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Chapter 3 Breeds, types, and classes of horses.

Through selection, inbreeding, and outcrossing, humans created horses for speed, strength, endurance, size, good nature, hardiness, beauty, and athletic ability. Today, over 300 breeds exist. These breeds represent numerous types and classes. The various breeds and types of horses are also bred to donkeys to produce different types of mules. This chapter acquaints the reader with the breeds of horses and the methods and terms used to group the breeds.

OBJECTIVES

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

* Describe how horse breeds started with foundation stallions

* Understand the concept of breed, types, and classifications

* Describe the common height measurement for horses

* Define the terms warmblood, coldblood, cob, and hack

* Name 10 common breeds of light horses and their origin

* Name five common breeds of draft horses and their origin

* Name five common breeds of ponies and their origin

* List five color breeds of horses

* Name five lesser-known breeds of horses or ponies and their origin

* Explain the origin of feral horses

* Describe how mules are produced

* Identify the common breeds of donkeys

* List 10 uses for horses

* Describe some of the uses for miniature donkeys and horses

* List six uses for mules

KEY TERMS

breed

breed registries

breeding true

cob

coldblood

color breed

conformation

draft horses

feral

foundation sires

hack

hand

hinny

jennet

light horses

miniature

mustangs

pony

roadsters

warmblood

BREEDS

Through selective breeding, people learned to develop specific desirable characteristics in a group of horses. After a few generations of selective breeding, a breed of horse was born.

A breed of horses is a group of horses with a common ancestry that breed true to produce common characteristics such as function, conformation, and color. Breeding true means that the offspring will almost always possess the same characteristics as the parents.

Recognized breeds of horses have an association with a stud book and breeding records. Many recognized breeds have certain foundation sires, and all registered foals must trace their ancestry back to these stallions. For example, the three foundation stallions of the Thoroughbred are the Darley Arabian, the Byerly Turk, and the Godolphin Arabian. Justin Morgan is the foundation sire of the Morgan horse breed. Allen F-1, a Morgan stallion, is the foundation sire of the Tennessee walking horse. Morgan horse stallions also contributed to the development of the Standardbred, quarter horse, American albino, and the palomino breeds.

People who found particular colors appealing established registries with color requirements. Some of these registries require only color for registration, but others have conformation standards as well. The Palomino Horse Association of California was the first color breed registration. Other color breed registries now include the Appaloosas (Figure 3-1), albinos, paints, pintos, buckskins, whites, creams, and spotteds. Color breeds do not breed true. Table A-16 in the appendix lists the names and addresses of many breed registries.

[FIGURE 3-1 OMITTED]

CLASSIFICATIONS AND TYPES

In addition to breed, horses can be classified several different ways. For example, horses can be grouped as light, draft, or pony, according to size, weight, and build. Within these groupings horses can be further divided by use, for example, riding, racing, driving, jumping, or utility. They can also be classified as warmblood, coldblood, or ponies.

Horse classifications depend on the height and weight of the horse. The common measurement of horse height is the hand. The height of a horse is measured from the top of the withers to the ground. A hand is equal to 4 inches. So a horse that is 15 hands is 60 inches. A horse that is 15.2 (15 hands 2 inches) is 62 inches tall from the top of the withers to the ground.

Light Horses

Light horses are 12 to 17.2 hands high (hh) and weigh 900 to 1,400 pounds. They are used primarily for riding, driving, showing, racing, or utility on a farm or ranch. Light horses are capable of more action and greater speed than draft horses.

Draft Horses

Draft horses are 14.2 to 17.2 hands high and weigh 1,400 pounds or more. They are primarily used for heavy work or pulling loads. Historically, when draft horses were bought and sold for work, they were classified according to their use as draft, wagon, farm chucks, or southerners (Figure 3-2).

Ponies

Ponies stand 14.2 hands high or less and weigh 500 to 900 pounds. Ponies possess a distinct conformation on a reduced scale. They are either draft, heavy harness, or saddle type (Figure 3-3).

Warmblood

Warmblood does not relate to horses with a certain blood temperature. It refers to the overall temperament of light-to-medium horse breeds. Warmblood horses are fine boned and suitable for riding. In some countries, the warmblood is distinguished as a horse having a strain of Arab breeding. Some groupings classify all light horses as warmbloods. According to some, all breeds that are not definitely Thoroughbred, draft, or pony are classified as warmblood.

[FIGURE 3-2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3-3 OMITTED]

Coldblood

Coldblood horses are heavy, solid, strong horses with a calm temperament. This term is probably best thought of as another way of describing draft horses.

Types and Uses

Types of light horses include riding, racing, showing, driving, all-purpose, and miniature. Riding horses are generally thought of as the gaited horses (three- and five-gait), stock horses, horses for equine sports, and ponies for riding and driving. Racing horses are running racehorses, pacing/trotting racehorses, quarter racehorses, and harness racehorses (Figure 3-4). Driving horses include the heavy and fine harness horses, ponies, and the roadsters. All-purpose horses and ponies are used for family enjoyment, showing, ranch work, etc. Miniature horses and donkeys are used for driving and as pets.

Obviously, some breeds fit better into some of these types than other breeds. The terms cob and hack are also used to describe types of horses. A cob is a sturdy, placid horse. It stands 14.2 to 15.2 hands high and is not heavy or coarse enough to be classified as a draft animal. A hack is an enjoyable, good riding or driving horse, sometimes considered a small Thoroughbred in Europe or a saddlebred in America.

COMMON BREEDS OF HORSES

Table 3-1 briefly describes some of the more common breeds of horses, their origin, classification, and height. Table 3-2 lists some of the less well-known breeds of warmblood or light horses and their origin. Table 3-3 lists some other breeds of draft or coldblood horses and their origin, while Table 3-4 provides the name and origin of some lesser-known breeds of ponies and their origin.

[FIGURE 3-4 OMITTED]

MINIATURE HORSES

Miniature horses are scaled-down versions of a full-size horse and are not dwarfs. Miniatures are not a breed but can be registered with the Miniature Horse Registry. The maximum height for registration is 34 inches at the withers.

Miniatures are often kept as pets. Some are exhibited as driving horses in single pleasure and roadster driving classes. Also, some people exhibit miniature horses in multiple hitches pulling miniature wagons, stagecoaches, and carriages. Because of their size, only a small child can ride them (Figure 3-5).

[FIGURE 3-5 OMITTED]

RARE BREEDS

Some breeds are threatened because American agriculture has changed. Many traditional livestock breeds have lost popularity and are threatened with extinction. These traditional breeds are an essential part of the American agricultural inheritance. They evoke our past and represent an important resource for the Earth's biodiversity in the future. Rare breeds are classified by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy.1 A breed's status is considered critical when fewer than 200 animals are registered annually in the United States and the estimated global population is less than 2,000. The following horse breeds are considered critical:

* American Cream

* Caspian

* Cleveland Bay

* Exmoor

* Florida Cracker

* Suffolk

A breed's status is considered threatened when fewer than 1,000 registrations occur annually in the United States and the estimated global population is less than 5,000. According to the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, the following horse breeds are considered threatened:

* Akhal-Teke

* Canadian

* Dales Pony/Fell Pony

* Dartmoor

* Hackney Horse

* Lipizzaner

* Colonial Spanish

Some breeds that were once listed as critical or threatened are now considered to be recovering. These include:

* Belgian

* Friesian

* Percheron

Breeds are classified as "recovering" when individuals or organizations have taken initiative to save a rare or critical breed.

FERAL HORSES

Horses that were once domesticated and have become wild are called feral horses. No one knows for sure where, when, and how the first horses escaped from or were stolen from the Spaniards in America. During the 1700s and 1800s, the number of feral horses in America could have been 2 to 5 million. Most of these were located in the Southwest.

Currently, habitats for feral horses are found in California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. These habitats are public lands administered by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. Some horses on these lands have been feral for many generations, but others have been recently released.

Public concern for the plight of feral horses led to the passage of two federal laws to protect them--Public Laws 86-234 and 92-195. Feral horses are also called mustangs (Figure 3-6).

[FIGURE 3-6 OMITTED]

DONKEYS

The breeds registered by the American Donkey and Mule Society, which was founded in 1968, are the mammoth (or American standard) jack, large standard donkey (Spanish donkey), standard donkey (burro), miniature Mediterranean donkey, and American Spotted Ass.

The mammoth breed is a blend of several breeds of jack stock first imported into the United States in the 1800s from southern Europe. It is the largest of the asses, with the jacks being 56 inches or more high. The foundation sire was a jack named Mammoth. His name was given to the breed.

The large standard donkey (Spanish donkey) is between 48 and 56 inches high, while the standard donkey (the burro) is between 36 and 48 inches high. The miniature Mediterranean donkey, originally imported from Sicily and Sardinia, must be under 36 inches (down from the original 38 inches) to qualify for registration. The height restriction is the only requirement for registration by the American Donkey and Mule Society (Figure 3-7).

The American Spotted Ass is a trademark of the American Council of Spotted Asses, founded in 1967. It can be registered as either white with colored spots or colored with white spots. However, the spots have to be above the knees and hocks, and behind the throat latch. Stockings and face markings do not qualify.

[FIGURE 3-7 OMITTED]
One Horse Is Most Remembered--Man o' War

Man o' War was not just another racehorse.
Man o' War was one of 1,680
Thoroughbreds foaled in 1917. He was
born on March 29 at the Kentucky Nursery Stud
owned by August Belmont II. Man o' War's sire
was Fair Play, by Hastings bred to Mahubah,
by Rock Sand, who had won the British Triple
Crown. Mrs. Belmont named the foal "My Man
o' War." Belmont had to serve in the Army in
1918, so he ordered his entire crop of yearlings
sold at Saratoga.

At Saratoga, Man o' War was bought by
Pennsylvania horseman Samuel Riddle for
$5,000 and shipped to Riddle's training farm,
"Glen Riddle," in Maryland. Man o' War was
trained by Louis Feustel, who had trained
Mahubah, Fair Play, and Hastings. When the
horse was sent off to his first race at Belmont
Park, a retired hunter named Major Treat
accompanied him and would continue doing so
throughout Man o' War's racing career.

On June 6, 1919, ridden by Johnny Loftus,
Man o' War won his first race by six lengths,
crossing the finish line at a canter. He showed his
desire to be a front-runner and never liked to
have any other horse in front of him. He ran only
in expensive stake races for the rest of his career.
As his wins built up, so did the weight he was
required to carry. By his fourth race, Man o' War
was carrying 130 pounds.

His sixth race was the Sanford Memorial and
the only defeat of his career. A bad start left him
with a 10-length deficit, and once he caught
the pack, he was boxed in. He was beaten by a
horse ironically named Upset. Man o' War had
beaten Upset in six other races. Despite this lone
defeat, he was named Horse of the Year at the
end of his 2-year-old season.

Man o' War went undefeated as a 3-year-old
in 1920 and reduced the American record for
the mile by 2/5 of a second, to 1:35 4/5; and even
at that, his jockey, Clarence Kummer, had held
him back. Later, in the Belmont Stakes, he set a
record that stood for 50 years. By the time of
the Dwyer Stakes at Aqueduct, Man o' War
could find only one opponent, John P. Grier, a
horse from the Whitney Stables. In this race,
Man o' War dashed to victory and set a new
American record at 1:45 1/5.

The crowning event of Man o' War's career
came in a match race against the celebrated
Canadian horse Sir Barton, the first winner of
the Triple Crown. On October 12, 1920, Sir
Barton and Man o' War met in Windsor,
Ontario. Man o' War won by seven lengths! In
his career he won 20 of 21 races.

Among Man o' War's most important get was
Triple Crown Winner War Admiral. In all, he sired
379 foals that won 1,286 races.

In 1947--barely a month after his groom, Will
Harbut, succumbed to a heart attack--Man o'
War also died of a heart attack. Man o' War's
burial was a time of national mourning; his funeral
was broadcast on the radio and covered by the
press from all over the world. Samuel Riddle had
commissioned Herbert Hazeltine to sculpt a statue
of Man o' War while he lived, to be placed on his
grave. In 1977, the remains of Man o' War and his
famous statue were brought to the Kentucky
Horse Park in Lexington, Kentucky.


Miniature Donkey

The Miniature Donkey Registry of the United States, founded in 1958, is currently governed by the American Donkey and Mule Society. Color and other considerations, such as ancestry, do not define the miniature donkey. The only requirement is that it be 36 inches or less in height.

The original imported donkeys had the typical gray-dun color, in which the hairs are all gray and not mixed with white hairs. All shades of brown are also common, and black, white, roan, and spots are possible. True gray is extremely rare in donkeys of any size, and is distinguished from gray-dun because true gray donkeys are born with a dark coat that lightens to almost white over the years. One other characteristic of the donkey is the cross, consisting of a dorsal stripe from mane to tail and a cross stripe between the withers. In black animals the cross marking may be difficult to detect.

The miniature donkey with good conformation should give the impression of being small, compact, and well rounded; with four straight, strong legs; and all parts in symmetry and balance. The coat of the miniature donkey is not as thick in winter as the coat of larger donkeys, probably because of its ancestry from climates in the Mediterranean.

Although the most obvious use of these little donkeys is as pets, they can also be used as companions to foals at weaning time to relieve foal stress. Their calm also serves when they are used as companions for nervous horses or horses recovering from surgery. They do not take up much room in the stall, but have a great calming effect.

MULES

A cross between a donkey and a horse is called a mule or a hinny, depending on its parentage. A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare). It is like the horse in size and body shape but has the shorter, thicker head, long ears, and braying voice of the donkey. Mules also lack, as does the donkey, the horse's calluses, or chestnuts, on the hind legs.

The reverse cross--between a male horse (stallion) and a female donkey (called a jennet or jenny)--is a hinny, sometimes also called a jennet. A hinny is similar to the mule in appearance but is smaller and more horse like, with shorter ears and a longer head. It has the stripe or other color patterns of the donkey.

Classifications of Mules

Historically, mules were classified as draft, sugar, farm, cotton, and pack and mining. Draft and sugar mules were the largest, being 17.2 hh (hands high) to 16 hh and 1,600 to 1,150 pounds. Farm and cotton mules were intermediate in size (16 hh to 13.2 hh and 1,250 to 750 pounds). Pack and mining mules were smaller but could range from 16 hh to 12 hh and 1,350 to 600 pounds.

Today mules are classified as draft, pack/work, saddle, driving, jumping, or miniature (Figure 3-8). The type of mule produced depends on the breed or type of horse and breed or type of donkey used to produce the mule.

[FIGURE 3-8 OMITTED]

SUMMARY

Worldwide, about 300 breeds of horses exist. They range in size from the gentle giant draft horses at almost 6 feet in height to the miniature horses at barely 3 feet in height. People have bred and selected horses for specific, common characteristics such as function, conformation, and color. Horses breeding true or with a common ancestry are registered in breed registry associations. These horses meet the standards defined by the registry. Besides breeds, horses are classified by type, such as light, draft, and pony; and by use, such as riding, driving, harness, sport, gaited, stock, and all-purpose. Some breeds have specific purposes while other breeds serve a variety of uses.

Five breeds of donkeys are recognized. Donkeys are crossed with horses to produce mules. The type of mule that results depends on the breed and type of donkey and horse used in the cross. Both donkeys and horses have miniatures. These miniatures are used for pets and exhibition hitches and as companions to sick or nervous horses.

REVIEW

Success in any career requires knowledge. Test your knowledge of this chapter by answering these questions or solving these problems.

True or False

1. Feral horses were commonly bred by the early Spaniards.

2. Coldblood horses and draft horses are similar classifications.

3. Warmblood horses exhibit a body temperature 3 degrees above normal.

4. A mule is the offspring of a stallion bred to a female donkey or jennet.

5. Mules are ridden in contests.

Short Answer

6. Name the three foundation stallions of the Thoroughbred breed.

7. Name five color breeds of horses.

8. Name five common breeds of light horses and give their place of origin.

9. How long is the measurement of 1 hand?

10. Name five common breeds of draft horses and give their place of origin.

11. How many chromosomes do horses, donkeys, and mules possess?

12. Name two common breeds of donkeys.

13. List five lesser-known breeds of horses and give their classification and country of origin.

14. List six uses for mules. Critical Thinking/Discussion

15. What is a breed?

16. Define the terms light, draft, pony, warmblood, and coldblood.

17. Describe 10 uses for horses.

18. Discuss some of the uses for miniature donkeys and horses.

19. Compare light horses to draft horses.

20. Compare a mule to a horse.

STUDENT ACTIVITIES

1. Choose a competitive event such as racing, driving, dressage, or riding. Research the breed of horse most commonly used for this event, and explain why the breed is appropriate for the event.

2. Write to a breed registry association listed in Table A-16 of the appendix, and request more information and pictures of a breed of light horse, draft horse, or pony.

3. Use the Internet to discover more information about five horse breeds of your choice. Write a report comparing the five breeds.

4. Construct a family tree for a famous Thoroughbred showing how this horse's ancestry can be traced to the foundation stallions.

5. Some horse breeds have their own magazine or newsletter. Select two common breeds from Table 3-1, and obtain sample copies of their newsletter or magazine. Next, read an article of your choice in the magazine or newsletter and write a summary.

6. Create a poster showing the color markings of the Appaloosa, the paint, the pinto, and the buckskin horse. Describe how horses are bred to produce these color breeds.

7. Explain why the process of blood typing could be important to breed registration, and diagram how blood typing is done.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Books

American Youth Horse Council. (2004). Horse industry handbook: A guide to equine care and management. Lexington, KY: Author.

Barton, F. T. (2006). Our friend the horse: A complete practical guide to all that is known about every breed of horse in the world. Chestnut Hill, MA: Adamant Media Corporation.

Dossenbach, M., & Dossenbach, H. D. (1994). The noble horse. New York: Crescent Books.

Dutson, J. (2005). Storey's illustrated guide to 96 horse breeds of North America. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing.

Evans, J. W. (2000). Horses: A guide to selection, care, and enjoyment (3rd ed.). New York: Owl Books.

Knight, L. W. (1902). The breeding and rearing of jacks, jennets and mules. Nashville, TN: Cumberland Press.

McBane, S. (1997). The illustrated encyclopedia of horse breeds. Secaucus, NJ: Wellfleet Press.

Mills, F. C. (1971). History of American jacks and mules. Hutchinson, KS: Hutch-Line.

Silver, C. (1993). The illustrated guide to horses of the world. Stamford, CT: Longmeadow Press.

Associations and Registries

Any of the associations or registries in appendix Table A-16 can be contacted for more information about a specific breed.

Magazines

Magazines such as Horse Illustrated, Horse & Rider, Western Horseman, and Horse and Horseman often feature articles on a single breed.

Internet

Internet sites represent a vast resource of information, but remember that the URLs (uniform resource locator) for World Wide Web sites can change without notice. Using one of the search engines on the Internet such as Yahoo!, Google, or About.com, find more information by searching for these words or phrases:

specific name of any

horse breed

foundation sires

horse color breeds

warmblood horses

coldblood horses

pony

light horses

draft horses

miniature horses

cob

hack

roadster

feral or wild horses

mustangs

donkeys

mules

types of mules:

draft

pack/work

saddle

driving

jumping

miniature

Some good Web sites for learning more about the many breeds and types of horses, mules, and donkeys include the following:

<http://www.horseworlddata.com/breed.html> <http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/HORSES/> <http://www.imh.org/imh/bw/home2.html/> <http://source.bloodhorse.com/thehorse/>

Table A-18 in the appendix also provides a listing of some useful Internet sites that can serve as a starting point for further exploration.

END NOTES

(1.) The numbers in this section represent classifications by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy <http://www.albc-usa.org/> in July 2006.
TABLE 3-1 Well-Known Breeds of Horses

Name              Origin            Classification   Height

Akhal Teke        Turkmenistan      Light            15-15.2 hh

Albino            United States     Light            No height
                                                     requirements

Alter-Real        Portugal          Light            15-15.2 hh

American          United States     Light            14 hh
Buckskin

American          United States     Draft            Varies from
Cream                                                12.2-17 hh

                  United States     Light            15.2-16.1 hh
American
Quarter Horse

American          United States     Light            15-16 hh
Saddlebred

American          United States     Light            14-16 hh
Standardbred

American          United States     Light            Varies
Warmblood

American White    United States     Light            Varies from
                                                     12.2-17 hh

Andalusian        Spain             Light            15-16.2 hh

Appaloosa         Spain, United     Light            14-15.3 hh
                  States

Arabian or Arab   Arabia            Light            14.3-16 hh

Barb              North Africa      Light            14-15 hh

Bashkir Curly     Russia            Light            13.2 hh average

Belgian           Belgium           Draft            Up to 17 hh

Chickasaw         United States     Light            13.2-14.7 hh

Cleveland Bay     England           Light            16-16.2 hh

Clydesdale        Scotland          Draft            16.2-18 hh

Connemara         Ireland           Pony             13-14.2 hh

Dales             England           Pony             14.2 hh maximum

Dartmoor          British Isles     Pony             11.2-11.3 hh

Dutch             Holland           Warmblood        16 hh
Warmblood

Fell Pony         England           Pony             14.2 hh maximum

French Saddle     France            Light            15.2-16.3 hh
Horse or Selle
Francais

Friesian (West    Holland           Draft            15 hh
Friesian)

Gotland (or       Sweden            Light            12-14 hh
Skogsruss)

Hackney           England           Pony             14 hh maximum

Hackney           England           Light            14.2-16 hh
                                                     some taller

Haflinger         Austria           Pony             14.2 hh

Hanoverian        Germany           Warmblood        16-17.2 hh

Highland (or      Scotland          Pony             14.2 hh maximum
Garron)

Holstein          Germany           Warmblood        15.3-16.2 hh

Lipizzaner        Austria           Light            15-16 hh

Lusitano          Portugal          Light            15-16 hh

Missouri Fox      United States     Light            14-17 hh
Trotter

Morab             United States     Light            14.3-15.2 hh

Morgan            United States     Light            14-15.2 hh

Mustang           United States     Light            14-15 hh

New Forest        England           Pony             12-14.2 hh

Norwegian         Norway            Pony             13-14 hh
Fjord Pony

Oldenburg         Germany           Warmblood        16.2-17.2 hh

Paint             United States     Light            Variable

Palomino          United States     Light            14.2-15.3 hh

Paso Fino         Caribbean,        Light            14.3 hh
                  Puerto Rico,
                  South America

Percheron         France            Draft            15.2-17 hh

Peruvian Paso     Peru              Light            14-15.2 hh

Pinto             Spain, United     Light            Variable
                  States

Pony of the       United States     Pony             11.2-13 hh
Americas (POA)

Shetland          England           Pony             11.2 hh maximum

Shire             England           Draft            17 hh average

Spanish Barb      Spain, United     Light            13.3-14.1 hh
                  States

Spotted Saddle    United States     Light            14-16 hh

Suffolk (or       England           Draft            15.2-16.2 hh
Suffolk Punch)

Swedish           Sweden            Warmblood        16.2 hh
Warmblood or
Halfbred

Tennessee         United States     Light            15-16 hh
Walking Horse

Thoroughbred      England           Light            14.2-17 hh

Trakehner         Germany, Poland   Warmblood        16-16.2 hh

Welsh Pony        Wales             Pony             13.2 hh maximum
(Sections A, B,                                      (height deter-
C, D)                                                mines which
                                                     section)

Wurttemberg       Germany           Warmblood        16 hh average

Name              Color

Akhal Teke        Gold with metallic
                  sheen; also bay, cream,
                  chestnut

Albino            White only

Alter-Real        Mostly bay or brown;
                  some chestnuts and
                  gray

American          Four color patterns
Buckskin          accepted

American          Three variations of
Cream             cream accepted

                  Any solid color; mostly
American          chestnut
Quarter Horse

American          Black, bay, brown;
Saddlebred        white markings on face
                  and legs

American          Any solid color, mostly
Standardbred      brown, bay, black,
                  chestnut

American          Any color
Warmblood

American White    Snow or milk white hair,
                  pink skin; brown, black,
                  or hazel eyes

Andalusian        Gray, born dark and
                  becoming lighter over
                  years

Appaloosa         White sclera, striped
                  hooves, mottled skin
                  and coat pattern

Arabian or Arab   Bay, brown, chestnut,
                  gray, black

Barb              Dark brown, bay,
                  chestnut, black, gray

Bashkir Curly     All colors

Belgian           Mostly roan with black
                  points, chestnut,
                  sometimes bay, brown,
                  dun, gray

Chickasaw         Bay, black, chestnut,
                  gray, roan, sorrel,
                  palomino

Cleveland Bay     Bay, mahogany with
                  black points, mane, tail;
                  feet blue

Clydesdale        Bay, brown, black, roan;
                  much white on face and
                  legs and sometimes
                  body

Connemara         Gray, black, brown, dun

Dales             Mostly black

Dartmoor          Bay, brown, black

Dutch             Any color
Warmblood

Fell Pony         Black, brown, bay, gray,
                  no white markings

French Saddle     Usually bay or chestnut
Horse or Selle
Francais

Friesian (West    Black
Friesian)

Gotland (or       Dun, black, brown, bay,
Skogsruss)        chestnut, palomino

Hackney           Dark brown, black, bay,
                  chestnut

Hackney           Black, brown, chestnut,
                  bay

Haflinger         Chestnut; white mane
                  and tail

Hanoverian        Any solid color

Highland (or      Various shades of dun;
Garron)           dorsal eel stripe, black
                  points or silver hair in tail
                  and mane; also, gray,
                  chestnut, bay, black

Holstein          Any solid color, mostly
                  black, brown, bay

Lipizzaner        Mostly gray

Lusitano          Usually gray

Missouri Fox      Any color, usually
Trotter           sorrel

Morab             Usually solid

Morgan            Bay, brown, black,
                  chestnut

Mustang           All colors

New Forest        Any color except
                  piebald or skewbald

Norwegian         Dun with black eel
Fjord Pony        stripe down center of
                  back; zebra stripes on
                  legs

Oldenburg         Any solid color

Paint             Black and white in bold
                  patches all over body

Palomino          Gold coat; white mane
                  and tail; no markings

Paso Fino         All colors

Percheron         Gray, black

Peruvian Paso     Mostly bay and
                  chestnut

Pinto             Black and white in bold
                  patches all over body

Pony of the       Appaloosa color pattern
Americas (POA)

Shetland          Variable

Shire             Bay and brown most
                  common with white
                  markings

Spanish Barb      Varied

Spotted Saddle    Spotted coloring

Suffolk (or       Chestnut
Suffolk Punch)

Swedish           Usually chestnut, bay,
Warmblood or      brown, gray
Halfbred

Tennessee         All solid colors
Walking Horse

Thoroughbred      Any solid color, white
                  markings allowed

Trakehner         Any solid color

Welsh Pony        Any solid color
(Sections A, B,
C, D)

Wurttemberg       Black, bay, chestnut,
                  brown

Name              Comments

Akhal Teke        Less than 2,000 purebreds in world;
                  Marco Polo said foundation sire was
                  Alexander the Great's horse, Bucephalus

Albino            Foals born white

Alter-Real        High-strung temperament; does well in
                  dressage; carries Andalusian breeding

American          Descendants of Norwegian Dun and
Buckskin          Spanish Sorraia

American          Color breed
Cream

                  Oldest of American breeds; most versatile
American          horse in the world; largest equine
Quarter Horse     registry in the world; natural cow sense
                  (see Figure 21-12)

American          Formerly Kentucky saddler, amiable;
Saddlebred        can perform several gaits; very
                  showy

American          Developed as trotter/pacer; direct
Standardbred      line can be traced to one male,
                  Messenger

American          Relatively new breed; common
Warmblood         crosses are Thoroughbred/draft or
                  Thoroughbred/warmblood

American White    Color breed; not true albino

Andalusian        Oldest and purest of all horses after
                  Arabian; breed founded in A.D. 710;
                  almost became extinct in 1830s;
                  saved by monks; used by mounted
                  bullfighters in Spain; no Arab blood
                  used in development

Appaloosa         Bred by Nez Perce Indians; third largest
                  breed registry in world; popular in United
                  States and Australia (see Figure 3-1)

Arabian or Arab   Large nostrils and long eyelashes
                  adapted for desert conditions; one less
                  vertebra than any other breed; has influenced
                  the foundation of all light breeds;
                  can carry more weight over longer
                  distance than can a thoroughbred or
                  quarter horse; characteristic dished face;
                  oldest purebred, dating to 5000 B.C.

Barb              One of the great foundation horses; used
                  to strengthen other breeds; considered
                  forerunner of Thoroughbred

Bashkir Curly     Noted for long, curly coat of hair, milking
                  ability, cold hardy

Belgian           Descendant of medieval great horses;
                  magnificent animal; one of most powerful
                  of horse breeds

Chickasaw         Developed by Native Americans of
                  Tennessee, North Carolina, Oklahoma;
                  used as cow ponies

Cleveland Bay     Very versatile and hardy; easy keepers

Clydesdale        Displays action; popular in big hitches;
                  much feathering on foot; regularly
                  exported from Britain to wherever
                  horses are needed for over 100 years
                  (see Figure 1-16)

Connemara         Hardy, sure-footed

Dales             Very hardy; good for children; used as
                  workhorse

Dartmoor          Used for pack ponies in the mines of
                  England; good for children

Dutch             Mix of Groningen and Gelderland
Warmblood         breeds; willing temperament

Fell Pony         Very hardy, all-purpose horse

French Saddle     Descended from Anglo-Norman studs;
Horse or Selle    developed as a competition horse
Francais

Friesian (West    Used by knights of old; have heavily
Friesian)         feathered legs; breed lightened for
                  carriage and sport horse; tail and mane
                  may touch ground

Gotland (or       One of the oldest breeds; excellent
Skogsruss)        youth horse, jumper, trotter

Hackney           Trotting horse; good carriage horse

Hackney           Flamboyant pacers, usually used in shows
                  and harness; distinctive trotting action

Haflinger         All of today's Haflingers are traced back
                  to foundation sire, 249 Folic; family
                  horse (see Figure 6-8 and 16-3)

Hanoverian        Dominate in international competition;
                  stable and willing temperament

Highland (or      Very versatile; sturdy, sure-footed
Garron)

Holstein          One of the oldest warmbloods from
                  great horse types; competes well; good
                  carriage horse

Lipizzaner        Famous horses from Spanish Riding
                  School of Vienna, performing haute
                  ecole riding; great athletic ability,
                  performing "airs above the ground"
                  (see Figure 19-5)

Lusitano          Bred from Andalusian stock; used for
                  bullfighting

Missouri Fox      Natural ability for specialized gaits;
Trotter           comfortable ride

Morab             Cross of Morgan and Arabian
                  breeds only

Morgan            One common foundation sire, Justin
                  Morgan of Massachusetts; works very
                  well under harness or saddle
                  (see Figure 16-8)

Mustang           Original cow pony; feral horses of
                  American West; small but tough; Native
                  Americans used extensively

New Forest        Very hardy; good family pony; allowed
                  to run wild most of year; easy to train

Norwegian         Primitive-looking horse, resembling
Fjord Pony        Przewalski's horse; hardy and surefooted;
                  still used as farm ponies in
                  Norway; gentle

Oldenburg         Tallest and heaviest of German warmbloods;
                  based on Friesian breeding

Paint             All paint horses must be sired by a
                  registered paint, quarter horse, or
                  Thoroughbred (see Figure 8-14)

Palomino          Not possible to breed true to color; first
                  color registry (see Figure 10-6)

Paso Fino         Shows the natural lateral 4-beat
                  gaits

Percheron         Most popular cart horse in world; slight
                  Arab features in face

Peruvian Paso     Has unique gait; can carry rider long
                  distances, not becoming too tired

Pinto             Associated with Native Americans

Pony of the       Cross between Appaloosa and Shetland;
Americas (POA)    one of newest breeds; very good for
                  young riders

Shetland          Popular with children; very hardy, gentle

Shire             Very docile; can be trusted with a child;
                  tallest horse in the world; heavy
                  feathering on foot; descended from
                  great horses; popular as team horse

Spanish Barb      Three strains recognized: scarface,
                  rawhide, and buckshot

Spotted Saddle    Good all-around horse; good disposition

Suffolk (or       Developed as workhorse; not as big as
Suffolk Punch)    other draft breeds (see Figure 3-2)

Swedish           Outstanding saddle horse; competes
Warmblood or      very well in dressage
Halfbred

Tennessee         Well II known for two unique gaits--flat
Walking Horse     walk and running walk; bred for
                  comfortable ride; good for beginners

Thoroughbred      Bred mainly for racing; must be handled
                  carefully (see Figure 1-18)

Trakehner         Very versatile, considered most handsome
                  of all German warmbloods; competes
                  well in all sports

Welsh Pony        Very hardy; very good trotting ability;
(Sections A, B,   good jumper; influenced trotters
C, D)             all over the world (see Figure 3-3)

Wurttemberg       Developed to do work on small
                  mountain farms

TABLE 3-2 Lesser-Known Breeds of Warmblood and Light Horses

Name                   Origin             Name

American Remounts      United States      Gidran

Anglo Arab             Britain, France,   Groningen
                       Poland, Hungary

Anglo-Argentine        Argentina          Hispano (Spanish
                                          Anglo-Arab)

Bavarian Warmblood     Germany            Iberian

Beberbeck              Germany            Iomud

Brandenburg            Germany            Irish Hunter

Brumby                 Australia          Jaf

Budyonny               Russia             Kabardin

Calabrese              Italy              Karabair

Campolina              Brazil             Karabakh

Charollais Halfbred    France             Kladruber

Criollo                South America      Knabstrup

Dole Qudbrandsdal      Norway             Kustanair

Danubian               Bulgaria           Latvian Harness Horse

Darashouri             Iran               Libyan Barb

Don                    Central Asia       Limousin Halfbred

East Bulgarian         Bulgaria           Lokai

East Friesian          Germany            Malapolski

Einsiedler             Switzerland        Mangalarga

European Trotter       France,            Maremmana
                       United States,
                       Russia

Fox Trotting Horse     Ozarks             Masuren

Frederiksborg          Denmark            Mecklenburg

Freiburger Saddle      Switzerland        Metis Trotter
Horse

French Trotter         France             Murgese

Furioso North Star     Hungary            Native Mexican

Gelderland             Holland            New Kirgiz

German Trotter         Germany            Nonius

Gessian                Germany            Novokirghiz

Orlov Trotter          Russia             Tchenaran

Plateau Persian        Iran               Tersky

Pleven                 Bulgaria           Toric

Rhinelander            Germany            Waler

Salerno                Italy              Westfalen

Sardinian              Sardinia           Wielkopolski

Shagya Arab            Hungary            Yorkshire Coach

Sokolsky               Poland/Russia      Zweibrucker

Spotted Saddle         United States
Horse

Name                   Origin

American Remounts      Hungary

Anglo Arab             Holland

Anglo-Argentine        Spain

Bavarian Warmblood     Iberian Peninsula

Beberbeck              Central Asia

Brandenburg            Ireland

Brumby                 Iran/Kurdistan

Budyonny               Russia

Calabrese              Uzbekistan

Campolina              Azerbaijan

Charollais Halfbred    Czechoslovakia

Criollo                Denmark

Dole Qudbrandsdal      Kazakhstan

Danubian               Latvia

Darashouri             Libya

Don                    France

East Bulgarian         Uzbekistan

East Friesian          Poland

Einsiedler             Brazil

European Trotter       Italy

Fox Trotting Horse     Poland

Frederiksborg          Germany

Freiburger Saddle      Russia
Horse

French Trotter         Italy

Furioso North Star     Mexico

Gelderland             Kirgiz/Kazakhstan

German Trotter         Hungary

Gessian                Central Asia

Orlov Trotter          Iran

Plateau Persian        Russia

Pleven                 Estonia

Rhinelander            Australia

Salerno                Germany

Sardinian              Poland

Shagya Arab            Ireland

Sokolsky               Germany

Spotted Saddle
Horse

TABLE 3-3 Lesser-Known Breeds of Coldblood or Draft Horses

Name                        Origin

Ardennais                   France/Belgium

Auxios                      France

Boulonnais                  France

Breton                      France

Comtois                     France

Dole Trotter                Norway

Dutch Draught               Holland

Finnish                     Finland

Irish Draught               Ireland

Italian Heavy Draught       Italy

Jutland                     Denmark

Lithuanian Heavy            Baltic States
Draught

Mulassier                   French

Murakov                     Hungary

Name                        Origin

Noriker Pinzgauer           Austria/Germany
(Oberlander, South
German)

North Swedish               Sweden

North Swedish Trotter       Sweden

Poitevin                    France

Rhineland Heavy             Germany
Draught

Russian Heavy Draught       Ukraine

Schleswig Heavy             Germany
Draught

Schwarzwalder               Germany

Soviet Heavy Draught        Russia

Swedish Ardennes            Sweden

Trait du Nord               France

Vladimir Heavy              Russia
Draught

Woronesh                    Russia

TABLE 3-4 Lesser-Known Ponies of the World

Name                  Origin

Acchetta              Sardinia

Ariege                France

Assateague            USA

Australian            Australia

Avelignese            Italy

Balearic              Balearic Islands

Bali                  Indonesia

Bashkirsky            Russia

Basuto                South Africa

Batak (Deli)          Indonesia

Bhutia                India

Bosnian               Yugoslavia/Bosnia-
                      Herzegovina

Burma (Shan)          Burma

Camarguais            France

Caspian               Iran

China                 China

Chincoteague          USA

Costeno               Spain, Peru

Dulmen                Germany

Exmoor                England

Falabella             Argentina

Fjord (Westlands)     Norway

Fjord-Huzule          Czechoslovakia

Galiceno              Mexico

Garrano (Minho)       Portugal

Gayoe                 Indonesia

Hucul                 Poland

Huzule                Romania

Icelandic             Iceland

Java                  Indonesia

Kathiawari            India

Kazakh                Kazakhstan

Konik                 Poland

Landis                France

Leopard Spotted       England

Macedonian            Yugoslavia

Manipur               Assam-Manipur

Marwari               India

Merens                France

Mongolian             Mongolia

Native Turkish        Turkey

Peneia                Greece

Pindos                Greece

Sable Island          Canada

Sandalwood            Indonesia

Skyros                Greece

Spiti                 India

Sumba                 Indonesia

Sumbawa               Indonesia

Tarpan                Eastern Europe

Tibetan (Nanfan)      Tibet

Timor                 Indonesia

Viatka                Russia

Zemaituka             Russia
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Author:Parker, Rick
Publication:Equine Science, 3rd ed.
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:6111
Previous Article:Chapter 2 Status and future of the horse industry.
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