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Chapter 25: More about verbs.

By the end of this chapter, you should begin to ...

* identify the principal parts of verbs, particularly irregular verbs;

* use simple, perfect, and progressive tenses appropriately;

* avoid unnecessary shifts in tense;

* use the confusing verb pairs lie/lay, rise/raise, and sit/set correctly;

* understand active and passive voice, and use passive voice effectively; and

* recognize the subjunctive mood.

In the last chapter, we studied the forms of the present tense and the rules of subject-verb agreement. We're not done with verbs yet, though. Here, we will look at the principal parts or forms of verbs, common problems with verb tense, and the properties of voice and mood.

THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS

As we saw in Chapter 24, verbs take different forms in order to show the time an action occurred and to agree with the subject of the sentence in person and number. These forms are built from the verb's principal parts: base form, past tense, past participle, and present participle. To find the base form, remove to from the infinitive; for example, the base form of to cook is cook. See Figure 25.1 for a summary of the principal parts of regular verbs.

Irregular verbs take unpredictable forms. For example, study the frequently used but highly irregular forms of to be in Figure 25.2.

Exercise 25.1 | Using the Verb to be

Rewrite the following sentences, inserting the correct form of the verb to be.

1. Last week Jonathan and Dolores--having dinner at a new restaurant.

2. They had--dining at a different restaurant each Friday.

3. Dolores--a culinary student and plans to graduate in three months.

4. --a culinary student gives Dolores a unique perspective on their restaurant experience.

5. She hopes--a restaurant owner herself at some point.

We noted in Chapter 24 that have and do are also irregular verbs and, like to be, they have irregular forms (for example, in the present tense, I have but she has). Irregular verbs may also form the past tense and the past participle in unpredictable ways. They may replace the internal vowel(s) of the base form, such as freeze changing to froze; or they may add a t, such as bend changing to bent; or they may make more sweeping changes in the base form, such as buy changing to bought. Note that while most verbs use the same form for all persons in the past tense, the verb to be is an important exception. However, all verbs form the present participle by adding -ing to the base form (often dropping the final e first).

Figure 25.3 lays out the principal parts of some of the most common irregular verbs. The first column lists the base form, for example, begin. The present tense uses the base form, adding s for the third-person singular. You might read the base column as Today we begin. The second column shows the past tense: Yesterday we began. The third column displays the past participle, the form used to build the perfect tenses: She has begun, We have begun, or We had begun. (The tenses are explained in more detail later in the chapter.)

Remember that in standard written English, the rules for verb forms and for subject-verb agreement may be different from the rules you use when you speak informally. You might say "We begun to plan the menu yesterday," but in academic and business writing, it would be better to write "We began to plan." As you read through Figure 25.3, mark any verb forms that don't "sound right" to you. These might be the forms that give you trouble in formal writing tasks.

Exercise 25.2 | Irregular Verbs

On a separate sheet of paper, write the correct form of the verb in parentheses.

Example: Susan has driven (drive) across the United States several times.

1. Susan's husband Paul has--(come) to enjoy these cross-country trips; he--(come) on the trip to Bermuda two years ago.

2. Last year they--(choose) to travel during the winter; they had--(choose) to travel in the summer the year before.

3. Paul's hands--(freeze) one night when he had to change a tire, kneeling on the mud that had--(freeze) earlier.

4. To warm up, they--(go) into a diner where they had--(go) two years earlier.

5. Jessica--(drink) a cup of hot chocolate flavored with peppermint, a beverage she has--(drink) in a number of different restaurants.

VERB TENSES

Verb tense has to do with time--past, present, and future--and whether an action or condition has been completed or is continuing.

THE SIMPLE TENSES

Let's look at a timeline of the Simple tenses. The present tense is in the middle of the line, the past on the left, and the future on the right.

The present tense describes an action that is happening or a condition that exists now, in the present. For example, Annabella cooks a risotto for dinner, or Annabella's kitchen is full of mouthwatering aromas. The present tense also describes an often-repeated action: Annabella cooks a risotto every Sunday. When writing about a book or a film, we typically describe the action in the present tense, called the literary present: Sam Gamgee cooks a pair of rabbits for himself and Frodo in The Lord of the Rings. Or, in To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout and Jem are attacked as they walk home through the woods. It's as if the story happens for the first time each time we read or watch it, or as if it's always happening; therefore, the present tense seems appropriate.

The past tense describes an action that occurred in the past or a condition that existed in the past. Regular verbs form the past tense by adding --ed or -d (cooked or baked) to the verb base. (See Figure 25.3 for irregular verb forms.) Annabella cooked risotto for her grandmother, or Annabella's kitchen was full of mouthwatering aromas. The future tense is formed with the helping verb will plus the base form of the verb and describes an action that is to take place at some time in the future. For example, Annabella will cook risotto for her grandmother again next week, or Annabella's kitchen will be full of mouthwatering aromas when she cooks on Sunday.

THE PERFECT TENSES

The perfect tenses indicate that an action has been completed or that a condition still exists. Because it's finished, an action in a perfect tense precedes an action in the corresponding simple tense. For example, Before I cooked the meatloaf yesterday, I had made the recipe several times before. Or, I made meatloaf for my dinner guests yesterday only after I had made it several times for the family. Words like before and after often suggest a change in tense.

The three simple and three perfect tenses are positioned on the timeline as follows:

Note that the "perfect" action precedes the "simple" action in each time frame. When two actions occurred in the past but one was completed before the other, we use the past perfect tense for the first one. The past perfect is formed with had + past participle. For example, Annabella had cooked risotto for her grandmother long before she worked at the restaurant. Both actions occurred in the past, but one (cooking the risotto) was completed before the other (working at the restaurant). Review the following examples:

   Yesterday I bought a steak and mushrooms for dinner. I had picked
   some tomatoes in the garden the day before. [That is, I picked the
   tomatoes before I bought the steak. We need the perfect tense.]

   Yesterday I bought a steak and mushrooms for dinner. Then I picked
   some tomatoes in the garden. [That is, I picked the tomatoes in the
   same time frame as I bought the steak. We do not need the perfect
   tense.]

   I saw that there was a long line for the movie. Fortunately I had
   already bought tickets. [I bought the tickets before I saw the line
   for the movie. We need the past perfect.]

   I saw that there was a long line for the movie. Eventually I bought
   tickets. [I bought the tickets in the same time frame as seeing the
   line. We do not need the past perfect.]


If one action follows another, use the simple past. Use the past perfect only for an action that was completed before the timeline of the other actions described in the simple past. Avoid using the past perfect in place of the simple past; that is, do not add had to the verb unless the situation requires the past perfect tense.

The future perfect tense is formed with will have + past participle and expresses an action or condition that will be completed before another action in the future. For example, Annabella will have cooked risotto many times before she begins her new job at the restaurant. Finally, the present perfect tense describes an action that occurred or a condition that existed at some indefinite time in the past. For example, Annabella has cooked risotto on many occasions. The present perfect may also describe an action or condition that began in the past and continues up until or into the present: Annabella has begun to make risotto at work (and may be doing so still).

Exercise 25.3 | Choosing the Appropriate Tense

Choose the correct tense in each pair of verbs in parentheses.

1. Yesterday's basketball game, the last of the season, (was/has been) an exciting one.

2. Joe, who (will be/has been) an inconsistent player for several weeks now, finally began to make good decisions.

3. He stole the ball three times and then (hit/had hit) a series of free throws.

4. Mike made a beautiful pass to Bill, who then unfortunately (missed/will have missed) the shot.

5. Until that point, Bill (had missed/will miss) less than 40% of his shots.

THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES

The six tenses just outlined may also be progressive or continuous; that is, they may indicate that the action was, is, or will be continuing. Study the following examples:

* The past progressive is formed with was/were + present participle: Vanessa was chopping nuts for the biscotti. The chopping was a continuous action in the past, but did not move into the present.

* The present progressive is formed with is/are + present participle: Vanessa is chopping nuts for the biscotti. The chopping began earlier and is still going on.

* The future progressive is formed with will be + present participle: Vanessa will be chopping nuts for the biscotti. She hasn't started yet, but the action will continue for an indefinite length of time in the future.

The perfect tenses also have progressive forms:

* The past perfect progressive is formed with had been + present participle: Vanessa had been chopping nuts for the biscotti all day. The action continued for an indefinite period of time in the past, but was completed before another action in the past.

* The present perfect progressive is formed with has/have been + present participle: Vanessa has been chopping nuts for the biscotti since 10 o'clock this morning. She began chopping earlier and continues to chop now.

* The future perfect progressive is formed with will have been + present participle: By the time we arrive at 11 o'clock, Vanessa will have been chopping nuts for one hour. The action begins in the future, continues for a period of time, and ends before the start of another action in the future.

Certain verbs are rarely used in the progressive, most of which refer to a mental activity rather than to an action in space: appear, believe, belong, contain, have, hear, know, like, need, see, seem, taste, think, understand, and want. Consider these examples:

   Sarah is wanting to bake a perfect angel food cake. [incorrect]

   Sarah wants to bake a perfect angel food cake. [correct]


Exercise 25.4 | Using the Progressive Tenses

Select the appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences.

1. Rosanna (was shopping/is shopping) at the mall all day yesterday.

2. She (was wanting/wanted) to find a special dress for the Valentine's Day party.

3. Her friend Lara also (is needed/needs) a new dress.

4. Lara (will be joining/will have been joining) Rosanna tomorrow for another shopping trip.

5. By tomorrow, Rosanna (was looking/will have been looking) for a dress for two weeks.

AVOIDING UNNECESSARY SHIFTS IN TENSE

One of the most common problems with verb tense is inconsistency, that is, shifting randomly back and forth from the past to the present. Often a story or an essay could be written in either tense. However, once we've made that basic decision, we should generally stay with it and not shift between the two time frames. Study the following example:

   Yesterday Mark went to the store, where he bought a dozen eggs and
   a gallon of milk. Then he picks up a loaf of bread and took the
   items to the checkout line.


Within the flow of these sentences, the present tense picks stands out like a cornstalk in a row of cabbages. It's as if went, bought, and took are on one side of a brick wall and picks is on the other. In fact, it can be helpful to think of tenses in relation to this brick wall. For each writing task, make a decision whether to use the past or present tense, that is, whether to choose the left or the right side of the wall. Once you've made that first choice, you must continue to select verbs from the same side of the wall.

Occasionally, though, an event will fall outside the main stream of the story's timeline. Let's go back to Mark and his trip to the store:

   Yesterday Mark went to the store. He bought a dozen eggs and a
   gallon of milk. In fact, he buys a dozen eggs every week. Then Mark
   paid the cashier.


In this second scenario, the present tense buys is correct. The fact that Mark buys a dozen eggs every week is not in the same time sequence as the specific purchases he made yesterday. There's a door in the brick wall, and on occasions like Mark's weekly purchase of a dozen eggs, we have the key to open that door.

Exercise 25.5 | Avoiding Unnecessary Shifts in Tense

Rewrite the following paragraph,* changing verbs when necessary to maintain consistent tense. First put all the verbs in the present tense; then put them all in the past. Which do you prefer? Why?

   You walk into Roth Hall and were able to notice right away that the
   atmosphere from outside to inside is completely different. The
   light was soft and very dim. I automatically felt comfortable and
   warm when I step inside. As we walked further down the hall, it
   becomes less active and more subtle. I notice the smell of breads
   and other oven-baked products from the kitchen. The front of the
   hall didn't really have a smell. The floor was made for walking in
   any type of shoes that you wanted to. The walls were made of brick
   and give us a very comfortable feeling.


* Adapted from an essay by Yolanda Dillard. The errors were added to create this exercise.

CONFUSING VERBS

Lie and lay are two words that are often confused with one another. They look and sound like each other and even share the form lay. Lie means to be in or to assume a prone position, as in to lie down. For example, The cloth lies smoothly on the table, or The baby lies in her crib. Lie cannot take a direct object; you can't lie "something." Lay, on the other hand, does take a direct object; it means to place or put something somewhere, as in to lay something down. For example, The server lays the cloth smoothly on the table, or The babysitter lays the baby in her crib (cloth and baby are the direct objects).

Let's look at it this way. In this context, lay means put. Therefore, if you can't substitute the word put, you should most likely use lie rather than lay. Take the sentence "The bone is laying on the floor." It wouldn't make sense to say "The bone is putting on the floor," so we need lying rather than laying. See Figure 25.4. The fact that the past tense of lie and the present tense of lay look the same adds to the potential for misunderstanding. Study Figure 25.5. Most errors in the use of lie and lay occur when forms of lay are used with the meaning of lie. Note that while lie's past tense is identical to lay's present tense, no form of lie ends in -d. Do not use laid unless something is being put down: I laid the book on the table.

Another pair of confusing verbs is rise and raise. Rise is used for items that move up on their own, like the sun; rise doesn't take an object. For example, The sun rises every morning. Raise, on the other hand, is used with direct objects and means to bring or put up. The cadet raises the flag every morning. Study the forms and examples in Figure 25.6.

A third pair of bewildering verbs is sit and set. Sit means to assume a seated position and does not take an object. (There's an exception when sit is used in the sense of seat, to cause someone to assume a seated position, for example, sit yourself down, or the theatre sits five hundred people.) For example, The students sit at narrow desks. In contrast, set means to put or place something somewhere; that is, it takes a direct object. For example, The students set their books down on their desks. Note that set has only one form for the present tense, past tense, and past participle. Use set only with the meaning to set something down. Otherwise, use sit or sat. See Figure 25.7.

Note that set can also mean to harden or solidify, as in Let the Jell-O set in the refrigerator overnight. In this context, set does not take a direct object.

Exercise 25.6 | Choosing the Correct Verb

Choose the correct verb in each of the following sentences.

1. The terrier circled his bed three times and (lay/laid) down on the soft flannel.

2. After bustling about the dining room all evening, the server (sat/set) down and drank a glass of water.

3. The temperature typically (rises/raises) after the morning fog disappears.

4. The secret to the movie's success (lies/lays) in its exotic locations and thrilling action sequences.

5. When she (lay/laid) out the good china, she accidentally broke a plate.

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

The concept of voice has to do with who or what is performing the action of the verb and who or what is receiving the action. In the active voice, the subject of the sentence is active; that is, the subject is performing the action of the verb.

   The chef whisked the eggs for the
   Greek omelet. [The subject, chef, is
   actively doing the whisking.]


In the passive voice, the subject of the sentence is receiving the action.

   The eggs were whisked for the
   Greek omelet. [The subject, eggs, is
   passively receiving the whisking.]


Look at Figure 25.8. Here the focus is on the eggs, not the person whisking them: The eggs were whisked. If we wished to include the information that the chef performed the action, we could say The eggs were whisked by the chef, but the focus is still on the eggs.

Verbs in the passive voice use a form of to be plus an appropriate participle. For the simple tenses--present, past, and future--the passive voice employs the past participle. See Figure 25.9. For the perfect tenses, the passive voice employs a form to have, the past participle of to be (that is, been), and the past participle of the main verb. See Figure 25.10. For the progressive tenses, the passive voice employs a form of to be, the present participle of to be (that is, being), and the past participle of the main verb. See Figure 25.11.

In general, the active voice cuts out unnecessary words and adds life to your writing. Look at the difference between these two sentences:

PASSIVE: The baguettes were taken out of the oven by Katie.

ACTIVE: Katie took the baguettes out of the oven.

While it isn't incorrect to use the passive voice, we want to be sure the passive is nicely balanced with the active. Long strings of passive sentences can drain the energy from your writing.

There are some occasions, however, when the passive voice is preferred. For example, you may wish to highlight the recipient of the action or you may not know who or what performed the action, as in these examples:

   The delighted customer was offered a choice between two
   complimentary desserts. [The emphasis is on the recipient of the
   action; we don't care who made the offer.]

   The expensive laptop was stolen from his car. [We don't know who
   performed the action.]


Sometimes we know who performed the action, but we'd like to avoid naming the person. For example, "A mistake was made in the Accounting Department." By avoiding a specific accusation, the passive here softens the blow, perhaps allowing the reader to understand and accept the information more readily.

Exercise 25.7 | The Passive Voice

Each of the following sentences uses the passive voice. Rewrite each one in the active voice. Then explain which you prefer, and why.

1. The delicate wine glass was broken by the inexperienced server.

2. A three-point shot was made at the buzzer by the phenomenal freshman.

3. The lead guitar in Pink Floyd is played by David Gilmour.

4. A copy of the keys will be made by each new tenant.

5. An essay about the perils of drunk driving was written by the man convicted three times of driving while intoxicated.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

We probably don't think of grammar as having any emotion--yet it does have moods! The indicative mood reflects an ordinary, everyday mood; verbs in the indicative mood tell or ask without suggesting any hidden meaning. The large majority of our sentences are in the indicative mood. Second, the imperative mood is used to give orders or commands, for example, "Sharpen your knife" or "Add the egg whites now." Note that the subject of a command is understood to be you. You are the one to add the egg whites. The imperative mood occurs frequently in spoken English and is used extensively in a most familiar publication--the cookbook.

Finally, there is the subjunctive mood, which is used mostly in formal situations to talk about a wish or to make a statement that is not factual. The subjunctive is typically used with were and be. Study the difference between these two sentences:

   If the bell rings before we finish the story, we will finish it
   tomorrow. [rings is in the indicative mood; it is possible for the
   bell to ring]

   If the bell were to ring now, it would interrupt the test. [were to
   ring is in the subjunctive mood; the bell is unlikely to ring]


This form of the subjective mood uses were in all cases, singular or plural: I were (not was), you were, he/she/it were (not was), we were, you were, they were.

   If I were you, I wouldn't stir that sauce so vigorously. [Use the
   subjunctive mood because I am not you.]


Another form of the subjunctive uses be instead of the regular verb forms: I be, you be, he/she/it be, we be, you be, they be. Be is used in certain formal structures, for example, in clauses following words such as advise, ask, recommend, request, and suggest.

   Jack's supervisor recommended that he be given another chance.

   Jill advises that the bell be rung ten minutes before closing.


Exercise 25.8 | The Subjunctive Mood

Read each sentence carefully. If the underlined verb in the sentence is correct, write the letter C on the line. If the subjunctive mood is required, write the appropriate form (be or were) on the line.

-- 1. The doctor recommended that the x-ray was repeated.

-- 2. If it rains, Grandma will take down the clothes that are hanging out to dry.

-- 3. If I was you, I would take those cookies out of the oven.

-- 4. Jane would be thrilled if Bingley was to propose to her.

-- 5. Jane's mother suggested that Bingley be invited to dinner.

RECIPE FOR REVIEW

VERB FORMS

1. Regular verbs use predictable forms for their tenses and participles (Figure 25.1).

2. Irregular verb forms are unpredictable and must be memorized (Figures 25.2 and 25.3).

CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE TENSE

1. Use the past tense for action that happened or a condition that existed in the past.

2. Use the present tense for action that is happening now or is often repeated, as well as to describe the action in a book or film.

3. Use the future for action that is to take place in the future.

4. Use the past perfect when one action in the past was completed before another.

5. Use the present perfect for an action that occurred or a condition that existed at some indefinite time in the past.

6. Use the future perfect for an action that will be completed before another time in the future.

Tense             Example

past              Annabella cooked risotto for her
                    grandmother last week.
present           Annabella cooks a risotto every Sunday.

future            Annabella will cook risotto for her
                    grandmother again next week.
past perfect      Annabella had cooked risotto for her
                    grandmother long before she
                    worked at the restaurant.

present perfect   Annabella has cooked risotto on
                    many occasions.
future perfect    Annabella will have cooked risotto
                    many times before she
                    begins her new job
                    at the restaurant.


USING THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES

Each of the six tenses has a progressive form, which indicates that the action is continuing. The past, present, and future construct the progressive with a form of to be plus the present participle (--ing). The perfect tenses form the progressive with a form of to have plus the present participle.

AVOIDING UNNECESSARY SHIFTS IN TENSE

If you begin a story in the past tense, keep your verbs in the past. Similarly, if you begin a story in the present tense, keep your verbs in the present. Remember the brick wall. However, if a single action takes place out of the flow of events, choose the appropriate tense for that exception.

CONFUSING VERBS

Study the confusing verb pairs in Figures 25.4 and 25.5 (lie and lay), 25.6 (rise and raise), and 25.7 (sit and set).

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

Do not allow long strings of passive sentences to creep into your writing. The active voice is often clearer and livelier.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Use the subjunctive form were to talk about a wish or make a statement that is not factual. Use be in clauses following advise, ask, recommend, request, suggest.

CHAPTER QUIZ

DIRECTIONS: PART I. Choose the correct verb in each pair of parentheses.

1. The charm of the movie Star Trek (lies/lays) in the liveliness and vulnerability of its characters.

2. Young Jim Kirk (had drank/had drunk) too much and started a fight at the bar.

3. Young Uhura also (had went/had gone) to the bar, where she met Kirk for the first time.

4. Young Spock had to (chose/choose) between a career on Vulcan or with the Federation.

5. When we went to the movies last night, we (see/saw) a double feature.

6. George likes to watch science fiction blockbusters while Catherine (prefers/ preferred) quirky independent films.

7. Both the cat and the dog (are lying/are laying) on the sofa.

8. If I (was/were) a cat, I would hiss at the dog.

9. Homicide: Life on the Street, an Emmy-winning crime drama from the 1990s, had a gritty feel that (rang/rung) true with viewers.

10. In the first season, rookie Tim Bayliss requested that he (was/be) assigned to the case of a 12-year-old girl named Adena Watson.

DIRECTIONS: PART II. Read the following passage, and change the five verbs in the present tense to the past.

In a later season of Homicide, Bayliss and his partner Frank Pembleton were assigned to a unique murder case in which the "victim" was still alive. John Lange was on his way to work via the subway when he is pushed onto the tracks. Lange was wedged between the train and the platform, and his spinal cord was severely damaged. The paramedics on the scene tell Pembleton and Bayliss that Lange would bleed to death as soon as he was moved. The emotionally distant Pembleton responds to the dying man's questions and fears. Meanwhile, Bayliss concentrated on a witness who was behaving oddly. The man was mentally ill and intentionally pushed Lange off the platform. During this time Detectives Lewis and Falsone are trying to find Lange's girlfriend, without success. As the medics prepared to move Lange, Pembleton kneels by his side. Things went badly. When the detectives emerged from the subway, they watched helplessly as the ambulance drove away.

Figure 25.1 Principal Parts of Regular Verbs

Verb Form            Formation           Example

infinitive           to + base form      to cook

present tense        base form (+ s in   cook cooks
                       third-person
                       singular)

past tense           base form + ed      cooked

present participle   base form + ing     cooking

past participle      base form + ed      (have) cooked

Figure 25.2 Principal Parts of the Irregular Verb to be

Verb Form            Example
infinitive           to be
present tense        (I) am
                     (we, you, they) are
                     (he, she, it) is
past tense           (I, he, she, it) was
                     (we, you, they) were
present participle   being
past participle      (have) been

Figure 25.3 Selected Irregular Verbs

Base               Past Tense          Past Participle
Today we ...       Yesterday we ...    We have ... before.

bear               bore                (have) borne
beat               beat                (have) beaten or beat
become             became              (have) become
begin              began               (have) begun
bend               bent                (have) bent
bite               bit                 (have) bitten
bleed              bled                (have) bled
blow               blew                (have) blown
break              broke               (have) broken
bring              brought             (have) brought
build              built               (have) built
burn               burned or burnt     (have) burned or burnt
burst              burst               (have) burst
buy                bought              (have) bought
catch              caught              (have) caught
choose             chose               (have) chosen
come               came                (have) come
cost               cost                (have) cost
creep              crept               (have) crept
cut                cut                 (have) cut
deal               dealt               (have) dealt
dig                dug                 (have) dug
dive               dived or dove       (have) dived
do                 did                 (have) done
draw               drew                (have) drawn
drink              drank               (have) drunk
drive              drove               (have) driven
eat                ate                 (have) eaten
fall               fell                (have) fallen
feed               fed                 (have) fed
feel               felt                (have) felt
fight              fought              (have) fought
fly                flew                (have) flown
forbid             forbade or forbad   (have) forbidden
forget             forgot              (have) forgotten or forgot
freeze             froze               (have) frozen
get                got                 (have) got or gotten
give               gave                (have) given
go                 went                (have) gone
grind              ground              (have) ground
grow               grew                (have) grown
hang (a picture)   hung                (have) hung
hang (a person)    hanged              (have) hanged
have               had                 (have) had
hear               heard               (have) heard
hide               hid                 (have) hidden
hold               held                (have) held
hurt               hurt                (have) hurt
keep               kept                (have) kept
knit               knit or knitted     (have) knit or knitted
know               knew                (have) known
lay                laid                (have) laid
lead               led                 (have) led
leave              left                (have) left
lend               lent                (have) lent
let                let                 (have) let
lie                lay                 (have) lain
light              lighted or lit      (have) lighted or lit
lose               lost                (have) lost
make               made                (have) made
mean               meant               (have) meant
meet               met                 (have) met
mistake            mistook             (have) mistaken
pay                paid                (have) paid
prove              proved              (have) proven or proven
put                put                 (have) put
quit               quit                (have) quit or quitted
read (pronounced   read (pronounced    (have) read
  reed)              red)                (pronounced red)
ride               rode                (have) ridden
ring               rang                (have) rung
rise               rose                (have) risen
run                ran                 (have) run
say                said                (have) said
see                saw                 (have) seen
sell               sold                (have) sold
send               sent                (have) sent
set                set                 (have) set
sew                sewed               (have) sewn or sewed
shake              shook               (have) shaken
shine              shone or shined     (have) shone or shined
shoot              shot                (have) shot
show               showed              (have) shown or showed
shut               shut                (have) shut
sing               sang                (have) sung
sink               sank or sunk        (have) sunk
sit                sat                 (have) sat
sleep              slept               (have) slept
slide              slid                (have) slid
sow                sowed               (have) sown or sowed
speak              spoke               (have) spoken
speed              sped or speeded     (have) sped or speeded
spend              spent               (have) spent
stand              stood               (have) stood
steal              stole               (have) stolen
stick              stuck               (have) stuck
sting              stung               (have) stung
stink              stank or stunk      (have) stunk
strike             struck              (have) struck or stricken
swear              swore               (have) sworn
swim               swam                (have) swum
swing              swung               (have) swung
take               took                (have) taken
teach              taught              (have) taught
tear               tore                (have) torn
tell               told                (have) told
think              thought             (have) thought
throw              threw               (have) thrown
understand         understood          (have) understood
wake               woke or waked       (have) woken/waked/woke
wear               wore                (have) worn
weave              wove or weaved      (have) woven or weaved
weep               wept                (have) wept
win                won                 (have) won
wind               wound               (have) wound
write              wrote               (have) written

Figure 25.5 Lie and Lay

                to lie (down)            to lay (something down)

present tense   lie/lies                 lay/lays
                The cloth lies           The server lays the cloth
                smoothly on the table.   smoothly on the table.

past tense      lay                      laid
                The cloth lay on the     The server laid the cloth on
                table yesterday.         the table yesterday.

past            lain                     laid
participle      The cloth has lain       The server has laid the cloth
                smoothly on the table    smoothly on the table many
                many times.              times.

present         lying                    laying
participle      The cloth is lying       The server was laying the
                smoothly on the table.   cloth smoothly on the table.

Figure 25.6 Rise and Raise

             to rise (up on its own)        to raise (something
                                            up)

present      rise/rises                     raise/raises
tense        The internal temperature       You raise the
             rises as the chicken cooks.    temperature of the
                                            chicken by cooking
                                            it.

past tense   rose                           raised
             The internal temperature       You raised the
             rose as the chicken cooked.    temperature of the
                                            chicken by cooking
                                            it.

past         risen                          raised
participle   The internal temperature has   You have raised the
             risen as the chicken cooked.   temperature of the
                                            chicken by cooking
                                            it.

present      rising                         raising
participle   The internal temperature is    You are raising the
             rising as the chicken cooks.   internal temperature
                                            of the chicken by
                                            cooking it.

Figure 25.7 Sit and Set

             to sit (on something)       to set (something down)

present      sit/sits                    set/sets
tense

             Every day the diners sit    Every day the servers set
             at the wooden table.        the table for dinner.

past tense   sat                         set

             Yesterday the diners sat    Yesterday the servers set
             at the wooden table.        the table for dinner.

past         sat                         set
participle

             The diners have sat at      The servers have set the
             the wooden table many       table for dinner many
             times before.               times before.

present      sitting                     setting
participle

             The diners are sitting at   The servers are setting
             the wooden table.           the table for dinner.

Figure 25.9 The Simple Tenses

Verb/Tense      Active Voice   Passive Voice       Forming the
                                                   Passive Voice

whisk/present   whisk/whisks   is/are whisked      present tense of
                                                   to be + past
                The chef       The eggs are        participle of
                whisks         whisked by          whisk
                the eggs.      the chef.

whisk/past      whisked        was/were whisked    past tense of to
                                                   be + past
                The chef       The eggs were       participle of
                whisked        whisked by          whisk
                the eggs.      the chef.

whisk/future    will whisk     will be whisked     future tense of
                                                   to be + past
                The chef       The eggs will be    participle of
                will whisk     whisked by          whisk
                the eggs.      the chef.

Figure 25.10 The Perfect Tenses

Verb/Tense      Active Voice      Passive Voice     Forming the
                                                    Passive Voice

whisk/present   has/have          has/have been     present tense
perfect         whisked The       whisked           of to have +
                chef has                            been + past
                whisked the       The eggs have     participle of
                eggs.             been whisked by   whisk
                                  the chef.

whisk/past      had whisked The   had been          past tense of
perfect         chef had          whisked The       to have + been
                whisked the       eggs had been     + past parti-
                eggs.             whisked by the    ciple of whisk
                                  chef.

whisk/future    will have         will have been    future tense of
perfect         whisked The       whisked           to have + been
                chef will have                      + past
                whisked the       The eggs will     participle of
                eggs.             have been         whisk
                                  whisked by the
                                  chef.

Figure 25.11 The Progressive Tenses

Verb/Tense        Active Voice              Passive Voice

whisk/present     is/are whisking           is/are being whisked
progressive       The chef is whisking      The eggs are being
                  the eggs.                 whisked by the chef.

whisk/past        was/were whisking         was/were being
progressive       The chef was whisking     whisked
                  the eggs.                 The eggs were being
                                            whisked by the chef.

whisk/future      will be whisking          will be whisked'
progressive       The chef will be          The eggs will be
                  whisking the eggs.        whisked by the chef.

Verb/Tense        Active Voice              Passive Voice

whisk/present     is/are whisking           is/are being whisked
progressive       The chef is whisking      The eggs are being
                  the eggs.                 whisked by the chef.

whisk/past        was/were whisking         was/were being
progressive       The chef was whisking     whisked
                  the eggs.                 The eggs were being
                                            whisked by the chef.

whisk/future      will be whisking          will be whisked'
progressive       The chef will be          The eggs will be
                  whisking the eggs.        whisked by the chef.

Verb/Tense        Forming the
                  Passive Voice
whisk/present     present tense of to be
progressive       + being + past
                  participle of whisk

whisk/past        past tense of to be +
progressive       being + past participle
                  of whisk

whisk/future      future tense of to be +
progressive       being + past participle
                  of whisk

Verb/Tense        Forming the
                  Passive Voice

whisk/present     present tense of to be
progressive       + being + past
                  participle of whisk

whisk/past        past tense of to be +
progressive       being + past participle
                  of whisk

whisk/future      future tense of to be +
progressive       being + past participle
                  of whisk

* In the passive voice, the simple future is more commonly
used than a future progressive form.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:UNIT 3: PRESENTATION
Author:Cadbury, Vivian C.
Publication:A Taste for Writing, Composition for Culinarians
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2015
Words:6342
Previous Article:Chapter 24: Subject-verb agreement.
Next Article:Chapter 26: Pronouns and point of view.
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