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Chapter 29 Dog ration formulation.

TERMINOLOGY

Workbook A workbook is the spreadsheet program file including all its worksheets.

Worksheet A worksheet is the same as a spreadsheet. There may be more than one worksheet in a workbook.

Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is the same as a worksheet.

Cell A cell is a location within a worksheet or spreadsheet.

Comment A comment is a note that appears when the mouse pointer moves over the cell. A red triangle in the upper right corner of a cell indicates that it contains a comment. Comments are added to help explain the function and operations of workbooks.

Input box An input box is a programming technique that prompts the workbook user to type information. After typing the information in the input box, the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER to enter the typed information.

Message box A message box is a programming technique that displays a message. The message box disappears after the user clicks OK or strikes ENTER.

EXCEL SETTINGS

Security: Click on the Tools menu, Options command, Security tab, Macro Security button, Medium setting.

Screen resolution: This application was developed for a screen resolution of 1024 x 768. If the screen resolution on your machine needs to be changed, see Microsoft Excel Help, "Change the screen resolution" for instructions.

HANDS-ON EXERCISES

DOG RATION FORMULATION

Double click on the Dog Ration icon. The message box in Figure 29-1 displays.
Figure 29-1     Macros may contain viruses. It is advisable to disable
macros, but if the re legitimate, you may lose some functionality.
Disable Macros or Enable Macros or More Info


Click on Enable macros.

The message box in Figure 29-2 displays.
Figure 29-2

Function keys IT to FS are set up. You may return to this location
from  anywhere by striking ENTER, then the F1 key. Workbook by David
A. Tisch. The author makes no claim for the accuracy of this
application and the user is solely responsible for risk of use. You're
good to go. TYPE ONLY IN THE GRAY CELLS! Note: This Workbook is made
up of charts and a worksheet. The charts and worksheet are selected by
clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the display. Never save the
Workbook from a chart; always return to the worksheet before saving
the Workbook.


Click OK.

Input Dog Procedure

Click on the Input Dog button. The input box shown in Figure 29-3 displays.
Figure 29-3

1. Growing dog, start of weaning (3 weeks)

2. Growing dog, end of weaning (6 weeks)

3. Early growth

4. Late growth

5. Adult maintenance

6. Pregnancy (late)

7. Lactation

ENTER THE APPROPRIATE NUMBER


Click OK to choose the default input of #5, the Adult dog at maintenance.

The input box shown in Figure 29-4 displays.
Figure 29-4

Enter measured DMI (pounds) if available or click OR to accept the
predicted value at CX26


Click OK to accept the predicted dry matter intake (DMI). The message box shown in Figure 29-5 displays.
Figure 29-5

Enter the appropriate cell inputs in column CX.


Click OK.

The Cell Inputs

Enter the Cell Inputs shown in Table 29-1.

The comment behind the cell containing the Dog's activity level label is shown in Figure 29-6.
Figure 29-6

Use the following guidelines:

1. Low activity (apartment pet or older, inactive dog: high risk of
weight gain)

2. Moderate activity (outside run, sleeps inside)

3. Athlete (wellondi honed racing greyhound)

4. High energy lifestyle (sleeps outside)

5. Herding/hunting dog

6. Working sled dog


Strike ENTER and F1.

Select Feeds Procedure

Click on the Select Feeds button. The message box in Figure 29-7 displays.
Figure 29-7

Nutrient content expressed on a dry matter basis. Feedstuffs are
listed first by selection status; then, within the same selection
status, by decreasing protein content; then, within the same protein
content alphabetically.


Click OK.

Explore the table. Note the nutrients listed as column headings. Note also that the table ends at row 200. You select feedstuffs for use in making two different products: (1) a blend to be mixed and sold bagged or bulk, and (2) the ration to be fed directly to the animal.

Select the feedstuffs in Table 29-2 by placing a 1 in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. All unselected feedstuffs should have a 0 value in the column to the left of the feedstuff name. If you wish to group feedstuffs but not select them, you would place a value between 0 and 1 to the left of the feedstuff name.

Strike ENTER and F2.

Selected feedstuffs and their analyses are copied to several locations in the workbook.

Make Ration Procedure

Click on the Make Ration button. The message box shown in Figure 29-8 displays.
Figure 29-8

ENTER POUNDS TO FEED IN COLUMN B. TOGGLE BETWEEN
NUTRIENT WEIGHTS AND CONCENTRATIONS USING THE F5
KEY, RATION AND FEED CONTRIBUTIONS USING THE F6 KEY
AND FEEDING DIRECTIONS USING THE F7 KEY. WHEN DONE
STRIKE F1. Cell is highlighted in red if nutrient provided is poorly
matched with nutrient target. The lower limit is taken as 94 to 98
percent of target, depending on the nutrient. The upper limit of
acceptable mineral is taken from the dog NRC, 1985. Where data is not
available, the upper limit is usually taken from the swine value found
in National Research Council. 1980. Mineral Tolerance of Domestic
Animals. National Academy Press. For calcium, phosphorus and copper,
upper limits of 3 percent, 2 percent and 50 mg/kg are used,
respectively. The upper limit of vitamin is taken from the NRC, 1987,
Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. For other nutrients, the upper limit is
based on unreasonable excess and the expense of unnecessary
supplementation. See Table 29-4 for specifics.


Click OK. The message box shown in Figure 29-9 displays.
Figure 29-9

The Goal Seek feature may be useful in finding the pounds of a
specific feedstuff needed to reach a particular nutrient target:

1. Select the red cell highlighting the deficient nutrient

2. From the menu bar, select Tools, then Goal Seek

3. In the text box, "To Value:" enter the target to the right of
the selected cell

4. Click in the text box, "By changing cell:" and then click in
the gray "Pounds fed" area for the feedstuff to supply the nutrient

5. Click OK. You may accept the value found by clicking OK or reject
it by clicking Cancel.

WARNING: Using Goal Seek to solve the unsolvable (e.g., asking it to
make up an iodine shortfall with iron sulfate) may result in damage
to the Workbook.

IMPORTANT: If you return to the Feedtable to remove more than one
feedstuff from the selected list, you will lose your chosen amounts
fed in the developing ration.


Click OK.

In the gray area to the right of the feedstuff name, enter the pound values shown in Table 29-3.

The Nutrients Supplied Display

The application highlights ration nutrient levels, expressed as amount supplied per dog per day, that fall outside the acceptable range.

The lower limit for DMI and MEdog is 94 percent of the target. There is no lower limit for CP because the target is met with amino acids. It is assumed that nonessential amino acid requirements will be met when essential amino acid targets are met. The lower limit for all other nutrients is 98 percent of the target. Table 29-4 shows the upper limits of the acceptable range for the various nutrients.

Energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, and vitamin targets have been met with minimal excesses. Note that all dog nutrient targets are based on the assumption of 100 percent nutrient bioavailability. Feedstuff mineral bioavailabilities are taken from the dairy NRC (2001), and are shown in Table 29-5.

The cost of this ration using initial $/ton values is $0.09 per dog per day.

First limiting amino acid: isoleucine

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 29-10.
Figure 29-10

This is the amino acid that exists in the ration at a level that is
farthest from the level required, or the amino acid whose requirement
is most narrowly met.


Ca:[P.sub.total] ratio: 1.07

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 29-11.
Figure 29-11

When the calcium-to-phosphorous ratio is based on total phosphorus,
the optimal ratio is given by the NRC as between 1.2:1 and 1.4:1. The
AAFCO recommendation for dogs is to target the ratio at 1:1 with a
maximum of 2:1. Excess calcium reduces phosphorus absorption.


Ca:[P.sub.avail] ratio: 1.56

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 29-12.
Figure 29-12

When the calcium-to-phosphorous ratio is based on available
phosphorus, the recommendation in swine (no recommendation is
available specifically for dogs) is to have 2 to 3 times as much
calcium as phosphorus. Excess calcium reduces phosphorus absorption.


The Nutrient Concentration Display (strike F5)

The nutrients in the ration and the predicted nutrient targets are expressed in terms of concentration. That is, the nutrients provided by the ration are divided by the amount of ration dry matter and the nutrient targets are divided by the target amount of ration dry matter. Concentration units include percent, milligrams per kilogram or parts per million, calories per pound, and international units per pound.

Electrolyte balance: 341

The comment behind the cell containing this label is shown in Figure 29-13.
Figure 29-13

The electrolyte balance is used to assess the impact of the ration's
mineral content on the body's efforts to regulate blood pH through
urinary excretion. It is calculated as mEq of excess cations:
(Na + K - Cl)/kg of diet dry matter. No specific recommendations have
been published for dogs. However, a lower electrolyte balance creates
a more acidic urine and this is useful in helping to prevent
urolithiasis.


Strike F5.

The Feedstuff Contributions Display (strike F6)

Shown here are the nutrients contributed by each feedstuff in the ration. This display is useful in trying to troubleshoot problems with nutrient excesses.

Strike F6.

Feeding Directions Display (strike F7)

The feeding directions are shown in Table 29-6.

Strike F1.

The Graphic Display

At the bottom of the home display are tabs. The current tab selected is the Worksheet tab. Other tabs are graphs based on the current ration.

DMI

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Dry Matter Intake

E&F

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Energy, Fat & Linoleic Acid

AA

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Amino Acids

CP

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Crude Protein

Min

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Minerals (bioavailable basis)

Vit

Click on this tab to display a graph titled Nutrient Status: Vitamins

Click on the Worksheet tab.

Blend Feedstuffs Procedure

Click on the Blend Feedstuffs button. The message box shown in Figure 29-14 is shown.
Figure 29-14

YOU MUST HAVE ALREADY SELECTED THE FEEDSTUFFS YOU
WANT TO BLEND. When your analysis is acceptable, strike ENTER and
F3 to name and file the blend.


Click OK.

The amounts to blend are the same as the amounts to feed (Table 29-3). These amounts have been copied from the Make Ration section. Note that to the left of the amounts entered is a column that has converted these amounts to a pounds-per-ton basis. Feed mill mixer capacities are rated in tons so formulas to be mixed should be expressed on a pounds-per-ton basis.

Strike ENTER and F3. The input box in Figure 29-15 displays.
Figure 29-15
ENTER THE NAME OF THE BLEND (names may not be composed of
only numbers):


Name the blend AdultMaint and click OK. The message box in Figure 29-16 displays.
Figure 29-16

The new blend has been filed at the bottom of the feed table.


Click OK.

View Blends Procedure

Click on the View Blends button. The message box in Figure 29-17 displays.
Figure 29-17

Cursor right to view the blends. Cursor down for more nutrients. DO
NOT TYPE IN THE BLUE AREAS.


Click OK. Confirm that the AdultMaint formula and analysis have been filed.

Strike F1.

Using the Blended Feed in the Balanced Ration

Select Feeds Procedure

Click on the Select Feeds button. Unselect all feedstuffs that were in the AdultMaint by entering a 0 to the left of the feedstuff name. Select the AdultMaint at the bottom of the feed table (row 200) (Table 29-7).

Strike ENTER and F2.

Make Ration Procedure

Click on the Make Ration button. Enter the ration shown in Table 29-8.

The amount of the AdultMaint to feed is the total amount of its component ingredients in the balanced ration. That value is:

0.025 + 0.044 + 0.09 + 0.025 + 0.36 + 0.05 + 0.0000042 + 0.00084 + 0.00021 + 0.03 + 0.00000068 + 0.0011 + 0.0011 + 0.0000065 + 0.0000013 + 0.00043 + 0.000013 + 0.000063 + 0.00022 + 0.0002 = 0.63.

This value is recorded at View Blends under Formula, as entered. The ration is balanced as it was when the components of AdultMaint were fed unmixed.

Strike ENTER and F1.

Print Ration or Blend Procedure

Make sure your name is entered at cell C1. Click on the Print Ration or Blend button. The input box in Figure 29-18 displays.
Figure 29-18

Are you printing a dog ration evaluation or a blend formula and
analysis? (1-RATION, 2-BLEND):


Click OK to accept the default value of 1, a ration. A two-page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.

Click on the Print Ration or Blend button. Type the number 2 to print a blend. Click OK. The message box in Figure 29-19 displays.
Figure 29-19

Click on the green number above the blend you want to print and press
F4. Scroll right to see additional blends.


Click OK.

Find the AdultMaint blend, click on the green number above it, and strike F4. A one-page printout will be produced by the machine's default printer.

ACTIVITIES & WHAT-IFS

In the Forms folder on the companion CD to this text is a DogInput.doc file that may be used to collect the necessary inputs for use of the DogRation.xls file. This form may be printed out and used during kennel visits to assist in ration evaluation activities.

1. Remake the ration described in Table 29-7 for the dog described in this chapter. Strike F7. How many cups of this dog-food formulation would need to be fed to meet this dog's nutrient requirements if the formulation was fed as dry dog food? How many cups if fed as semi-moist dog food? How many cans if canned dog food? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of feeding dog food formulations in the different forms.

2. Remake the ration described in Table 29-7 for the dog described in this chapter. Input an adult dog at a low level of activity. Use the formulation made in this chapter for a dog at moderate activity for this dog at low activity. Citing your results, discuss the consequences and the likely impact on the low-activity dog.

3. Remake the ration described in Table 29-3 for the dog described in this chapter. Remove the meat and bone meal from this formulation and note the deficiencies that appear. Discuss the feasibility of formulating nutritionally complete dog foods without the inclusion of animal products.

REFERENCES

National Research Council. (1980). Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (1985). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, revised. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (1987). Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th revised edition. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Table 29-1
Inputs for the dog ration
formulation example

 50     Dog's weight (lb.) (2-150)
  2     Dog's activity level (1-lowest to 6-highest)
 10     Dry dog food percent moisture (10-12)
 97     Dry dog food density (g/cup) (70-120)
 33     Semi-moist dog food percent moisture (25-35)
142     Semi-moist dog food density (g/cup) (120-160)
 78     Canned dog food percent moisture (74-78)
170     Canned dog food density (g/cup) (a 6-oz can is 150-180 g net)

Table 29-2

Feedstuffs to select for the dog ration formulation example

Meat & bone meal
Soybean meal, 49%
Wheat bran
Whey, dehydrated
Corn grain, ground
Bone meal, steamed
Calcium pantothenate
Choline chloride, 60%
Copper sulfate
Corn oil
EDDI (Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide)
Magnesium oxide
Manganous carbonate
Niacin
Riboflavin
Vitamin A supplement
Vit [B.sub.12] (cyanocobalamin)
Vitamin D supplement
Vitamin E supplement
Zinc oxide

Table 29-3
Inclusion rates for feedstuffs
in the dog ration formulation
example

Meat & bone meal                          0.025
Soybean meal, 49%                         0.044
Wheat bran                                0.09
Whey, dehydrated                          0.025
Corn grain, ground                        0.36
Bone meal, steamed                        0.05
Calcium pantothenate                      0.0000042
Choline chloride, 60%                     0.00084
Copper sulfate                            0.00021
Corn oil                                  0.03
EDDI (Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide)      0.00000068
Magnesium oxide                           0.0011
Manganous carbonate                       0.0011
Niacin                                    0.0000065
Riboflavin                                0.0000013
Vitamin A supplement                      0.00043
Vitamin [B.sub.12] (cyanocobalamin)       0.000013
Vitamin D supplement                      0.000063
Vitamin E supplement                      0.00022
Zinc oxide                                0.0002

Table 29-4
Upper limits for ration nutrients used in the dog ration application

                        Upper Limit

DMI                     6% over the predicted requirement
MEdog                   20% of requirement
Fat                     4 x the predicted requirement
n-6 fatty acids         No upper limit
Crude protein           8% greater than requirement (1)
All essential           No upper limit
  amino acids
Calcium                 2.05% of diet dry matter
Phosphorus,             1.44% of diet dry matter
  available
Sodium                  3.1% of diet dry matter

Chloride                4.9% of diet dry matter

Potassium               2% of diet dry matter
Magnesium               0.3% of diet dry matter
Copper                  250 mg/kg of diet dry matter
Iodine                  400 mg/kg of diet dry matter
Iron                    3,000 mg/kg of diet dry matter
Manganese               400 mg/kg of diet dry matter
Selenium                2 mg/kg of diet dry matter
Zinc                    1,000 mg/kg of diet dry matter
Vitamin A               Growing: 300,000 IU/kg body weight
                        Gestating: 125,000 IU/kg body weight
Vitamin D               4 x the requirement
Vitamin E               20 x the requirement
Choline                 3 x the requirement
Folacin                 1,000 x the requirement
Niacinavail             350 mg/kg body weight
Pantothenic acid        100 x the requirement
Riboflavin              20 x the requirement
Thiamin [B.sub.1]       1,000 x the requirement
Pyridoxine [B.sub.6]    50 x the requirement
Vitamin [B.sub.12]      300 x the requirement

                        Source

DMI                     Author
MEdog                   Author
Fat                     Author
n-6 fatty acids         --
Crude protein           Author
All essential           --
  amino acids
Calcium                 NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, 1985
Phosphorus,             NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, 1985
  available
Sodium                  NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine, based on limit for salt
                          (sodium chloride)
Chloride                NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine, based on limit for salt
                          (sodium chloride)
Potassium               NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980
Magnesium               NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980
Copper                  NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine
Iodine                  NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine
Iron                    NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine
Manganese               NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine
Selenium                NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine
Zinc                    NRC: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals,
                          1980--swine
Vitamin A               NRC: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, 1985

Vitamin D               NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin E               NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Choline                 NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Folacin                 Author
Niacinavail             NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Pantothenic acid        Author
Riboflavin              Author
Thiamin [B.sub.1]       NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Pyridoxine [B.sub.6]    NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987
Vitamin [B.sub.12]      NRC: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987

DMI: dry matter intake; IU: international unit.

(1) Upper limit for CP is 8% greater than either the AAFCO
recommendation or the total protein computed from the NRC's total
required essential and non-essential amino acids, whichever is higher.

Table 29-5
Feedstuff mineral
bioavailabilities (1)

Mineral                 Bioavailability (2)

Calcium (Ca)                    0.6
Phosphorus (P)          see note (3) below
Sodium (Na)                     0.9
Chloride (Cl)                   0.9
Potassium (K)                   0.9
Magnesium (Mg)                  0.16
Copper (Cu)                     0.04
Iodine (I)                      0.85
Iron (Fe)                       0.1
Manganese (Mn)                  0.0075
Selenium (Se)                   1.0
Zinc (Zn)                       0.15

(1) From dairy NRC (2001) and used in the dog ration formulation
Workbook

(2) Value shown is grams bioavailable in each gram consumed

(3) Application uses inputted value of phosphorus bioavailability
for each feedstuff

Table 29-6
Feeding directions in the dog
ration example (1)

             Inputted     Inputted
             Percent      Density      Weight to Feed  Volume to Feed
             Moisture  (g/cup or can)   (lb. as fed)   (cups or cans)

Dry             10           97             0.6             3.0
Semi-moist      33          142             0.9             2.7
Canned          78          170             2.6             6.9

(1) The calculations assume a single blended feed is fed to the dry
matter requirement. Amounts to feed are expressed in units of weight
and volume, varying by food type--dry, semi-moist, and canned.

Table 29-7

Feedstuff to select for the dog
ration formulation example

AdultMaint

Table 29-8

Feeding rate for the feedstuff
in the dog ration formulation
example

AdultMaint   0.63
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Article Details
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Author:Tisch, David A.
Publication:Animal Feeds, Feeding and Nutrition, and Ration Evaluation
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:3524
Previous Article:Chapter 28 Feeding dogs.
Next Article:Chapter 30 Feeding cats.
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