is, the nutrients provided by the ration are divided by the amount of ration dry matter, and the nutrient targets are divided by the target amount of ration dry matter. Concentration units include percent, milligrams per kilogram or parts per million, calories per pound, and international units per pound.
The Feedstuff Contributions Display (strike F6)
Shown here are the nutrients contributed by each feedstuff in the ration. This display is useful in troubleshooting problems with nutrient excesses.
The Graphic Display
At the bottom of the display are tabs. The current tab selected is the Worksheet tab. Other tabs are graphs based on the current ration.
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Dry Matter Intake
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Crude Protein and Amino Acids
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Metabolizable Energy and Essential Fatty Acids
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Macrominerals or Major Minerals
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Microminerals or Trace Minerals
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Water Soluble Vitamins
Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Fat Soluble Vitamins
Click on the Worksheet tab.
Blend Feedstuffs Procedure
Click on the Blend Feedstuffs button. The message box in Figure 31-14 displays.
Figure 31-14 YOU MUST HAVE ALREADY SELECTED THE FEEDSTUFFS YOU WANT TO BLEND. When your analysis is acceptable, strike ENTER and F3 to name and file the blend.
The amounts to blend are the same as the amounts to feed (Table 31-3). These amounts have been copied from the Make Ration section. Note that to the left of the amounts entered is a column that has converted these amounts to a pounds-per-ton basis. Feed mill mixer capacities are rated in tons so formulas to be mixed should be expressed on a pounds-per-ton basis.
Strike ENTER and F3. The input box in Figure 31-15 displays.
Figure 31-15 ENTER THE NAME OF THE BLEND (names may not be composed of only numbers):
Name the blend Kittenfood. Click OK. The message box in Figure 31-16 displays
Figure 31-16 The new blend has been filed at the bottom of the feed table. Click OK.
View Blends Procedure
Click on the View Blends button. The message box in Figure 31-17 displays.
Figure 31-17 Cursor right to view the blends. Cursor down for more nutrients. DO NOT TYPE IN THE BLUE AREAS.
Click OK. Confirm that the formula and analysis of the Kittenfood blend has been filed.
Using the Blended Feed in the Balanced Ration
Select Feeds Procedure
Click on the Select Feeds button and select only the Kitenfood (row 200) (Table 31-5). Unselect all other foodstuffs by entering a 0 to the left of the feedstuff name.
Strike ENTER and F2.
Make Ration Procedure
Click on the Make Ration button. Enter 0.24 as the amount of Kittenfood to feed (Table 31-6).
The amount of Kittenfood to feed is the total amount of its component Ingredients in the balanced ration. That value is:
0.03 + 0.031 + 0.0005 + 0.03 + 0.00072 + 0.03 + 0.05 + 0.0006 + 0.003 + 0.00000005 + 0.00000027 + 0.0003 + 0.000004 + 0.00029 + 0.06 + 0.00015 + 0.000073 + 0.0000012 + 0.0000098 = 0.24.
This value is recorded at View Blends under Formula, as entered. The ration is balanced as it was when the components of Kittenfood were fed unmixed.
Strike ENTER and F1.
Print Ration or Blend Procedure
Make sure your name is entered at cell Cl. Click on the Print Ration or Blend button.
The input box shown in Figure 31-18 displays.
Figure 31-18 Are you printing a cat ration evaluation or a blend formula and analysis? (1-RATION, 2 -BLEND):
Click OK to accept the default input of l, a ration. A mo-page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.
Click on the Print Ration or BI end button. Type the number 2 to print a blend. Click OK. The message box in Figure 31-19 displays.
Figure 31-19 Click on the green number above the blend you want to print and press F4. Scroll right to see additional blends.
Find the Kittenfood blend, click on the green number above it and strike F4. A one-page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.
ACTIVITIES AND WHAT-IFS
In the Forms folder on the companion CD to this text is a CatInput.doc file that may be used to collect the necessary inputs for use of the CatRation.xls file. This form may be printed out and used during kennel visits to assist in ration evaluation activities.
1. Remake the ration described in Table 31-3 for the kitten described in this chapter. What type of feedstuff is the source of the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, 20:4(n-6) in this ration? What is the other omega-6 fatty acid required by the cat?
2. Remake the ration described in Table 31-3 for the kitten described in this chapter. What percent fat is in this ration? How many different sources of fat are in this ration? Which feedstuff provides the lion's share of the metabolizable energy in this ration? Discuss the importance of fat in the cat's diet relative to that of other domestic animals.
3. Remake the ration described in Table 31-3 for the kitten described in this chapter. What is the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio in this kitten ration? What is the ideal range for this ratio? Which feedstuff contributes the greatest amount of calcium to this ration? Discuss concerns regarding the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio as seen in this kitten ration.
National Research Council (1986). Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council (1987). Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Table 31-1 Inputs for the kitten ration formulation example N/A N/A N/A 3.5 Kitten's weight in pounds (2-9) 10 Kitten's age in weeks (10-40) 3 Food type (1-dry, 2-semimoist, 3-canned) Table 31-2 Feedstuffs and blend to select for the kitten ration formulation example Fish meal, menhaden Cattle livers, fresh Taurine Meat meal Methionine, DL Crab meal Corn grain, ground Choline chloride, 60% Cod liver oil EDDI (Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide) Folate (folacin, folic acid) Inositol Niacin Potassium chloride Tallow Thiamin hydrochloride Vitamin E supplement Vitamin K supplement (MSB premix) Zinc sulfate (mono-) Table 31-3 Inclusion rates for feedstuffs and blend in the kitten ration formulation Fish meal, menhaden 0.03 Cattle livers, fresh 0.031 Taurine 0.0005 Meat meal 0.03 Methionine, DL 0.00072 Crab meal 0.03 Corn grain, ground 0.05 Choline chloride, 60% 0.0006 Cod liver oil 0.003 EDDI (Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide) 0.00000005 Folate (folacin, folic acid) 0.00000027 Inositol 0.0003 Niacin 0.000004 Potassium chloride 0.00029 Tallow 0.06 Thiamin hydrochloride 0.00015 Vitamin E supplement 0.000073 Vitamin K supplement (MSB premix) 0.0000012 Zinc sulfate (mono-) 0.0000098 Table 31-4 Upper limits for ration nutrients used in the feline ration application Upper Limit DMI 4% over the predicted requirement Crude protein 50% of DMI Arginine No upper limit Histidine No upper limit Isoleucine No upper limit Leucine No upper limit Lysine No upper limit Methionine + Cystine No upper limit Phenylalanine + Tyrosine No upper limit Threonine No upper limit Tryptophan No upper limit Valine No upper limit Taurine No upper limit ME 25% over the predicted requirement Fat No upper limit n-6 fatty acids No upper limit Arachidonic acid No upper limit Acid detergent fiber No upper limit Calcium 10 x the predicted requirement Phosphorus 10 x the predicted requirement Sodium 3 x the predicted requirement Chlorine 10 x the predicted requirement Potassium 10 x the predicted requirement Magnesium 8.75 x the predicted requirement Copper 10 x the predicted requirement Iodine 10 x the predicted requirement Iron 100 x the predicted requirement Manganese 10 x the predicted requirement Zinc 500 mg/kg Selenium 50 x the predicted requirement Riboflavin 20 x the predicted requirement Pantothenic acid 100 x the predicted requirement Niacin 350 mg/kg body weight Vitamin [B.sub.12] 300 x the predicted requirement Choline 10 x the predicted requirement Biotin 10 x the requirement Folacin 1000 x the predicted requirement Thiamin [B.sub.1] 1000 x the predicted requirement Pyridoxine [B.sub.6] 50 x the predicted requirement Myoinositol 25 x the predicted requirement Vitamin A 3,333 IU/kg body weight Vitamin D 4 x the predicted requirement Vitamin E 20 x the predicted requirement Vitamin K 1,000 x the predicted requirement Source DMI Author Crude protein Author Arginine -- Histidine -- Isoleucine -- Leucine -- Lysine -- Methionine + Cystine -- Phenylalanine + Tyrosine -- Threonine -- Tryptophan -- Valine -- Taurine -- ME Author Fat -- n-6 fatty acids -- Arachidonic acid -- Acid detergent fiber -- Calcium Author Phosphorus Author Sodium Author Chlorine Author Potassium Author Magnesium NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1986 Copper Author Iodine Author Iron Author Manganese Author Zinc Author Selenium NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1986 Riboflavin Author Pantothenic acid Author Niacin NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Vitamin [B.sub.12] NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Choline Author Biotin NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Folacin Author Thiamin [B.sub.1] NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Pyridoxine [B.sub.6] NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Myoinositol Author Vitamin A NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1986 Vitamin D NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Vitamin E Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Vitamin K Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 Table 31-5 Feedstuff to select for the cat ration formulation example Kittenfood Table 31-6 Amount of Kittenfood blend to feed Kittentood 0.24
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Tisch, David A.|
|Publication:||Animal Feeds, Feeding and Nutrition, and Ration Evaluation|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2006|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 30 Feeding cats.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 32 Feeding rabbits.|