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Chapter 22 Chocolate and chocolate work.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE SPRAY

A blend of cocoa butter and chocolate, these chocolate sprays are
used to create a quick and easy velvet finish on cakes. For best
results, ensure that the cake, or item being sprayed, is frozen and
that the spray is the proper temperature.

Dark Chocolate Spray Formula

Ingredients          Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

64% chocolate            50.00        0.227        0.500
Cocoa butter             50.00        0.227        0.500
Tota1                   100.00        0.454        1.000

Ingredients           Lb & Oz       Test

64% chocolate                8        8 oz
Cocoa butter                 8        8 oz
Total                     1  0        1 lb

Milk Chocolate Spray Formula

Ingredients          Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

35% milk chocolate       65.00        0.295        0.650
Cocoa butter             35.00        0.159        0.350
Total                   100.00        0.454        1.000

Ingredients           Lb & Oz       Test

35% milk chocolate      10 3/8    10 3/8 oz
Cocoa butter             5 5/8     5 5/8 oz
Total                    1   0         1 lb

White Chocolate Spray Formula

Ingredients          Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

White couverture         80.00        0.363        0.800
Cocoa butter             20.00        0.091        0.200
Total                   100.00        0.454        1.000

Ingredients           Lb & Oz       Test

White couverture        12 3/4    12 3/4 oz
Cocoa butter             3 1/4     3 1/4 oz
Total                    1   0         1 lb

Process

Melt the chocolate and cocoa butter to 120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C),
and spray onto the frozen item using a spray gun.

FORMULA

MACARON FILLINGS

These macaron fillings are all based on ganaches. They create very
flavorful fillings that have a smooth and creamy mouth-feel.

Dark Chocolate Macaron Filling Formula

Ingredients         Baker's %   Kilogram    US decimal

35% cream               72.00       0.471       1.039
Inverted sugar           9.00       0.059       0.130
70% couverture         100.00       0.654       1.442
Butter                  10.00       0.065       0.144
Total                  191.00       1.250       2.755

Ingredients          Lb & Oz      Test

35% cream               1 5/8   12 1/8 oz
Inverted sugar              2    1 3/8 oz
70% couverture        1 7 1/8      3/4 oz
Butter                  2 3/8    1 5/8 oz
Total                2 12 1/8        2 lb

Uses: Macaron fillings, enrobed or molded chocolates

Process, Dark Chocolate Macaron Filling

1. Bring the cream and inverted sugar to boil, and form an emulsion
with the chocolate.

2. Next, add the soft butter at 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C) and
emulsify well.

3. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.

Raspberry Macaron Filling Formula

Ingredients         Baker's %   Kilogram    US decimal

Raspberry puree        126.00       0.455       1.003
Sugar                   63.00       0.228       0.502
Glucose                 32.00       0.116       0.255
White chocolate        100.00       0.361       0.796
Cocoa butter             9.00       0.033       0.072
Butter                  16.00       0.058       0.127
Total                  346.00       1.250       2.755

Ingredients          Lb & Oz      Test

Raspberry puree         1   0    11 5/8 oz
Sugar                       8     5 7/8 oz
Glucose                 4 1/8         3 oz
White chocolate        12 3/4     9 1/4 oz
Cocoa butter            1 1/8       7/8 oz
Butter                      2     1 1/2 OZ
Total                2 12 1/8         2 lb

Uses: Macaron fillings, molded chocolates

Process, Raspberry Macaron Filling

1. Warm the puree and reserve.

2. Cook the sugar dry to caramel stage. Add the glucose to deglaze.

3. Next, add the warmed puree.

4. Strain through chinois over the chocolate and cocoa butter and
form an emulsion.

5. Once cooled to 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the soft butter.

6. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.

Cappuccino Macaron Filling Formula

Ingredients       Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

35% cream           40.00        0.239        0.526
Trimoline            8.00        0.048        0.105
Trablit             13.33        0.080        0.175
White chocolate     100.00       0.597        1.316
Butter, soft        48.00        0.287        0.632
Total               209.33       1.250        2.755

Ingredients         Lb & Oz       Test

35% cream              8 3/8      6 oz
Trimoline              1 5/8      1 oz
Trablit                2 3/4      2 oz
White chocolate        1   5     15 oz
Butter, soft          10 1/8      7 oz
Total               2 12 1/8      2 lb

Uses: Macaron fillings, enrobed or molded
Process, Cappuccino Macaron Filling

1. Melt the white chocolate and reserve.

2. Bring the cream and the inverted sugar to a boil and form an
emulsion with the chocolate.

3. Add the coffee extract.

4. Next, add the soft butter at 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) and
emulsify well.

5. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.

Lemon Macaron Filling Formula

Ingredients       Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Lemon zest           2.73        0.016        0.036
Lemon juice         29.09        0.172        0.378
Egg yolks           29.09        0.172        0.378
Sugar               18.18        0.107        0.236
Butter #1, soft      5.45        0.032        0.071
White chocolate    100.00        0.590        1.301
Butter #2, soft     27.27        0.161        0.355
Total              211.81        1.250        2.755

Ingredients        Lb & Oz        Test

Lemon zest              5/8       3/8 oz
Lemon juice           6         4 3/8 oz
Egg yolks             6         4 3/8 oz
Sugar                 3 3/4     2 3/4 oz
Butter #1, soft       1 1/8       7/8 oz
White chocolate     1 4 3/4    15 1/8 oz
Butter #2, soft       5 5/8     4 1/8 oz
Total              2 12 1/8         2 lb

Uses: Macaron filling, molded chocolates

Process, Lemon Macaron Filling

1. Melt the white chocolate, and deposit into a food processor.

2. Cook the lemon zest, lemon juice, egg yolks, and sugar to
190[degrees]F (88[degrees]C), stirring constantly.

3. When the temperature is reached, take off the heat, add the first
butter, and mix in to stabilize.

4. Pour over the melted white chocolate, and form an emulsion. Add the
second butter at 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C).

5. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.

Pistachio Macaron Filling Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

35% cream                47.76         0.304         0.669
Cinnamon                  0.30         0.002         0.004
Inverted sugar            5.22         0.033         0.073
White chocolate         100.00         0.636         1.402
Pistachio paste          20.90         0.133         0.293
Butter                   22.39         0.142         0.314
Total                   196.57         1.250         2.755

Ingredients             Lb & Oz        Test

35% cream                  10 3/4      7 3/4 oz
Cinnamon                      1/8       1/4 tsp
Inverted sugar              1 1/8        7/8 oz
White chocolate           1 6 3/8   1 lb 1/4 oz
Pistachio paste             4 5/8      3 3/8 oz
Butter                          5      3 5/8 oz
Total                    2 12 1/8          2 lb

Uses: Macaron filling, enrobed or molded chocolates

Process, Pistachio Macaron Filling

1. Melt the white chocolate and reserve.

2. Bring the cream, cinnamon, and inverted sugar to a boil, and form
an emulsion with the chocolate.

3. Add the pistachio paste.

4. Next, add the soft butter at 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), and
emulsify well.

5. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.

Passion Fruit Macaron Filling Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Passion fruit puree      45.21         0.331         0.730
Trimoline                 5.48         0.040         0.088
Milk chocolate          100.00         0.732         1.614
Butter                   20.00         0.146         0.323
Total                   170.69         1.250         2.755

Ingredients             Lb & Oz        Test

Passion fruit puree        11 5/8        8 1/z oz
Trimoline                   1 3/8            1 oz
Milk chocolate            1 9 7/8   1 lb 2 3/4 oz
Butter                      5 1/8        3 3/4 oz
Total                    2 12 1/8            2 lb

Uses: Macaron filling, molded chocolates

Process, Passion Fruit Macaron Filling

1. Melt the milk chocolate over a bain-marie or in the microwave and
reserve.

2. Combine the passion fruit puree and the inverted sugar, and bring
to a light boil.

3. Pour the fruit puree over the melted milk chocolate, and form an
emulsion.

4. Add the butter at 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), and emulsify well.

5. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

RAISIN GANACHE

Raisins, dark rum, and vanilla are highlighted against a backdrop of
creamy white chocolate ganache. Enrobed in milk or dark chocolate,
or as a molded candy, this is sure to be a favorite.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

35% cream                    43.00          0.302          0.666
Vanilla bean                  Each          2              2
Inverted sugar                8.00          0.056          0.124
White chocolate             100.00          0.702          1.548
Butter                       11.00          0.077          0.170
Raisins                      11.00          0.077          0.170
Spiced rum                    5.00          0.035          0.077
Total                       178.00          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

35% cream                      10 5/8       7 3/4 oz
Vanilla bean                        2     1 1/2 each
Inverted sugar                      2       1 1/2 oz
White chocolate               1 8 3/4      1 lb 2 oz
Butter                          2 3/4           2 oz
Raisins                         2 3/4           2 oz
Spiced rum                      1 1/4         7/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Enrobed or molded chocolates

Process

1. Macerate the raisins with the rum for 24 hours.

2. Melt the chocolate, and set aside.

3. Bring the cream, vanilla bean, and inverted sugar to a boil.

4. Pour over the chocolate and form an emulsion.

5. Add the butter when the emulsion reaches 95[degrees]F
(35[degrees]C).

6. Form a paste out of the macerated raisins, and fold into the
ganache.

7. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

EARL GREY GANACHE

Earl Grey tea is a blend of black tea flavored with the aromatic oil
of bergamot orange. By infusing the tea into the cream to make the
ganache, a strong flavor of bergamot is achieved. When combined
with milk and dark chocolate, the result is a complex and sophisticated
ganache. Enrobed or molded in dark chocolate, this can be
garnished with some tea leaves.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

35% cream                    50.00          0.360          0.794
Earl Grey tea                 8.33          0.060          0.132
Inverted sugar                2.10          0.015          0.033
Honey                         2.10          0.015          0.033
35% milk chocolate           83.00          0.598          1.318
58% chocolate                17.00          0.122          0.270
Butter                       11.00          0.079          0.175
Total                       173.53          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

35% cream                      12 3/4       9 1/4 oz
Earl Grey tea                   2 1/8      1 1/2  oz
Inverted sugar                    1/2         3/8 oz
Honey                             1/2         3/8 oz
35% milk chocolate            1 5 1/8      14 1/4 oz
58% chocolate                   4 3/8       3 1/8 oz
Butter                          2 3/4           2 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Molded chocolates

Process

1. Melt the chocolates together and set aside.

2. Boil the cream, and add the tea.

3. Cover the pot with plastic wrap, and let infuse for 10 minutes.

4. Strain the tea from the cream.

5. Rescale the cream to the original amount, using whole milk.

6. Add the inverted sugar and honey to the cream and bring back to a
boil.

7. Pour over the chocolate, and form an emulsion.

8. When the emulsion reaches 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the
butter.

9. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.

FORMULA

MADAGASCAN VANILLA GANACHE

The finest vanilla comes from Madagascar, the world's largest producer.
It is prized for its rich mellow flavor and consistent quality.
This candy features a robust vanilla flavor through using a hot infusion
of the vanilla into the cream.

Ingredients               Baker's %     Kilogram        US decimal

35% cream                  70.00        0.490           1.080
Trimoline                   8.57        0.060           0.132
Vanilla bean                Each        3               3
58% chocolate             100.00        0.700           1.543
Total                     178.57        1.250           2.755

Ingredients               Lb & Oz       Test

35% cream                     1 1 1/4       12 1/2 oz
Trimoline                       2 1/8        1 1/2 oz
Vanilla bean                        3        2.5 each
58% chocolate                 1 8 5/8   1 lb 1 7/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8            2 lb

Uses: Enrobed and molded chocolates

Process

1. Partially melt the chocolate and set aside.

2. Bring the cream, inverted sugar, and vanilla bean to a boil.

3. Cover with plastic wrap, and let infuse for 20 minutes.

4. Bring the cream backto a boil.

5. Pour the cream over the chocolate, and form an emulsion.

6. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

70 PERCEN1T GANACHE

This rich, dark chocolate ganache with a hint of vanilla bean is
perfect for truffles or molded or enrobed chocolates. For an interesting
variation and highlight of flavor, try using an identity-preserved
couverture.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

35% cream                    81.75          0.466          1.026
Inverted sugar               17.54          0.100          0.220
Vanilla bean                  Each          1 1/2          1 1/2
70% couverture              100.00          0.569          1.255
Butter                       20.17          0.115          0.253
Total                       219.46          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

35% cream                      1 3/8       11 7/8 oz
Inverted sugar                  3 1/2       2 1/2 oz
Vanilla bean                    1 1/2         1 each
70% couverture                1 4 1/8      14 5/8 oz
Butter                              4           3 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Molded and enrobed chocolates

Process

1. Bring the cream, inverted sugar, and vanilla bean to a boil.

2. Cover with plastic wrap, and allow to infuse for 15 minutes.

3. Bring the cream back to a boil.

4. Pour the cream over the chocolate, and form an emulsion.

5. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the butter.

6. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

COFFEE GANACHE

This treat is an irresistible mixture of two favorite flavors: chocolate
and espresso. Enrobed or molded in milk or dark chocolate, this
candy has the full flavor of coffee and a smooth and creamy texture.

Ingredients               Baker's %      Kilogram        US decimal

35% cream                    66.15          0.407          0.897
Espresso beans               10.76          0.066          0.146
Inverted sugar                9.23          0.057          0.125
58% chocolate               100.00          0.615          1.357
Butter                       16.92          0.104          0.230
Total                       203.06          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                  Lb & Oz         Test

35% cream                      14 3/8      10 3/8 oz
Espresso beans                  2 3/8       1 3/4 oz
Inverted sugar                      2       1 1/2 oz
58% chocolate                 1 5 3/4      15 3/4 oz
Butter                          3 5/8       2 5/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Enrobed or molded chocolates

Process

1. Melt the chocolate and set aside.

2. Grind the coffee beans.

3. Boil the cream, and add the ground coffee beans.

4. Cover the pot with plastic wrap, and let infuse for 10 minutes.

5. Strain the grounds from the cream.

6. Add the inverted sugar to the cream, and bring back to a boil.

7. Pour over the chocolate, and form an emulsion.

8. When the emulsion reaches 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the
butter.

9. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

CASSIS GANACHE

This smooth milk and dark chocolate ganache is enlivened by the
acidity of cassis puree.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Cassis puree                 33.00          0.267          0.588
Glucose                       8.50          0.069          0.152
Milk couverture              54.00          0.437          0.963
58% couverture               46.00          0.372          0.820
Butter                       10.00          0.081          0.178
Creme de cassis               3.05          0.025          0.054
Total                       154.55          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Cassis puree                    9 3/8           7 oz
Glucose                         2 3/8       1 3/4 oz
Milk couverture                15 3/8      11 3/8 oz
58% couverture                 13 1/8       9 3/a oz
Butter                          2 7/8       2 1/8 oz
Creme de cassis                   7/8         5/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Enrobed or molded chocolate

Process

1. Melt the chocolates and set aside.

2. Bring the puree and glucose to a boil.

3. Pour the puree over the chocolate, and form an emulsion.

4. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the butter, and form an
emulsion.

5. Add the creme de cassis, and stir to incorporate.

6. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.

FORMULA

WHISKEY GANACHE

The evolution of flavor when eating this chocolate candy is a pleasure
for the senses. Out of a rich and creamy base, the whiskey rises
out for a robust and complex experience in this adult chocolate
filling.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

35% cream                    40.00          0.280          0.617
Inverted sugar               11.42          0.080          0.176
Milk couverture              57.15          0.400          0.882
58% couverture               42.85          0.300          0.661
Butter                       15.71          0.110          0.242
Scotch whiskey               11.42          0.080          0.176
Total                       178.55          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

35% cream                       9 7/8       7 5/8 oz
Inverted sugar                  2 7/8       2 1/8 oz
Milk couverture                14 1/8          11 oz
58% couverture                 10 5/8       8 1/4 oz
Butter                          3 7/8           3 oz
Scotch whiskey                  2 7/8       2 1/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Molded and enrobed chocolates

Process

1. Melt the chocolates and set aside.

2. Bring the cream and inverted sugar to a boil.

3. Pour the cream over the chocolate, and form an emulsion.

4. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the butter, and form an emulsion.

5. Add the whiskey, and stir to incorporate.

6. For storage, cover to the surface with plastic wrap.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

CINNAMON HAZELNUT PRALINE

Spiced with cinnamon and flavored with two types of hazelnut
paste, sweetened and unsweetened, this candy is loaded with textures
and flavors that are rich, yet melt delicately in the mouth.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Praline paste 60% fruit      38.23          0.260          0.573
Hazelnut paste               40.44          0.275          0.606
Cinnamon                      1.47          0.010          0.022
Inverted sugar                3.67          0.025          0.055
Milk couverture              29.41          0.200          0.441
Gianduja                     70.58          0.480          1.058
Total                       183.80          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Praline paste 60% fruit         9 1/8       6 3/4 oz
Hazelnut paste                  9 3/4       7 1/8 oz
Cinnamon                          3/8         1/4 oz
Inverted sugar                    7/8         5/8 oz
Milk couverture                     7       5 1/8 oz
Gianduja                        1 7/8      12 3/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Enrobed or molded chocolates

Process

1. Melt the milk chocolate and gianduja and set aside.

2. Combine the praline paste, hazelnut paste, and cinnamon with the
inverted sugar, and warm to 120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C).

3. Combine with the melted chocolate, and form an emulsion.

4. Cool to 72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) on a sanitized, dry granite
slab, and use as desired.

Note

Hazelnut paste is unsweetened. If hazelnut paste is not available,
roast hazelnuts in a low oven until golden brown. Then, process
in a food processor until a fine paste is achieved.

FORMULA

PEANUT BUTTER PRALINE

This praline is a sophisticated version of a child's favorite flavor
combination: chocolate and peanut butter. Slightly salty, sweet,
creamy, and crunchy, the sensation of peanut butter just slightly
lingers in the mouth, leaving one wanting more.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Milk couverture             100.00          0.165          0.365
Cocoa butter                 42.42          0.070          0.155
Powdered sugar               60.60          0.100          0.221
Peanut butter,              509.00          0.842          1.856
unsalted
Salt                         7.27           0.012          0.027
Paillete feuilletine         36.36          0.060          0.133
Total                       755.65          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Milk couverture                 5 7/8        4 1/2 oz
Cocoa butter                    2 1/2        1 7/8 oz
Powdered sugar                  3 1/2        2 3/4 oz
Peanut butter,               1 13 1/4   1 lb 6 5/8 oz
unsalted
Salt                              3/8          3/8 oz
Paillete feuilletine            2 1/8        1 5/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8            2 lb

Uses: Enrobed or molded chocolates

Process

1. Melt the chocolate and cocoa butter to 110[degrees]F (44[degrees]C),
and set aside.

2. Sift the powdered sugar.

3. Combine the peanut butter with the chocolate mixture.

4. Fold in the sifted powered sugar and salt.

5.      Fold in the paillet6 feuilletine.

6. Cool to 72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) on a sanitized, dry granite slab
and use as desired.

FORMULA

CRISPY MILK CHOCOLATE PRALINE

This praline is a blend of milk chocolate, praline paste, butter, and
paillete feuilletine. The result is a slightly firm, yet
melts-in-the-mouth sensation with a strong hazelnut flavor and crispy
highlights provided by the paillete feuilletine.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Milk couverture             100.00          0.660          1.455
Praline paste 60% fruit      62.87          0.415          0.915
Soft butter                  21.21          0.140          0.309
Paillete feuilletine          5.30          0.035          0.077
Total                       189.38          1.250          2.755

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Milk couverture               1 7 1/4    1 lb 1/8 oz
Praline paste 60% fruit        14 5/8      10 5/8 oz
Soft butter                     4 7/8       3 5/8 oz
Paillete feuilletine            1 1/4         7/8 oz
Total                        2 12 1/8           2 lb

Uses: Enrobed or molded chocolates

Process

1. Melt the chocolate to 120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C) and set aside.

2. Heat the praline noisette to 120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C), and add
to the chocolate.

3. When 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the butter and emulsify.

4. Fold in the paillete feuilletine.

5. Cool to 72[degrees]F (22[degrees]C) on a sanitized, dry granite
slab, and use as desired.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

MENDIANTS

Also referred to as beggars, the term mendiant is commonly applied
to preparations that include a mixture of dried fruits and nuts. The
combination symbolized the original mendicant orders from the
Middle Ages and the colors of their robes: raisins for the Dominicans,
hazelnuts for the Augustans, dried figs for the Franciscans,
and almonds for the Carmelites.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Mise en Place

Tempered couverture
Nut/fruit mixture:

Candied nuts (almond, pistachio, hazelnut)
Candied fruit (orange peel, lemon peel)
Dried fruit (raisin, cherry)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Process

1. Pipe dots of chocolate onto a sheet of parchment paper.

2. Before the chocolate sets, garnish with a selection of fruits and
nuts.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]


CHAPTER SUMMARY

Chocolate is a dynamic ingredient and is used in many types of confections, pastries, and even some breads and savory foods. Understanding its origins and processing better enables one to know its working properties and understand variations in chocolate characteristics. The process of tempering must be understood and put into practice in order to produce chocolate confections, decorations, and showpieces. Being able to work with the three main types of chocolate (white, milk, and dark) enables one to make a wide range of confections and decorations. Furthermore, it enables one to have a better understanding of how chocolate reacts in preparations such as ganache, pralines, and mousse. When learning to work with chocolate, it is mandatory to observe temperature as it relates to crystallization, which affects the working properties of chocolate and, in turn, the final product. Practice, patience, and attention to detail are required for learning how to control chocolate and achieve the desired results.

KEY TERMS

* Bittersweet chocolate

* Cacao bean

* Chocolate liquor

* Chocolatier

* Coating chocolate

* Cocoa butter

* Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE)

* Cocoa mass

* Cocoa paste

* Cocoa powder

* Conching

* Cotyledon

* Co uverture

* Criollo

* Dark chocolate

* Dutched cocoa powder

* Enrobed chocolates

* Fat bloom

* Forastero

* Form V crystallization

* Gianduja

* Grinding

* Milk chocolate

* Molded chocolates

* Oleic acid

* Origin chocolate

* Overtempered

* Palmitic acid

* Polymorphic

* Seizing

* Semi-sweet chocolate

* Stearic acid

* Sugar bloom

* Sweet chocolate

* Tempering

* Terroir

* Test strip

* Theobroma cacao

* Triglyceride

* Trinitario

* Truffles

* Undertempered

* White chocolate

* Winnowing

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Why are cacao beans fermented? What are two main fermentation techniques?

2. What is the relationship between the percentage of cocoa and flavor in chocolate?

3. Why is chocolate tempered? How is this accomplished?

4. What does it mean if chocolate is undertempered? Overtempered?

5. Why should ganache filling crystallize for 24 to 48 hours in the mold or before being cut for enrobing?

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Note: As with any dynamic informational tool, Web sites will change and even disappear from time to time. Any Internet user must be aware of this fact and be prepared to investigate and discover other comparable Web sites.
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Title Annotation:Part 2: PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:4739
Previous Article:Chapter 22 Chocolate and chocolate work.
Next Article:Appendix A Conversions.
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