Chapter 3: Air travel basics.
There are many agencies that appoint, govern, or oversee all facets of U.S. air travel. These agencies, sometimes known as conferences, are directly related to the operation of U.S. travel agencies, airlines, and airports. It is important for the travel professional to understand how these agencies interact and affect each other.
A basic understanding of how a travel agency functions, contracts for its computers, and generates revenue is vitally important. Armed with this knowledge, even the entry-level travel counselor can easily see how everything he does and the manner in which he does it can ultimately affect the travel agency's bottom line.
The travel industry, and especially air travel, has various codes for airlines, cities, airports, and aircraft. In addition to the codes, there is a plethora of acronyms and terms. Travel professionals must be well versed in these codes, acronyms, and terms if they are to do their jobs in a timely and efficient manner.
To better serve the traveler, it is important for the travel professional to understand the various airline policies and programs. It is also important to understand what happens at an airport and the procedures the traveler will encounter. Much of the travel professional's value to his clients is found in his knowledge and ability to explain air travel procedures to his clients, thereby avoiding potential problems the client may face. The primary difference between one travel professional and another is in the service that supplements the sale of travel products.
At the conclusion of this chapter, you should be able to:
* explain U.S. travel agency appointment procedures.
* discuss travel agency automation choices.
* detail how travel agencies earn money.
* define the relationship between the airlines and specific government agencies.
* identify the codes for selected airlines.
* describe airline policies and operations.
* explain the relationship between aircraft configuration and passenger comfort.
* identify the various areas of airports, available services, and arrival and departure procedures.
* identify selected airport codes.
air traffic control
Air Transport Association (ATA)
Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC)
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
denied boarding compensation (DBC)
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
frequent flyer program
Global Travel Distribution System (GDS)
hub and spoke
IATAN I.D. card
International Air Transport Association (IATA)
International Airlines Travel Agent Network (IATAN)
last seat availability
Miscellaneous Charges Order (MCO)
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
passenger name record (PNR)
pseudo city code
sine or sign
Travel Agency Service Fee (TASF) Document
THE TRAVEL AGENCY AND AIR TRAVEL
The Internet, airline reservation centers, and airline city ticket offices notwithstanding, travel agencies are selling more air travel than ever before. In 1999, U.S. travel agency sales accounted for 80 percent of all air travel sold in the United States. Travel agency air sales topped $76.5 million in 1999, an increase of 4 percent from 1998. But, before a travel agency can sell air travel, it must enter into an agreement with each airline it wants to sell. These agreements can be accomplished in one of two ways or a combination of both.
First, the travel agency can contact each airline individually for authorization to sell air travel. Each airline will set in writing its requirements and regulations for the travel agency as well as booking and ticketing procedures. Each airline's contract will clearly state the airline's responsibility to the travel agency and the amount of commission, if any, the airline will pay the agency for selling air travel.
A much easier way is for the travel agency to request appointment by the Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC). Everyone in the travel industry refers to the Airlines Reporting Corporation simply by saying "ark," as if it were a word. ARC was founded in 1984 as a close corporation; it can have no more than 30 shareholders and there are restrictions on the transfer of its stock. Presently, there are 14 shareholders and they are all major airlines. In addition to the 14 stockholders, there are 140 airlines (United States and international), 3 railroads, and 15 travel vendors who are members of ARC.
ARC is perhaps the most important organization, also known as a conference, to U.S. travel agencies. The functions of ARC include:
* travel agency accreditation
* ticket and ticket number assignment, distribution, and control
* travel transaction reporting and financial settlement
* continuing education for ticket issuance and reporting
From recommendations by its members, Advisory Counsel, and Joint Advisory Board-Agent Reporting Agreement, ARC has established a standardized set of regulations and requirements for U.S. travel agencies. By accepting ARC's approval, the agency agrees to abide by ARC regulations for selling, ticketing, and record keeping, and to follow agency security and ticket security procedures.
When a travel agency is approved by ARC, the agency is said to receive ARC appointment. In other words, the travel agency has been approved to sell travel for all airline, rail, and travel vendor members of ARC. At the time of appointment, ARC assigns an identification number to the travel agency. The first two digits of the number identify the state where the agency is located. The next five digits identify the agency. The sixth, and last digit, is called a check digit. An agency's ARC number would be written as: 15 99988 7.
Once the ARC number has been assigned, the travel agency may sell travel on most U.S. and international airlines. There are, however, a few U.S. airlines that are not members of ARC. Generally these non-ARC airlines are small and have very limited route systems. A travel agency who wants to sell non-ARC airlines must contact each non-ARC airline directly.
The International Airlines Travel Agent Network (IATAN), another conference, is also important to U.S. travel agencies. IATAN is said as if it were the word "i-uh-tan." After a U.S. travel agency has been appointed by ARC, it may elect to apply to IATAN for appointment to sell travel on its member airlines. IATAN has approximately 200 international airline members, some of which are not members of ARC.
Important Industry Web Sites
Airlines Reporting Corporation: http://www.arccorp.com
International Airlines Travel Agent Network: http://www.iatan.com
International Air Transport Association: http://www.iata.org
Although IATAN's regulations and standards for appointment are very similar to those of ARC, IATAN is concerned solely with international air travel. IATAN does not issue a separate I.D. number; rather, it uses the number assigned by ARC. One of IATAN's most important functions is training in international fare calculation, taxes, and ticketing.
IATAN also issues identification cards to travel professionals who have fulfilled specific requirements for employment or earnings. The IATAN I.D. card is required by most airlines, rental car companies, hotels, cruise lines, and tour operators before travel discounts will be given.
Web Activity 1. Using the Internet, find out all of the requirements for a travel counselor who wants to apply for the IATAN I.D. card. 2. Access ARC's Web site and find out which non-air and non-rail vendors are members of ARC. IATAN is a division of another conference, the International Air Transport Association
(IATA), said as the word "i-ah-tah." IATA is the governing and appointing body for travel agencies outside the United States, and before IATAN was founded, U.S. travel agencies were appointed by IATA as well.
It is not uncommon for a travel professional who has been in the industry for many years to refer to the ARC number as an IATA number. Years ago, every agency's identification number was an IATA number. Some travel professionals may refer to the agency's IATAN number. No matter what it's called, an agency's identification is the ARC number.
Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC) A conference consisting of member airlines, railroads, and other travel vendors. ARC is the appointing body for U.S. travel agencies selling air travel. conference An organization such as the Airlines Reporting Corporation, International Airlines Travel Agent Network, and the International Air Transport Association. ARC appointment The approval of a U.S. travel agency to sell air travel by the Airlines Reporting Corporation. ARC number The identifying number assigned by the Airlines Reporting Corporation to a U.S. travel agency upon appointment, and used in validation of imprinting devices. International Airlines Travel Agent Network (IATAN) A conference with members that include U.S. and international airlines. An appointing body for U.S. travel agencies selling air travel. IATAN I.D. card An identification card offered by the International Airlines Travel Agent Network to qualifying travel professionals. International Air Transport Association (IATA) A conference whose members include U.S. and international airlines. The appointing body for travel agencies outside the United States to sell air travel.
Over 95 percent of all travel agencies in the United States are automated. A reservation, known as a Passenger Name Record (PNR), for air travel, car rental, hotel, or other product is made in the computer rather than by phone. Almost all of the automated travel agencies subscribe to a Computer Reservation System (CRS), also known as a Global Travel Distribution System (GDS). There are four main CRSs used in the United States (see Figure 3-1).
The CRS provides the software, or program, that allows travel counselors to make reservations, issue tickets, and so on. The travel agency may also use other software such as programs for word processing, data bases, spreadsheets, Internet access, and e-mail. Most travel agencies use standard PCs to run the CRS software. PC hardware consists of a monitor, CPU, keyboard, and printer. Some travel agencies own their PCs, but most agencies lease their hardware from the CRS.
Another type of hardware is the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) that consists of a CPU and keyboard combination. CRTs are sometimes referred to as "dumb sets" because they cannot be used for anything other than CRS functions. Most airline ticket counter and gate agents still use CRTs while most travel agencies have converted to standard PCs.
Each travel agency has a special identification in the CRS called a pseudo city code. The pseudo city code is assigned at the time the travel agency contracts with the CRS. By using this identification, all reservations are secured to the booking agency, making access to the reservations by other agencies impossible. Everyone who uses a CRS is given an identification, called a sine or sign. The sine identifies the travel counselor or airline employee to the CRS.
The principle airline developers or owners of a CRS are called hosts. Does that mean that an agency can only sell its CRS's host airline(s)? No, almost all of the other airlines will pay each CRS so that their flight schedules, fare information, and so on are accessible to all travel counselors. These airlines are called cohosts. Each CRS has several levels of participation for the cohosts. A high level of participation means greater expense to the cohost and more data will be available to travel counselors. All major U.S. airlines and many international airlines have the highest level of participation in all four CRSs used in the United States.
One of the most important features of the highest level of CRS participation is last seat availability. This means that the participating airline provides the CRS with up-to-theminute flight availability. An airline with a lower level of CRS participation will send a "soldout" message to the CRS before the flight is actually sold out, giving booking messages in transit time to reach them.
Direct access is another important feature of the higher levels of CRS participation. Direct access is comparable to the travel counselor reaching into the participating airline's computer and getting firsthand information. In doing so, the travel counselor has access to last seat availability. Direct access also helps reduce the chance of a reservation being electronically lost in transit to the booking airline. A lost reservation is referred to as a no-rec, which means no record. Figure 3-2 shows the relation between hosts, cohosts, and direct access capability.
FIGURE 3-2 CRS host, cohost, direct access, and last seat availability Host -- automatic direct access, last seat availability Cohost level 1 -- automatic direct access, last seat availability Cohost level 2 -- direct access and last seat availability requires secondary format Cohost level 3 -- direct access not available; must call the airline for last seat availability Cohost level 4 -- schedule and fare information displayed but not flight availability; must call the airline to make a reservation
Each CRS offers travel agencies a variety of reservation platforms. Some are considered "dedicated," others are "dial-in," and still others are "Internet-based." In all cases, a phone line and modem are required. Regardless of the platform, the basic CRS functionality is the same. Airlines, car rental, hotels, cruises, and tours can be booked in all CRSs as well as a variety of other suppliers. Added features of the CRSs include e-mail, fax, and ARC reporting. As you can see, the CRS is a most valuable tool in the travel industry.
Travel agency revenue falls into four categories: commission, commission overrides, markups, and service fees. Of these, the bulk of an agency's revenue comes from commission.
At the present time, almost all travel suppliers, known as vendors, with the exception of most airlines, pay the travel agency a commission for selling their products. The standard commission percentage varies from one vendor to another.
A few U.S. airlines and some international airlines pay travel agencies a 5 percent commission for selling seats on their flights. These airlines also place a cap, or ceiling, on the amount of the commission that can be earned on each ticket. Examples of caps are as follows:
* $10 cap on one-way trips within the United States
* $25 cap on all other types of trips within the United States
* $50 cap on one-way international trips
* $100 cap on all other types of international trips
As with everything else in the travel industry, there are exceptions. Some airlines pay a 5 percent commission, but do not cap the amount. Some airlines pay 8 percent while still others pay a 10 percent commission. How do travel counselors know how much commission to claim? Within the CRS, each airline details its commission policy and major trade publications, such as Travel Weekly and Travel Agent, print updates as commission structures change.
Some travel agencies will join a consortium as a means of increasing revenue. By pooling the sales volume of all member travel agencies, the consortium has increased bargaining power with the vendors. A vendor may contract with the consortium to pay all member travel agencies a certain percentage over and above the standard commission. These additional commission points are called override.
In addition to consortia, there are also franchise and cooperative groups. Although these groups function much like consortia, agency membership is usually more expensive. Some examples of national or international franchise and cooperative groups include American Express, Carlson Wagonlit, Cruise Holidays International, Empress Travel, GalaxySea, Hickory Travel Systems, International Tours, National Association of Commissioned Travel Agents (NACTA), Thor, Travel Professionals International, Travelsavers, and Uniglobe.
Important Industry Web Sites
Travel Trade: http://www.traveltrade.com
Travel Weekly: http://www.twcrossroads.com
Some products are sold to the travel agency at a net rate; that is, without a commission being included. Before the counselor quotes a price to the client, the counselor must markup the net rate; in other words, the agency profit must be added. Group space, full aircraft charters, convention hotel rates, and some air consolidator fares are often quoted as a net rate.
The fourth area of agency revenue is service fees. More than half of all travel agencies in the United States charge their customers for certain services. As a general rule, the less commission the sale of a product generates, the higher the fee. Some agencies charge fees only for the sale of products that pay low commission percentages. Service fees can be processed electronically on an ARC document called a Miscellaneous Charges Order (MCO) or a manual Travel Agency Service Fee (TASF) document may be used.
Travel agency service fees can be any amount the agency selects, and they usually vary depending on the product (see Figure 3-3).
The combination of the standard commission, overrides, markups, and service fees represent the travel agency's revenue. From this revenue, the agency must pay rent, salaries, memberships, utilities, CRS expenses, and so on. To increase revenue sources, some travel agencies are now selling travel-related products such as luggage, electrical appliances, books, maps, and other items.
Web Activity Access one of the travel counselor trade publications. What are the most recent news stories that deal with agency commission?
With all this in mind, it is easy to understand why most travel agencies are putting greater emphasis on customer service and the sales ability of their counselors. As you begin your career in travel, never lose sight of the following.
* Without customer service, customers will disappear.
* Without customers, sales will disappear.
* Without sales, revenue will disappear.
* Without revenue, the travel agency and its employees will disappear.
Passenger Name Record (PNR) A reservation for air, rental car, hotel, cruise, tour, and other travel services. Global Travel Distribution System (GDS) Also known as Computer Reservation System (CRS); an automation vendor such as Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre, and Worldspan. software The program used by a computer to perform specific tasks. hardware Physical computer equipment such as the monitor, CPU, keyboard, printer, and so on. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) A type of computer hardware designed to handle CRS functions only. pseudo city code A travel agency's identification to a CRS. sine or sign The user's identification to the CRS. host 1. The CRS developer or owner. 2. An employee of a tour operator who is available at the destination to the tour participants at specified times. cohost A travel vendor that purchases the right to have its products and general information available in a CRS. last seat availability A CRS term that indicates the user has access to real-time availability. direct access A CRS term that means an enhanced or direct link between a travel agency and a cohost travel vendor. no-rec A CRS term that means a PNR that was lost in transit to the airline being booked. vendor A supplier of a travel product. commission Money paid by a travel vendor to a travel agency that sells its products. consortium An organization with member travel agencies that combines sales volume for better negotiation with travel vendors. override Additional commission over and above the standard percentage. net rate A rate that does not have travel agency commission built in. markup The process of adding profit to a price. service fees Fees charged by a travel agency to the client. Miscellaneous Charges Order (MCO) An accountable ARC document that can be used to pay for various travel services. Travel Agency Service Fee (TASF) Document A nonaccountable ARC document that is used to process travel agency service fees via a special ARC report.
Every airline operating in the United States is governed by two federal agencies, the Department of Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration. The Department of Transportation (DOT) regulates all air transportation within the United States. An example of DOT's regulation is that before an airline can begin service between two cities, the airline must apply for DOT approval. Another function of DOT is to monitor CRS displays to ensure that one airline is not given preferential treatment over another. Preferential placement of airline information in a CRS is called bias and it is an illegal practice.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a division of the DOT and is a very important organization to all of us. The FAA is responsible for air traffic control, aircraft certification, passenger safety, and pilot licensing. Without the FAA, air travel could not exist.
Another important government agency is the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). There are two primary areas of functionality within the NTSB: safety and investigation. The NTSB recommends safety enhancements to the airlines, DOT, and FAA. It is the NTSB's responsibility to investigate all airline accidents, determine the cause if possible, and make recommendations as to how the problems could have been avoided. The NTSB publishes accident statistics on a yearly basis.
Most U.S. airlines are members of the Air Transport Association (ATA). This organization represents the commercial air travel industry before Congress and is a lobby group for the airlines. The primary purpose of the ATA is to promote safety and efficiency in air travel.
Important Industry Web Sites
Air Transport Association (U.S.): http://www.air-transport.org
Air Transport Association of Canada: http://www.atac.ca
Department of Transportation: http://www.dot.gov
Federal Aviation Administration: http://www.faa.gov
Federal Trade Commission: http://www.ftc.gov
National Transportation Safety Board: http://www.ntsb.gov
All airlines are divided into three main categories: major, national, and regional. Since the enactment of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the distinction between the classifications has become somewhat blurred, and in some cases, barely exists.
An airline that operates flights from one country to another country or long distance routes within its home country is considered a major airline. Generally, a major airline has revenue over $1 billion annually. A somewhat obsolete term for a major airline is trunk airline.
The classification of a national airline, in the true sense of the term, has almost disappeared. A national airline maintains schedules within one country exclusively and operates both long- and short-haul routes. Some industry references define a national airline based strictly on revenue, between $100 million and $1 billion annually.
Regional airlines, commonly called commuter airlines, generally limit their routes to short-haul flights. As a rule, a regional airline operates within a specific area of the country and many times, utilizes turbo-prop or propeller aircraft accommodating from 19 to 103 passengers. Almost all U.S. and international airlines have Web sites. A comprehensive list of these sites can be found at <http://www.quickaid.com/links/airlines.cg/>.
Thankfully for all of us who travel, most airlines have agreed to work together by signing interline agreements. An interline agreement is between two airlines that agree to transfer baggage, cargo, and passengers from one airline to the other (see Figure 3-4). Without an interline agreement, it would not be possible for both airlines' flights to appear on a single ticket.
FIGURE 3-4 Sample interline agreement provisions Without an interline agreement-- 1. Your client is traveling to his destination on Airline A, but returning home on Airline B. You would have to issue separate tickets, one for each airline. 2. Your client is traveling on Airline A to Pittsburgh where he must change to Airline B for his trip to Manchester, NH. Your client would have to claim his baggage in Pittsburgh from Airline A and recheck it with Airline B. 3. Your client wants to ship some freight to Lafayette, IN. The quickest way is with Airline A to Chicago, then Airline B. It cannot be done without an interline agreement.
Every airline in the United States has been assigned a two-character code by ARC. International airlines also have two-character codes, which are assigned by IATA. In the early days of air travel, all airline codes were a combination of two letters. Several years ago, ARC and IATA exhausted the supply of two letter combinations. So, today, several airlines have codes that consist of a letter and a number.
In addition to the two-character code, each airline has a three-character code, although this code is seldom used in the travel industry. Every airline also has a numeric code that appears on airline identification plates. The numeric code is used on tickets and refund transactions.
Everyone in the travel industry, including travel counselors, airline reservationists, baggage handlers, and air traffic controllers, uses the two-character airline codes. All reference sources, flight timetables, and computer displays use the two-character airline code; not the airline name. Travel counselors can locate airline codes in their CRS, and a complete list of airline codes can be found in the OAG (Official Airline Guide) Flight Guide. It is interesting to note that as part of the interview process, some employers test the job applicant's knowledge of these codes. Here is a list of selected U.S. airlines and their codes.
It has become common, if somewhat confusing, for one airline to contract to use the code of another airline. This practice is called code sharing. The airline that uses the code of another airline is called a dual-designated carrier. In the early days of code sharing, a smaller airline would contract to use the code of a larger airline. Today, it is common for a large airline to use the code of another large airline.
Although printed flight schedules and computer displays indicate a code-share situation, it can be easily overlooked. The practice of code sharing (see Figure 3-5) means that travel counselors must pay careful attention when making reservations so that the client is advised of a dual-designated carrier.
Most U.S. airlines have comparable policies for special services and situations, although each airline's cost for a particular service may differ a bit. Each airline has a special area of data in the CRS where travel counselors can learn about the services, costs, and any special procedures that must be followed.
Infants (under two years of age) who do not occupy a seat are called lap-held infants and on flights within the United States, there is no cost. A lap-held infant traveling internationally pays 10 percent of the adult fare. For safety, many passengers want to use an infant seat and secure the infant in the seat next to the adult. Most airlines charge one half of the adult fare for an infant in a seat.
Each child (over two years of age but under 12 years) must have a seat. There are special fares for children, but they are usually a reduction of the full coach fare, the most expensive type of coach fare. Because most passengers use discounted coach fares, it is usually less expensive for the child to use the same fare as the adult.
Each airline has strict requirements for unaccompanied minors (children under 12 years of age traveling alone). As a general rule, the child must be at least five years old; eight years old if a change of planes is required. Information about the adult meeting the child at the destination must be given to the airline. This information includes the name, address, phone number, and relationship to the child. An unaccompanied minor pays the applicable adult fare and the airline charges an additional fee of from $30 to $50 for direct flights and from $60 to $100 if there is a change of planes.
Passengers traveling with pets must advise the travel counselor so that the counselor can make a special request to the airline. All pets must be in an approved carrier. Pets who will travel in the passenger compartment must be small enough so that the carrier fits under the seat in front of the passenger.
Larger or exotic pets must travel in the cargo section of the aircraft, but they will be the last to be loaded at the origin city, and the first to be removed at the destination. Please note that some airlines will not carry live animals in cargo for safety reasons.
Service animals, such as seeing-eye dogs, are allowed to travel with their masters and sit at their master's feet. The dogs must be harnessed and be free of disease and odor. It is a good idea for a passenger traveling with an animal to carry a certificate of vaccination with him on the trip.
The travel counselor can request a wheelchair for a passenger who is unable to walk and board the aircraft. Unlike a meet and assist, an airline or airport employee takes the passenger onto the aircraft and assists the passenger into his seat. Almost all airlines offer this service and there is usually no charge although a tip to the attendant is appreciated.
Some passengers are prohibited from eating certain foods due to dietary, cultural, or religious restrictions. The travel counselor can request a special meal for these passengers. Some of the more frequently requested special meals include diabetic, no salt, low calorie, vegetarian, kosher, Hindu, and Moslem.
Most airlines allow seats to be assigned in advance of travel. Seat assignments indicate the specific row and seat the passenger will occupy on each flight. Each airline specifies how far in advance of the flight that seats can be assigned. When possible, the travel counselor should make the seat assignments in the CRS. Boarding passes, the physical evidence of the seat assignments, are usually issued by the airline when the traveler checks in for his flight.
For flights within the United States, passengers should call the airline 24 hours before the flight to reconfirm the reservation. At this time, the passenger learns if the flight number, departure time, or arrival time has changed. This process should be repeated at the destination, before the trip home. Internationally, reconfirmation should be done two to three days before each flight.
Each airline sets limitations on the number of pieces, size, and weight of baggage that can be carried on board a flight as well as baggage that will be in the cargo compartment. Carryon baggage must be small enough to be stored under the seat or in the overhead compartments. In addition to the free baggage allowance, each airline has established a policy for excess baggage. Each airline provides baggage information in the CRS and this information can also be found in the OAG Flight Guide.
For most flights within the United States, passengers should arrive at least one hour before flight time. At the airport check-in, the airline may issue boarding passes; a card for each flight showing the row and seat that has been assigned. Some airlines simply write the row and seat on the ticket or ticket jacket instead of using cards. A few airlines do not assign specific seats; rather, they assign passengers to a boarding group, identified by a group number or color.
Most of the larger airlines have frequent flyer programs and membership in them is free. Each airline's program includes partner airlines, hotels, rental car companies, and other vendors. When a frequent flyer member travels on one of the partner airlines, or uses the services of the other vendors, "miles" are accumulated into the frequent flyer member's account. These "miles" can be used for air travel upgrades, free air travel, and other products. Travel counselors and clients can access data about frequent flyer programs on each airline's Web site, or see combined information at <http://www.webflyer.com>.
When the flight the traveler wants is sold out, the traveler may ask to be put on a waitlist. A wait-list is the airline's list of people who hope to be confirmed on a particular flight as cancellations are received. When a travel counselor puts a traveler on a wait-list, the counselor usually confirms an alternate flight in case the wait-list does not clear. It is important to note that almost all of the lower priced fares do not allow wait-listing.
All U.S. airlines have established their route systems using the hub and spoke principle. Each airline selects one or more airports to be hubs and these act as the home base for the airline. The spokes are the cities around the hub. Flights from the spokes act as feeder routes into the hub.
Have you ever wondered why you had to change planes in Chicago O'Hare, for example? Almost all changes of planes take place at hub airports. Chicago O'Hare was a hub for the airline you were flying. Figure 3-6 shows some of the major hubs in the United States and the airlines that use them as such.
One of the most important statistics for an airline is load factor. Load factor is the relationship of the number of seats on a specific flight to the number of booked seats. For example, if 78 seats were booked on a flight that could accommodate 139, the load factor is 56 percent. Included in the 78 booked seats are a certain number of people who will not show up for the flight and will not cancel their reservations. These people are called no-shows.
Over a period of time, the airline will monitor the number of no-shows on a specific flight. This information helps the airline determine by what percentage it can safely overbook the flight. Overbooking means allowing more seats to be booked than are actually available.
Important Industry Web Sites Rules of the Air: http://www.onetravel.com/rules/rules.cfm This site, written by the industry veteran, Terry Trippler, explains travelers' rights on topics such as bumping, lost baggage, and fare increases.
On a full flight, if the number of no-shows and the number of overbookings are equal, everyone travels. However, if the number of overbookings exceeds the number of no-shows, there are too many passengers and not enough seats. In this situation, the airline first asks for volunteers who are willing to give up their seats and take a later flight. These volunteers are given a voucher for a certain dollar value that can be used toward future travel. This voucher is called denied boarding compensation (DBC).
If there are not enough volunteers on an overbooked flight, the airline removes off-duty airline personnel and those travel counselors who are traveling free or on a travel counselor's discounted fare. These passengers are accommodated on the next available flight but no compensation is given.
If there are still too many passengers for the flight, bumping begins. Bumping means removing regular passengers. The bumped passengers are booked on the next available flight and are given DBC. How does an airline decide which passengers to bump? That is a bit of a mystery. The airline may use any of the following criteria:
* fare--the lower the fare, the greater the chance of being bumped.
* purchase date--the closer to the day of the flight the travel is purchased, the greater the chance of being bumped.
* check-in time--the closer to flight time the passenger checks in, the greater the chance of being bumped.
* passenger status--a senator, for example, might have a lesser chance of being bumped.
* frequent flyer member--by virtue of their loyalty to the airline, frequent flyer members may have a lesser chance of being bumped.
Department of Transportation (DOT) The U.S. government agency responsible for the regulation of air travel within the United States. bias Preferential placement of airline information in a Computer Reservation System (CRS). This is an illegal practice. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) A department of the DOT that is responsible for air traffic control, aircraft certification, passenger safety, and pilot licensing. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) A government agency responsible for air accident investigations, safety recommendations, and statistical reports. Air Transport Association (ATA) A trade association with members that include most of the airlines in the United States. ATA represents its members before Congress and promotes safety and efficiency in air travel. major airline A large airline that operates both short- and long-haul flights and has over $1 billion in annual sales. national airline An airline that flies both long and short routes but within the borders of one country. regional airline A small airline, sometimes called a commuter airline, that operates short-haul routes. commuter airline A small airline, also known as a regional airline, that usually operates short-haul flights in one area of the country only. interline agreement An agreement between two airlines that covers ticketing, transference of passengers, baggage, and cargo. code sharing An airline practice of contracting with another airline to use the other airline's code designation. dual-designated carrier An airline that has contracted with and uses the two-character designator code of another airline. infant A traveler who is under two years of age. Lap-held infants on flights within the United States travel free. Internationally, lap-held infants pay 10 percent of the adult fare. Most airlines will sell a seat to be used for an infant in a special carrier at 50 percent of the adult fare. child 1. An air passenger who is over 2 and under 12. 2. A cruise or tour passenger, usually under the age of 16 or 18. 3. A hotel guest staying with a parent, usually under the age of 18. unaccompanied minor A child over 5 and under 12 who is traveling alone. seat assignment An automated identification of a passenger's assigned row number and seat on a flight. boarding pass A document, usually issued by an airline, that indicates a passenger's assigned seat for a flight. reconfirm The process of contacting the airline to verify flight numbers, departure time, and arrival time of a reservation. frequent flyer program An airline program in which members accumulate miles from the airline and other travel vendors. The accumulated miles can be exchanged for airfare discounts, flight upgrades, free air travel, and other travel products. wait-list An airline list of passengers who hope to be confirmed on a specific flight as cancellations are received. Passengers using excursion fares cannot be placed on a wait-list. hub and spoke An airline practice of using an airport as a home base (hub) and feeding flights from surrounding airports (spokes) into the hub. load factor The percentage of filled seats on a flight to the total number of seats on the aircraft. no-show A traveler who has a reservation, but does not show up or cancel his booking. overbook A policy in which more seats on a flight or rooms at an accommodation property are booked than are actually available. denied boarding compensation (DBC) A voucher given by the airline when a flight is overbooked to passengers who volunteer to take a later flight and bumped revenue passengers. bumping The airline practice of removing paid passengers from a flight when too many seats have been sold.
Today's aircraft come in many different sizes and designs. Some aircraft carry less than 20 passengers, while other aircraft can accommodate more than 350 people. Some aircraft have one passenger compartment, known as a cabin; others have three or four cabins. The passenger cabin(s) on some aircraft are pressurized, others are not. Some aircraft are powered by jet engines, some have turbine engines with propellers (turbo-prop), while still others have piston engines with propellers (prop). A full list of commercial aircraft and statistical information can be found in the OAG Flight Guide. Some of the more popular aircraft are shown in Figure 3-7.
It is important to note that passengers traveling with personal wheelchairs cannot take them onboard the aircraft. Personal wheelchairs are too wide for all aircraft aisles and must be carried in cargo. Passengers who cannot walk onboard, use wheelchairs belonging to the airline or airport.
When an airline places an order with an aircraft manufacturer, the airline specifies the configuration. The configuration is the floor plan or interior design of the aircraft. The airline can specify the number of cabins, the number of seat rows in each cabin, the distance between each row of seats, called pitch, and so on.
Web Activity Access three major U.S. airlines' Web sites. On each site, locate an aircraft diagram for a Boeing 727. Are the three airlines' configurations the same?
Several travel counselor reference sources illustrate the aircraft configuration for a variety of airlines and aircraft types. Each diagram shows the body of the aircraft, known as the fuselage; the passenger cabins; and the bulkheads, the wall or partition between cabins. An aircraft configuration also shows the wing location; flight deck (cockpit); seating areas; and the location of lavatories, the galley (kitchen), storage areas, and emergency exits. Figure 3-8 shows a narrow-body aircraft configuration and Figure 3-9 shows a wide-body aircraft.
All aircraft, regardless of size, fall into one of two categories: narrow-body or wide-body. A narrow-body aircraft has one aisle that runs down the center of the aircraft. All regional airlines use narrow-body aircraft and the larger airlines use them on many of their routes. A wide-body aircraft has two aisles and each row of seats is divided into three sections. Large airlines use wide-body aircraft on some long-distance U.S. routes and flights to foreign countries.
Narrow-body aircraft generally have one or two passenger cabins, first class and coach. Wide-body aircraft usually have a first-class cabin, business-class cabin, and three coach-class cabins.
First class is very expensive but offers wider seats, greater pitch, and more elaborate food and beverage choices. On international flights, first-class seats may be "sleeper seats" that fully recline.
Business class is less expensive than first class but more expensive than coach class. Business class offers wider seats, greater pitch, and enhanced food and beverage service.
On most airlines, the coach-class cabin(s) have narrow seats and very little pitch. Meal service on flights within the United States has greatly decreased over the past few years, but beverage and snack service is still available on many flights.
The size and configuration of an aircraft directly impacts passenger comfort and seat preference. Very small aircraft may not pressurize the passenger cabin according to flight altitude. The lack of pressurization can cause pain in the inner ear and neck, especially in infants and small children. It is vitally important that the travel counselor advise the passenger if the proposed itinerary utilizes a smaller aircraft, especially if it is not pressurized.
When making seat assignments for your clients, consider the following.
* Seats immediately in front of an emergency exit do not usually recline because they would block the exit area.
* Seats over the wing provide more stability, but may experience increased engine noise on certain aircraft.
* Seats in the rear may experience increased vibration, motion, fumes, and engine noise on certain aircraft.
* The bulkhead row (the row of seats just behind the bulkhead) usually offers increased legroom, but carry-on baggage must be stored in the overhead compartments.
* On some international flights, the rear section of the aircraft may allow smoking.
* Seats behind an emergency exit sometimes offer increased leg room.
* Only passengers who are at least 16 years old and are capable of
and willing to take responsibility during an emergency can be seated in an emergency exit row.
* Some airlines will preassign seats in the first several rows to frequent flyer members only.
[FIGURE 3-8 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 3-9 OMITTED]
cabin 1. A room on a ship. 2. A section, such as first, business, and coach, on a flight. narrow-body aircraft An aircraft that has a single aisle. wide-body aircraft An aircraft that has two aisles. configuration The interior design of an aircraft, or floor plan, that indicates seating areas, exit doors, wing area, lavatories, closets, galley, and flight deck. pitch 1. The distance between the rows of seats on an aircraft. 2. The side-to-side motion of a ship. fuselage The body of an aircraft. bulkhead A dividing wall or partition between passenger cabins on an aircraft or ship. pressurize The process of equalizing air pressure inside an aircraft while airborne to what it would be on the ground. fuselage The body of an aircraft. bulkhead A dividing wall or partition between passenger cabins on an aircraft or ship. pressurize The process of equalizing air pressure inside an aircraft while airborne to what it would be on the ground.
For inexperienced travelers, the thought of finding one's way around the airport can be a scary thing. Even people who have traveled extensively are sometimes intimidated by the thought of having to change planes at very large airports such as Chicago O'Hare or Dallas -Ft. Worth. Airports can be confusing, but with guidance from the travel counselor many of the traveler's anxieties can be relieved. The OAG Flight Guide, the OAG Business Travel Planner series, and many airline Web sites have diagrams of major airports. These can easily be copied or printed and given to the passenger as an added service.
Airports around the world come in all sizes, shapes, and designs. But the center or heart of any airport is the terminal building. Small airports have one terminal, while large airports may have more than one. Passengers arriving at the airport to board a flight enter the terminal at the departure area. At some airports, the passenger is able to check his baggage outside the terminal with airline employees called skycaps.
Important Industry Web Sites Directory of Airport Web Site Links: http://www.quickaid.com/airports/ This site offers information about airport ground transportation, hotels, yellow pages, and includes maps of airport terminals.
Most departing passengers go into the terminal to the airline ticket counters to check in. For many travelers, this is their first contact with the airline. At the ticket counter, the passenger gives his photo I.D. or passport and ticket (if he has one) to the ticket counter agent.
The ticket counter agent displays the traveler's reservation in the computer and compares the name to the I.D. and ticket. At this time, the ticket counter agent tags checked baggage, assigns a seat if it was not done previously, and issues a boarding pass. The boarding pass identifies the row and seat that has been assigned to the passenger. The ticket counter agent also tells the passenger at which gate his flight departs.
The passenger may have to walk down a long corridor, called a concourse, to get to his gate. The gate is the area where he waits to board his flight and has the doorway he uses to exit the airport. Gate agents can make seat assignments and issue boarding passes, just like ticket counter agents.
Most airports use connecting devices, called jetways, to connect the airport door to the aircraft door. The passenger walks through the jetway and onto the plane. Some airports do not have jetways and some aircraft cannot use them. In these circumstances, passengers walk from the airport onto a paved area, known as the tarmac, to where the aircraft is parked. In other situations, an airport vehicle is used to transport passengers from the gate area to the aircraft.
After all passengers have boarded the aircraft, baggage has been stowed, all fuel and catering has been loaded, and the flight-deck crew have completed their preflight checks, the flight is ready to depart. When the flight receives clearance from ground control, it begins to move along the taxiway toward the assigned runway. At busy airports, it is common for the flight to have to wait in line for takeoff. After takeoff, ground control "hands off" the flight to air traffic control and the passengers are finally on their way.
When a traveler arrives at his destination, he exits the aircraft through the jetway and walks through the concourse to the baggage claim area. Baggage is off-loaded from the aircraft and brought to a baggage handling area. From this area, the luggage is put onto conveyor belts, called carousels, which move the luggage to the baggage claim area.
Many airports have rental car companies located in the baggage claim area. Taxis, airport shuttles, and limos are available at all but the smallest airports. Hotels located near major airports may have shuttle service available for hotel guests arriving at the airport.
Today's airports try to make the time spent there as pleasant as possible. Waiting passengers can shop in a variety of stores, eat in restaurants, grab a snack at food stalls, or visit observation areas. Some airports even have health clubs with complete workout areas. All airports offer restroom facilities, baggage storage areas, and information centers. International airports have duty-free (tax-free) shops, as well as currency exchange, customs, and immigration areas.
A special amenity found in most major airports is the airline clubs, such as American's Admirals Club, United's Red Carpet Club, and Delta's Crown Room Club. Each airline club charges a membership fee of between $150 and $200 per year. Club members enjoy the benefits of a private waiting area, business center, complimentary refreshments, and the service of an airline representative. Many clubs have shower facilities and exercise areas. For someone who spends a good deal of time in airports, these clubs certainly make the experience more pleasant.
Airports are not owned by the airlines; rather, they are owned and operated by city, county, or state authorities, generally known as the airport authority. The airlines rent counter space and gate space, and pay fees for every flight that arrives or departs. Stores, food outlets, and other vendors located within the airport pay rent to the airport authority.
The airport authority is responsible for security throughout the airport. This includes baggage x-ray, metal detectors, patrol personnel, and canine units.
Internationally, security tends to be stricter than we see in the United States. Some airports do not have trash receptacles because they can be used to hide explosive devices. Security personnel usually carry rifles. This can come as a great surprise to first-time travelers. By advising clients of what they might encounter, the travel professional is preparing the client for new situations. Remember, no one likes surprises.
terminal The central part of an airport. skycap An airport employee who checks baggage at the curbside. concourse The airport corridors where the gate areas are located. gate The waiting and boarding area located within a concourse of an airport. jetway A device that connects the airport gate door with the door of an aircraft and through which passengers board and deplane. tarmac The paved area around an airport. ground control Employees of the FAA who are responsible for flights before they become airborne. taxiway The connecting road between the tarmac and the runway. air traffic control FAA employees who are responsible for a flight after it becomes airborne. carousel The airport device that transports baggage from the rear of the baggage handling area to the public area. airline club An airport amenity sponsored by each airline. Benefits for club members include a private waiting area, business center, complimentary refreshments, and the service of an airline representative. airport authority The governing body of an airport, responsible for its operation and security.
Every city and airport has a three-letter code assigned by the International Standards Organization (ISO), located in Geneva, Switzerland. ARC and IATA have adopted the codes established by the ISO. These codes are used for everything from reservations to the tags put on checked baggage to air traffic controllers' radar screens.
Cities served by only one airport use the same code for the city as for the airport. Cities or major metropolitan areas that have more than one airport are assigned a city code and each airport has a separate code. It is interesting to note that, in some cases, the city code is the same as the code for one of the airports serving the metropolitan area.
How does the travel professional know which code to use, the city or the airport code? The answer is simple: always use the applicable airport code. City codes are not specific enough to use on flight schedules. Of course, there is an exception, and that is on ticket fare calculation. Here, city codes are used.
There are literally thousands and thousands of codes worldwide. It is impossible to learn all of the codes, so thankfully, an alphabetical list can be found in the OAG Flight Guide. City, airport, airline, and even aircraft codes can be obtained in the CRS.
As part of the job interview, some travel agencies test the applicant's knowledge of these codes. See Figure 3-10 for a list of U.S. airport codes.
As you may have noticed, many of the codes seem logical. In many cases, the code is the first three letters of the city name. Others, however, seem to make no sense at all.
What Would You Do? Your client wants to bring her mother from Lima, Peru, to Milwaukee. The best fare requires plane changes at both Miami and Atlanta. Your client is concerned about these plane changes because her mother speaks only Spanish. 1. Should you try to convince your client to book her mother on a direct flight, assuming one exists, even though it is more expensive? 2. Are airport signs in the United States typically in Spanish as well as English, thus eliminating the language problem? 3. Might the airline be of assistance to your client's mother in some way? Selected National and International Consortia Approx. Year Membership Approximate Name Founded Locations Cost Austin Associates 1996 250 $300/year BTS Travel Network 1982 1,200 $295 initial, $100/year Cruise & Vacation 1986 450 $300 initial, up to Shoppes $300/year GIANTS 1968 1,900 $600 initial, yearly fee based on sales MART 1998 140 $100-$300/year The Travel Authority 1984 800 $100 initial, $0-$200/year Travel Design 1987 390 $300 initial, $200/year Associates * Vacation.com 1998 9,800 $300/year Virtuoso 1950 350 $750/year Woodside Travel Trust 1973 6,600 $550-$2000 per month Name Web Site Austin Associates http://www.austinassoc.com BTS Travel Network http://btstravel/hypermart.net/ Cruise & Vacation http://www.cruiseshoppes.com Shoppes GIANTS http://www.giantstravel.com MART http://www.mart.org The Travel Authority http://www.travelauthority.com Travel Design none Associates * Vacation.com http://www.vacation.com Virtuoso http://www.apitrave.com Woodside Travel Trust http://www.woodsidetravel.com * Includes ACTION 6, Aura, Consolidated Travel Services, Crown Travel Group, Gem, Cruiselink, SPACE, The Consortium, and TIME. Airline Name Airline Code Alaska Air AS Aloha Air AQ American Airlines AA America West HP ATA TZ Continental Airlines CO Delta Airlines DL Hawaiian Air HA Midway Airlines JI Midwest Express Airlines YX Northwest Airlines WN Southwest NW United Airlines UA USAirways US U.S. Cities Served by Multiple Airports * Chicago, IL Chicago (city) CHI Chicago O'Hare Airport ORD Chicago Midway Airport MDW * Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX metropolitan area Dallas (city) DFW Dallas Love Field Airport DAL Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport DFW * Detroit, MI Detroit (city) DTT Detroit Wayne County (Metro) Airport DTW Detroit City Airport DET * Houston, TX Houston (city) HOU Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport IAH Houston Hobby Airport HOU * Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area Los Angeles (city) LAX Los Angeles International Airport LAX Burbank Airport BUR Long Beach Airport LGB Ontario Airport ONT * Ne* York, NY-Newark, NJ metropolitan area New York (city) NYC New York LaGuardia Airport LGA New York Kennedy Airport JFK Newark Airport EWR * San Francisco, CA metropolitan area San Francisco (city) SFO San Francisco International Airport SFO Oakland Airport OAK * Washington, DC-Baltimore, MD metropolitan area Baltimore (city) BAL Washington, DC (city) WAS Baltimore International Airport BWI Washington Dulles Airport IAD Washington Reagan National Airport DCA FIGURE 3-1 Computer Reservation Systems (CRS) used in the United States System U.S. International Publicly Name Host(s) Hosts Traded Amadeus Continential Air France no Iberia Lufthansa Galileo United Alitalia yes--GLC (marketed as British Air Apollo in the KLM United States) Swissair Sabre American none yes--TSG Worldspan Delta none no Northwest System Agency Name Installations Web Site Amadeus Over 47,500 http://www.global.amadeus.net agencies in 132 countries Galileo Over 39,600 http://www.galileo.com (marketed as agencies in Apollo in the 104 countries United States) Sabre Over 42,000 http://www.sabre.com agencies in 112 countries Worldspan Over 18,000 http://www.worldspan.com agencies in 60 countries FIGURE 3-3 Sample Fee Schedule Airline ticket or electronic ticket processing charge $15 Voluntary ticket or electronic ticket reissue, refund, or void $10 Maximum ticket or electronic ticket processing charge per family $30 Research or request for copies of ticket or electronic ticket $10 Cruise or tour cancellation after deposit is paid $25 Domestic tour research, refundable when final payment is made $25 International tour research, refundable when final payment is made $50 FIGURE 3-5 Examples of code sharing Airline Name Code Share Partners American Air Pacific, American Eagle, Asiana, British Midland, Canadian, China Eastern, Eva, Finnair, Group Taca, Gulf Air, Hawaiian, Iberia, Japan Air, LanChile, Lot Polish, Qantas, Sabena, South African, Swissair, Tam America West Air China, British Air, Continental, Eva, Mesa, Northwest Continental Aces, Air Aruba, Alaska, Hawaiian, Air France, Air China, Alitalia, America West, Aserca, Avant, British Midland, Copa, CSA Czech, Eva, Northwest, Vasp, Virgin Atlantic Delta Aeromexico, Air France, Air Jamaica, Atlantic Coast Jet, Austrian, China Southern, Comair, Malev, Sabena, SkyWest, Swissair, TAP Portugal, Trans Brasil, Trans States Northwest Air China, Alaska, Alitalia, America West, Big Sky, Braathens, Cyprus, Continental, Eurowings, Express 1, Garuda, Hawaiian, Horizon, Japan Air, Jet, Kenya, KLM, Malaysia, Mesaba, Pacific Island United Air Canada, Air New Zealand, All Nippon, ALM, Ansett, British Midland, Cayman, Continental, Emirates, Lufthansa, Mexicana, SAS, Thai, Trans World Express, Varig USAirways Air Midwest, Allegheny, CCAir, Chautauqua, Colgan, Commutair, Metrojet, Mesa, Piedmont, PSA, Trans States, USAirways Shuttle FIGURE 3-6 Selected U.S. airlines and their hubs Airline Name Hub City and Airport American Chicago O'Hare, Dallas-Ft. Worth, Miami, San Juan, St. Louis America West Las Vegas, Phoenix Continental Houston George Bush Intercontinental, Detroit Metro, Cleveland, Memphis Delta Atlanta, Dallas-Ft. Worth, Cincinnati, Salt Lake City Northwest Detroit Metro, Memphis, Minneapolis United Chicago O'Hare, Denver, Washington Reagan National USAirways Pittsburgh, Charlotte, Philadelphia, Baltimore FIGURE 3-7 Popular aircraft in use today Aircraft Code Wide-Body Aerospatiale Alenia (all series) ATR no Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72 AT7 no Airbus Industrie A300 AB3 yes Airbus Industrie A320 320 no Beechcraft 1900 (all series) BE1 no Boeing 717 717 no Boeing 727 (all series) 727 no Boeing 737 (all series) 737 no Boeing 747 (all series) 747 yes Boeing 757-200 757 no Boeing 767 (all series) 767 yes Boeing 777 777 yes British Aerospace Jetstream 31 J31 no British Aerospace Jetstream 41 J41 no Canadair Regional Jet CRJ no DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series) DH8 no Dornier 328 D38 no Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia EM2 no Fairchild Metro Merlin SWM no Fokker 100 100 no Fokker F28 (all series) F28 no Lockheed L-1011 (all series) L10 yes Lockheed L-1011-500 L15 yes McDonnell Douglas MD-80 M80 no McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series) D10 yes McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series) DC9 no McDonnell Douglas MD-11 M11 yes Saab SF340 SF3 no Engine Type, Aircraft Number, & Location Aerospatiale Alenia (all series) turbo-prop, 2, wings Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72 turbo-prop, 2, wings Airbus Industrie A300 jet, 2, wings Airbus Industrie A320 jet, 2, wings Beechcraft 1900 (all series) turbo-prop, 2, wings Boeing 717 jet, 2, fuselage Boeing 727 (all series) jet, 3, fuselage and tail Boeing 737 (all series) jet, 2, wings Boeing 747 (all series) jet, 4, wings Boeing 757-200 jet, 2, wings Boeing 767 (all series) jet, 2, wings Boeing 777 jet, 2, wings British Aerospace Jetstream 31 turbo-prop, 2, wings British Aerospace Jetstream 41 turbo-prop, 2, wings Canadair Regional Jet jet, 2, fuselage DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series) turbo-prop, 2, wings Dornier 328 turbo-prop, 2, wings Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia turbo-prop, 2, wings Fairchild Metro Merlin turbo-prop, 2, wings Fokker 100 jet, 2, fuselage Fokker F28 (all series) jet, 2, fuselage Lockheed L-1011 (all series) jet, 3, wings and tail Lockheed L-1011-500 jet, 3, wings and tail McDonnell Douglas MD-80 jet, 2, fuselage McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series) jet, 3, wings and tail McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series) jet, 2, fuselage McDonnell Douglas MD-11 jet, 3, wings and tail Saab SF340 turbo-prop, 2, wings Aircraft Pressurized Passengers Aerospatiale Alenia (all series) yes 42-74 Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72 yes 64-74 Airbus Industrie A300 yes 220-375 Airbus Industrie A320 yes 131-156 Beechcraft 1900 (all series) yes 19 Boeing 717 yes 106-117 Boeing 727 (all series) yes 125 Boeing 737 (all series) yes 103 Boeing 747 (all series) yes 452-548 Boeing 757-200 yes 178-239 Boeing 767 (all series) yes 216-290 Boeing 777 yes 231-375 British Aerospace Jetstream 31 yes 39679 British Aerospace Jetstream 41 yes 29 Canadair Regional Jet yes 50 DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series) yes 36-56 Dornier 328 yes 30 Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia yes 24-30 Fairchild Metro Merlin yes 39619 Fokker 100 yes 107-119 Fokker F28 (all series) yes 55-85 Lockheed L-1011 (all series) yes 256-400 Lockheed L-1011-500 yes 256-400 McDonnell Douglas MD-80 yes 172 McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series) yes 255-380 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series) yes 90 McDonnell Douglas MD-11 yes 250-400 Saab SF340 yes 35 Coach Seat Aircraft Configuration Aerospatiale Alenia (all series) 2/2 Aerospatiale Alenia ATR 72 2/2 Airbus Industrie A300 2/4/2 Airbus Industrie A320 3/3 Beechcraft 1900 (all series) 1/1 Boeing 717 2/3 Boeing 727 (all series) 3/3 Boeing 737 (all series) 3/3 Boeing 747 (all series) 3/4/3 Boeing 757-200 3/3 Boeing 767 (all series) 2/3/2 Boeing 777 2/5/2 British Aerospace Jetstream 31 1/2 British Aerospace Jetstream 41 1/2 Canadair Regional Jet 2/2 DeHaviland DHC-8 (all series) 2/2 Dornier 328 1/2 Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia 1/2 Fairchild Metro Merlin 1/1 Fokker 100 2/3 Fokker F28 (all series) 2/3 Lockheed L-1011 (all series) 3/4/3 Lockheed L-1011-500 2/5/2 McDonnell Douglas MD-80 2/3 McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (all series) 2/5/2 McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (10 & 20 series) 2/3 McDonnell Douglas MD-11 2/5/2 Saab SF340 1/2 FIGURE 3-10 U.S. airport codes ABE Allentown, PA ABQ Albuquerque, NM ABY Albany, GA AGS Augusta, GA AIY Atlantic City, NJ ALB Albany, NY ANC Anchorage, AK ASE Aspen, CO ATL Atlanta, GA AUG Augusta, ME AUS Austin, TX AVL Asheville, NC BDL Hartford, CT BGR Bangor, ME BHM Birmingham, AL BIL Billings, MT BIS Bismark, ND BNA Nashville, TN BOI Boise, ID BOS Boston, MA BTR Baton Rouge, LA BTV Burlington, VT BUF Buffalo, NY BWI Baltimore, MD BZN Bozeman, MT CAE Columbia, SC CAK Akron/Canton, OH CHA Chattanooga, TN CHS Charleston, SC CID Cedar Rapids, IA CLE Cleveland, OH CLT Charlotte, NC CMH Columbus, OH COS Colorado Springs, CO CRW Charleston, WV CVG Cincinnati, OH DAB Daytona Beach, FL DAL Dallas, TX; Love Field Airport DAY Dayton, OH DCA Washington, DC; Reagan National Airport DEN Denver, CO DET Detroit, MI; City Airport DFW Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX DSM Des Moines, IA DTW Detroit, MI; Wayne County (Metro) Airport ELP El Paso, TX EWR Newark, NJ EYW Key West, FL FAI Fairbanks, AK FLL Ft. Lauderdale, FL GEG Spokane, WA GNV Gainesville, FL GRB Green Bay, WI GRR Grand Rapids, MI GSO Greensboro, NC GTF Great Falls, MT HLN Helena, MT HNL Honolulu, Oahu Island, HI HOU Houston, TX; Hobby Airport IAD Washington, DC; Dulles Airport IAH Houston, TX; George Bush Intercontinental Airport ICT Wichita, KS IDA Idaho Falls, ID IND Indianapolis, IN ITO Hilo, Hawaii Island, HI JAN Jackson, MS JAX Jacksonville, FL JFK New York, NY; Kennedy Airport JNU Juneau, AK KOA Kona, Hawaii Island, HI LAS Las Vegas, NV LAX Los Angeles, CA; International Airport LEX Lexington, KY LGA New York, NY; LaGuardia Airport LIH Lihue, Kauai Island, HI LIT Little Rock, AR LNK Lincoln, NE MCI Kansas City, MO MCO Orlando, FL MDT Harrisburg, PA MDW Chicago, IL; Midway Airport MEM Memphis, TN MGM Montgomery, AL MHT Manchester, NH MIA Miami, FL MKE Milwaukee, WI MKK Hoolehua, Molokai Island, HI MSN Madison, WI MSP Minneapolis, MN MSY New Orleans, LA MYR Myrtle Beach, SC OAK Oakland, CA OGG Kahului, Maui Island, HI OKC Oklahoma City, OK OMA Omaha, NE ONT Ontario, CA ORD Chicago, IL; O'Hare Airport ORF Norfolk, VA PBI West Palm Beach, FL PDX Portland, OR PHL Philadelphia, PA PHX Phoenix, AZ PIE St. Petersburg, FL PIT Pittsburgh, PA PNS Pensacola, FL PSP Palm Springs, CA PWM Portland, ME RAP Rapid City, SD RDU Raleigh-Durham, NC RIC Richmond, VA RNO Reno, NV ROA Roanoke, VA RSW Ft. Myers, Fl SAN San Diego, CA SAT San Antonio, TX SAV Savannah, GA SDF Louisville, KY SEA Seattle/Tacoma, WA SFO San Francisco, CA; International Airport SLC Salt Lake City, UT SMF Sacramento, CA SRQ Sarasota, FL STL St. Louis, MO SYR Syracuse, NY TOL Toledo, OH TPA Tampa, FL TUL Tulsa, OK TUS Tucson, AZ TYS Knoxville, TN
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|Title Annotation:||Section II: United States Air Travel|
|Publication:||A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2005|
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|Next Article:||Chapter 4: Planning United States flight itineraries.|