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Chapter 3: Air travel basics.


There are many agencies that appoint, govern, or oversee all facets of U.S. air travel. These agencies, sometimes known as conferences, are directly related to the operation of U.S. travel agencies, airlines, and airports. It is important for the travel professional to understand how these agencies interact and affect each other.

A basic understanding of how a travel agency functions, contracts for its computers, and generates revenue is vitally important. Armed with this knowledge, even the entry-level travel counselor can easily see how everything he does and the manner in which he does it can ultimately affect the travel agency's bottom line.

The travel industry, and especially air travel, has various codes for airlines, cities, airports, and aircraft. In addition to the codes, there is a plethora of acronyms and terms. Travel professionals must be well versed in these codes, acronyms, and terms if they are to do their jobs in a timely and efficient manner.

To better serve the traveler, it is important for the travel professional to understand the various airline policies and programs. It is also important to understand what happens at an airport and the procedures the traveler will encounter. Much of the travel professional's value to his clients is found in his knowledge and ability to explain air travel procedures to his clients, thereby avoiding potential problems the client may face. The primary difference between one travel professional and another is in the service that supplements the sale of travel products.


At the conclusion of this chapter, you should be able to:

* explain U.S. travel agency appointment procedures.

* discuss travel agency automation choices.

* detail how travel agencies earn money.

* define the relationship between the airlines and specific government agencies.

* identify the codes for selected airlines.

* describe airline policies and operations.

* explain the relationship between aircraft configuration and passenger comfort.

* identify the various areas of airports, available services, and arrival and departure procedures.

* identify selected airport codes.


air traffic control

Air Transport Association (ATA)

airline club

Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC)

airport authority

ARC appointment

ARC number


boarding pass





Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)


code sharing



commuter airline





denied boarding compensation (DBC)

Department of Transportation (DOT)

direct access

dual-designated carrier

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

frequent flyer program



Global Travel Distribution System (GDS)

ground control



hub and spoke

IATAN I.D. card


interline agreement

International Air Transport Association (IATA)

International Airlines Travel Agent Network (IATAN)


last seat availability

load factor

major airline


Miscellaneous Charges Order (MCO)

narrow-body aircraft

national airline

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)

net rate





passenger name record (PNR)



pseudo city code


regional airline

seat assignment

service fees

sine or sign






Travel Agency Service Fee (TASF) Document

unaccompanied minor



wide-body aircraft


The Internet, airline reservation centers, and airline city ticket offices notwithstanding, travel agencies are selling more air travel than ever before. In 1999, U.S. travel agency sales accounted for 80 percent of all air travel sold in the United States. Travel agency air sales topped $76.5 million in 1999, an increase of 4 percent from 1998. But, before a travel agency can sell air travel, it must enter into an agreement with each airline it wants to sell. These agreements can be accomplished in one of two ways or a combination of both.

First, the travel agency can contact each airline individually for authorization to sell air travel. Each airline will set in writing its requirements and regulations for the travel agency as well as booking and ticketing procedures. Each airline's contract will clearly state the airline's responsibility to the travel agency and the amount of commission, if any, the airline will pay the agency for selling air travel.

A much easier way is for the travel agency to request appointment by the Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC). Everyone in the travel industry refers to the Airlines Reporting Corporation simply by saying "ark," as if it were a word. ARC was founded in 1984 as a close corporation; it can have no more than 30 shareholders and there are restrictions on the transfer of its stock. Presently, there are 14 shareholders and they are all major airlines. In addition to the 14 stockholders, there are 140 airlines (United States and international), 3 railroads, and 15 travel vendors who are members of ARC.

ARC is perhaps the most important organization, also known as a conference, to U.S. travel agencies. The functions of ARC include:

* travel agency accreditation

* ticket and ticket number assignment, distribution, and control

* travel transaction reporting and financial settlement

* continuing education for ticket issuance and reporting

From recommendations by its members, Advisory Counsel, and Joint Advisory Board-Agent Reporting Agreement, ARC has established a standardized set of regulations and requirements for U.S. travel agencies. By accepting ARC's approval, the agency agrees to abide by ARC regulations for selling, ticketing, and record keeping, and to follow agency security and ticket security procedures.


When a travel agency is approved by ARC, the agency is said to receive ARC appointment. In other words, the travel agency has been approved to sell travel for all airline, rail, and travel vendor members of ARC. At the time of appointment, ARC assigns an identification number to the travel agency. The first two digits of the number identify the state where the agency is located. The next five digits identify the agency. The sixth, and last digit, is called a check digit. An agency's ARC number would be written as: 15 99988 7.

Once the ARC number has been assigned, the travel agency may sell travel on most U.S. and international airlines. There are, however, a few U.S. airlines that are not members of ARC. Generally these non-ARC airlines are small and have very limited route systems. A travel agency who wants to sell non-ARC airlines must contact each non-ARC airline directly.

The International Airlines Travel Agent Network (IATAN), another conference, is also important to U.S. travel agencies. IATAN is said as if it were the word "i-uh-tan." After a U.S. travel agency has been appointed by ARC, it may elect to apply to IATAN for appointment to sell travel on its member airlines. IATAN has approximately 200 international airline members, some of which are not members of ARC.

Important Industry Web Sites

Airlines Reporting Corporation:

International Airlines Travel Agent Network:

International Air Transport Association:

Although IATAN's regulations and standards for appointment are very similar to those of ARC, IATAN is concerned solely with international air travel. IATAN does not issue a separate I.D. number; rather, it uses the number assigned by ARC. One of IATAN's most important functions is training in international fare calculation, taxes, and ticketing.

IATAN also issues identification cards to travel professionals who have fulfilled specific requirements for employment or earnings. The IATAN I.D. card is required by most airlines, rental car companies, hotels, cruise lines, and tour operators before travel discounts will be given.
Web Activity

1. Using the Internet, find out all of the requirements for a
travel counselor who wants to apply for the IATAN I.D. card.

2. Access ARC's Web site and find out which non-air and non-rail
vendors are members of ARC. IATAN is a division of another
conference, the International Air Transport Association

(IATA), said as the word "i-ah-tah." IATA is the governing and appointing body for travel agencies outside the United States, and before IATAN was founded, U.S. travel agencies were appointed by IATA as well.

It is not uncommon for a travel professional who has been in the industry for many years to refer to the ARC number as an IATA number. Years ago, every agency's identification number was an IATA number. Some travel professionals may refer to the agency's IATAN number. No matter what it's called, an agency's identification is the ARC number.
Airlines Reporting
Corporation (ARC)

A conference consisting of
member airlines, railroads,
and other travel vendors.
ARC is the appointing body
for U.S. travel agencies
selling air travel.


An organization such as the
Airlines Reporting
Corporation, International
Airlines Travel Agent
Network, and the
International Air Transport

ARC appointment

The approval of a U.S.
travel agency to sell air
travel by the Airlines
Reporting Corporation.

ARC number

The identifying number
assigned by the Airlines
Reporting Corporation to a
U.S. travel agency upon
appointment, and used in
validation of imprinting

International Airlines
Travel Agent Network

A conference with members
that include U.S. and
international airlines. An
appointing body for U.S.
travel agencies selling air

IATAN I.D. card

An identification card
offered by the International
Airlines Travel Agent
Network to qualifying travel

International Air Transport
Association (IATA)

A conference whose
members include U.S. and
international airlines. The
appointing body for travel
agencies outside the United
States to sell air travel.


Over 95 percent of all travel agencies in the United States are automated. A reservation, known as a Passenger Name Record (PNR), for air travel, car rental, hotel, or other product is made in the computer rather than by phone. Almost all of the automated travel agencies subscribe to a Computer Reservation System (CRS), also known as a Global Travel Distribution System (GDS). There are four main CRSs used in the United States (see Figure 3-1).

The CRS provides the software, or program, that allows travel counselors to make reservations, issue tickets, and so on. The travel agency may also use other software such as programs for word processing, data bases, spreadsheets, Internet access, and e-mail. Most travel agencies use standard PCs to run the CRS software. PC hardware consists of a monitor, CPU, keyboard, and printer. Some travel agencies own their PCs, but most agencies lease their hardware from the CRS.

Another type of hardware is the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) that consists of a CPU and keyboard combination. CRTs are sometimes referred to as "dumb sets" because they cannot be used for anything other than CRS functions. Most airline ticket counter and gate agents still use CRTs while most travel agencies have converted to standard PCs.

Each travel agency has a special identification in the CRS called a pseudo city code. The pseudo city code is assigned at the time the travel agency contracts with the CRS. By using this identification, all reservations are secured to the booking agency, making access to the reservations by other agencies impossible. Everyone who uses a CRS is given an identification, called a sine or sign. The sine identifies the travel counselor or airline employee to the CRS.

The principle airline developers or owners of a CRS are called hosts. Does that mean that an agency can only sell its CRS's host airline(s)? No, almost all of the other airlines will pay each CRS so that their flight schedules, fare information, and so on are accessible to all travel counselors. These airlines are called cohosts. Each CRS has several levels of participation for the cohosts. A high level of participation means greater expense to the cohost and more data will be available to travel counselors. All major U.S. airlines and many international airlines have the highest level of participation in all four CRSs used in the United States.

One of the most important features of the highest level of CRS participation is last seat availability. This means that the participating airline provides the CRS with up-to-theminute flight availability. An airline with a lower level of CRS participation will send a "soldout" message to the CRS before the flight is actually sold out, giving booking messages in transit time to reach them.

Direct access is another important feature of the higher levels of CRS participation. Direct access is comparable to the travel counselor reaching into the participating airline's computer and getting firsthand information. In doing so, the travel counselor has access to last seat availability. Direct access also helps reduce the chance of a reservation being electronically lost in transit to the booking airline. A lost reservation is referred to as a no-rec, which means no record. Figure 3-2 shows the relation between hosts, cohosts, and direct access capability.
FIGURE 3-2 CRS host, cohost, direct access, and last seat

Host -- automatic direct access, last seat availability


level 1 -- automatic direct access, last seat



level 2 -- direct access and last seat availability requires
 secondary format


level 3 -- direct access not available; must call the airline
 for last seat availability


level 4 -- schedule and fare information displayed but not
flight availability; must call the airline to make
a reservation

Each CRS offers travel agencies a variety of reservation platforms. Some are considered "dedicated," others are "dial-in," and still others are "Internet-based." In all cases, a phone line and modem are required. Regardless of the platform, the basic CRS functionality is the same. Airlines, car rental, hotels, cruises, and tours can be booked in all CRSs as well as a variety of other suppliers. Added features of the CRSs include e-mail, fax, and ARC reporting. As you can see, the CRS is a most valuable tool in the travel industry.

Agency Revenue

Travel agency revenue falls into four categories: commission, commission overrides, markups, and service fees. Of these, the bulk of an agency's revenue comes from commission.

At the present time, almost all travel suppliers, known as vendors, with the exception of most airlines, pay the travel agency a commission for selling their products. The standard commission percentage varies from one vendor to another.

A few U.S. airlines and some international airlines pay travel agencies a 5 percent commission for selling seats on their flights. These airlines also place a cap, or ceiling, on the amount of the commission that can be earned on each ticket. Examples of caps are as follows:

* $10 cap on one-way trips within the United States

* $25 cap on all other types of trips within the United States

* $50 cap on one-way international trips

* $100 cap on all other types of international trips

As with everything else in the travel industry, there are exceptions. Some airlines pay a 5 percent commission, but do not cap the amount. Some airlines pay 8 percent while still others pay a 10 percent commission. How do travel counselors know how much commission to claim? Within the CRS, each airline details its commission policy and major trade publications, such as Travel Weekly and Travel Agent, print updates as commission structures change.

Some travel agencies will join a consortium as a means of increasing revenue. By pooling the sales volume of all member travel agencies, the consortium has increased bargaining power with the vendors. A vendor may contract with the consortium to pay all member travel agencies a certain percentage over and above the standard commission. These additional commission points are called override.

In addition to consortia, there are also franchise and cooperative groups. Although these groups function much like consortia, agency membership is usually more expensive. Some examples of national or international franchise and cooperative groups include American Express, Carlson Wagonlit, Cruise Holidays International, Empress Travel, GalaxySea, Hickory Travel Systems, International Tours, National Association of Commissioned Travel Agents (NACTA), Thor, Travel Professionals International, Travelsavers, and Uniglobe.

Important Industry Web Sites

Travel Trade:

Travel Weekly:

Some products are sold to the travel agency at a net rate; that is, without a commission being included. Before the counselor quotes a price to the client, the counselor must markup the net rate; in other words, the agency profit must be added. Group space, full aircraft charters, convention hotel rates, and some air consolidator fares are often quoted as a net rate.

The fourth area of agency revenue is service fees. More than half of all travel agencies in the United States charge their customers for certain services. As a general rule, the less commission the sale of a product generates, the higher the fee. Some agencies charge fees only for the sale of products that pay low commission percentages. Service fees can be processed electronically on an ARC document called a Miscellaneous Charges Order (MCO) or a manual Travel Agency Service Fee (TASF) document may be used.

Travel agency service fees can be any amount the agency selects, and they usually vary depending on the product (see Figure 3-3).

The combination of the standard commission, overrides, markups, and service fees represent the travel agency's revenue. From this revenue, the agency must pay rent, salaries, memberships, utilities, CRS expenses, and so on. To increase revenue sources, some travel agencies are now selling travel-related products such as luggage, electrical appliances, books, maps, and other items.
Web Activity

Access one of the travel counselor trade publications. What are the
most recent news stories that deal with agency commission?

With all this in mind, it is easy to understand why most travel agencies are putting greater emphasis on customer service and the sales ability of their counselors. As you begin your career in travel, never lose sight of the following.

* Without customer service, customers will disappear.

* Without customers, sales will disappear.

* Without sales, revenue will disappear.

* Without revenue, the travel agency and its employees will disappear.
Passenger Name Record

A reservation for air, rental
car, hotel, cruise, tour, and
other travel services.

Global Travel Distribution
System (GDS)

Also known as Computer
Reservation System (CRS);
an automation vendor such
as Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre,
and Worldspan.


The program used by a
computer to perform
specific tasks.


Physical computer
equipment such as the
monitor, CPU, keyboard,
printer, and so on.

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

A type of computer
hardware designed to
handle CRS functions only.

pseudo city code

A travel agency's
identification to a CRS.

sine or sign

The user's identification to
the CRS.


1. The CRS developer or
owner. 2. An employee of a
tour operator who is
available at the destination
to the tour participants at
specified times.


A travel vendor that
purchases the right to have
its products and general
information available in a

last seat availability

A CRS term that indicates
the user has access to real-time

direct access

A CRS term that means an
enhanced or direct link
between a travel agency
and a cohost travel vendor.


A CRS term that means a
PNR that was lost in transit
to the airline being booked.


A supplier of a travel


Money paid by a travel
vendor to a travel agency
that sells its products.


An organization with
member travel agencies that
combines sales volume for
better negotiation with
travel vendors.


Additional commission over
and above the standard

net rate

A rate that does not have
travel agency commission
built in.


The process of adding profit
to a price.

service fees

Fees charged by a travel
agency to the client.

Miscellaneous Charges
Order (MCO)

An accountable ARC
document that can be used
to pay for various travel

Travel Agency Service Fee
(TASF) Document

A nonaccountable ARC
document that is used to
process travel agency
service fees via a special
ARC report.


Every airline operating in the United States is governed by two federal agencies, the Department of Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration. The Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates all air transportation within the United States. An example of DOT's regulation is that before an airline can begin service between two cities, the airline must apply for DOT approval. Another function of DOT is to monitor CRS displays to ensure that one airline is not given preferential treatment over another. Preferential placement of airline information in a CRS is called bias and it is an illegal practice.

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a division of the DOT and is a very important organization to all of us. The FAA is responsible for air traffic control, aircraft certification, passenger safety, and pilot licensing. Without the FAA, air travel could not exist.

Another important government agency is the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). There are two primary areas of functionality within the NTSB: safety and investigation. The NTSB recommends safety enhancements to the airlines, DOT, and FAA. It is the NTSB's responsibility to investigate all airline accidents, determine the cause if possible, and make recommendations as to how the problems could have been avoided. The NTSB publishes accident statistics on a yearly basis.

Most U.S. airlines are members of the Air Transport Association (ATA). This organization represents the commercial air travel industry before Congress and is a lobby group for the airlines. The primary purpose of the ATA is to promote safety and efficiency in air travel.

Important Industry Web Sites

Air Transport Association (U.S.):

Air Transport Association of Canada:

Department of Transportation:

Federal Aviation Administration:

Federal Trade Commission:

National Transportation Safety Board:

All airlines are divided into three main categories: major, national, and regional. Since the enactment of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the distinction between the classifications has become somewhat blurred, and in some cases, barely exists.

An airline that operates flights from one country to another country or long distance routes within its home country is considered a major airline. Generally, a major airline has revenue over $1 billion annually. A somewhat obsolete term for a major airline is trunk airline.

The classification of a national airline, in the true sense of the term, has almost disappeared. A national airline maintains schedules within one country exclusively and operates both long- and short-haul routes. Some industry references define a national airline based strictly on revenue, between $100 million and $1 billion annually.

Regional airlines, commonly called commuter airlines, generally limit their routes to short-haul flights. As a rule, a regional airline operates within a specific area of the country and many times, utilizes turbo-prop or propeller aircraft accommodating from 19 to 103 passengers. Almost all U.S. and international airlines have Web sites. A comprehensive list of these sites can be found at <>.

Thankfully for all of us who travel, most airlines have agreed to work together by signing interline agreements. An interline agreement is between two airlines that agree to transfer baggage, cargo, and passengers from one airline to the other (see Figure 3-4). Without an interline agreement, it would not be possible for both airlines' flights to appear on a single ticket.
FIGURE 3-4 Sample interline agreement provisions

Without an interline agreement--

1. Your client is traveling to his destination on Airline A, but
returning home on Airline B. You would have to issue separate tickets,
one for each airline.

2. Your client is traveling on Airline A to Pittsburgh where he must
change to Airline B for his trip to Manchester, NH. Your client would
have to claim his baggage in Pittsburgh from Airline A and recheck it
with Airline B.

3. Your client wants to ship some freight to Lafayette, IN. The
quickest way is with Airline A to Chicago, then Airline B. It cannot
be done without an interline agreement.

Airline Codes

Every airline in the United States has been assigned a two-character code by ARC. International airlines also have two-character codes, which are assigned by IATA. In the early days of air travel, all airline codes were a combination of two letters. Several years ago, ARC and IATA exhausted the supply of two letter combinations. So, today, several airlines have codes that consist of a letter and a number.

In addition to the two-character code, each airline has a three-character code, although this code is seldom used in the travel industry. Every airline also has a numeric code that appears on airline identification plates. The numeric code is used on tickets and refund transactions.

Everyone in the travel industry, including travel counselors, airline reservationists, baggage handlers, and air traffic controllers, uses the two-character airline codes. All reference sources, flight timetables, and computer displays use the two-character airline code; not the airline name. Travel counselors can locate airline codes in their CRS, and a complete list of airline codes can be found in the OAG (Official Airline Guide) Flight Guide. It is interesting to note that as part of the interview process, some employers test the job applicant's knowledge of these codes. Here is a list of selected U.S. airlines and their codes.

It has become common, if somewhat confusing, for one airline to contract to use the code of another airline. This practice is called code sharing. The airline that uses the code of another airline is called a dual-designated carrier. In the early days of code sharing, a smaller airline would contract to use the code of a larger airline. Today, it is common for a large airline to use the code of another large airline.

Although printed flight schedules and computer displays indicate a code-share situation, it can be easily overlooked. The practice of code sharing (see Figure 3-5) means that travel counselors must pay careful attention when making reservations so that the client is advised of a dual-designated carrier.

Airline Policies

Most U.S. airlines have comparable policies for special services and situations, although each airline's cost for a particular service may differ a bit. Each airline has a special area of data in the CRS where travel counselors can learn about the services, costs, and any special procedures that must be followed.

Infants (under two years of age) who do not occupy a seat are called lap-held infants and on flights within the United States, there is no cost. A lap-held infant traveling internationally pays 10 percent of the adult fare. For safety, many passengers want to use an infant seat and secure the infant in the seat next to the adult. Most airlines charge one half of the adult fare for an infant in a seat.

Each child (over two years of age but under 12 years) must have a seat. There are special fares for children, but they are usually a reduction of the full coach fare, the most expensive type of coach fare. Because most passengers use discounted coach fares, it is usually less expensive for the child to use the same fare as the adult.

Each airline has strict requirements for unaccompanied minors (children under 12 years of age traveling alone). As a general rule, the child must be at least five years old; eight years old if a change of planes is required. Information about the adult meeting the child at the destination must be given to the airline. This information includes the name, address, phone number, and relationship to the child. An unaccompanied minor pays the applicable adult fare and the airline charges an additional fee of from $30 to $50 for direct flights and from $60 to $100 if there is a change of planes.

Passengers traveling with pets must advise the travel counselor so that the counselor can make a special request to the airline. All pets must be in an approved carrier. Pets who will travel in the passenger compartment must be small enough so that the carrier fits under the seat in front of the passenger.

Larger or exotic pets must travel in the cargo section of the aircraft, but they will be the last to be loaded at the origin city, and the first to be removed at the destination. Please note that some airlines will not carry live animals in cargo for safety reasons.

Service animals, such as seeing-eye dogs, are allowed to travel with their masters and sit at their master's feet. The dogs must be harnessed and be free of disease and odor. It is a good idea for a passenger traveling with an animal to carry a certificate of vaccination with him on the trip.

The travel counselor can request a wheelchair for a passenger who is unable to walk and board the aircraft. Unlike a meet and assist, an airline or airport employee takes the passenger onto the aircraft and assists the passenger into his seat. Almost all airlines offer this service and there is usually no charge although a tip to the attendant is appreciated.

Some passengers are prohibited from eating certain foods due to dietary, cultural, or religious restrictions. The travel counselor can request a special meal for these passengers. Some of the more frequently requested special meals include diabetic, no salt, low calorie, vegetarian, kosher, Hindu, and Moslem.

Most airlines allow seats to be assigned in advance of travel. Seat assignments indicate the specific row and seat the passenger will occupy on each flight. Each airline specifies how far in advance of the flight that seats can be assigned. When possible, the travel counselor should make the seat assignments in the CRS. Boarding passes, the physical evidence of the seat assignments, are usually issued by the airline when the traveler checks in for his flight.

For flights within the United States, passengers should call the airline 24 hours before the flight to reconfirm the reservation. At this time, the passenger learns if the flight number, departure time, or arrival time has changed. This process should be repeated at the destination, before the trip home. Internationally, reconfirmation should be done two to three days before each flight.

Each airline sets limitations on the number of pieces, size, and weight of baggage that can be carried on board a flight as well as baggage that will be in the cargo compartment. Carryon baggage must be small enough to be stored under the seat or in the overhead compartments. In addition to the free baggage allowance, each airline has established a policy for excess baggage. Each airline provides baggage information in the CRS and this information can also be found in the OAG Flight Guide.

For most flights within the United States, passengers should arrive at least one hour before flight time. At the airport check-in, the airline may issue boarding passes; a card for each flight showing the row and seat that has been assigned. Some airlines simply write the row and seat on the ticket or ticket jacket instead of using cards. A few airlines do not assign specific seats; rather, they assign passengers to a boarding group, identified by a group number or color.

Most of the larger airlines have frequent flyer programs and membership in them is free. Each airline's program includes partner airlines, hotels, rental car companies, and other vendors. When a frequent flyer member travels on one of the partner airlines, or uses the services of the other vendors, "miles" are accumulated into the frequent flyer member's account. These "miles" can be used for air travel upgrades, free air travel, and other products. Travel counselors and clients can access data about frequent flyer programs on each airline's Web site, or see combined information at <>.

When the flight the traveler wants is sold out, the traveler may ask to be put on a waitlist. A wait-list is the airline's list of people who hope to be confirmed on a particular flight as cancellations are received. When a travel counselor puts a traveler on a wait-list, the counselor usually confirms an alternate flight in case the wait-list does not clear. It is important to note that almost all of the lower priced fares do not allow wait-listing.

Airline Operations

All U.S. airlines have established their route systems using the hub and spoke principle. Each airline selects one or more airports to be hubs and these act as the home base for the airline. The spokes are the cities around the hub. Flights from the spokes act as feeder routes into the hub.

Have you ever wondered why you had to change planes in Chicago O'Hare, for example? Almost all changes of planes take place at hub airports. Chicago O'Hare was a hub for the airline you were flying. Figure 3-6 shows some of the major hubs in the United States and the airlines that use them as such.

One of the most important statistics for an airline is load factor. Load factor is the relationship of the number of seats on a specific flight to the number of booked seats. For example, if 78 seats were booked on a flight that could accommodate 139, the load factor is 56 percent. Included in the 78 booked seats are a certain number of people who will not show up for the flight and will not cancel their reservations. These people are called no-shows.

Over a period of time, the airline will monitor the number of no-shows on a specific flight. This information helps the airline determine by what percentage it can safely overbook the flight. Overbooking means allowing more seats to be booked than are actually available.
Important Industry Web Sites

Rules of the Air:

This site, written by the industry veteran, Terry Trippler,
explains travelers' rights on topics such as bumping, lost baggage,
and fare increases.

On a full flight, if the number of no-shows and the number of overbookings are equal, everyone travels. However, if the number of overbookings exceeds the number of no-shows, there are too many passengers and not enough seats. In this situation, the airline first asks for volunteers who are willing to give up their seats and take a later flight. These volunteers are given a voucher for a certain dollar value that can be used toward future travel. This voucher is called denied boarding compensation (DBC).

If there are not enough volunteers on an overbooked flight, the airline removes off-duty airline personnel and those travel counselors who are traveling free or on a travel counselor's discounted fare. These passengers are accommodated on the next available flight but no compensation is given.

If there are still too many passengers for the flight, bumping begins. Bumping means removing regular passengers. The bumped passengers are booked on the next available flight and are given DBC. How does an airline decide which passengers to bump? That is a bit of a mystery. The airline may use any of the following criteria:

* fare--the lower the fare, the greater the chance of being bumped.

* purchase date--the closer to the day of the flight the travel is purchased, the greater the chance of being bumped.

* check-in time--the closer to flight time the passenger checks in, the greater the chance of being bumped.

* passenger status--a senator, for example, might have a lesser chance of being bumped.

* frequent flyer member--by virtue of their loyalty to the airline, frequent flyer members may have a lesser chance of being bumped.
Department of
Transportation (DOT)

The U.S. government
agency responsible for the
regulation of air travel
within the United States.


Preferential placement of
airline information in a
Computer Reservation
System (CRS). This is an
illegal practice.

Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA)

A department of the DOT
that is responsible for air
traffic control, aircraft
certification, passenger
safety, and pilot licensing.

National Transportation
Safety Board (NTSB)

A government agency
responsible for air accident
investigations, safety
recommendations, and
statistical reports.

Air Transport Association

A trade association with
members that include most
of the airlines in the United
States. ATA represents its
members before Congress
and promotes safety and
efficiency in air travel.

major airline

A large airline that operates
both short- and long-haul
flights and has over $1
billion in annual sales.

national airline

An airline that flies both
long and short routes but
within the borders of one

regional airline

A small airline, sometimes
called a commuter airline,
that operates short-haul

commuter airline

A small airline, also known
as a regional airline, that
usually operates short-haul
flights in one area of the
country only.

interline agreement

An agreement between two
airlines that covers
ticketing, transference of
passengers, baggage, and

code sharing

An airline practice of
contracting with another
airline to use the other
airline's code designation.

dual-designated carrier

An airline that has
contracted with and uses
the two-character
designator code of another


A traveler who is under two
years of age. Lap-held
infants on flights within the
United States travel free.
Internationally, lap-held
infants pay 10 percent of
the adult fare. Most airlines
will sell a seat to be used
for an infant in a special
carrier at 50 percent of the
adult fare.


1. An air passenger who is
over 2 and under 12. 2. A
cruise or tour passenger,
usually under the age of 16
or 18. 3. A hotel guest
staying with a parent,
usually under the age of 18.

unaccompanied minor

A child over 5 and under 12
who is traveling alone.

seat assignment

An automated identification
of a passenger's assigned
row number and seat on a

boarding pass

A document, usually issued
by an airline, that indicates
a passenger's assigned seat
for a flight.


The process of contacting
the airline to verify flight
numbers, departure time,
and arrival time of a

frequent flyer program

An airline program in which
members accumulate miles
from the airline and other
travel vendors. The
accumulated miles can be
exchanged for airfare
discounts, flight upgrades,
free air travel, and other
travel products.


An airline list of passengers
who hope to be confirmed
on a specific flight as
cancellations are received.
Passengers using excursion
fares cannot be placed on a

hub and spoke

An airline practice of using
an airport as a home base
(hub) and feeding flights
from surrounding airports
(spokes) into the hub.

load factor

The percentage of filled
seats on a flight to the total
number of seats on the


A traveler who has a
reservation, but does not
show up or cancel his


A policy in which more
seats on a flight or rooms at
an accommodation property
are booked than are actually

denied boarding
compensation (DBC)

A voucher given by the
airline when a flight is
overbooked to passengers
who volunteer to take a
later flight and bumped
revenue passengers.


The airline practice of
removing paid passengers
from a flight when too
many seats have been sold.


Today's aircraft come in many different sizes and designs. Some aircraft carry less than 20 passengers, while other aircraft can accommodate more than 350 people. Some aircraft have one passenger compartment, known as a cabin; others have three or four cabins. The passenger cabin(s) on some aircraft are pressurized, others are not. Some aircraft are powered by jet engines, some have turbine engines with propellers (turbo-prop), while still others have piston engines with propellers (prop). A full list of commercial aircraft and statistical information can be found in the OAG Flight Guide. Some of the more popular aircraft are shown in Figure 3-7.

It is important to note that passengers traveling with personal wheelchairs cannot take them onboard the aircraft. Personal wheelchairs are too wide for all aircraft aisles and must be carried in cargo. Passengers who cannot walk onboard, use wheelchairs belonging to the airline or airport.

When an airline places an order with an aircraft manufacturer, the airline specifies the configuration. The configuration is the floor plan or interior design of the aircraft. The airline can specify the number of cabins, the number of seat rows in each cabin, the distance between each row of seats, called pitch, and so on.
Web Activity

Access three major U.S. airlines' Web sites. On each site, locate
an aircraft diagram for a Boeing 727.

Are the three airlines' configurations the same?

Several travel counselor reference sources illustrate the aircraft configuration for a variety of airlines and aircraft types. Each diagram shows the body of the aircraft, known as the fuselage; the passenger cabins; and the bulkheads, the wall or partition between cabins. An aircraft configuration also shows the wing location; flight deck (cockpit); seating areas; and the location of lavatories, the galley (kitchen), storage areas, and emergency exits. Figure 3-8 shows a narrow-body aircraft configuration and Figure 3-9 shows a wide-body aircraft.

All aircraft, regardless of size, fall into one of two categories: narrow-body or wide-body. A narrow-body aircraft has one aisle that runs down the center of the aircraft. All regional airlines use narrow-body aircraft and the larger airlines use them on many of their routes. A wide-body aircraft has two aisles and each row of seats is divided into three sections. Large airlines use wide-body aircraft on some long-distance U.S. routes and flights to foreign countries.

Narrow-body aircraft generally have one or two passenger cabins, first class and coach. Wide-body aircraft usually have a first-class cabin, business-class cabin, and three coach-class cabins.

First class is very expensive but offers wider seats, greater pitch, and more elaborate food and beverage choices. On international flights, first-class seats may be "sleeper seats" that fully recline.

Business class is less expensive than first class but more expensive than coach class. Business class offers wider seats, greater pitch, and enhanced food and beverage service.

On most airlines, the coach-class cabin(s) have narrow seats and very little pitch. Meal service on flights within the United States has greatly decreased over the past few years, but beverage and snack service is still available on many flights.

The size and configuration of an aircraft directly impacts passenger comfort and seat preference. Very small aircraft may not pressurize the passenger cabin according to flight altitude. The lack of pressurization can cause pain in the inner ear and neck, especially in infants and small children. It is vitally important that the travel counselor advise the passenger if the proposed itinerary utilizes a smaller aircraft, especially if it is not pressurized.

When making seat assignments for your clients, consider the following.

* Seats immediately in front of an emergency exit do not usually recline because they would block the exit area.

* Seats over the wing provide more stability, but may experience increased engine noise on certain aircraft.

* Seats in the rear may experience increased vibration, motion, fumes, and engine noise on certain aircraft.

* The bulkhead row (the row of seats just behind the bulkhead) usually offers increased legroom, but carry-on baggage must be stored in the overhead compartments.

* On some international flights, the rear section of the aircraft may allow smoking.

* Seats behind an emergency exit sometimes offer increased leg room.

* Only passengers who are at least 16 years old and are capable of

and willing to take responsibility during an emergency can be seated in an emergency exit row.

* Some airlines will preassign seats in the first several rows to frequent flyer members only.



1. A room on a ship. 2. A
section, such as first,
business, and coach, on a

narrow-body aircraft

An aircraft that has a single
wide-body aircraft
An aircraft that has two


The interior design of an
aircraft, or floor plan, that
indicates seating areas, exit
doors, wing area, lavatories,
closets, galley, and flight


1. The distance between the
rows of seats on an aircraft.

2. The side-to-side motion
of a ship.


The body of an aircraft.

A dividing wall or partition
between passenger cabins
on an aircraft or ship.


The process of equalizing
air pressure inside an
aircraft while airborne to
what it would be on the


The body of an aircraft.


A dividing wall or partition
between passenger cabins
on an aircraft or ship.

The process of equalizing
air pressure inside an
aircraft while airborne to
what it would be on the


For inexperienced travelers, the thought of finding one's way around the airport can be a scary thing. Even people who have traveled extensively are sometimes intimidated by the thought of having to change planes at very large airports such as Chicago O'Hare or Dallas -Ft. Worth. Airports can be confusing, but with guidance from the travel counselor many of the traveler's anxieties can be relieved. The OAG Flight Guide, the OAG Business Travel Planner series, and many airline Web sites have diagrams of major airports. These can easily be copied or printed and given to the passenger as an added service.


Airports around the world come in all sizes, shapes, and designs. But the center or heart of any airport is the terminal building. Small airports have one terminal, while large airports may have more than one. Passengers arriving at the airport to board a flight enter the terminal at the departure area. At some airports, the passenger is able to check his baggage outside the terminal with airline employees called skycaps.
Important Industry Web Sites

Directory of Airport Web Site Links:

This site offers information about airport ground transportation,
hotels, yellow pages, and includes maps of airport terminals.

Most departing passengers go into the terminal to the airline ticket counters to check in. For many travelers, this is their first contact with the airline. At the ticket counter, the passenger gives his photo I.D. or passport and ticket (if he has one) to the ticket counter agent.

The ticket counter agent displays the traveler's reservation in the computer and compares the name to the I.D. and ticket. At this time, the ticket counter agent tags checked baggage, assigns a seat if it was not done previously, and issues a boarding pass. The boarding pass identifies the row and seat that has been assigned to the passenger. The ticket counter agent also tells the passenger at which gate his flight departs.

The passenger may have to walk down a long corridor, called a concourse, to get to his gate. The gate is the area where he waits to board his flight and has the doorway he uses to exit the airport. Gate agents can make seat assignments and issue boarding passes, just like ticket counter agents.

Most airports use connecting devices, called jetways, to connect the airport door to the aircraft door. The passenger walks through the jetway and onto the plane. Some airports do not have jetways and some aircraft cannot use them. In these circumstances, passengers walk from the airport onto a paved area, known as the tarmac, to where the aircraft is parked. In other situations, an airport vehicle is used to transport passengers from the gate area to the aircraft.

After all passengers have boarded the aircraft, baggage has been stowed, all fuel and catering has been loaded, and the flight-deck crew have completed their preflight checks, the flight is ready to depart. When the flight receives clearance from ground control, it begins to move along the taxiway toward the assigned runway. At busy airports, it is common for the flight to have to wait in line for takeoff. After takeoff, ground control "hands off" the flight to air traffic control and the passengers are finally on their way.


When a traveler arrives at his destination, he exits the aircraft through the jetway and walks through the concourse to the baggage claim area. Baggage is off-loaded from the aircraft and brought to a baggage handling area. From this area, the luggage is put onto conveyor belts, called carousels, which move the luggage to the baggage claim area.

Many airports have rental car companies located in the baggage claim area. Taxis, airport shuttles, and limos are available at all but the smallest airports. Hotels located near major airports may have shuttle service available for hotel guests arriving at the airport.

Airport Services

Today's airports try to make the time spent there as pleasant as possible. Waiting passengers can shop in a variety of stores, eat in restaurants, grab a snack at food stalls, or visit observation areas. Some airports even have health clubs with complete workout areas. All airports offer restroom facilities, baggage storage areas, and information centers. International airports have duty-free (tax-free) shops, as well as currency exchange, customs, and immigration areas.

A special amenity found in most major airports is the airline clubs, such as American's Admirals Club, United's Red Carpet Club, and Delta's Crown Room Club. Each airline club charges a membership fee of between $150 and $200 per year. Club members enjoy the benefits of a private waiting area, business center, complimentary refreshments, and the service of an airline representative. Many clubs have shower facilities and exercise areas. For someone who spends a good deal of time in airports, these clubs certainly make the experience more pleasant.

Airports are not owned by the airlines; rather, they are owned and operated by city, county, or state authorities, generally known as the airport authority. The airlines rent counter space and gate space, and pay fees for every flight that arrives or departs. Stores, food outlets, and other vendors located within the airport pay rent to the airport authority.

The airport authority is responsible for security throughout the airport. This includes baggage x-ray, metal detectors, patrol personnel, and canine units.

Internationally, security tends to be stricter than we see in the United States. Some airports do not have trash receptacles because they can be used to hide explosive devices. Security personnel usually carry rifles. This can come as a great surprise to first-time travelers. By advising clients of what they might encounter, the travel professional is preparing the client for new situations. Remember, no one likes surprises.

The central part of an


An airport employee who
checks baggage at the


The airport corridors where
the gate areas are located.


The waiting and boarding
area located within a
concourse of an airport.


A device that connects the
airport gate door with the
door of an aircraft and
through which passengers
board and deplane.


The paved area around an

ground control

Employees of the FAA who
are responsible for flights
before they become


The connecting road
between the tarmac and the

air traffic control

FAA employees who are
responsible for a flight after
it becomes airborne.


The airport device that
transports baggage from the
rear of the baggage
handling area to the public

airline club

An airport amenity
sponsored by each airline.
Benefits for club members
include a private waiting
area, business center,
refreshments, and the
service of an airline

airport authority

The governing body of an
airport, responsible for its
operation and security.


Every city and airport has a three-letter code assigned by the International Standards Organization (ISO), located in Geneva, Switzerland. ARC and IATA have adopted the codes established by the ISO. These codes are used for everything from reservations to the tags put on checked baggage to air traffic controllers' radar screens.

Cities served by only one airport use the same code for the city as for the airport. Cities or major metropolitan areas that have more than one airport are assigned a city code and each airport has a separate code. It is interesting to note that, in some cases, the city code is the same as the code for one of the airports serving the metropolitan area.

How does the travel professional know which code to use, the city or the airport code? The answer is simple: always use the applicable airport code. City codes are not specific enough to use on flight schedules. Of course, there is an exception, and that is on ticket fare calculation. Here, city codes are used.

There are literally thousands and thousands of codes worldwide. It is impossible to learn all of the codes, so thankfully, an alphabetical list can be found in the OAG Flight Guide. City, airport, airline, and even aircraft codes can be obtained in the CRS.

As part of the job interview, some travel agencies test the applicant's knowledge of these codes. See Figure 3-10 for a list of U.S. airport codes.

As you may have noticed, many of the codes seem logical. In many cases, the code is the first three letters of the city name. Others, however, seem to make no sense at all.
What Would You Do?

Your client wants to bring her mother from Lima, Peru, to
Milwaukee. The best fare requires plane changes at both Miami and
Atlanta. Your client is concerned about these plane changes because
her mother speaks only Spanish.

1. Should you try to convince your client to book her mother on a
direct flight, assuming one exists, even though it is more

2. Are airport signs in the United States typically in Spanish as
well as English, thus eliminating the language problem?

3. Might the airline be of assistance to your client's mother in
some way?

Selected National and International Consortia

                        Year      Membership   Approximate
Name                    Founded   Locations    Cost

Austin Associates       1996           250     $300/year

BTS Travel Network      1982         1,200     $295 initial, $100/year

Cruise & Vacation       1986           450     $300 initial, up to
Shoppes                                        $300/year

GIANTS                  1968         1,900     $600 initial, yearly
                                               fee based on sales

MART                    1998           140     $100-$300/year

The Travel Authority    1984           800     $100 initial,

Travel Design           1987           390     $300 initial, $200/year

*          1998         9,800     $300/year

Virtuoso                1950           350     $750/year

Woodside Travel Trust   1973         6,600     $550-$2000 per month

Name                    Web Site

Austin Associates

BTS Travel Network      http://btstravel/

Cruise & Vacation



The Travel Authority

Travel Design           none



Woodside Travel Trust

* Includes ACTION 6, Aura, Consolidated Travel Services, Crown Travel
Group, Gem, Cruiselink, SPACE, The Consortium, and TIME.

Airline Name                  Airline Code

Alaska Air                         AS
Aloha Air                          AQ
American Airlines                  AA
America West                       HP
ATA                                TZ
Continental Airlines               CO
Delta Airlines                     DL
Hawaiian Air                       HA
Midway Airlines                    JI
Midwest Express Airlines           YX
Northwest Airlines                 WN
Southwest                          NW
United Airlines                    UA
USAirways                          US

U.S. Cities Served by Multiple Airports

* Chicago, IL
  Chicago (city)                                        CHI
  Chicago O'Hare Airport                                ORD
  Chicago Midway Airport                                MDW
* Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX metropolitan area
  Dallas (city)                                         DFW
  Dallas Love Field Airport                             DAL
  Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport                DFW
* Detroit, MI
  Detroit (city)                                        DTT
  Detroit Wayne County (Metro) Airport                  DTW
  Detroit City Airport                                  DET
* Houston, TX
  Houston (city)                                        HOU
  Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport          IAH
  Houston Hobby Airport                                 HOU
* Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area
  Los Angeles (city)                                    LAX
  Los Angeles International Airport                     LAX
  Burbank Airport                                       BUR
  Long Beach Airport                                    LGB
  Ontario Airport                                       ONT
* Ne* York, NY-Newark, NJ metropolitan area
  New York (city)                                       NYC
  New York LaGuardia Airport                            LGA
  New York Kennedy Airport                              JFK
  Newark Airport                                        EWR
* San Francisco, CA metropolitan area
  San Francisco (city)                                  SFO
  San Francisco International Airport                   SFO
  Oakland Airport                                       OAK
* Washington, DC-Baltimore, MD metropolitan area
  Baltimore (city)                                      BAL
  Washington, DC (city)                                 WAS
  Baltimore International Airport                       BWI
  Washington Dulles Airport                             IAD
  Washington Reagan National Airport                    DCA

FIGURE 3-1 Computer Reservation Systems (CRS) used in the United States

System           U.S.              International   Publicly
Name             Host(s)           Hosts           Traded

Amadeus          Continential      Air France      no

Galileo          United            Alitalia        yes--GLC
(marketed as                       British Air
Apollo in the                      KLM
United States)                     Swissair

Sabre            American          none            yes--TSG

Worldspan        Delta             none            no

System           Agency
Name             Installations     Web Site

Amadeus          Over 47,500
                 agencies in 132

Galileo          Over 39,600
(marketed as     agencies in
Apollo in the    104 countries
United States)

Sabre            Over 42,000
                 agencies in
                 112 countries

Worldspan        Over 18,000
                 agencies in
                 60 countries

FIGURE 3-3 Sample Fee Schedule

Airline ticket or electronic ticket processing charge      $15

Voluntary ticket or electronic ticket reissue,
refund, or void                                            $10

Maximum ticket or electronic ticket processing
charge per family                                          $30

Research or request for copies of ticket or
electronic ticket                                          $10

Cruise or tour cancellation after deposit is paid          $25

Domestic tour research, refundable when
final payment is made                                      $25

International tour research, refundable when
final payment is made                                      $50

FIGURE 3-5 Examples of code sharing

Airline Name   Code Share Partners

American       Air Pacific, American Eagle, Asiana, British Midland,
               Canadian, China Eastern, Eva, Finnair, Group Taca,
               Gulf Air, Hawaiian, Iberia, Japan Air, LanChile,
               Lot Polish, Qantas, Sabena, South African, Swissair, Tam

America West   Air China, British Air, Continental, Eva, Mesa, Northwest

Continental    Aces, Air Aruba, Alaska, Hawaiian, Air France, Air China,
               Alitalia, America West, Aserca, Avant, British Midland,
               Copa, CSA Czech, Eva, Northwest, Vasp, Virgin Atlantic

Delta          Aeromexico, Air France, Air Jamaica, Atlantic Coast Jet,
               Austrian, China Southern, Comair, Malev, Sabena,
               SkyWest, Swissair, TAP Portugal, Trans Brasil,
               Trans States

Northwest      Air China, Alaska, Alitalia, America West, Big Sky,
               Braathens, Cyprus, Continental, Eurowings, Express 1,
               Garuda, Hawaiian, Horizon, Japan Air, Jet, Kenya, KLM,
               Malaysia, Mesaba, Pacific Island

United         Air Canada, Air New Zealand, All Nippon, ALM, Ansett,
               British Midland, Cayman, Continental, Emirates,
               Lufthansa, Mexicana, SAS, Thai, Trans World Express,

USAirways      Air Midwest, Allegheny, CCAir, Chautauqua, Colgan,
               Commutair, Metrojet, Mesa, Piedmont, PSA, Trans States,
               USAirways Shuttle

FIGURE 3-6 Selected U.S. airlines and their hubs

Airline Name    Hub City and Airport

American        Chicago O'Hare, Dallas-Ft. Worth, Miami, San Juan,
                St. Louis

America West    Las Vegas, Phoenix

Continental     Houston George Bush Intercontinental, Detroit Metro,
                Cleveland, Memphis

Delta           Atlanta, Dallas-Ft. Worth, Cincinnati, Salt Lake City

Northwest       Detroit Metro, Memphis, Minneapolis

United          Chicago O'Hare, Denver, Washington Reagan National

USAirways       Pittsburgh, Charlotte, Philadelphia, Baltimore

FIGURE 3-7 Popular aircraft in use today

Aircraft                                   Code          Wide-Body

Aerospatiale Alenia (all series)           ATR           no
Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72                 AT7           no
Airbus Industrie A300                      AB3           yes
Airbus Industrie A320                      320           no
Beechcraft 1900 (all series)               BE1           no
Boeing 717                                 717           no
Boeing 727 (all series)                    727           no
Boeing 737 (all series)                    737           no
Boeing 747 (all series)                    747           yes
Boeing 757-200                             757           no
Boeing 767 (all series)                    767           yes
Boeing 777                                 777           yes
British Aerospace Jetstream 31             J31           no
British Aerospace Jetstream 41             J41           no
Canadair Regional Jet                      CRJ           no
DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series)              DH8           no
Dornier 328                                D38           no
Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia                   EM2           no
Fairchild Metro Merlin                     SWM           no
Fokker 100                                 100           no
Fokker F28 (all series)                    F28           no
Lockheed L-1011 (all series)               L10           yes
Lockheed L-1011-500                        L15           yes
McDonnell Douglas MD-80                    M80           no
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series)       D10           yes
McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series)    DC9           no
McDonnell Douglas MD-11                    M11           yes
Saab SF340                                 SF3           no

                                           Engine Type,
Aircraft                                   Number, & Location

Aerospatiale Alenia (all series)           turbo-prop, 2, wings
Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72                 turbo-prop, 2, wings
Airbus Industrie A300                      jet, 2, wings
Airbus Industrie A320                      jet, 2, wings
Beechcraft 1900 (all series)               turbo-prop, 2, wings
Boeing 717                                 jet, 2, fuselage
Boeing 727 (all series)                    jet, 3, fuselage and tail
Boeing 737 (all series)                    jet, 2, wings
Boeing 747 (all series)                    jet, 4, wings
Boeing 757-200                             jet, 2, wings
Boeing 767 (all series)                    jet, 2, wings
Boeing 777                                 jet, 2, wings
British Aerospace Jetstream 31             turbo-prop, 2, wings
British Aerospace Jetstream 41             turbo-prop, 2, wings
Canadair Regional Jet                      jet, 2, fuselage
DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series)              turbo-prop, 2, wings
Dornier 328                                turbo-prop, 2, wings
Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia                   turbo-prop, 2, wings
Fairchild Metro Merlin                     turbo-prop, 2, wings
Fokker 100                                 jet, 2, fuselage
Fokker F28 (all series)                    jet, 2, fuselage
Lockheed L-1011 (all series)               jet, 3, wings and tail
Lockheed L-1011-500                        jet, 3, wings and tail
McDonnell Douglas MD-80                    jet, 2, fuselage
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series)       jet, 3, wings and tail
McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series)    jet, 2, fuselage
McDonnell Douglas MD-11                    jet, 3, wings and tail
Saab SF340                                 turbo-prop, 2, wings

Aircraft                                   Pressurized   Passengers

Aerospatiale Alenia (all series)           yes           42-74
Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72                 yes           64-74
Airbus Industrie A300                      yes           220-375
Airbus Industrie A320                      yes           131-156
Beechcraft 1900 (all series)               yes           19
Boeing 717                                 yes           106-117
Boeing 727 (all series)                    yes           125
Boeing 737 (all series)                    yes           103
Boeing 747 (all series)                    yes           452-548
Boeing 757-200                             yes           178-239
Boeing 767 (all series)                    yes           216-290
Boeing 777                                 yes           231-375
British Aerospace Jetstream 31             yes           39679
British Aerospace Jetstream 41             yes           29
Canadair Regional Jet                      yes           50
DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series)              yes           36-56
Dornier 328                                yes           30
Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia                   yes           24-30
Fairchild Metro Merlin                     yes           39619
Fokker 100                                 yes           107-119
Fokker F28 (all series)                    yes           55-85
Lockheed L-1011 (all series)               yes           256-400
Lockheed L-1011-500                        yes           256-400
McDonnell Douglas MD-80                    yes           172
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series)       yes           255-380
McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series)    yes           90
McDonnell Douglas MD-11                    yes           250-400
Saab SF340                                 yes           35

                                           Coach Seat
Aircraft                                   Configuration

Aerospatiale Alenia (all series)           2/2
Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72                 2/2
Airbus Industrie A300                      2/4/2
Airbus Industrie A320                      3/3
Beechcraft 1900 (all series)               1/1
Boeing 717                                 2/3
Boeing 727 (all series)                    3/3
Boeing 737 (all series)                    3/3
Boeing 747 (all series)                    3/4/3
Boeing 757-200                             3/3
Boeing 767 (all series)                    2/3/2
Boeing 777                                 2/5/2
British Aerospace Jetstream 31             1/2
British Aerospace Jetstream 41             1/2
Canadair Regional Jet                      2/2
DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series)              2/2
Dornier 328                                1/2
Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia                   1/2
Fairchild Metro Merlin                     1/1
Fokker 100                                 2/3
Fokker F28 (all series)                    2/3
Lockheed L-1011 (all series)               3/4/3
Lockheed L-1011-500                        2/5/2
McDonnell Douglas MD-80                    2/3
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series)       2/5/2
McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series)    2/3
McDonnell Douglas MD-11                    2/5/2
Saab SF340                                 1/2

FIGURE 3-10 U.S. airport codes

ABE       Allentown, PA
ABQ       Albuquerque, NM
ABY       Albany, GA
AGS       Augusta, GA
AIY       Atlantic City, NJ
ALB       Albany, NY
ANC       Anchorage, AK
ASE       Aspen, CO
ATL       Atlanta, GA
AUG       Augusta, ME
AUS       Austin, TX
AVL       Asheville, NC
BDL       Hartford, CT
BGR       Bangor, ME
BHM       Birmingham, AL
BIL       Billings, MT
BIS       Bismark, ND
BNA       Nashville, TN
BOI       Boise, ID
BOS       Boston, MA
BTR       Baton Rouge, LA
BTV       Burlington, VT
BUF       Buffalo, NY
BWI       Baltimore, MD
BZN       Bozeman, MT
CAE       Columbia, SC
CAK       Akron/Canton, OH
CHA       Chattanooga, TN
CHS       Charleston, SC
CID       Cedar Rapids, IA
CLE       Cleveland, OH
CLT       Charlotte, NC
CMH       Columbus, OH
COS       Colorado Springs, CO
CRW       Charleston, WV
CVG       Cincinnati, OH
DAB       Daytona Beach, FL
DAL       Dallas, TX; Love Field Airport
DAY       Dayton, OH
DCA       Washington, DC; Reagan
          National Airport
DEN       Denver, CO
DET       Detroit, MI; City Airport
DFW       Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX
DSM       Des Moines, IA
DTW       Detroit, MI; Wayne County
          (Metro) Airport
ELP       El Paso, TX
EWR       Newark, NJ
EYW       Key West, FL
FAI       Fairbanks, AK
FLL       Ft. Lauderdale, FL
GEG       Spokane, WA
GNV       Gainesville, FL
GRB       Green Bay, WI
GRR       Grand Rapids, MI
GSO       Greensboro, NC
GTF       Great Falls, MT
HLN       Helena, MT
HNL       Honolulu, Oahu Island, HI
HOU       Houston, TX; Hobby Airport
IAD       Washington, DC; Dulles Airport
IAH       Houston, TX; George Bush
          Intercontinental Airport
ICT       Wichita, KS
IDA       Idaho Falls, ID
IND       Indianapolis, IN
ITO       Hilo, Hawaii Island, HI
JAN       Jackson, MS
JAX       Jacksonville, FL
JFK       New York, NY; Kennedy Airport
JNU       Juneau, AK
KOA       Kona, Hawaii Island, HI
LAS       Las Vegas, NV
LAX       Los Angeles, CA; International
LEX       Lexington, KY
LGA       New York, NY; LaGuardia
LIH       Lihue, Kauai Island, HI
LIT       Little Rock, AR
LNK       Lincoln, NE
MCI       Kansas City, MO
MCO       Orlando, FL
MDT       Harrisburg, PA
MDW       Chicago, IL; Midway Airport
MEM       Memphis, TN
MGM       Montgomery, AL
MHT       Manchester, NH
MIA       Miami, FL
MKE       Milwaukee, WI
MKK       Hoolehua, Molokai Island, HI
MSN       Madison, WI
MSP       Minneapolis, MN
MSY       New Orleans, LA
MYR       Myrtle Beach, SC
OAK       Oakland, CA
OGG       Kahului, Maui Island, HI
OKC       Oklahoma City, OK
OMA       Omaha, NE
ONT       Ontario, CA
ORD       Chicago, IL; O'Hare Airport
ORF       Norfolk, VA
PBI       West Palm Beach, FL
PDX       Portland, OR
PHL       Philadelphia, PA
PHX       Phoenix, AZ
PIE       St. Petersburg, FL
PIT       Pittsburgh, PA
PNS       Pensacola, FL
PSP       Palm Springs, CA
PWM       Portland, ME
RAP       Rapid City, SD
RDU       Raleigh-Durham, NC
RIC       Richmond, VA
RNO       Reno, NV
ROA       Roanoke, VA
RSW       Ft. Myers, Fl
SAN       San Diego, CA
SAT       San Antonio, TX
SAV       Savannah, GA
SDF       Louisville, KY
SEA       Seattle/Tacoma, WA
SFO       San Francisco, CA;
          International Airport
SLC       Salt Lake City, UT
SMF       Sacramento, CA
SRQ       Sarasota, FL
STL       St. Louis, MO
SYR       Syracuse, NY
TOL       Toledo, OH
TPA       Tampa, FL
TUL       Tulsa, OK
TUS       Tucson, AZ
TYS       Knoxville, TN
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Title Annotation:Section II: United States Air Travel
Publication:A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Previous Article:Chapter 2: The Internet--blessing or curse?
Next Article:Chapter 4: Planning United States flight itineraries.

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