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Chapter 3 Geography and tourism in North America.

Mid Atlantic

This region is a major population center of the United States, including many of the country's largest cities. It receives many travelers for business reasons and offers a variety of attractions from gambling at Atlantic City, New Jersey, to the historic Liberty Bell in Philadelphia, to the mountain resorts of the Catskills in New York, Figure 3-17.


New Jersey

Although New Jersey has the highest population density in the United States, it also offers a number of wooded, coastal, and historical attractions. The most famous attraction today is Atlantic City, with its famed boardwalk offering gambling, cabaret, nightclubs, shows, and entertainment. The coastal area has a variety of beach resorts. A sample of the many other attractions in New Jersey includes the historic town of Smithville, a recreation of a typical eighteenth-century New Jersey community; Edison National Historical Site, containing a workshop where Edison worked on the first motion picture camera, tinfoil phonograph, and other electrical items; and Morristown National Historical Park, which provided winter quarters for Washington and his men.

New York

Both the state of New York and the city of New York are major tourist attractions. The I-Love-New-York theme has been responsible for an increase in visitors to the city and state, but even without it the city is a major destination. It is the most important city in the world because of its combination of financial, manufacturing, and cultural roles. Its global importance was unchanged by September 11, 2002.


The major attractions in the city are too numerous to list. Central Park, designed in the 1860s, remains the most important urban park in America, with over 800 acres of recreational attractions and cultural centers. Other major attractions include Fifth Avenue for shopping; the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts; Rockefeller Center with Radio City Music Hall; the Empire State Building, the long-time symbol of New York City's skyscraper skyline; the United Nations Headquarters on the East River, Figure 3-18, Wall Street and the American and New York stock exchanges; and the Statue of Liberty National Monument, a gift from the French people to commemorate the Franco-American alliance of the Revolutionary War. The site of the former World Trade Center Towers destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (Ground Zero) has become a major tourist site in the months since the attack.

This list merely mentions some of New York City's most famous sights. The city also includes a host of other things to see and do, including cathedrals, museums, ethnic neighborhoods, plays both on and off Broadway, outstanding restaurants, and the beaches of the Atlantic Ocean.

The weeks and months of 2001 after the attacks of September 11 were devastating to the tourist industry of New York City. Establishments in or around ground zero were destroyed or inaccessible to visitors. Hotels, plays and musical performances, museums and other attractions in the rest of the city suffered significant declines in numbers of visitors, and suffered serious financial problems. The tourist industry responded by lower pricing, and an advertisement campaign at the regional and national level encouraging visitors. The city and state government in cooperation with the federal government also provided some assistance to the tourism industry, including repeated statements that avoiding New York City was simply giving in to the terrorist threats. Consequently, tourism began to increase in 2002.


The Hudson Valley, which is north of the city, is the home of the United States Military Academy at West Point. The Catskill Mountains are a major resort center with Ice Cave Mountain and the Catskill Game Farm. Albany, the capital, is the gateway to the Adirondacks and Saratoga National Historical Park, Saratoga Springs, Lake George, and Fort Ticonderoga. Saratoga National Historical Park is the site of the important Revolutionary battle where France joined the colonies in their battle with England and is regarded as the turning point of the war. Saratoga Springs is a famous resort spa set in a scenic area with a number of operating springs and geysers. Lake George, at the foothills of the Adirondacks, serves as a center for winter and summer sports. Fort Ticonderoga is an authentically reconstructed eighteenth-century French fort, containing a large collection of artifacts from the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars.

In the center of the state at Cooperstown is the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. The three major attractions in western New York are Niagara Falls, the Corning Glass Center, and the Finger Lakes region. Niagara Falls, near Buffalo, is one of the broadest and most spectacular falls in the world. Maid of the Mist cruises take visitors to the base of the falls. Corning Glass Center is a famous Steuben glassworks center. The Finger Lakes region is an area of lakes, waterfalls, steep gorges, and scenic vistas. In upstate New York, Rochester, which is the home of Eastman Kodak[R] Camera Company, has an international Museum of Photography, while Syracuse is home of the New York State Fair and the Salt Museum.


Pennsylvania has some of the most important historical and cultural attractions in the United States. Philadelphia, the geographical center of the original thirteen colonies, was the site where the Declaration of Independence was signed and the Constitution of the United States was drafted. It was the first capital of the new nation. The attractions in Philadelphia include Independence Hall and Carpenters' Hall (two blocks from Independence Hall). Carpenter's Hall was the site of the first Continental Congress called to address the problem of taxation without representation. Christ Church was where George Washington, Ben Franklin, and other Founding Fathers worshipped. It contains the baptismal font used for William Penn's baptism in England. Other historic sites in the city include Congress Hall, America's first capital; the Betsy Ross House; and the Liberty Bell.

Not far from Philadelphia, in eastern Pennsylvania, are Hershey, Valley Forge, and the Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Hershey, the home of the Hershey(r) candy bar, has an eighty-one-acre theme and entertainment park in addition to the Hershey Factory. Valley Forge is the most famous site of Washington's Continental Army winter camps. Gettysburg National Military Park is the location of perhaps the most famous battle of the Civil War. A number of attractions in the area include the 300-foot-high National Gettysburg Battlefield Tower, National Civil War Museum, Hall of the Presidents, Gettysburg Battle Theater, Lincoln Room Museum, Gettysburg National Museum, and a cyclorama of the battlefield.

Pennsylvania Dutch Country is a unique area in America. The horse-drawn carriages of the Amish people, brightly colored hex signs on white barns, covered bridges, and rolling farms largely cultivated with horses are reminders of the Amish, Mennonites, Brethren, and other German religious sects who settled the region. A number of visitor centers and displays such as the Amish Farm and House, the Amish Homestead, the Pennsylvania Farm Museum, Kitchen Kettle shops, Intercourse, Ephrata Cloister in Ephrata, and the Plain and Fancy Farm and Dining Room all provide visitors with a view of the unique religious groups that settled in the area. To the west, Pittsburgh, the major city in western Pennsylvania, has undergone a renovation to provide a modern downtown cityscape. Once a gritty steel town, it is now a vibrant urban commercial center whose history is evident in attractions such as the Fort Pitt Blockhouse.

State           Capital       Square Miles      (2000)

New Jersey      Trenton           8,215        8,414,350
New York        Albany           53,990       18,976,457
Pennsylvania    Harrisburg       46,059       12,281,054

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.

South Atlantic

The South Atlantic region combines history and the nation's capital with the ocean to form a very popular travel region of the United States, Figure 3-19. The warmer environs extend the travel season in the northern states and the District of Columbia and provide year-round visits to the more southern locations in this region. There is a high degree of travel within the region since during the hot summer many from the southern part of the region move into North Carolina and Virginia for the summer, while in the winter the reverse is true.



Delaware, the second smallest state, has a number of summer resorts such as Rehoboth and Bethany beaches along the Atlantic Ocean shorelines. Wilmington, the largest city in the state, is the home of the Du Pont Company. The Winterthur Museum and Gardens, located six miles northwest of Wilmington, is a historical house with over 200 years of early American interior architecture and furnishings in more than 100 rooms. The Hagley Museum displays the history of American industry on a 185-acre complex. Old stone buildings and other buildings have been restored to display the early industries of the United States. The early history of Wilmington can be seen in the Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church; Hendrickson House, which is now a museum; Old Town Hall; and Fort Christina Monument, the site of the first Swedish settlement in Delaware. Near Dover is the John Dickinson Mansion, a restored colonial home of the author who wrote the first draft of the Articles of Confederation and who, with Thomas Jefferson, penned the "Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms."


District of Columbia

The District of Columbia, the nation's capital, can keep a visitor busy for a long period of time. The seat of government provides numerous attractions. The major ones are the Capitol with its marble rotunda, home of the House and Senate chambers, and the Old Supreme Court Chamber; the White House; the Library of Congress, which includes the Gutenberg Bible in its collections; the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, where the government designs, engraves, and prints United States coins, currency, bonds, and postage stamps; the National Archives, which displays a number of historical documents such as the original Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights; and a host of other government buildings such as the Department of Justice; Internal Revenue Building; Old Post Office Building; Interstate Commerce Commission; Health, Education, and Welfare Building; Treasury Building; the Federal Reserve Building; and so on.

The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, a modern memorial dedicated to the memory of John F. Kennedy, is the national center of performing arts. Other historical sites and memorials are Ford's Theater where John Wilkes Booth shot President Lincoln, the red-brick house where Lincoln died, and the famed Jefferson, Lincoln, and Washington monuments.

The centerpiece of museums in Washington is the Smithsonian Institute, which houses materials ranging from the original Star Spangled Banner that flew over Fort McHenry to the Apollo 11 spacecraft. The Smithsonian is a series of museums, including the National Museum of National History, National Museum of History and Technology, Arts and Industries Building, Smithsonian Institution Building, National Air and Space Museum, Freer Gallery of Art, National Portrait Gallery, National Collection of Fine Arts, and the Renwick Gallery. A variety of other museums of interest are found in the city, but the most recent is a memorial of the Holocaust to remind visitors of the inhumanity some have practiced.


Florida is a major winter travel center boasting itself as the playground of America. The state receives more visitors by automobile than any other. South Florida's principal areas are the Florida Keys, Everglades National Park, and Miami. The Florida Keys extend some 135 miles south of the Florida peninsula. They contain marshes, coral reefs, grasslands, and palm trees. The John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park, near Key Largo, is the first underwater park in the United States. The Ernest Hemingway Home and Museum at Key West was the location at which Hemingway wrote a number of his books. Reef cruises, fishing, boating, swimming, and wading areas are found in the Keys. South Miami Beach has revitalized its art deco architecture and has become a magnet for tourists.

The Everglades National Park is a subtropical wilderness of water, sawgrass, pines, palms, mangroves, alligators, manatees, and other birds and animals. Miami is the home port for many cruise vessels into the Caribbean and has more international travel by ship than any other city in the United States. Two of the city's most noted attractions are the Miami Beach strip of large modern hotels and Sea Aquarium, complete with viewing windows, jungle islands, and tidepools. Near Miami is Monkey Jungle, in which visitors in enclosed walkways can watch gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, and other primates. It is set in a re-creation of the Amazon rain forest.

Central Florida destinations include Tampa, Orlando, and the Kennedy Space Center. Orlando and the area surrounding it are becoming the heart of the travel industry in Florida. Walt Disney World Resort includes four major theme parks and four water parks: Magic Kingdom Park, Epcot, Disney-MGM Studios; Typhoon Lagoon, Blizzard Beach, River County, and Disney's Animal Kingdom. Downtown Disney and the Disney sports complex are additional attractions providing entertainment, shopping, and food for visitors. Disney's Animal Kingdom opened in 1998. This has a unique wildlife experience with a new kind of live-action adventure filled with the natural drama of life in the wild. Typhoon Lagoon is the world's largest water park; and Pleasure Island is a complex of restaurants, shops, and nightclubs built on a six-acre island at the Disney Village. A series of theme settings, such as the South Pacific, are being developed for hotels and restaurants. At the Disney-MGM Studio theme park, visitors can walk through re-creations of palm-lined Hollywood Boulevard and Grumman's Chinese Theater, peek at movies under production, take a role in a television show, make their own music videos, and get a screen test. Universal Studios Florida is billed as the nation's largest working studio outside of Hollywood. Accessible from Orlando are the Florida Cypress Gardens with a water show and gardens, Seaworld Islands of Adventure, and a variety of other attractions. Also, Orlando has a wide variety of dinner shows and theme restaurants such as Hard Rock Cafe.

The beaches on both coasts of Florida are world famous. East of Orlando on the Atlantic Coast is Cape Canaveral (Kennedy Space Center), which is open to the public and has a visitor information center. North of Cape Canaveral on the coast, Daytona Beach, home of the Daytona International Speedway, has long been a popular summer resort area. Daytona Beach has become the major destination for northern students on their annual spring break.

Tampa, on the Gulf of Mexico side of the peninsula, features Busch Gardens, where visitors wander through a re-creation of the Serengeti Plain of Tanzania to observe wildlife. Across the bay at St. Petersburg, MGM's Bounty Exhibit has a replica of the threemasted ship Bounty and a Tahitian setting with dioramas, outrigger canoes, and a longboat. Just north of Tampa is Weeki Wachee, where visitors can watch an underwater show in the clear spring waters. Visitors can also take a Wilderness River Cruise, stroll through tropical gardens and rainforest, and see bird shows.

St. Augustine, Figure 3-20, is the oldest permanent settlement on the mainland of the United States. It has been restored to illustrate elements of its original Spanish character. Ponce de Leon landed near St. Augustine in search of the Fountain of Youth. The most noted attraction is the Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, the old Spanish fort overlooking Matanzas Bay. Other attractions include the Mission of Nobre de Dios, the site of the first permanent Christian mission in the United States, and other reconstructed buildings and houses. St. George Street, where colonial houses have been reconstructed, contains houses and craft shops, including blacksmiths, candle-making, leather, pottery, print, and a Spanish bakery.


Just east of Jacksonville stands Fort Carolina National Memorial, a reconstructed sod and timber fort that was first built by the French in 1564. The Gulf from Pensacola to Panama City features outstanding beaches, water sports, and resorts. The Naval Aviation Museum and Seville Square, a historic English and Spanish park, are located in Pensacola.


The major attractions in Georgia are in and near the cities of Atlanta and Savannah. Old Savannah, a National Historic Landmark, is over 200 years old. Many of the buildings have been restored. Factor's Walk, a row of business houses, is accessible by a network of iron bridgeways over cobblestone ramps. South of Savannah near the Florida border is the Okefenokee Swamp, an important presence for alligators and other wildlife. The heart of the South is Atlanta, a modern city with its dynamic Omni International Center. The Omni is a sports and convention center that provides all forms of entertainment, shops, and arcades. Atlanta is the home of the James E. Carter Presidential Library. Near Atlanta are Stone Mountain Park, a granite dome with sculptures of the Confederate leaders Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson, and Robert E. Lee; and the Martin Luther King Grave at Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church. As in other large American cities and state capitals there are important museums, gardens, home and civic buildings, and amusement parks and other entertainment for visitors. Atlanta was the site of the 1996 Summer Olympics and several important structures were built to help host the games. In the northwest corner of Georgia is Chickamauga Battlefield, site of one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War.


The major attractions in Maryland are in Baltimore, at Annapolis, and around Washington, D.C. Baltimore is the home of Fort McHenry, where Francis Scott Key wrote the "Star Spangled Banner." Other unique attractions include the B&O Railroad Museum, the Edgar Allan Poe House, the Lexington Market, which has been in continuous operation since 1782, and numerous museums. Most famous is the National Aquarium located in the renovated Baltimore Inner Harbor. The Harbor itself is an excellent example of capitalizing on a unique geographic setting both to create a tourist attraction and revitalize a deteriorating inner-city area. The United States Naval Academy and the Maryland State House, which for a short period of time also served as the capital of the United States, are in Annapolis. Annapolis is one of the most scenic and visitor-friendly cities in the eastern United States. Near Washington, D.C., the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park along the Potomac River provides not only a museum and walking paths but also mule-drawn barge rides in a scenic setting.

North Carolina

Attractions are varied in North Carolina, ranging from the mountains through the flatlands to the coastal areas. One of the most beautiful scenic drives in America is the Blue Ridge Parkway. Asheville is the center for trips into the Great Smoky Mountains National Park from the North Carolina side. The Cherokee Indian Reservation has an eighteenth-century Oconaluftee Indian Village, where arts and crafts are demonstrated and the "Trail of Tears," which depicts Cherokee history, is performed.

The Biltmore House and Gardens at Asheville is a large French chateau country house set on an 11,000-acre estate. Nearby is Chimney Rock Park, a towering granite monolith in a beautiful mountain valley. Winston-Salem has Old Salem, a restored planned community, which the Moravians first built in 1766. Over thirty buildings have been restored, of which the Salem Academy and College are the most noted. In and near Charlotte are the World Golf Hall of Fame, the Mint Museum, Charlotte Nature Museum, the James K. Polk Memorial State Historical Site, and Carowinds, a family entertainment park built around an Old South theme.

The coastal area has outstanding beaches, most notable Cape Hatteras National Seashore; Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, the tallest lighthouse on the East Coast; and the Wright Brothers National Memorial, marking the spot where Orville and Wilbur Wright made their historic first flight. Cape Hatteras is a thin stretch of beach along the Outer Banks barrier islands.

South Carolina

The most dominant attraction in South Carolina is Charleston, one of the oldest cities in the country. Charleston's homes, historic shrines, old churches, lovely gardens, winding cobblestone streets, and intricate iron lace gateways are an outstanding example of historic preservation. A number of museums, such as the Charleston Museum, the Dock Street Theater, the first playhouse in the colonies (1736), and the aircraft carrier Yorktown in the Charleston Harbor all further increase the interest in the area. George Washington and Robert E. Lee attended services at St. Michael's Episcopal Church. Fort Sumter National Monument marks the site of the beginning of the Civil War. Just north of Charleston are the Magnolia Plantation and Gardens and Cypress Gardens with its giant cypresses, lagoons, azaleas, and subtropical flowers, Figure 3-21.

Along the coast are a number of resorts such as Hilton Head Island and Myrtle Beach, which provide all forms of sports and amusements. King's Mountain National Military Park, near the North Carolina border, reminds visitors of the southern campaign of the Revolutionary War where the British were defeated by mountain frontiersmen from Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia. A diorama and museum provide information about the battles and the war.


Virginia's major attractions are concentrated in a triangle between Richmond, Norfolk, and Arlington. Many of Virginia's major attractions relate to the history and founding of the United States. Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant to end the Civil War; the Virginia State Capitol, Figure 3-22, where Aaron Burr stood trial for treason; Colonial Williamsburg, the nation's largest and most authentic privately funded restoration; and Monticello, the beautiful home of Jefferson, are notable examples of historic sites. Others include Jamestown National Historical Site, where Captain John Smith tried to found the first permanent English settlement in America; Cape Henry Memorial, both a popular seaside resort and the place where the first English settlers landed; Yorktown Battlefield, where Cornwallis surrendered his British Army to Washington and Rochambeau; and Mount Vernon, where Washington lived and died. Near Washington, D.C., is Arlington National Cemetery with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier; the gravesites of John and Robert Kennedy; and Arlington House, where Robert E. Lee courted and married Mary Ann Randolf.



West Virginia

West Virginia, a mountainous state, has three major attractions: Cass Scenic Railroad near Marlinton, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, and the West Virginia State Capitol. The Cass Scenic Railroad runs along the Leatherbark Creek and up a steep grade of over ten percent on logging train rails. Harpers Ferry is situated on a point where the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers meet. John Brown, an abolitionist, launched his famous abortive raid on the federal armory here. Remains of the arsenal, restored buildings, and exhibits recall the experience. The West Virginia State Capitol, at Charleston, is one of the most beautiful state capitals in the United States. It was designed by Cass Gilbert in Italian Renaissance style with a golden dome and a huge Czechoslovakian chandelier. There are a number of resorts throughout West Virginia. Berkeley Springs is the most famous. It is the oldest spa in the nation and was made popular by George Washington. Its official name is Bath, named after a famous spa town in England.

State                  Capital       Square Miles     (2000)

Delaware               Dover             2,396         783,600
District of Columbia   Washington           68         572,059
Florida                Tallahassee      59,928      15,982,378
Georgia                Atlanta          58,977       8,186,456
Maryland               Annapolis        12,297       5,296,486
North Carolina         Raleigh          52,672       8,049,313
South Carolina         Columbia         31,189       4,102,012
Virginia               Richmond         42,326       7,078,515
West Virginia          Charleston       24,231       1,808,344

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.

East South Central

The East South Central region combines the coastal Gulf states of Mississippi and Alabama with the mountainous environment of Kentucky and Tennessee, offering the visitor a rich variety of historic, environmental, and unique theme park attractions. The East South Central region, Figure 3-23, is the heart of the old south with all the symbols of antebellum homes, icons of the Confederacy and Civil War sites. The area is known for its beautiful gardens and tree-lined avenues. The Gulf Coast States provide sun-sea-sand experiences and in recent years, casino gambling. The northern part of the region provides visitors scenic and outdoor recreation opportunities in the Allegheny and Great Smoky mountains.




Alabama contains the Confederacy's first capital (at Montgomery) and the space center at Huntsville. The Alabama State Capitol, a beautiful colonial-style building, is where Jefferson Davis was sworn in as president of the Confederacy. Across the street is the first Capitol building. Throughout the city are a number of museums and antebellum homes. The United States Space and Rocket Center at Huntsville has a hands-on type of exhibit where visitors can fire a rocket engine, guide spacecraft by computer, and feel the sensation of weightlessness. The town has a number of museums, including the Twichenham Historic District, a living museum of antebellum architecture.

Near Huntsville is Noccalula Falls at Gadsden, a ninety-five-foot cascade of white water dropping into a great emerald-green pool set in a scenic park. Near Mobile is one of the most beautiful gardens in North America, Bellingrath Gardens and Home. Surrounding a beautiful old brick and wrought-iron mansion are sixty-five acres of gardens, including huge live oaks covered with Spanish moss, giant Indica azaleas, rose bushes, camellias, chrysanthemums, poinsettias, and other flowers. The U.S.S. Alabama and a submarine in the Mobile harbor are open to visitors. Along the coast are a number of beaches such as the Gulf Shores Islands, which offer a complete range of water and fishing sports.


The mention of Kentucky elicits an image of horse racing and well-landscaped beautiful horse ranches. Churchill Downs in Louisville is the site of the world-famous Kentucky Derby, complete with race track and museum. The Man O'War Monument honors one of the great Thoroughbred horses in racing history. Lexington is the heart of many of the famous picturesque horse farms.

Fort Boonesborough State Park; Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Site; the Kentucky State Capitol; and My Old Kentucky Home, where Stephen Foster wrote the song by the same name, are found in the region of Lexington and Louisville. At the Kentucky State Capitol at Frankfort, the Governor's Mansion is a beautiful replica of Marie Antoinette's reception room at Versailles.

The most famous natural attractions in Kentucky are Cumberland Falls, Mammoth Cave National Park, and the Cumberland Gap. Cumberland Falls near Corbin are second in size in the country only to Niagara Falls. Nearby is Mammoth Cave National Park, which has the world's largest continuous underground passage. The Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, which is shared with Virginia and Tennessee, is the most famous natural pass through the Allegheny Mountains. Early explorers and settlers traveled west through the pass.


Some of the most important attractions in Mississippi are the Mississippi Petrified Forest, Natchez antebellum homes, Natchez Trace Parkway, and Vicksburg National Military Park. The Mississippi Petrified Forest, near Jackson, is a National Natural Landmark composed of a number of ancient giant stone logs in the only petrified forest in the eastern part of the United States. Vicksburg National Military Park commemorates an important Civil War battle. It was the site of a Union siege that lasted forty-seven days. The monuments, markers, and tablets include an exhibit modeled after the Roman Pantheon.

Natchez has one of the best collections of antebellum homes in the south. The Natchez Trace Parkway, a scenic parkway extending from Natchez to Tupelo, follows a trail used by Natchez, Choctaw, and Chickasaw Indians and early explorers and settlers. Markers along the parkway indicate archaeological, historical, and natural attractions. A resort center on the coast, Biloxi is considered the oldest town in Mississippi. It offers a number of museums and water activities associated with the Gulf.


Tennessee bills itself as the capital of country-and-western music. It capitalizes on its music fame and natural beauty to attract visitors. Opryland U.S.A. and the Grand Ole Opry provide country-and-western music lovers all forms of entertainment. The Parthenon, which is a replica of the Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens, and the Hermitage, the home of Andrew Jackson, are also located in the Nashville area. The Hermitage consists of a tailor shop, two homes, and the burial place of President Andrew Jackson. Lookout Mountain at Chattanooga gives the visitor an excellent view of the surrounding Tennessee River Valley and an overlook of the battlefield where a Confederate army surrendered to the Union Forces in November of 1863. Ruby Falls-Lookout Mountain Caverns offer beautiful falls and colorful caves. There are a number of other attractions in the Chattanooga area, including museums and a Confederama, which re-creates the drama of the battle of Chattanooga.

Tennessee also has part of the Great Smoky Mountain Natural Park, one of the most visited and scenic parks in America. The American Museum of Atomic Energy is located at Oak Ridge, where the first atomic bombs were manufactured during World War II. Although there are a number of other historical and scenic attractions, even a brief description of Tennessee would not be complete without recognizing Graceland, the home of Elvis Presley, and his gravesite in Memphis, an old Mississippi River town that is the commercial center of the state.

State          Capital       Square Miles      (2000)

Alabama        Montgomery       52,237       4,447,100
Kentucky       Frankfort        40,411       4,041,769
Mississippi    Jackson          48,286       2,844,658
Tennessee      Nashville        42,146       5,689,283

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.

East North Central

The East North Central region, Figure 3-24, is the heart of the industrial belt of the United States, often referred to today as the rust belt, since many of its old industries such as steel have declined in importance. The lakes and northern woods attract many to hunt, fish, and participate in water-related, hiking, or camping activities. Tourists to the area are also attracted by the large urban centers, with their rich variety of cities and industrial activities.



Chicago is the major tourist center of Illinois. The attractions in Chicago include Lakeshore Drive with beaches, parks, and marinas; the Sears Tower, one of the world's tallest buildings; ethnic neighborhoods; John G. Shedd Aquarium, one of the largest in the world; the Adler Planetarium; the Art Institute of Chicago, which has the largest collection of French Impressionist paintings in the world; the Field Museum of National History, also one of the finest in the world; and the Museum of Science and Industry, a participation museum that includes a working coal mine and a German U-boat (submarine). In and near Springfield are the Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Lincoln Tomb Historical State Park, and Lincoln's New Salem State Park. The Old State Capitol in Springfield is the site of Lincoln's famous speech "House Divided."

Once the largest city in Illinois, Nauvoo has many buildings that have been restored and continues to add others. When the Mormons were driven out of Missouri, they moved to Nauvoo. Reminders of the Mormon history are expressed in the Nauvoo Restoration Visitor Center, which has a number of restored homes and the Joseph Smith Historic Center, which includes the graves of Joseph Smith and his wife Emma. The Old Carthage Jail near Nauvoo is a restored jail, where Joseph Smith and his brother died.


Indiana's major attractions are scattered throughout the state. In the north on the shores of Lake Michigan between Gary and Michigan City, the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore consists of rolling dunes, beaches, trees, shrubs, and bogs, which are centers for plant and animal life. In the middle of the state at Indianapolis is one of the most famous speedways in the world, the Indianapolis Motorway, affectionately known as the Brickyard. Other attractions in Indianapolis are the State Capitol, an impressive Corinthian structure of Indiana limestone with a copper dome; Soldiers and Sailors Monument, with a Civil War picture gallery; the World War Memorial Plaza, which is a five-block area dedicated to Indiana residents who lost their lives in the two world wars and the Korean and Vietnam conflicts; the renovated City Market; the Benjamin Harrison Memorial Home; the James Whitcomb Riley House; and the Scottish Rite Cathedral, a Tudor Gothic structure. Northeast of Indianapolis is the Tippecanoe Battlefield State Memorial, commemorating the American-Indian War.

There are a number of attractions in the south, including the Wyandotte Cave, a large five-level cavern over twenty miles long; the George Rogers Clark National Historic Park, commemorating the role of the man "who won the West" in the Revolutionary War; the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, gravesite of the president's mother; New Harmony, a utopian village; and the Spring Mill State Park, a restored early, nineteenth-century trading fort.


The major tourist attractions in Michigan are in two general areas--the Detroit-Grand Rapids area and the northern area along the Great Lakes. In Detroit, the Detroit Zoological Park is one of the largest and most attractive parks in North America. A number of automobile assembly plants such as Ford(r) are open to visitors. The Detroit Institute of Arts has an outstanding collection of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Flemish and Dutch paintings. Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn provide an outdoor historical museum-entertainment park. The Henry Ford Museum is a restored early-American village with shops, tradesmen, and demonstrations. The Civic Center in Detroit is a modern complex of buildings.


Grand Rapids is home to two important museums--the Grand Rapids Art Museum and the Grand Rapids Public Museum. Holland, which is near Grand Rapids, was settled by a group of Dutch people who were seeking religious freedom. Windmill Island provides a picturesque setting like that of Holland, complete with windmills, dikes, and flower gardens.

In the north, the attractions are mostly natural. They include Isle Royale National Park, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. The three areas provide all types of outdoor experiences, including lakes, forests, dunes, sandstone cliffs, glacial sand, animals, and birds, in beautiful surroundings. Mackinac Island, the "Bermuda of the North," located in the straits between Lakes Michigan and Huron, is very popular. No automobiles are allowed on the island. Bicycles or horse and carriage are the most common forms of transportation used to visit attractions such as the Old Fort and the Indian Dormitory.


Ohio has many important attractions. Cleveland is the largest city. Located on Lake Erie, its history has been closely tied to trade and industry; but one important attraction is the Western Reserve Historical Center, with its turn-of-the-century village street and collection of Shaker artifacts. Kings Island is located in the south at Cincinnati, a historic river city that grew into a commercial and business center. It features a replica of the Eiffel Tower overlooking a number of theme parks such as Lion Country Safari, the Happy Land of Hanna-Barbera, Oktoberfest, Coney Island, and Rivertown. The Delta Queen and Mississippi Queen depart from Cincinnati for trips on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Cedar Point near Sandusky is a popular mile-long beach and amusement resort. The Aviation Hall of Fame at Damon traces manned flight from the Wright Brothers to space exploration. In the center of the state, Columbus, Figure 3-25, has the Ohio Historical Center and the Ohio Village, a museum of history, archaeology, and natural science set in a re-created Ohio village.

Roscoe Village, located between Columbus and Cleveland, is a restored Ohio and Erie canal town. The Schoenbrunn Village State Memorial, which was founded in 1772 by Moravian missionaries, has costumed guides who demonstrate old crafts and recount historical stories. The Football Hall of Fame at Canton houses professional football memorabilia and exhibits. Sea World has one of the few inland sea world exhibitions in existence. Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial on the shore of Lake Erie reminds visitors of the victory in the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. Fishing, particularly in Lake Erie, is important in Ohio's tourism industry.


Most of Wisconsin's major attractions are in the south. The north and center of the state have many lakes and forests for hunting, fishing, and other outdoor recreational opportunities. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore was the center of French and Indian trade. In the south are the Wisconsin Dells, a natural scenic area where the river has carved the river banks into unique formations. There is a pioneer and entertainment park in the Dells. Other attractions are the Circus World Museum, complete with circus and circus paraphernalia from Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey; Mid-Continent Railway Museum; Villa Louis, a mansion built in 1843 on the banks of the Mississippi River as a trading center; Cave of the Mounds, a colorful cavern of limestone and crystal; and the United States Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, which gives details on ways to use wood and wood products. Madison is the capital and the home of the University of Wisconsin.


State        Capital         Square Miles      (2000)

Illinois     Springfield        57,918       12,419,293
Indiana      Indianapolis       36,420        6,080,485
Michigan     Lansing            96,705        9,938,444
Ohio         Columbus           44,828       11,353,140
Wisconsin    Madison            65,500        5,363,675

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.

West South Central

The West South Central region, Figure 3-26, has a variety of attractions, from coastal to wooded hills and spa resorts, that cut across a number of different cultures.



Arkansas is the home of the former president of the United States, Bill Clinton. Its tourist attractions include Bull Shoals Lake Area in the north part of the Ozark Mountains, which offers excellent trout fishing; Dogpatch U.S.A., a family amusement park located south of Harrison; the Ozark Folk Center, which features mountain music and crafts of the mountain people; Petit Jean State Park, which is full of natural wonders such as seventy-foot Cedar Falls, Bear Cave, Growing Rocks, Natural Bridge, and scenic drives. Next to the lake is the Winthrop Rockefeller collection of antique and classic vehicles and Winrock Farms, a prize cattle ranch.


In Little Rock, the state capital, the Arkansas Territorial Capitol Restoration is an outstanding restoration project depicting life in the early nineteenth century. The capitol itself is a smaller version of the nation's capitol. One of the most noted attractions in Arkansas is the Hot Springs National Park and Hot Springs Resort. Hot Springs contains beautiful wooded hills, valleys, and lakes in addition to its forty-seven warm nonodorous hot springs. A variety of attractions (including Tiny Town, an indoor mechanical village) and Southern Artists Association Fine Arts Center are found in the area. The Crater of Diamonds State Park at Murfreesboro is the only diamond-bearing field in North America. It can be explored by visitors, who can keep any diamonds they find.


The visitor attractions of Louisiana are concentrated in New Orleans and Baton Rouge. New Orleans combines a modern city with Southern and French culture to create one of the most interesting cities in North America. The French Quarter is the most important attraction. It is an exciting, colorful, and historic area in New Orleans. The annual Mardi Gras is the city's most famous festival, held each January. Around New Orleans, the visitor can enjoy the Natchez Steamboat, a replica of an 1887 sternwheeler; the Louisiana Superdome, near the French Quarter; Jackson Square, which was the political, social, and cultural center of the French Quarter; New Orleans City Park, a former plantation with lush lawns around lagoons, an old Spanish fort, and the New Orleans Museum of Art; International Trade Mart, which has an observation deck from which the visitor can see most of New Orleans; Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest bridge; Chalmette National Historic Site, where Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans; and Acadian House Museum, a reminder of the French Canadians who settled in the region.

The Louisiana State Capitol at Baton Rouge is a beautifully designed marble statehouse. Nearby, the Rosedown Plantation and Gardens are a lavishly restored private mansion and gardens in the seventeenth-century French style. Between Baton Rouge and New Orleans is the old River Road paralleling the Mississippi, which passes numerous plantations.


The history of Oklahoma is portrayed in a number of attractions such as the Will Roger's Memorial, with memorabilia and manuscripts from and about Will Rogers; the National Cowboy Hall of Fame and Western Heritage Center in Oklahoma City, illustrating life in the Wild West; Indian City, U.S.A., seven authentically restored Indian villages, complete with dance ceremonies, arts, and crafts; Fort Sill Military Reservation, displaying weapons from field guns to atomic artillery; the J. M. Davis Gun Museum; and the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art in Tulsa, which displays the archaeology and history of the state. Chickasaw National Recreation Area offers mineral springs and nature viewing.


Texas is the largest state in the forty-eight continental states and is second after California in population. In the Fort Worth-Dallas area one can visit the Amon G. Carter Museum of Western Art, containing many works of Charles Russell and Frederic Remington; the Dealey Plaza (now called the John F. Kennedy Plaza) in which John F. Kennedy was shot and killed, which contains the John F. Kennedy Museum; the Biblical Arts Center, with a 20-foot-high mural of the "Miracle of the Pentecost"; Six Flags Over Texas, a large popular theme park; Lion Country Safari for observing game; Will Rogers Memorial Center, containing a number of art museums, a planetarium, and the Museum of Science and History; and the State Fair park, which has a permanent exposition that is open year-round and contains a number of museums on science, art, and history.

Houston is the largest city. It is a center of sites related to the history of Texas, as well as the Astrodome, one of the first domed stadiums. Astroworld, a theme park; San Jacinto Battleground Park, where Sam Houston won independence for Texas; the NASA/ Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, which is open for visitors; and two historical parks, the Allen's Landing Park and Old Market Square, are other examples of Houston's attractions. The Alamo at San Antonio is the most famous

battle site in Texas's fight for independence from Mexico, Figure 3-27. The area along the river in San Antonio has been restored and hosts a number of theaters, restaurants, and shops and the Hemisfair Plaza, a cultural and amusement center. The Lyndon B. Johnson National Historic Site in Johnson City near San Antonio is the restored boyhood home of President Johnson.


South on the Gulf Padre Island National Seashore is an 80-mile-long barrier island of shifting sand and grass that is very popular for fishing and swimming. West on the Rio Grande is Big Bend National Park, a wilderness home for the plants and animals of the desert Southwest. The Chamizal National Memorial at El Paso commemorates the settlement of a boundary dispute with Mexico. The Sierra de Cristo, with a figure of Christ on the Cross on the summit; an Aerial Tramway to Ranger Peak; and the Fort Bliss Replica Museum, expressing the history of the old Southwest, are also in El Paso. Many visitors travel across the border to Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, for shopping, bullfights, and other forms of entertainment.

State       Capital         Square Miles     (2000)

Arkansas    Little Rock         53,183      2,350,725
Louisiana   Baton Rouge         49,654      4,468,976
Oklahoma    Oklahoma City       69,903      3,450,654
Texas       Austin             267,265     20,851,820

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.

West North Central

The wide open spaces and northern locations of the West North Central region, Figure 3-28, have fewer visitors than other regions of the United States discussed to this point. Many tourists pass through Missouri, Nebraska, and Kansas on the interstate highway and some towns along it capitalize on their locations. Tourism in the northern states is concentrated in the southern portion of each state.



Des Moines, the capital of Iowa, features an ornate capitol building and a Living History Farms open-air museum. The Boone and Scenic Valley Railroad provides a ten-mile vintage train ride through the Des Moines River Valley. The Amana Colonies, which were settled in the 1840s by a religious group with members from Germany, France, and Switzerland, are located near Iowa City, site of the state's first capital. The oldest dwelling in Iowa is at Eagle Point Park. New Melleray Abbey is one of four Trappist monasteries in the United States. Both are near Dubuque.


Kansas's attractions include Dodge City, where the Wild West is relived along historic Front Street; Fort Leavenworth, which is the oldest army post in continuous existence west of the Mississippi and which has a museum of early history; and the Eisenhower Center near Abilene, including President Dwight Eisenhower's boyhood home and a museum. The eastern portion of Kansas has many lakes and rolling hills, providing regional visitors with fishing and water sports. A number of towns, such as Wichita and Topeka, offer some local attractions for those passing through or visiting friends and relatives in the region.


Minnesota has both unique cultural (ethnic settlement patterns) and natural (thousands of lakes) attractions. Around and in the twin cities of St. Paul (the capital) and Minneapolis (the largest city) are the Minnehaha Falls, a very colorful waterfall on the Mississippi river that was made famous by William Wadsworth Longfellow; Betty Crocker Kitchens at General Mills; the Guthrie Theater, a world-famous theater; Valleyfair, a family theme park; the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Walker Art Center, with a collection of both famous European artists and American Indian works; and the American Swedish Institute, a museum of Swedish arts, crafts, and pioneer relics. A recent attraction is the Mall of the Americas, completed in 1992 and reported to be the largest mall in North America (vying with the Edmonton Mall for that honor).


Two important destinations are found in the northern regions of Minnesota: Voyageurs National Park, which is noted for its fishing; and Grand Portage National Monument on Lake Superior, which has a restored stockade and a number of trails used by the early French and Indians.

The woods and lakes are well represented in numerous state parks. The lumber industry is remembered at Lumbertown U.S.A., a restored lumber town, and some early history dating back to the Vikings is found at the Runestone Museum.


Missouri combines nature, history, and large urban areas to provide a number of excellent destinations. In the St. Louis area, the 630-foot-high Gateway Arch, one of the most creative architectural and engineering feats in North America, commemorates the role of the city as the gateway to the West. At its base is the Museum of Westward Expansion, with fascinating exhibits and memorabilia of the settling of the American West. Other attractions in St. Louis include Six Flags over Mid-America, another large family amusement park, and the Missouri Botanical Gardens, one of the largest in North America. All provide opportunity for a diverse visit. Kansas City and its surrounding area on the west have the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, one of the better art galleries in North America, and the Harry S. Truman Library, Museum, and gravesite. Near Kansas City at Hannibal is the Mark Twain Boyhood Home and Museum.

In the center of the state, the Missouri State Capitol has murals that depict the history, legends, and natural beauties of Missouri. To the south are found the Ozark National Scenic Riverways of Adventure in the Ozarks and Silver Dollar City, a re-created pioneer village with performers in authentic Ozark mountain costume who provide demonstrations of Ozark life. One of the most popular destinations in America today is Branson, Missouri, where country-and-western singers and other performers have built music halls and perform nightly.


Nebraska's attractions illustrate its role in the settling of the West. Omaha is the largest city. Its attractions include the Joslyn Art Museum, the Union Pacific Museum, and refurbished Old Market area for shopping. The capital, Lincoln, is home to the University of Nebraska and the University of Nebraska State Museum, which has a large collection of fossils and life science exhibits. The Harold Warp Pioneer Village at Minden, which is an outdoor museum of authentic historical buildings, includes a sod hut, school, church, and railroad depot. The House of Yesteryear at Hastings exhibits a pioneer grocery store and other historical furnishings and artifacts. Scotts Bluff National Monument, in the scenic North Platte Valley, was an important stop along the Oregon and Mormon Trails. The museum has relics from both. The Museum of the Fur Trade at Chadron reflects the color and history of the fur trade and has a replica of the James Bordeaux trading post.

North Dakota

Most of North Dakota's attractions are in the southern half of the state. Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park includes the dramatic badlands of colorful hills, buttes, and tablelands, a petrified forest, and a variety of animals such as deer, antelope, buffalo, and smaller animals. Near Bismarck is Fort Lincoln State Park, where Custer was stationed and left for his famous "Last Stand" at the Little Big Horn. There is also a restored Slant Indian Village on the site. At Fargo, in the east, is the Fort Abercrombie Historic Site, where the state's first U.S. Army post was established, and Bonanzaville U.S.A., a living museum of the bonanza farm of the nineteenth century. On the Canadian border is the International Peace Garden, which is shared with Canada and is dedicated to perpetual peace between America and Canada.

South Dakota

Most of South Dakota's attractions are in the west, combining natural attractions and history. The Badlands National Park is a uniquely colorful area of sharp ridges and deep gullies with a variety of wildlife from prairie dogs to mule deer. Wind Cave National Park is a beautiful cave of limestone labyrinth lined with calcite crystal formations on Elk Mountain. The Homestake Gold Mine provides visitors the opportunity to watch surface mining. Deadwood was made famous as the place where Wild Bill Hickok was shot. Today it has a museum, a melodramatic Centennial Theater and legalized casino gambling, which has become a major attraction. Mount Rushmore National Monument has impressive massive granite faces of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt carved out of a 6,000-foot mountain. Floodlights are turned on at night and the national anthem is played, providing a moving experience for those in attendance. At Crazy Horse Monument near Mount Rushmore, sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski began a granite mountain monument to the Sioux chief Crazy Horse. In Sioux Falls is an impressive cathedral, while the area of farmland around the area is the center of fine pheasant hunting. West of Sioux Falls, the Corn Palace in Mitchell is decorated with pictures and designs formed by thousands of ears of natural-colored corn and grasses. The red rock gorge at Dell Rapids west of Sioux Falls is a picturesque drive.

State            Capital           Square Miles      (2000)

Iowa             Des Moines           56,275        2,926,324
Kansas           Topeka               82,282        2,688,418
Minnesota        St. Paul             86,943        4,919,479
Missouri         Jefferson City       69,709        5,595,211
Nebraska         Lincoln              77,359        1,711,263
North Dakota     Bismarck             70,704          642,200
South Dakota     Pierre               77,122          754,844

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.


The Mountain region, Figure 3-29, is a popular outdoor, cultural, and entertainment travel region. It has a wide variety of physical and cultural phenomena to provide alternative activities and attractions for visitors and residents alike.



Arizona is one of the most important tourist states in this region. Its attractions are many and varied, from skiing in the mountains of the north to deserts in the south. In the north, nature has provided a number of outstanding attractions. Grand Canyon, one of the most impressive physical features in the world, was carved by the Colorado River. Most visitors observe the canyon from the south rim. Canyon de Chelly National Monument, also located in northern Arizona, provides a scenic Rim Drive overlooking sheer red sandstone cliffs, sandy canyon floors, Navajo hogans, and beautiful scenic cliff dwellings. Northern Arizona also has the Petrified Forest National Park, with its mineralized logs; Monument Valley Navajo Tribal Park, a beautiful red-hued landscape; and Meteor Crater, a huge crater, created by a meteor. Visitors can follow a trail to observe the crater, and there is a museum. Oak Creek Canyon, a scenic canyon that is excellent for fishing, and Sunset Crater National Monument, a volcanic crater and lava flow, are located near Flagstaff.

Phoenix is the largest city and a popular winter vacation area. The Heard Museum of Anthropology and Primitive Art, which has important holdings of Indian and Spanish arts and artifacts, is in Phoenix. A number of interesting attractions, such as the Phoenix Art Museum, the Phoenix Little Theater, and the Mineral Museum are found in the town. Phoenix also has professional basketball and football teams and Arizona State University. The Arizona State Museum at Tucson has many of the world's best Indian archaeological relics. Near Tucson are the Saguaro National Monument, which was established to protect the majestic saguaro cactus; the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, with all types of wildlife; and Old Tucson, a combination of an old town and family amusement park. Tumacacori National Monument, a monument to the Franciscan fathers and explorers to the region, and Tombstone, an authentic Wild West town that was famous for its gunfighters and Boothill, are south of Tucson.


Colorado is one of the most popular outdoor recreation states in the country with both outstanding skiing and summer outdoor resorts. Denver, the capital and largest city, has the U.S. Mint, and Larimer Square, a restored center of Old Denver that is full of boutiques, restaurants, art galleries, and gift shops. The Denver Art Museum is an impressive structure itself, and the Denver Museum of Natural History is well known for a number of well-presented dioramas of native birds and mammals in their natural settings. The State Capitol Complex, complete with its gold-leaf dome, the Colorado Heritage Center, and a Greek Theater are other Denver attractions.

Just south of Denver at Colorado Springs are the United States Air Force Academy and Pike's Peak, which can be climbed by an eighteen-mile-long road. Southeast of Denver in the plains is Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, an important trading post built on the north bank of the Arkansas River. North of Denver, the Rocky Mountain National Park is a scenic glaciated park. Picturesque Estes Park serves as the gateway to Rocky Mountain National Park. A number of world-famous ski areas such as Vail, Winter Park, Aspen, and Snowmass are west of Denver.

The Great Sand Dunes National Monument near Alamosa is one of the most fascinating natural phenomena in the United States. The Mesa Verde National Park is home to the spectacular cliff dwellings of the Anasazi Indians; the Durango-Silverton Narrow Gauge Train through picturesque rugged mountains; and the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, a deep chasm and rushing stream, are found in the southwest part of the state. Colorado shares Dinosaur National Monument, which has an impressive visitor center and fascinating dinosaur quarry, with Utah.



Idaho has a small population, but a great variety of natural attractions. In the north, Lake Coeur d'Alene is considered one of the most beautiful small lakes in the world. Nez Perce National Historical Park surrounds the Snake and Clearwater confluence. It is the site where the Nez Perce defeated the U.S. Army to begin the Nez Perce War.

Across the center of the state, the mountain scenery is impressive and rich. Set in the middle of the rugged peaks of Idaho's Rocky Mountains, Hells Canyon--Seven Devils scenic area is the deepest gorge on the continent. The Idaho Primitive Area, including the Salmon River, which is famous for river running, and one of the world's most famous ski resorts, Sun Valley, are in the center of Idaho. The Sawtooth Mountains in this central region are as impressive as the Alps. One of the most unusual monuments is the Craters of the Moon National Monument. It has trails through lava flows and an unusual landscape of cinder cones and craters. Throughout Idaho, outdoor sports such as hunting and fishing are extremely popular. Boise is the largest city and capital, and the Snake River plain is the center of potato production in America.


Montana tourism destinations combine the mountains and the plains. Its largest city is Billings, a regional business center. The scenic areas are best observed in Bob Marshall Wilderness Area and Glacier National Park, where the thick forests, scenic lakes, and precipitous peaks and ridges provide both a scenic view and homes for bighorn sheep, grizzly bears, and other wildlife. The Last Chance Gulch at Helena is the picturesque main street in this old mining town. South of Helena, the Lewis and Clark Caverns State Park is one of the largest limestone caves in the United States. Northeast of Helena is Old Fort Benton, a nineteenth-century center for the fur trade. South near the Idaho border, Virginia City is an Old West mining town complete with wooden boardwalks and a number of well-restored buildings. East of Billings on the Little Bighorn is Custer Battlefield National Monument, where the Sioux and Cheyenne destroyed Custer's troops, Figure 3-30.


Nevada calls itself the entertainment capital of the United States. Las Vegas, with its famous hotel and casino strip, Reno, and Lake Tahoe are the entertainment centers, offering all forms of gambling and shows involving famous stars and acts. Las Vegas is the largest city and is currently undergoing tremendous changes as it tries to change its image from a gambling center to a family-oriented destination. Mega-resorts have been developed (such as Luxor, Treasure Island, and the MGM Grand) to lure the family market. All include casinos, hotels, and theme parks. In addition, some existing casinos will evolve into resort complexes for the family. Virginia City, near Carson, and Rhyolite are two old mining towns. The Hoover Dam near Las Vegas is an impressive engineering feat. The newest national park in the United States is the Great Basin National Park in northeastern Nevada. Lehman Caves in the park is one of the more beautiful small caves in the United States. Reno provides Las Vegas attractions on a smaller scale and also has Harrah's National Automobile Museum, demonstrating the importance and evolution of the auto in America.


New Mexico

New Mexico combines a variety of outdoor and Southwest culture in a number of destinations. In the north, both nature and culture are displayed in Taos Pueblo, an artist community and one of the most picturesque towns in the world. The Bandelier National Monument, which has a scenic trail along Frijoles Canyon with pink and tan chasms, includes a plateau with ruins of cliff houses up to three stories high with unique cave rooms. Santa Fe is an old Spanish settlement with a picturesque central plaza surrounded by specialty shops. The Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe displays Indian jewelry and pottery. It is the oldest public building in America, erected in 1610 by the Spanish as a capitol. The Museum of New Mexico has an outstanding collection of contemporary American Indian paintings and is set in an impressive historic plaza. A visitor to Albuquerque, the state's largest city, can take a tramway to the top of the Sandia Peak for either skiing in the winter or nature trails in the summer. The old town is a combination of Spanish and Mexican historical buildings and shops.

The Acoma Pueblo near Albuquerque is a mesa-topped city high above the countryside. Further west, El Morro National Monument is famous for its "Inscription Rock," where Spanish conquistadors, early United States Army officers, Indian agents, and others carved their names into the 200-foot-high sandstone bluff.

Two destinations in the south are the White Sands National Monument, with its high dunes of shimmering white sand, the site of the first atomic bomb testing in 1945, and Carlsbad Caverns National Park, one of the most recognized caves in North America.


Utah combines a varied natural environment with a unique culture to create unusual attractions. It has five national parks, ranging from deep canyons such as Canyonland National Park to the unique erosional features of Bryce Canyon National Park to the sculpted stone mountains of Zion National Park. Erosion has created amazing natural arches in Arches National Park, the most famous being Rainbow Bridge National Monument. Rainbow Bridge National Monument is accessible via Lake Powell, a large man-made lake that is popular for houseboating, swimming, and fishing. The Great Salt Lake is noted around the world for its salty, buoyant waters. Golden Spike National Historic Site near Brigham City commemorates the meeting of the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific railroads, which gave the United States its first coast-to-coast link.

Salt Lake City is the capital, the largest city, and the center of Mormonism. The Temple Square is the most visited attraction in the state with over four million visitors annually. Temple Square includes the Temple, the Tabernacle, home of the famous Mormon Tabernacle Choir, and two large visitor centers. East of Salt Lake City, the Dinosaur National Monument is located on the border with Colorado. It is home to many different varieties of dinosaurs in addition to crocodiles and turtles. The Rocky Mountains and many lakes provide all forms of outdoor recreational opportunities for visitors to the state. The 2002 Winter Olympics were held in Salt Lake City and vicinity, which brought many more visitors to the region.


Wyoming's most impressive attractions are in the northwest corner. Yellowstone National Park, with entrances in both Montana and Wyoming, is the world's first national park established to preserve its unique natural features. Its hot-water geysers and vents are world renowned, and the abundant wildlife provide further attractions for the visitor. Grand Teton National Park and Jackson Hole are important outdoor centers, providing all forms of outdoor recreation such as hunting, fishing, river rafting, and so on. Skiing is popular at Jackson Hole, and the town is a major resort destination in winter and summer.

East of Jackson Hole at Cody is the Buffalo Bill Historical Center and the Whitney Gallery of Western Art, which has an impressive collection of Remington's and Russell's works. In the eastern part of the state, Fort Laramie National Historic Site allows visitors to experience what the early fort and trading center was like for travelers going west.

State            Capital        Square Miles      (2000)

Arizona       Phoenix                114,007     5,130,632
Colorado      Denver                 104,247     4,301,261
Idaho         Boise                   83,574     1,293,953
Montana       Helena                 147,138       902,195
Nevada        Carson City            110,567     1,998,257
New Mexico    Santa Fe               121,599     1,819,046
Utah          Salt Lake City          84,105     2,233,169
Wyoming       Cheyenne                97,819       493,782

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.


The Pacific region, Figure 3-31, is a popular tourist region that receives large numbers of tourists from all over the world.




Alaska is noted for outdoor adventure. The natural features and scenery are immense, picturesque, and majestic from the Inside Passage in the south to Kotzebue and Nome in the north. The largest state, Alaska is sparsely occupied. Many tourists come via the Inside Passage in the southeast, either by cruise ship or ferries. It is a picturesque trip beneath snowcapped mountains, hurtling waterfalls, massive glaciers, and forests, past unique towns such as Ketchikan, Sitka, and Juneau. Juneau, the capital, provides visitors with historical and natural attractions. These include the Alaska State Museum, featuring Alaskan history, flora, and fauna; and the Russian Orthodox Church, which was built in 1894. The Mendenhall Glacier near Juneau can easily be reached by car or foot. Glacier Bay National Monument is a short air flight from Juneau. Ships take visitors to the edge of the glacier to watch and listen to the cracking and groaning as the ice crashes into the bay. Sitka was Czarist Russia's New World capital, and is Alaska's oldest town. The Russian church, St. Michael's Cathedral, and the Sitka National Monument, with its many totem poles, are attractions here. Ketchikan, a port on the Inside Passage, is a colorful town. It has a large collection of totem poles at Sax-man Park.

With its international airport, Anchorage, Figure 3-32, is the gateway for sightseeing and traveling to south central Alaska, the Kenai Peninsula, and the lower interior. The largest city, Anchorage is a rapidly growing town with an excellent historical museum and is close to the Alyeska resort area and Portage Glacier. Katmai National Monument, some 250 miles south of Anchorage, was created in part by volcanic eruptions and flows. Included in the monument are the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and abundant wildlife. Beautiful Kodiak Island is a mecca for fishermen and big game hunters. North of Anchorage, the Denali National Park and Preserve has spectacular scenery, considerable wildlife, and Mount McKinley, the country's highest peak.


Fairbanks, the second largest city in Alaska, was a gold-rush boomtown. Its attractions include old gold camps, sternwheel riverboat trips, and a pioneer theme park. The Indian villages of Circle and Yukon are nearby. For the visitor who wants a northerly visit, Nome, Kotzebue, and Prudhoe Bay fit the requirement. Nome, which was a gold-rush town, has preserved its frontier atmosphere. Kotzebue, north of the Arctic Circle, has the Living Museum of the Arctic that features performances of the Inupiat (Eskimo) life and a diorama of arctic life. Prudhoe Bay and Point Barrow can be reached from Fairbanks by air. They have become better known with the development of the oil fields and pipeline.


California has more people and receives more visitors than any other state. It can be divided into three broad regions, the north, Los Angeles, and San Diego areas. In the north, the Redwood National Park has trees that are twenty centuries old and the tallest in the world. The drive "Avenue of the Giants" illustrates the character of this park. Lassen Volcanic National Park, also located in the north, is a beautifully proportioned and visible peak set in a natural wonderland. The towns of Eureka and Crescent City are old mining and lumbering towns. Yosemite National Park on the slopes of the Sierra Nevada is one of the most visited parks in the United States. Its lofty granite domes, forests, thundering waterfalls, rushing streams, meadows, and giant trees combine to attract large numbers of visitors.

California shares Lake Tahoe, a deep blue, cold lake and major summer and winter resort area, with Nevada. Just south of Tahoe, the Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks have the largest trees and the highest peak in the lower forty-eight states. Sutter's Fort State Historic Park in Sacramento is where John Sutter discovered gold. The fort has been restored. There are many attractions around the San Francisco Bay area. They include Sonoma, where General Maiano Vellejo had his stronghold; Point Reyes National Seashore, where the crashing sea, the cliffs, and fir-forested ridges create beautiful scenery; Great America, a family-fun theme park in Santa Clara; and Marine World in Redwood City.

San Francisco itself has the Golden Gate State Park, a large and beautiful park and home of the Steinhart Aquarium and Morrison Planetarium. The San Francisco Cable Cars take visitors from Union Square to the North Beach or Ghirardelli Square and Fisherman's Wharf. The streets of San Francisco are unique because of their hilly scenic setting and their bustling and interesting activities. Alcatraz National Park, probably the most famous prison in America before its closure, and the Golden Gate Bridge, the world's second longest single-span suspension bridge, are equally noteworthy, Figure 3-33. The Palace of Fine Arts and Exploratorium has some four hundred touch-and-tinker exhibits in a Greco-Roman building. The California Palace of the Legion of Honor has an important art gallery of prints and paintings.

The coastal drive between San Francisco and San Diego is very scenic. The Monterey Peninsula has a picturesque rocky coastline and gnarled cypress trees. The cities of Monterey and the artists' colony town of Carmel center on the peninsula, which has white beaches, expansive golf courses, dramatic cypress groves, and large, well-landscaped estates. Just south of Monterey, the Big Sur Coast has a sandy beach and forested mountains. About halfway between San Francisco and Los Angeles, the Hearst Castle at San Simeon was built in the 1920s as a summer house for publishing tycoon William Randolph Hearst. It was one of the most fantastic and eclectic mansions in America. Within the one hundred-room Hispano-Moorish castle with its twin ivory towers are statuary, tapestries, and other art treasures collected from around the world. Located near Los Angeles, Santa Barbara has an excellent climate, pretty beaches, and a lovely Spanish mission.


The Los Angeles area vies with Central Florida for the title of tourist capital of the United States. The area includes popular beaches such as Zuma Beach, Malibu, Santa Monica, Venice, Manhattan Beach, Hermosa, Redondo Beach, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, and Laguna Beach. Theme parks such as Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, and Magic Mountain are large and well-planned to occupy the day of a visitor. Movieland Wax Museum, Universal Studios, NBC and Burbank studios, and Mann's Chinese Theater are for those interested in movies, movie making, and the stars. Each of the cities of Pasadena, Beverly Hills, Santa Monica, Hollywood, Long Beach, Burbank, and Anaheim has its own personality. History and culture are portrayed at Olvera Street, where Los Angeles was founded by Spaniards in 1781. The J. Paul Getty Museum, an authentic reconstruction of a Roman villa, and the Huntington Library, Art Gallery, and Botanical Gardens provide important attractions, as do the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits, with thousands of fossils. The Queen Mary is anchored in the harbor at Long Beach. Just offshore, Catalina Island is a resort center popular for its water sports and beaches. South of Los Angeles, the San Juan Capistrano Mission is famous for the swallows who are supposed to return each year on St. Joseph's Day.

San Diego is the third major tourist area of California. It has a world-famous zoo and Sea World. Other attractions include the San Diego Wild Animal Park, where a visitor can safari through Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central and South America; Old Town, a restored shopping center; and San Diego's mission. Balboa Park offers museums, art galleries, theaters, and sports facilities. Day trips across the border to Tijuana add to the attractiveness of the area. Inland, the Joshua Tree National Monument and Death Valley National Monument characterize the desert environment. Palm Springs, a world-famous winter resort center, has an aerial tramway from Chino Canyon to the top of Mt. San Jacinto.


Hawaii, the third major tourist region in the West, relies heavily on tourism and is a tourist destination worldwide. It includes twelve islands with their own distinct attractions in spite of general geographic similarities, Figure 3-34. The island of Oahu, the population and political center of the islands, attracts the most tourists. Honolulu, the largest city, is on this island. Honolulu includes Waikiki, probably the most recognized beach in the world, with its high-rise hotels and shopping area concentrated along the beach with its view of Diamond Head. Pearl Harbor serves as a reminder of December 7, 1941, with the impressive USS Arizona Memorial. Outside of Honolulu, major attractions on Oahu are the Iolani Palace, a restored royal palace; National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in the Punchbowl, a volcanic crater; and Bishop Museum, an outstanding museum of Hawaiian life and history. On the north side of the island, the Polynesian Cultural Center, has a number of recreated native buildings of the Pacific. The dances, arts, and crafts of the various island groups of the Pacific are demonstrated here. At Waimea Bay, famous for its surfing, surfers attract tourists. Waimea Falls is an area of beauty with an expansive valley that is home to tropical growth and exotic birds.

Maui, the Valley Isle, is the second-most-visited island of the group. High in the clouds, Haleakala National Park, over 10,000 feet in altitude, provides viewing and hiking trails through a volcanic landscape. Many resorts have developed on the coast from Lahaina and Kaanapali to Na Pai and from Kihei to Wailea. Lahaina is a preserved old port town that was once Hawaii's capital. It was also the center of Hawaii's whaling industry, which is represented in the whaling museum that is part of a large shopping center. Hana is somewhat remote from the major tourist resorts, but it is along a picturesque drive and still retains many of the old Hawaiian customs and pace of life. The Seven Pools, near Hana, is reported to be the bathing spots of the Hawaiian kings.


The Big Island (Hawaii) provides views of active volcanoes with the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. There are a variety of landscapes, from the green lush jungle to the lava flows and streams. Hilo, the largest city on the island, has a number of points of special interest, such as the Rainbow Falls, the Hilo Florist Center, Lyman Memorial Museum (of ancient Hawaiian relics), and the Kalapana Black Sand Beach. Kona, on the leeward side, has become a resort center and is famous because Captain Cook was killed nearby. The City of Refuge south of Kailua is a National Historic Park.

Kauai, the fourth of the major islands, is referred to as the Garden Isle and is known for its lush greenery and deep valleys. Waimea Canyon, a "little Grand Canyon," provides spectacular views of multihued gorges that are nearly 4,000 feet deep. The Fern Grotto is attractive and noted as the setting for many weddings. The coastline is scenic, with beautiful beaches and good natural harbors.

Molokai, the Friendly Isle, is the last of the five major Hawaiian Islands attracting tourists. It is known for the leper colony that was founded there in the eighteenth century. Today it emphasizes sports activities such as hunting, fishing, golf, and swimming. The Kalaupapa Peninsula is a beautiful scenic area.


Oregon's major attractions are located in the western half of the state. Portland is the largest city and is famous for its rose festival. Other attractions in and around Portland include the Astoria Column, an observation platform overlooking the Columbia River on the site of Lewis and Clark's visit; the Portland Gardens, home of the world-famous International Rose Test Gardens; the McLoughlin House National Historic Site in historic Oregon City; and Mt. Hood, some 60 miles east, with clear streams, blue lakes, and lush meadows. East of Astoria, the Fort Clatsop National Memorial is a log fort replica of the one built by Lewis and Clark. South is Crater Lake National Park, a deep water-filled caldera and lovely volcanic park. Jacksonville has nearly 80 historic buildings from the nineteenth century. During the summer, the town is quite active with Wells Fargo stagecoach tours and a number of historic buildings. The Rogue River National Forest has attractive forests of Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine along the Rogue River. One of the most popular and best-known Shakespearean festivals takes place at Ashland in the summer. Near the Rogue River National Forest is the Oregon Caves National Monument.


Washington has a number of important attractions that combine history, nature, climate, and culture. The physical environment is represented by Mount Rainier National Park, a scenic glacier-capped mountain, and Olympic National Park, with its beautiful midlatitude forests. Glacier-topped Mt. Olympus dominates the Olympic peninsula, and the rugged coastline provides a scenic drive. History is presented in the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, a fur-trade center with a reconstructed fort. Whitman Mission National Historic Site, near Walla Walla, is the site where Cayuse Indians killed the Methodist missionary Whitman and his pioneer group. Cheney Cowles Memorial Museum in Spokane deals with Northwest history, and the Pacific Northwest Indian Center, which is also in Spokane, displays Indian history and artifacts.


The cosmopolitan metropolis, Seattle, is the largest city. It is dominated by the Seattle Space Needle, which has a revolving restaurant on top, Figure 3-35. The Seattle Center, around the Space Needle, has a variety of facilities such as an opera house, a repertory theater, an art museum, and the Pacific Science Center. Pioneer Square, Pike Place Market, and the Kingdome are important features in Seattle that add to the character of the city.

State         Capital       Square Miles      (2000)

Alaska        Juneau           615,230         626,932
California    Sacramento       158,869      33,871,648
Hawaii        Honolulu           6,500       1,211,537
Oregon        Salem             97,100       3,421,399
Washington    Olympia           70,637       5,894,121

Source: Adapted from U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001.



Having arrived at Atlanta's Hartsfield Airport the night before,
the tour will begin after breakfast at 8:30 A.M.

The Governor's Mansion: The beautiful Greek Revival home of
Georgia's governors, including Jimmy Carter. Its furnishings are
from the Federal Period, and it is landscaped with elaborate

The Swan House: One of the most famous of the lovely, historic
mansions of Georgia. Restored by the Atlanta Historic Society.

An example of Italian Palladian architecture.

Cyclorama: The world's largest painting in the round. It is the
length of three football fields. It depicts the Civil War Battle of
Atlanta in 1864.

An hour lunch break from 12:30 to 1:30 P.M.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Historic District: Visit his birthplace,
the church where he and his father preached, and finally the
freedom hall complex that surrounds his tomb.

Westin Peachtree Plaza: The world's largest hotel, with seventy
stories, a half-acre lake with floating cocktail bars, and
beautifully landscaped grounds. Two more of the world's most
spectacular hotels, the Hyatt Regency and the Ritz-Carlton, are
also within this area. Then go shopping at the elegant shops in the
surrounding downtown area.

Dinner at 6:30 P.M. at the revolving restaurant atop the Westin
Peachtree Plaza, which has a gorgeous view of the city. The price
is included in the tour package. Remember, it is best dress.

Stone Mountain: A night outing at 8:30 P.M. to the "Mount Rushmore
of the South." The world's largest mass of exposed granite, carved
with the monumental figures of Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson,
and Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy. Also, visit
the park and visitors' center, which are open late.

Back at the hotel by 10:30 P.M. for bed.


Leave for Birmingham, Alabama, at 8:00 A.M., arriving around 10:30


Arlington Historic House and Gardens: A beautiful antebellum Greek
Revival-style home. Built by slaves with handmade bricks and
hand-hewn timbers. Furnished with authentic period furniture, a
plantation kitchen with authentic utensils, and a museum and
surrounded by beautiful gardens, shady lawns, and oak and magnolia

Vulcan: Largest cast-iron figure ever made. Cast of Birmingham
iron, it is a figure of the Roman god of fire and forge. It was
made by Giuseppe Moretti for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in
St. Louis.

Lunch break from 1:00 to 2:00 P.M. and then leave for Montgomery.
You will arrive in Montgomery around 3:30 P.M.


State Capitol Building: Here Jefferson Davis took his oath of
office as the Confederate president.

First White House of the Confederacy: Across the street from the
State Capitol Building, this was Jefferson Davis's home as

Confederate president. It contains period furniture and personal
belongings and paintings of Jefferson Davis and his family.

Dinner from 7:00 P.M. on, and then to bed.


Leave at 8:00 A.M. for New Orleans and arrive in the early

Lake Pontchartrain Causeway: On your way into New Orleans, you will
drive across Lake Pontchartrain on the world's largest causeway.
Upon arriving in New Orleans, you will have a two-hour lunch and
rest break until 3:30 P.M.

Garden District: Once the social center of New Orleans aristocracy,
the Garden District is comprised of fancy old mansions and homes.
Most have lacy ironwork and Corinthian columns. Some homes are
bright pink, blue, or green and are surrounded by oaks and

Old French Quarter

This area is known for its Dixieland jazz and Creole cuisine. This
historic district looks a lot like it did two hundred fifty years
ago. It is made up of narrow streets, buildings with ornate,
wrought-iron balconies and railings, and patios and courtyards
filled with flowers.

Royal Street: Shopping and browsing in the shops, many of which are
filled with antiques and open onto lovely courtyards.

French Market: You can get the real flavor of the old city here
where they sell fish, meats, fruits, vegetables, and so on.

Dinner at 7:00 P.M. at Antoine's, one of the most famous
restaurants in the Old French Quarter. Here you can try Creole
cuisine or even some of the dishes such as Oysters Rockefeller or a
gumbo for which New Orleans is famous.

Bourbon Street: At 9:30 P.M. you will visit Bourbon Street, famous
for its "honky-tonk" nightclubs full of Dixieland jazz.


Touring of New Orleans will continue at 8:00 A.M.

Jackson Square

Located in the heart of the French Quarter is Andrew Jackson
Square, with a statue of him. The square is full of mimes,
musicians, and artists. Jackson Square contains the Pontalba
Apartments, St. Louis Cathedral, and the Cabildo, the old Spanish
Government building, which now houses the Louisiana State Museum.

St. Louis Cathedral: The oldest cathedral in the United States.

Pontalba Apartments: The first apartment houses in the United

After a short lunch break at 11:00 A.M., you will leave at 11:30
for Vicksburg. You will pass through flat lands full of many green
broadleaf trees, needleleaf trees, and some cypress trees. You will
arrive in Vicksburg around 3:30 P.M.

Vicksburg, Mississippi: Vicksburg National Military Park: A park on
the site of the battle of Vicksburg. Confederate and Union avenues
wind through the park, following the defensive or offensive lines
of both armies. There is a pictorial display at the visitors'
center of the forty-seven-day battle that ended with the
Confederate surrender. The park is full of historical tablets,
markers, and commemorative monuments. Go on a Spirit of Vicksburg
cruise on an authentic paddlewheel boat.

You will leave Vicksburg at 6:30 P.M., and arrive in Jackson by
7:00 P.M. for dinner and then to bed.


Leave for Memphis, Tennessee, at 8:00 A.M. The landscape will be
much like that between New Orleans and Vicksburg. You will arrive
in Memphis around 11:30 A.M. There will be a lunch break until
12:30 P.M.


Graceland: You will take a one-and-one-half-hour tour of Elvis
Presley's home and see his personal belongings, gold records, and
so on.

Beale Street: The birthplace of the blues. You can walk down the
street or even go into one of the clubs and hear some genuine
"blues" music.

At 3:30 P.M. depart from Memphis and go to Nashville. You will
arrive in Nashville at 7:00 P.M. and have a quick dinner until 8:30


Often called the Athens of the South because of its Greek-style
architecture, Nashville is known as the capital of country music.

Grand Ole Opry: The original downtown building is closed, but
country music is still thriving at Opryland U.S.A. You will watch
the music radio program "Grand Ole Opry" be presented.


Up and ready at 9:00 A.M. to see Nashville.

Country Music Hall of Fame: A museum of music. People such as
Elvis, Eddy Arnold, and Al Hirt recorded hits here. You can see
Elvis's "solid-gold" Cadillac(r) and country music memorabilia.

Lunch break from 11:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M.

Recording Studio of America: Since Nashville also is the home for
many big record companies, why not record your hit record? You can
here if you have enough courage and $9.95 (price not included in
tour package).

Centennial Park: A beautiful park with a replica of the Parthenon
that is a must see!

At 3:30 P.M. you will leave for Gatlinburg, the entrance city to
the Smoky Mountains. There will be a stop for dinner at Knoxville
from 6:30 P.M. to 7:30 P.M. From Knoxville, you'll begin traveling
over some of the Appalachian Mountains.

You'll arrive in Gatlinburg at 8:30 P.M. and have the remainder of
the evening free.


The day will begin at 8:00 A.M.

The Smoky Mountains: These mountains have some of the highest peaks
east of the Rockies. There are huge, barely touched forests and
tons of wild flowers. There are many wild animals, so watch and be
careful of bears. You will visit the three "musts" of the park:
Newfoundland Gap, Clingman's Dome, and Cades Cave, a mock
settlement where life is as it was in the early settlers' days. If
there is enough time, you can even take a train ride that is held
up by Indians (not for real, of course).

At 4:00 P.M. you will leave for Columbia, South Carolina, passing
through mountainous areas for some time and then gradual hilly
areas, with both broadleaf and needleleaf trees. During the last
hour of the journey the land will become much flatter, but it will
still be full of trees and greenery. You will arrive in Columbia
around 7:00 P.M. for dinner, and then you will be free to do as you


Leave Columbia at 8:00 A.M. to travel to Atlanta and fly home.


1. What are the major landforms of North America? Which is most important for tourism? Why?

2. Compare and contrast the east and west coastal plains in North America.

3. Discuss the importance of the river systems in North America.

4. Why is American agriculture so productive?

5. What is Canada's major tourism market? Why?

6. Which region outside of North America is the most important source of international tourists to Canada? Why?

7. What is the United States' major tourism market? Why?

8. Are residents of the United States the greatest travelers of the world? Why or why not?

9. Describe and discuss the general divisions of tourism attractions in Canada.

10. Compare and contrast the attractions of California and Florida. Which state has the best set of geographic relationships for tourism? Why?


1. What types of problems do you think are presented to Canada's international tourism market by relying so heavily on tourists from the United States?

2. What factors explain why Canada does not have the large number of theme parks with millions of visitors as does the United States?

3. Why do you think that Disney Corporation chose states at almost the same latitude but on opposite sides of the country for their major theme park attractions?

4. A large number of national parks in the United States are found in the Intermountain West, yet the park with the largest number of visitors is found in the Appalachian Mountains of the East. How do you explain this?

5. What factors explain why Europe is the largest overseas destination for travelers from the United States and Canada?


An excellent site for all types of tourism information on Canada and its Provinces including interactive maps, pictures of attractions, and virtual tours.

A good site for general information on each of the 50 states with links to the individual states tourist information and local tourist links.
Through Visitors' Eyes

Images of Canada Here

(Ranked in order of importance)

Country          Items important in     Items important in
                 selecting vacation     selecting vacation
                 destinations and       destinations and not
                 attributed to Canada   attributed to Canada

West Germany     Outstanding scenery    Interesting people
                 Plenty of room to      Fascinating cities
                   get away from        Historical and
                   crowds                 cultural interests
                 A quiet and            Good beaches
                   unspoiled            Cheap travel to/from
                 A country easy to
                 Simple entry

United Kingdom   A quiet, unspoiled     Good beaches
                   atmosphere           Historical and
                 Plenty of outdoor        cultural interest
                   activities           Exotic and exciting
                 Stable political
                 Simple entry

Netherlands      Many forests and       Different culture
                   lakes                Good beaches
                 Plenty of room to      Historical and
                   avoid crowds           cultural interest
                 Stable political       Cheap travel
                   situation            Interesting people
                 Abundant outdoor
                 Exotic and exciting

Source: Adapted from In-Depth Studies of Attitudes to Canada.
Ottawa: Tourism Canada.


                                 Annual         Time to
                 Population    Growth Rate    Double Pop.
Country          (millions)     (percent)       (years)

Canada              31.3          0.39            178
United States      281.4          1.3             120

                 Per Capita     Life Exp.       Percent
Country             GNP          (years)         Urban

Canada             23,300          79             78
United States      33,900          77             75

Table 3-1 Structure of the U.S. Economy, 1991
and 1998

Percent of Nonagricultural Employment

Economic Sector                   1991       1998       2001

Services                         24.2%      27.8%      28.8%
Wholesale/Retail Trade           20.9%      20.2%      20.5%
Government                       17.0%      15.8%      16.0%
Manufacturing                    17.0%      14.9%      13.4%
Travel                            5.7%       6.1%       6.2%
Finance, Insurance,               6.1%       5.9%       5.8%
  Real Estate
Construction                      4.3%       4.8%       5.2%
Transportation,                   4.2%       4.1%       4.4%
  Communication, Utilities
Mining                            0.6%       0.5%       0.4%

Source: Adapted from Statistical Abstract of the United States 1992,
1999, 2002.

Table 3-2 Total Canadian Travel Trips, 1997

                                     Visit Friends/    Pleasure
Province               Total (000)   Relatives (000)    (000)

Ontario                   45,078          17,766        16,585
Quebec                    26,372          11,189         9,585
Alberta                   17,821           5,693         5,765
British Columbia          13,708           4,267         5,805
Saskatchewan               7,664           2,593         1,962
Nova Scotia                5,910           1,846         2,175
Manitoba                   5,122           1,677         1,928
New Brunswick              3,308           1,143         1,062
Newfoundland               2,390             679           777
Prince Edward Island         710             191           376

Source: Adapted from Statistics Canada, 1999.

Table 3-3 International Tourism to Canada, 1999

                    in Canada     Percent       Trips     Nights Spent
Country of Origin   (millions)  of Visitors  (thousands)  (thousands)

United States          7,149         82.5       15,180        58,471
United Kingdom           883          4.2          780         8,725
Japan                    572          3.4          516         3,192
Germany                  481          2.6          392         5,158
France                   465          2.7          414         4,895
Taiwan                   227          1            155         2,628
Australia                194          1            152         1,835
Switzerland              141          0.7          101         1,299
South Korea              136          0.7           99           819
Mexico                   130          0.8          127         1,126
Hong Kong                128          0.9          134         1,198
Netherlands              125          0.8          121         1,609
Italy                    108          .07          111         1,257
Israel                    58          0.4           62           569
India                     47          0.4           62           808

Source: Adapted from Statistics Canada, 1999.

Table 3-4 Major Destinations of International Tourists to Canada, 2000

  Canada     Ontario      Quebec     Alberta    Columbia  Saskatchewan

67,435,000  22,158,000  14,041,000  9,370,000  8,680,000   4,105,000

               Nova                    New                    Edward
  Canada      Scotia     Manitoba   Brunswick  Newfoundland   Island

67,435,000  2,730,000   2,685,000   1,782,000   1,232,000    571,000

Source: Adapted from Statistics Canada, 2000.

Table 3-5 Tourism to the United States

                             Arrivals (thousands)

Country of Residence        1982      1984      1999

Canada                    10,430    10,982    14,110
Mexico                     2,475     2,518     9,915
Overseas                   8,761     7,527    24,466
  United Kingdom           1,298       928     4,252
  Germany                    668       545     1,984
  France                     426       331     1,059
  Italy                      234       218       626
  Netherlands                191       134       527
South America              1,278       771     2,957
  Venezuela                  550       170       552
  Brazil                     238       169       665
Caribbean                    647       703     1,160
Central America              274       294       697
Asia/Middle East           2,284     2,294     7,311
  Japan                    1,447     1,415     4,826
Oceania                      385       338       639
  Australia                   NA       231       483
Africa                       186       148       288
Total                     21,666    21,027    48,491

Source: Adapted From: The Big Picture, 2000

Table 3-6 Travel from the United States

                             1982       1993       1998
Country                     (000)      (000)      (000)

Canada                     10,974     11,998     18,388
Mexico                      3,850     15,285     14,880
Overseas                    8,510     17,102     23,069
  Europe                    4,144      7,610     13,441
  Caribbean, Central and      529      5,729      5,192
    South America
Other                       1,200      3,882      4,386
Total                      32,103     44,385     56,287

Sources: Adapted from Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, World Tourism
Organization, 1995, 2000. Statistical Abstract of the United States,
1995, 2000.
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Title Annotation:Part 2: Mid Atlantic-Pacific
Publication:Geography of Travel & Tourism, 4th ed.
Geographic Code:1U200
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Previous Article:Chapter 3 Geography and tourism in North America.
Next Article:Chapter 4 Geography and tourism in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.

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