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Chapter 21 Healthy baking.

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After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

* Modify some commonly used ingredients in recipes to healthier alternatives.

* Recognize the difference between more healthy and less healthy fats.

* List the three criteria for fat substitution.

* Identify the differences between sugar substitutes.

* Successfully substitute healthier ingredients for less healthy ingredients in recipes.

KEY TERMS

artificial sweeteners

saturated fats

unsaturated fats

trans-fats

It is common knowledge that overindulging in pastries and desserts laden with fats, sugars, and refined grains can take a toll on health. With worries over increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, it is important for the pastry chef to create healthier alternatives for consumers with special dietary needs.

Consuming desserts does not have to be taboo if the baker knows how to modify ingredients to create healthier baked goods. Even rich desserts can be incorporated into a healthy diet when consumed in moderation.

Because so many recipes can have so many variations, trial and error through experimentation is the best way to discover which healthier ingredients provide the best taste and texture when compared with the original. Once a recipe is tested, adjustments can be made. The challenge is to create a product that is just as delicious and eye appealing as the richer version. However, not all rich recipes for baked goods can be successfully modified.

This chapter discusses how to modify recipes using healthy ingredients to replace some of the fat, sugar, and refined grains in the original recipe. The ultimate goal of this process is to create healthier alternatives for baked goods. Ideally, the final product should produce a similar baked good as the original recipe and have a higher nutritional value.

How to Modify Ingredients Containing Refined Grains with Healthier Alternatives to Enrich Baked Goods

Refined grains such as white flour provide baked goods with structure through gluten development. Most white flour is refined, which means it has had the outer part of the grain or the hull removed. Although many flours are supplemented with vitamins and minerals, fiber is lacking.

Enriching baked goods by modifying refined grains with healthier alternatives is not difficult to do. With some experimentation, it is easy to replace a portion of a refined flour with a flour or grain containing more fiber. Because flour from a wheat plant provides structure for baked goods, it is important to make substitutions carefully. For example, replacing all-purpose white flour with whole wheat flour or ground almonds would provide no gluten development and therefore would be a poor substitution. On the other hand, replacing only a portion of the all-purpose white flour with whole wheat flour or ground almonds would work well. Individual tastes should be a guide as to exact amounts of replacements and can vary greatly.

The following is a list of some substitutions to modify refined grains with healthier alternatives:

* Replace one-fourth the amount of white flour with an equal amount of whole wheat flour to improve the fiber content of the baked good. If more fiber is desired and the taste has not been altered too much, up to one fourth more whole wheat flour can be used to replace an equal amount of white flour.

* In recipes calling for pastry flour such as pie crusts and shortcakes, whole wheat pastry flour can be substituted for white pastry flour, partially or as a whole substitution. The color of the finished baked good will be slightly darker.

* Soy flour can also be used to replace one-fourth the amount of white flour. It provides increased nutrition, but no gluten-forming proteins with which to build structure.

* Finely ground oatmeal (ground in a food processor) can be used to replace one-fourth the amount of white flour. It provides texture and soluble fiber, but no gluten-forming proteins with which to build structure.

* Flax seed meal (finely ground flax seeds) can be added to most batters and doughs. It provides increased fiber content and omega-3 fatty acids (a heart-healthy fat).

* Raw wheat germ or oat or wheat bran can also be used to replace one-fourth of the white flour.

* Ground or chopped nuts can be used in moderation to provide fiber, healthy fats, and a crunch in many baked goods.

Fats--Why They Are Necessary

Entirely eliminating fat in baked goods is not an option because fats provide many desirable qualities desirable such as tenderness, flakiness, and flavor. Replacing all fat will produce an undesirable product that no one will want to eat. Replacing less healthy fats with some healthier alternatives needs to be done with much thought. To do this properly, understanding the role fats play in baked goods is crucial. A wide variety of fats are available to the baker. Some of these fats are less healthy than others. For simplicity, fats may be broken down into two main categories: saturated and unsaturated based on the predominate type of fat. (See Table 21-1, Saturated versus Unsaturated Fats; and Table 21-2, Fats in Order of Healthfulness.)

Saturated Fats

With few exceptions, fats that are considered less healthy tend to be solid at room temperature. Fats directly derived from animals, like lard and butter, are known as saturated fats. Most saturated fats are derived from animal products, although a few are derived from plants, including coconut, palm kernel oils, and cocoa butter (the fat from cocoa beans). All these fats except cocoa butter (see The Healthy Benefits of Chocolate) tend to raise the "bad" cholesterol in the body known as LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) and can increase the risk of getting heart disease and certain cancers.

All fats are composed of a carbon chain. Each carbon is bonded to hydrogen atoms. The chemical structure of a saturated fat is one in which as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to carbon atoms with single bonds. (See The Chemical Structure of Different Types of Fats.) The more single bonds that exist, the more saturated the fat is, and the more solid it is at room temperature. Fats that are solid at room temperature include lard, butter, and cocoa butter.

Unsaturated Fats

Unsaturated fats contain at least two carbon atoms that are double bonded to each other. Therefore, fewer hydrogen atoms are able to bond to the carbons that the molecule contains. Because the molecules are not as saturated as they could be, these fats are referred to as unsaturated fats. These fats can be either monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Monounsaturated fats have one double bond (mono meaning "one"), and polyunsaturated fats have more than one double bond (poly meaning "many"). (See The Chemical Structure of Different Types of Fats.)

Unsaturated fats tend to be liquid at room temperature and originate from plants, not animals. Fats, especially monounsaturated fats, are associated with reducing LDLs, while raising the good cholesterol (HDLs or high-density lipoproteins). Monounsaturated fats include olive and canola oils. Polyunsaturated fats include corn, safflower, and soybean oils.

There is a special group of polyunsaturated fats known as omega-3 fatty acids. Their health benefits include lowering the risk of heart disease and strokes by keeping blood from thickening and forming clots in blood vessels. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in certain oils, such as canola and olive, nuts, and seeds, and are particularly well known for their presence in various types of fish.

TRANS-FATS

Because liquid fats such as vegetable and canola oils can become rancid quickly, food manufacturers discovered a way to make these oils last longer. Increasing the shelf life of oils involves a process known as hydrogenation. Hydrogenation involves chemically infusing the oil with hydrogen atoms, breaking the double bonds already present in the fat and bonding hydrogen atoms to the newly vacated spots on the carbon. This process also alters the fat physically; as the oil is hydrogenated, it gradually becomes more solid, altering its formerly liquid state. Liquid fats that have been chemically and physically altered by having hydrogen added to them are called hydrogenated fats. These fats can be partially or fully hydrogenated.

Those fats that are partially hydrogenated are referred to as trans-fats because of their chemical structure. (See the Chemical Structure of Different Types of Fats.) Trans-fats take on a chemical structure such that hydrogen atoms sit diagonally across the double bond. Although not all partially hydrogenated fats are trans-fats, most tend to be. Trans-fats, also referred to as trans-fatty acids, are solid or partially solid at room temperature. These types of fats are in many processed food products such as crackers, cakes, cookies, cereals, margarines, and vegetable shortenings. Trans-fats are extremely unhealthy. They have been associated with an increased risk of heart disease and certain cancers. The amount of trans-fats in the diet should be kept to a minimum. They decrease the good cholesterol and increase the bad cholesterol. These fats have been mentioned in this book as solid vegetable shortenings that can leave a waxy, unpleasant film on the tongue when eaten. To identify whether or not a product contains trans-fats, it is important to read the nutrition facts and ingredient list on the package. Ingredients are listed in order of magnitude. For example, if a hydrogenated fat is listed at the top of the list, then it is one of the most prominent ingredients in the product. Trans-fats will be listed as partially hydrogenated oil or a combination of oils. Some of the oils used in these products include corn, soybean, sunflower, coconut, and palm kernel oils.

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Those fats that are fully hydrogenated become saturated fats because each carbon is bonded to as many hydrogens as possible and the bonds are single.

TRANS-FAT-FREE SOLID MARGARINES AND LOW-FAT BUTTERS

Many margarines on the market are partially hydrogenated and would not make a healthy alternative to butter; however, there are some margarines and low-fat butters that are manufactured using no trans-fats. These solid margarines and butters are good substitutes for regular butter and shortening, especially in recipes for pie crusts, cakes, cookies, or muffins that use the creaming method of mixing. To identify which baking fats are trans-fat-free, it is necessary to read the nutrition facts and the list of ingredients provided on the package.

FRACTIONATED OILS

There are products on the market containing fats referred to as fractionated oils. The process of fractionation is a healthy alternative to hydrogenating oils. It too involves the changing of liquid oils into solids, and it is more expensive than hydrogenation. The process begins by heating an oil and then cooling it. As the oil cools down, it forms a thicker, less liquid layer on the top, with a thinner, more liquid layer on top of that. The thinner layer is removed. As each layer cools, it is skimmed off. This separation of each of the fractions (or layers) of oil by melting point eventually leads to the identification of the specific fraction of oil that is needed for a specific baked good. Fractionation uses no chemicals and produces fats that are healthier, and much more easily digested than hydrogenated oils.

Saturated fats tend to be solid at room temperature, with a few exceptions. Unsaturated fats tend to be liquid at room temperature.

Substituting Healthier Fats for Less Healthy Fats

Although it is generally not difficult to substitute a healthier fat for a portion of a less healthy one in most recipes, replacing less healthy fats with healthier alternatives can become challenging. The end product will be slightly altered, but if the proper substitution is made, it should taste as good as the original. Quality and taste should never be compromised; compromising will render the final product undesirable.

It is important to realize that simply replacing all the butter in a recipe with canola oil will not reduce calories. What it will do is replace all the saturated fat with a healthier unsaturated one. On the other hand, replacing half of the butter with apple sauce or fruit puree will also decrease the fat by half. However, the texture of the final product may be different from the original.

To understand how to correctly replace one fat for another, the baker needs to first read the recipe and then ask three questions:

* What role does the fat play in the recipe?

* What form of fat is used (solid or liquid)?

* What is the mixing method used in the recipe?

Three Key Points of Fat Substitution

* The role of fat

* What form the fat takes

* The mixing method used

The Role of Fat

The baker is truly in the "fat business" because the majority of pastries and desserts rely on some form of fat to contribute to flavor, texture, and richness. Understanding the role that fat plays in a particular recipe is crucial to replacing it with a healthier alternative. (See Table 21-3, Healthier Fat Substitutes.)

Fats play many roles in baking. They can act as tenderizers, preventing gluten from forming, aerators (to hold air within batter, which helps leavening), and separators to keep layers of dough apart, causing flakiness. They also determine how much spread a baked good will have depending upon the melting point of the fat.

Because of the important role that fats play, much thought must go into how to replace them with healthier versions. Many low-fat baked goods are very high in sugar. Because sugar acts as a tenderizer, much like fat, replacing more sugar for less fat is a substitute that commonly works.

In general, to substitute another ingredient for the fat within a recipe, the baker must determine why the fat is being used and what its ultimate contribution will be to the finished baked good.

What Form the Fat Takes

Recipes call for the fat to be in a certain form. For instance, does the recipe call for the fat to be melted or just softened? Is the fat supposed to be chilled and cut into small pieces? Knowing the form of the fat ultimately helps the baker determine which fat substitute will or will not work.

For example, if the fat in a recipe calls for melted butter, substituting a healthier oil, such as canola, would be easy to do. If the taste of butter is important to maintain the integrity of the recipe, instead of replacing all of the butter with oil, replacing half of the butter with oil would reduce the saturated fat content by half while still maintaining a desirable buttery taste. A melted trans-fat free, low-fat butter would also make a good substitute for the melted butter.

If the fat is used to create flakiness, a solid fat would be best. Substituting a portion of a healthier solid fat, like a low-fat margarine or butter with zero trans-fats would work well. Because melting point is critical to creating flaky layers, freezing the healthier fat would increase flakiness by delaying its melting in the oven.

The Mixing Method Used

The mixing method used in a recipe can determine the type of healthier fat that can be substituted for a less healthy one. For example, if a recipe uses the creaming method and calls for butter to be creamed with sugar, a healthier fat in the solid form like a low-fat margarine or butter with no trans-fats would be best as a substitute. Another option is to use half the amount of solid fat called for in the recipe so it can be creamed, and then substitute an equal amount of apple sauce for the remaining solid fat which lowers the fat content considerably while maintaining the original mixing method. If a recipe uses the one-bowl method and calls for melted butter, a liquid, healthier fat like canola or nut oil would make a good substitution. A melted trans-fat free, low-fat butter would also work.

In general, up to half of the fat can be replaced with a healthier fat replacement in most recipes calling for a solid fat. However, not all recipes are conducive to modifying the fat-based ingredients.

Some Healthier Fat Substitutions

The following are some healthier fat substitutions:

* Low-fat, trans-fat-free, solid margarine or butter makes a healthier substitution for regular butter

* Low-fat or fat-free versions of cream cheese, sour cream, yogurt, cottage cheese, and ricotta cheese make healthy substitutions for the fully fatted versions of these.

* Canola, olive, sunflower, walnut, and other flavorful oils make good substitution for melted fats, although they do not decrease calories.

* Pureed tofu makes a healthy substitution for heavy creams and eggs.

* Pureed fruits and vegetables can make healthy fat substitutions by providing natural sweetness, which helps tenderize and moisten baked goods. Up to half of the fat can be replaced with one of the following in recipes calling for solid fat:

* Apple or pear puree

* Apple butter

* Apple sauce

* Pureed cooked white beans

* Pureed sweet potatoes

* Pureed carrots

* Pureed prunes

* Mashed bananas

Replacing Sugar with Sugar Substitutes

The role sugar plays in baking is important because it has certain properties that are necessary to achieve desired characteristics in baked goods. Sugar (chemically known as sucrose) is a carbohydrate--a nutrient needed for energy. It provides 4 calories per gram. Sugar tenderizes by interfering with gluten formation, it moistens and extends shelf life due to its hygroscopic nature, it aerates fats, stabilizes egg foams, browns, and causes spread.

Many commercial low-fat baked goods contain large quantities of sugar. Because fat and sugar are the two ingredients most commonly used for tenderizing baked goods, sugar is the ingredient that is typically increased if the fat is decreased. The overabundance of sugar in baked goods has created some health concerns associated with obesity and diabetes. Excess sugar that is not metabolized immediately is stored as fat in the body.

Sugar substitutes or replacements for sucrose may be used with a varying degree of success in baked goods. This is because all sugar substitutes are not equal. There are many substitutes for sucrose on the market: fructose, honey, maple syrup, and date sugar, to name a few. Although seeming more natural and less processed than white granulated sugar, these substitutes do little to decrease the carbohydrate level of baked goods.

Unlike natural sugar from the sugar cane plant, beets, or honey, there are substitutes for sugar that are artificial or manmade. These artificial sweeteners do not raise blood sugar levels. They were created for diabetics who need to control their carbohydrate intake. There are a number of artificial sweeteners on the market and they differ greatly (in their chemical structures, in their physical properties, and in how they are metabolized in the body).

Sugar substitutes such as artificial sweeteners do not have the same properties as real sugar because many of them are not carbohydrates. All sugar substitutes sweeten, but that is where their similarities end. Not all sugar substitutes can be creamed with fat, provide tenderness or moistness to a baked good, or caramelize to create browning.

Manufacturers of sugar substitutes are recognizing that their products do not have the same properties as sucrose in the bake shop. Because of the problems that bakers have experienced in using these artificial sweeteners, many manufacturers are putting combinations or blends of their products with sucrose on the market. The addition of some sucrose restores the desired characteristics to the sweetener so it can be more successfully used in baking.

Although there are several artificial sweeteners on the market, only four of them are discussed: saccharin, aspartame, sucralose, and sugar alcohols. (See Table 21-4, Comparison of Sugar, Artificial Sweeteners, and Sugar Alcohols.)

Saccharin

Saccharin is widely used to sweeten beverages and can be sprinkled over foods. It is not a good substitute for white granulated sugar in baking in that it has none of the chemical properties of sucrose such as the ability to be creamed with fat, and it lacks the ability to help baked goods to brown. Although it contains zero calories, there are health concerns associated with it when ingested in large quantities. One major disadvantage of saccharin is its bitter aftertaste.

Aspartame

Aspartame is not a carbohydrate like sucrose. It is actually the combination of two amino acids--aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It, too, sweetens but possesses none of the same chemical properties of sucrose and is not a good substitute. One disadvantage of baking with aspartame is that it loses its sweetness when heated. Aspartame contains 4 calories per gram (just like sucrose), but it is so intensely sweet that only a small amount needs to be used, so in effect, it is noncaloric.

Sucralose

Sucralose comes the closest in chemical makeup to sucrose because it is made from sucrose with only one modification. There is a chlorine atom attached to the end of the sucrose molecule. It can be substituted in a 1 to 1 ratio for sugar in most recipes. Unlike aspartame, sucralose can withstand high temperatures without losing its sweetening abilities. There are some drawbacks to using sucralose. Sucralose does not brown like sucrose and it is unable to aerate fats when creaming. This can cause undesirable changes in texture in baked goods. It is 600 times sweeter than sucrose and contains zero calories. Because it is not metabolized like sucrose, a true carbohydrate, blood sugar is not raised.

Sugar Alcohols

The last type of sugar substitute discussed is part of a category of artificial sweeteners known as sugar alcohols. Sugar alcohols are composed of an alcohol attached to a sugar molecule. Sugar and other natural sweeteners are carbohydrates. Sugar alcohols are not true carbohydrates but are modified versions of them.

Many types of sugar alcohols are used frequently in candies and gum because they do not promote tooth decay. Frequently used sugar alcohols include xylitol, mannitol, and sorbitol. Many commercial bakeries specializing in sugar-free pastries and other baked goods use sugar alcohols instead of sucrose. Although sugar alcohols do not raise blood sugar levels as much as sucrose, they do contain calories. Diabetics should check with their health professional to be sure they are able to eat them. One disadvantage to consuming sugar alcohols is that, when consumed in large quantities, they can cause digestive problems. Because they are so slowly absorbed from the small intestine, it fills with fluid, causing gas and diarrhea.

(Note: All sugar alcohols end in "-OL". This makes it easy to identify them in a product's ingredient list.)

Because sugar alcohols are modified carbohydrates, they tend to have more of the same properties as sucrose and they generally do not give a strange aftertaste when eaten.

MALTITOL

One sugar alcohol that works well as a sugar substitute in baking is maltitol. It is derived from maltose, a natural sugar. Maltitol behaves like sucrose in that it is able to be used in baked goods without any change in texture to the batter or dough. It even works well when it is creamed with fat for cakes and desserts using the creaming method. Baked goods using maltitol also brown nicely. Maltitol provides 3 calories per gram and it is used in a 1 to 1 substitution by volume with sucrose. For equal sweetness, it can be used in a 1 to 1 ratio by weight considering that only a slight difference in weight exists between sucrose and maltitol and the fact that maltitol is only 90% as sweet as sucrose. It is available commercially in granular or in liquid form. The recipes in this chapter that use maltitol use it in the granular form.

Easy Substitutions

To lower the fat content of a baked good, make the following substitutions in the recipe in a 1 to 1 ratio:

* Substituting fat-free yogurt or sour cream in a cake or cookie dough works well to replace their fully fatted counterparts.

* Fat-free cream cheese tends to impart a rubbery, plastic texture so a low-fat version would work best.

* Replacing healthier oils for melted butter works well in most recipes. If more of a buttery flavor is desired, substitute just half the butter with oil.

* Many low-fat recipes substitute egg whites for whole eggs because only the yolk contains fat. However, egg whites tend to be drying agents and healthier products that use just whites tend to be rubbery in texture. For recipes where there are other tenderizing ingredients, egg whites can be used successfully. For every whole egg, try substituting two egg whites. One or two yolks can be added back in to help the texture, but recipes will vary. In general, if a recipe does not contain an inordinate amount of eggs, leave them in the recipe unless cholesterol is a health issue.

* Pasteurized egg substitutes are generally fat and cholesterol free and can be used instead of whole eggs. Read the manufacturer's conversion of how much egg substitute is equivalent to one whole egg.

* Replace fat-free cow's milk or soy milk for whole cow's milk.

* When making a pie or tart crust, substitute half the fat for a solid, low-fat trans-fat-free margarine or butter. Cube it, wrap it in plastic, and freeze it for at least 1 hour. Cutting the fat in while it is partially frozen will keep it from melting too quickly in the oven and thus maintains the flakiness desired. If using partially frozen margarine or butter, it should not harden to the point where it cannot be cut into the dry ingredients.

* Try substituting pureed fruit or vegetables for some of the fat for a cake using the creaming method. Substitute half of the fat with the same weight of applesauce, apple butter, fruit puree (sold as a fat replacement), or sweet potato puree. It is crucial that the pureed fruit or vegetables be strained so that there are no stringy fibers. Therefore, strained baby vegetables work extremely well, although they provide less fiber than a fresh, pureed fruit or vegetable.

* To sweeten desserts only, replace sugar with an equal amount of an artificial sweetener such as sucralose or a lesser amount (or to taste) of aspartame.

* For baked goods in which it is desirable that the sugar substitute has some of the same properties of sugar, try a granular sugar alcohol such as maltitol used in a 1 to 1 substitution for sugar.

* To substitute unsweetened cocoa powder for unsweetened chocolate, replace 1 ounce (30 g) of unsweetened chocolate with 1/2 ounce (3 tablespoons; 15 g) unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/2 fluid ounce (1 tablespoon; 15 mL) canola oil or 1/2 ounce (1 tablespoon; 15 g) low-fat transfat--free solid margarine or butter.

* To substitute unsweetened cocoa powder for semisweet chocolate, replace 6 ounces (1 cup; 170 g) semisweet chocolate with 1 ounce (6 tablespoons; 30 g) unsweetened cocoa powder plus 3 1/2 ounces (7 tablespoons; 100 g) granulated sugar plus 2 fluid ounces (1/4 cup; 60 mL) canola oil or 2 ounces (4 tablespoons; 60 g) low-fat, trans-fat-free solid margarine or butter.

How to Modify a Recipe's Ingredients with Healthier Alternatives

The first step in effectively changing a recipe's ingredients to be healthier is to scan the list of ingredients to see which ones could be altered without creating major changes to the final baked good.

The conservative approach is best when modifying desserts to be healthier. Try not to substitute all the fat in a recipe for low-fat or no-fat versions right away. Experimenting through trial and error is crucial to success and it may be necessary to prepare the recipe many times, using varying amounts of ingredients in order to achieve the desired end product. Making a product that neither resembles nor tastes like the original is a waste of time and ingredients because no one will want to eat it. For some recipes, completely substituting healthier fats or whole grains will work nicely. For others, only a small amount of fat or whole grains may be able to be replaced without losing desirable taste and texture.

The appropriate substitute is important. For example, applesauce would not be an appropriate substitute for fat in a flaky pie crust recipe. Applesauce is sweet and will tenderize and moisten up to a point, but no matter what, it will never create flakiness in a pie crust. A better choice would be to replace half the original type of fat with a healthier solid fat to ensure that the crust is flaky. The recipe for Fudge Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake (Chapter 14) is reprinted below. The original ingredients are printed on the left while healthier ingredient alternatives are printed on the right. One or more of the alternatives may be used to replace the original ingredients depending on how healthy the baker wishes to make the pound cake.

How to Substitute Unsweetened Cocoa Powder for Chocolate

1. To replace unsweetened chocolate: 1 ounce (30 g) unsweetened chocolate = 1/2 ounce (3 tablespoons; 15 g) unsweetened cocoa powder + 1/2 fluid ounce (1 tablespoon; 15 mL) canola oil or 1/2 ounce (1 tablespoon; 15 g) low-fat, trans-fat-free solid margarine or butter.

2. To replace semisweet chocolate: 6 ounces (1 cup; 170 g) semisweet chocolate = 1 ounce (6 tablespoons; 30 g) unsweetened cocoa powder plus 3 1/2 ounces (7 tablespoons; 100 g) granulated sugar plus 2 fluid ounces (1/4 cup; 60 mL) canola oil or 2 ounces (4 tablespoons; 60 g) low-fat, trans-fat-free solid margarine or butter.
FUDGE SWIRL
SOUR CREAM
POUND CAKE

The nutrition facts here are for the original Fudge Swirl Sour Cream
Pound Cake. Table 21-5 lists the ingredients for the Original Fudge
Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake and offers healthier substitutions.

Nutrition Facts
Fudge Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake

Serving Size 2-ounce   slice

Amount Per Serving

Calories 328           Calories from Fat 124
                                     % Daily Value *

Total Fat               14.29 g           22%
Saturated Fat            8.45 g           42%
Cholesterol             86.74 mg          29%
Sodium                 146.40 mg           6%
Total Carbohydrate      45.77 g           15%
Dietary Fiber            0.87 g            3%
Sugars                  25.71 g
Protein                  5.08 g           10%

Vitamin A: 9%                    Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 4%                       Iron 8%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.


Because the original recipe uses the creaming method, a solid fat is needed. The healthier version also requires a solid fat. The following are a few options for replacing some of the fat:

* Replacing the butter, a saturated fat, with a lower fat, trans-fat-free margarine or butter will reduce the saturated fat significantly but not necessarily the calories.

* To cut calories and saturated fat, half the amount of regular butter can be combined with an equivalent amount of applesauce.

* To cut calories and saturated fat, eliminate the cream cheese completely and replace it with an equal amount of applesauce by weight. (If choosing this alternative, use the 4 ounces [1/2 cup; 115 g] trans-fat free, low-fat-solid margarine or butter to replace the unsalted butter.)

* Low-fat cream cheese can replace its fully fatted counterpart.

This recipe requires an acidic dairy product such as sour cream to combine with the baking soda to provide leavening. Here are two healthier options:

* Fat-free sour cream

* Plain or vanilla fat-free yogurt

Reduced-fat "ganache" is used to replace the ganache in the original recipe. The original ganache recipe contains heavy cream and chocolate whereas the low-fat version contains unsweetened cocoa powder, fat-free milk, and only a small amount of chocolate; this decreases the saturated fat significantly. A small amount of mini chocolate chips can be sprinkled on top of the cake instead of using ganache in the middle of the cake.

Maltitol, a sugar alcohol, can be used successfully to replace all or half of the sugar in this recipe. Sugar-free chocolate can also be substituted for the chocolate in the reduced-fat ganache recipe.

Replacing one third of the amount of refined flour with soy flour increases the nutritional value of the finished cake. Another option might be to replace the soy flour with whole wheat flour.

The following are substitutions that would not work:

* Vegetable purees or a greater amount of applesauce than is listed earlier. This would not allow enough creaming to occur, compromising the cake's volume and texture and would cause the batter to darken too much.

* Replacing a liquid fat such as oil for the butter would not allow any creaming to occur and the texture of the cake would be heavy.

Antioxidants and Health

Antioxidants are chemical substances found mostly in plants. Antioxidants help cells within the human body repair themselves after being exposed to damaging substances or from the environment. They are associated with reducing the risk of heart disease and certain cancers. These chemical substances exist in many plant foods such as in fruits, vegetables, soy products, beans, chocolate, seeds, nuts, oils, grains, and wine. Eating foods that are rich in antioxidants is a great way to maintain a healthy diet.

The Health Benefits of Chocolate

Although chocolate does contain saturated fat in the form of cocoa butter, it does not raise blood cholesterol levels to the same extent as other saturated fats. Chocolate contains some health benefits if eaten in moderation. Chocolate contains cocoa solids nonfat, a term used to describe the nonfat solids within the cocoa bean. Chocolate that contains the highest levels of cocoa solids nonfat contains the highest amounts of antioxidants. Cocoa solids nonfat contain chemicals known as polyphenolic compounds. Polyphenolic compounds are substances found in plants that act as powerful antioxidants. These compounds also enhance the flavor of chocolate and the color of the cocoa bean. The more cocoa solids nonfat that are present in the chocolate, the stronger the chocolate flavor will be. That is why these benefits are seen only in the darkest or the most bittersweet types of chocolate.

RECIPES

Cinnamon Sugar Flatbread (This chapter, page 533)

Healthy Blueberry Cinnamon Muffins (This chapter, page 535)

Healthy Chocolate Chip Pound Cake (This chapter, page 521)

Healthy Flatbread (This chapter, page 530)

Healthier Fudge Brownies (This chapter, page 527)

Healthy Lemon Pound Cake (This chapter, page 524)

Low-Fat Chocolate Raspberry Mousse (This chapter, page 538)

Reduced-Fat "Ganache" (This chapter, page 541)
HEALTHY
CHOCOLATE
CHIP POUND
CAKE

Makes approximately 16
2-ounce servings

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to modify the Fudge Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake (Chapter 14)
  to create a healthier dessert while maintaining the original
  recipe's taste and texture.

* Using low-fat butter, low-fat cream cheese, and fat-free sour cream
  or yogurt cuts down on the saturated fat while still maintaining the
  creaming method of mixing.

* Substituting soy flour for some of the all-purpose flour boosts the
  nutritional value of the cake.

* Replacing the soy flour with whole wheat flour is another option to
  add fiber.

* Using pasteurized egg substitute instead of eggs reduces the
  cholesterol and fat content.

* Substituting a small amount of semisweet chocolate for the ganache
  makes this cake healthier, yet still gives in to chocolate cravings.

MEASUREMENTS                                    INGREDIENTS

           U.S.           METRIC    BAKER'S %

2 ounces    1/4cup        55 g        15%       low-fat, trans-fat
                                                free margarine or
                                                butter, softened or
                                                1 ounce (2
                                                tablespoons; 30 g)
                                                unsalted butter,
                                                softened and 1
                                                fluid ounce (2
                                                tablespoons; 30 mL)
                                                canola oil
6 ounces                  170 g       47%       low-fat cream
                                                cheese, softened
14 1/4     2 cups         400 g      112%       granulated sugar
ounces
8 ounces   2 cups         270 g       74%       all-purpose flour
9 1/2      1 cup           95 g       26%       soy flour
ounces     1 teaspoon       4 g        1.1%     baking powder
           1/2 teaspoon     2 g        0.5%     baking soda
           1/2 teaspoon     3 g        0.8%     salt
3 each                    140 g       39%       large eggs or
                                                pasteurized egg
                                                substitute
1 each                     28 g        8%       large egg white
           2 teaspoons     10 mL       2.7%     vanilla extract
8 ounces   1 cup          225 g       62%       fat-free sour cream
                                                or fat-free vanilla
                                                or plain yogurt
2 ounces   1/3 cup         60 g       16%       mini semisweet
                                                chocolate chips or
                                                chopped semisweet
                                                chocolate
                                     404.1%     Total Healthy
                                                Chocolate Chip
                                                Pound Cake percentage

 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Spray a 10-inch
    (25-cm) false-bottom tube pan with cooking spray and set aside.

 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the paddle attachment, cream
    the butter (or the butter and oil), cream cheese, and sugar until
    light in color and fluffy. This can take up to 5 to 6 minutes. Stop
    the mixer and scrape down the bowl with a rubber spatula
    occasionally.

 3. In a small bowl, whisk together the flours, baking powder, baking
    soda, and salt. Set aside.

 4. In a small bowl, whisk together the eggs or egg substitute, egg
    white, and the vanilla extract.

 5. On low speed, add the egg mixture into the creamed butter in thirds
    waiting for the mixture to blend together uniformly before adding
    more egg (Figure 21-1).

 6. On low speed, add one third of the flour mixture into the eggs and
    butter. Blend until combined and add one half of the yogurt or sour
    cream.

 7. Add another one third of the flour mixture, blending well, followed
    by the remaining yogurt or sour cream. Stop the machine and scrape
    down the sides of the bowl.

 8. Add the remaining one third of the flour mixture and mix until well
    combined (Figure 21-2). Remove the bowl from the mixer.

 9. Using a rubber spatula, scrape around the bottom and sides of the
    bowl to make sure the mixture is smooth and well combined.

10. Pour the batter into the prepared pan and smooth it with a rubber
    spatula.

11. Sprinkle the chocolate chips evenly over the batter (Figure 21-3).

12. Bake for 50 to 60 minutes or until a cake tester placed into the
    center of the cake comes out clean.

13. Cool thoroughly and remove from the pan.

[FIGURE 21-1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 21-2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 21-3 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Nutrition Facts
Healthy Chocolate Chip Pound Cake

Amount Per Serving

Calories 294          Calories from Fat 103

                                    % Daily Value *

Total Fat              11.75 g             18%
Saturated Fat           4.91 g             25%
Cholesterol            56.78 mg            19%
Sodium                180.30 mg             8%
Total Carbohydrate     41.27 g             14%
Dietary Fiber           1.22 g              5%
Sugars                 26.24 g
Protein                 7.38 g             15%

Vitamin A                5%    Vitamin C    0%
Calcium                  7%      Iron       8%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HEALTHY
LEMON POUND
CAKE

(Another healthy variation to
the Fudge Swirl Sour Cream
Pound Cake)

Makes approximately 16
2-ounce servings

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* Having the options of substituting the butter with trans-fat free,
  low-fat butter or half butter and half canola oil still allows the
  creaming method to be used with healthier fats.

* Pureed low-fat cottage cheese replaces some of the fat, adding a
  creamy texture to the cake.

* Adding a small amount of soy flour increases the nutritional value of
  the pound cake.

MEASUREMENTS                                    INGREDIENTS

            U.S.           METRIC   BAKER'S %

4 ounces    1/2 cup        115 g      32%       low-fat cottage
                                                cheese (not fat free)
14 1/2      2 cups         400 g      112%      granulated sugar
ounces
4 ounces    1/2 cup        115 g      32%       low-fat, trans-fat
                                                -free butter,
                                                softened or 2
                                                ounces (1/4 cup;
                                                55 g) unsalted
                                                butter and 2 fluid
                                                ounces (1/4 cup;
                                                60 mL) canola oil
9 1/2       2 cups         225 g      74%       all-purpose flour
ounces
3 1/4       1 cup           95 g      26%       soy flour
ounces      1 teaspoon       4 g       1.1%     baking powder
            1/2 teaspoon     2 g       0.5%     baking soda
            1/2 teaspoon     3 g       0.8%     salt
3 each                     140 g      39%       large eggs or
                                                pasteurized egg
                                                substitute
            2 teaspoons     l0 mL      2.7%     vanilla extract
8 ounces    1 cup          225 g      62%       fat-free lemon
                                                yogurt
            2 teaspoons     10 mL      2.7%     lemon extract
            1 tablespoon    18 g       4.9%     grated lemon zest
                                     389.7%     Total Healthy
                                                Lemon Pound Cakez
                                                percentage

 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Spray a 10-inch
    (25-cm) false-bottom tube pan with cooking spray and set aside.

 2. Puree the cottage cheese and half of the sugar in a food processor
    until the mixture is smooth. Set aside.

 3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the paddle attachment, cream
    the butter (or the butter and oil), the remaining sugar, and the
    pureeed cottage cheese and sugar mixture until light in color and
    fluffy. This can take up to 5 to 6 minutes. Stop the mixer and
    scrape the bowl with a rubber spatula occasionally.

 4. In a small bowl, whisk together the flours, baking powder, baking
    soda, and salt. Set aside.

 5. In a small bowl, whisk together the eggs or egg substitute and the
    vanilla extract.

 6. On low speed, add the egg mixture into the creamed butter in thirds
    waiting for the mixture to blend together uniformly before adding
    more egg.

 7. On low speed, add one third of the flour mixture into the eggs and
    butter. Blend until combined and add one half of the lemon yogurt.

 8. Add another one third of the flour mixture, blending well, followed
    by the remaining lemon yogurt. Add the lemon extract and the lemon
    zest. Stop the machine and scrape down the sides of the bowl.

 9. Add the remaining one third of the flour mixture and mix until well
    combined. Remove the bowl from the mixer.

10. Using a rubber spatula, scrape around the bottom and sides of the
    bowl to make sure the mixture is smooth and well combined.

11. Pour the batter into the prepared pan and smooth it with a rubber
    spatula.

12. Bake for 50 to 53 minutes or until a cake tester placed into the
    center of the cake comes out clean.

13. Cool thoroughly and remove from the pan. Dust the cake with
    confectioners' sugar, if desired.

Nutrition Facts
Healthy Lemon Pound Cake

Servings: 16

Serving Size: 2-ounce slice

Calories 269          Calories from Fat 81

                                   % Daily Value *

Total Fat               9.14 g                14%
Saturated Fat           3.33 g                17%
Cholesterol            51.95 mg               17%
Sodium                160.70 mg                7%
Total Carbohydrate     40.29 g                13%
Dietary Fiber           0.99 g                 4%
Sugars                 26.17 g
Protein                 7.31 g                15%

Vitamin A               4%     Vitamin C       0%
Calcium                 5%     Iron            7%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HEALTHIER
FUDGE
BROWNIES

Makes approximately
40 2-ounce brownies

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a healthier fudge brownie by substituting a healthier
  fat such as canola oil for the butter.

* Using cocoa powder instead of unsweetened chocolate reduces the fat.

* Instant coffee is added to intensify the chocolate flavor.

* Whole eggs are replaced with fat-free egg whites and a no-fat,
  no-cholesterol, pasteurized egg substitute.

* Adding baby sweet potatoes, carrots, or apple sauce provides natural
  sweetness and moistness and replaces half of the fat.

* A small amount of semisweet chocolate is mixed into the batter to
  provide intensity of chocolate flavor.

MEASUREMENTS                                      INGREDIENTS

             U.S.            METRIC   BAKER'S %

1/4 ounce    2 tablespoons    10 g       4%       instant coffee
                                                  powder
             2 teaspoons      10 g       3%       hot water
6 fluid      3/4 cup         150 mL     48%       canola oil
ounces
6 ounces     1/2 cup         170 g      55%       pureed sweet potato
             1 tablespoon                         or carrots from
                                                  processed baby food,
                                                  or unsweetened
                                                  applesauce
4 3/4        1 cup           135 g      44%       all-purpose flour
ounces
6 1/4        1 1/4 cups      155 g      56%       bread flour
ounces       2 teaspoons       8 g       2.6%     baking powder
3 3/4        1 1/4 cups      110 g      35%       unsweetened cocoa
                                                  powder
ounces       1/2 teaspoon      3 g       1%       salt
7 ounces     1 cup           200 g     127%       light brown sugar
                                                  (packed, if
                                                  measuring by volume)
1 pound      2 1/2 cups      500 g     161%       granulated sugar
1 3/4
ounces
4 each                       110 g      36%       large egg whites
3 1/4                         95 mL     31%       pasteurized egg
fluid                                             substitute
ounces                                            (equivalent to
                                                  2 large eggs)
             1 1/2             7.5 mL    2.4%     vanilla extract
             teaspoons
7 1/2        1 1/4 cups      215 g      69%       semisweet
ounces                                            chocolate,
                                                  coarsely chopped
4 1/2        1 1/4 cups      125 g      40%       walnuts, chopped
ounces                                 714.4%     Total Healthier
                                                  Fudge Brownies
                                                  percentage

1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Spray one 11- by
   15-inch (27.5- by 37.5-cm) pan or two 8-inch (20-cm) square pans
   with nonstick cooking spray. Alternatively, line pans with aluminum
   foil and spray with nonstick cooking spray. Set aside.

2. Whisk together the coffee, the oil, and pureed sweet potato,
   carrots, or applesauce. Set aside.

3. In a mixing bowl, whisk the two flours, the baking powder, the cocoa
   powder, and the salt. Set aside.

[FIGURE 21-4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 21-5 OMITTED]

4. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the paddle attachment, beat
   the sugars on low speed and gradually add the egg whites,
   pasteurized eggs, coffee mixture, and vanilla. Beat at medium speed
   until well blended.

5. Blend in the flour mixture on low speed and mix just until blended.
   Remove the bowl from the mixer and mix in the chopped chocolate
   using a spatula (Figure 21-4). Do not overmix.

6. Pour the batter into the prepared pan (or pans) and spread evenly.
   Scatter the walnuts over the batter (Figure 21-5).

7. Bake for 28 to 30 minutes until the brownie is set and firm on top
   but still slightly soft. A knife inserted into the center will not
   come out completely clean.

8. Cool completely and chill for 1 hour in the refrigerator to make
   cutting into bars easier.

Nutrition Facts
Healthier Fudge Brownies

Serving Size: 2-ounce brownie

Amount Per Serving

Calories 210            Calories from Fat 73

                                  % Daily Value *

Total Fat               8.49 g        13%
Saturated Fat           1.69 g         8%
Cholesterol             0.03 mg        0%
Sodium                 39.49 mg        2%
Total Carbohydrate     33.60 g        11%
Dietary Fiber           1.66 g         7%
Sugars                 22.79 g
Protein                 2.80 g         6%

Vitamin A    0%       Vitamin C        0%
Calcium      2%       Iron             6%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HEALTHY
FLATBREAD

Makes approximately
24 1/2-ounce pieces

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a healthy snack cracker that uses no trans-fats or
  saturated fats.

* Flax seeds contain phytoestrogens and omega-3 fatty acids, which are
  believed to interfere with cancer growth, lower blood cholesterol,
  and act as antioxidants.

* Grinding a portion of the flax seeds ensures that their healthy
  qualities will be easily absorbed by the body.

* A small portion of whole wheat flour is used to add fiber.

* Olive oil, a healthy monounsaturated fat, is used instead of butter
  or shortening.

MEASUREMENTS                                      INGREDIENTS

            U.S.             METRIC   BAKER'S %

2 ounces    1/3 cup           60 g       30%      flax seeds ground
                                                  to a powder in a
                                                  coffee grinder
4 3/4       1 cup            135 g       67%      all-purpose flour
ounces
2 1/4       1/2 cup           65 g       33%      whole wheat flour
ounces      1/2 teaspoon       1 g        0.5%    garlic powder
            1/2 teaspoon       1 g        0.5%    onion powder
            1/2 teaspoon       2 g        1%      baking powder
            3/4 teaspoon       4 g        2%      salt
            1/4 teaspoon       1 g        0.5%    coarsely ground
                                                  black pepper
1 1/2       1/4 cup           45 g       23%      flax seeds, left
ounces                                            whole
1 fluid     2 tablespoons     30 mL      15%      extra virgin
ounce                                             olive oil
4 fluid     1/2 cup          120 mL      60%      skim milk
ounces                                  232.5%    Total Healthy
                                                  Flatbread percentage

1. Place all the dry ingredients from the ground flax seeds to the
   whole flax seeds in the bowl of an electric mixer and, using the
   paddle attachment, blend the mixture well on low speed.

2. With the machine still on low speed, add the olive oil and blend
   until combined (Figure 21-6). Slowly add the milk until a dough
   forms (Figure 21-7).

3. Remove the dough from the bowl and wrap it in plastic wrap. Chill
   the dough for 15 to 30 minutes.

[FIGURE 21-6 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 21-7 OMITTED]


[FIGURE 21-8 OMITTED]

4. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (165[degrees]C). Divide the dough
   into quarters. On a lightly floured surface, roll one fourth of the
   dough into a rough rectangle as thin as possible. Using a pizza
   cutter, slice the dough into lengths 4 to 5 inches (10 to 12.5 cm)
   long by 1/2 to 1 inch (1.25 to 2.5 cm) wide strips and place them on
   a baking sheet covered with parchment paper (Figure 21-8). The dough
   shapes do not need to be perfect rectangles. Alternatively, any
   shape can be cut out from the dough such as stars, circles, squares,
   triangles, or rectangles.

5. Bake the dough for 20 to 22 minutes or until golden brown and
   crispy. Cool on racks. The crackers can be stored in an airtight
   container at room temperature for 2 weeks or frozen in an airtight
   container for 4 to 6 months. Thaw the crackers at room temperature
   and serve. If the crackers have become soft, place them in a
   325[degrees]F (165[degrees]C) oven for 10 minutes to crisp them.

Nutrition Facts
Healthy Flatbread

Serving Size: 1/2-ounce piece

Calories 59         Calories from Fat 23

                    % Daily Value *

Total Fat             2.66 g                  4%
Saturated Fat         0.31 g                  2%
Cholesterol           0.10 mg                 0%
Sodium               77.02 mg                 3%
Total Carbohydrate    7.22 g                  2%
Dietary Fiber         1.37 g                  5%
Sugars                0.36 g
Protein               1.75 g                  3%

Vitamin A               0%      Vitamin C     0%
Calcium                 2%      Iron          3%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CINNAMON
SUGAR
FLATBREAD
(VARIATION OF
HEALTHY
FLATBREAD)

Makes approximately
24 1/2-ounce pieces

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a sweet variation of the healthy flat bread recipe.

* A small portion of soy flour is used to provide phytoestrogens,
  which are associated with cancer prevention.

* Soy flour also contains isoflavones (antioxidants), which lower
  LDLs--the bad cholesterol.

                MEASUREMENTS                    INGREDIENTS

           U.S.            METRIC   BAKER'S %

4 3/4      1 cup           135 g       82%       all-purpose flour
ounces
1 ounce    1/4 cup          30 g       18%      soy flour
           1 tablespoon     15 g        9%      granulated sugar
           1/2 teaspoon      2 g        1.2%    baking powder
           1/2 teaspoon      3 g        1.8%    salt
1 fluid    2 tablespoons    30 mL      18%      canola oil
ounce
4 fluid    1/2 cup         120 mL      73%      skim milk
ounces
1 each                      28 g       17%      egg white, beaten
                                                (to be used as an
                                                egg wash)
3 1/2      1/2 cup         100 g       61%      granulated sugar
                                                mixed with 1/2
ounces                                          teaspoon (1 g)
                                                ground cinnamon
                                      281%      Total Cinnamon
                                                Sugar Flatbread
                                                percentage

1. Place all the dry ingredients (from the all-purpose flour to the
   salt) in the bowl of an electric mixer and, using the paddle
   attachment, blend the mixture well on low speed.

2. With the machine still on low speed, add the canola oil and blend
   until combined. Slowly add the milk until a dough forms.

3. Follow the same procedure for steps 3 and 4 of the Healthy
   Flatbread, including preheating the oven to 325[degrees]F
   (165[degrees]C). After cutting the pieces of dough and placing
   them on the sheet pan, brush each piece of dough with some egg wash
   using a pastry brush. Sprinkle each piece of dough with some
   cinnamon sugar (Figure 21-9).

[FIGURE 21-9 OMITTED]

4. Bake the dough for 20 to 22 minutes or until golden brown and
   crispy. Cool on racks. The crackers can be stored in an airtight
   container at room temperature for 2 weeks or frozen in an
   airtight container for 4 to 6 months. Thaw the crackers at room
   temperature and serve. If the crackers have become soft, place them
   in a 325[degrees]F (165[degrees]C) oven for 10 minutes to crisp
   them.

Nutrition Facts
Cinnamon Sugar Flatbread

Serving Size: 1/2-ounce piece

Amount Per Serving

Calories 105          Calories from Fat 22

                            % Daily Value *

Total Fat               2.52 g           4%
Saturated Fat           0.21 g           1%
Cholesterol             0.20 mg          0%
Sodium                106.47 mg          4%
Total Carbohydrate     18.01 g           6%
Dietary Fiber           0.56 g           2%
Sugars                 10.37 g
Protein                 2.85 g           6%

Vitamin A     0%       Vitamin C         0%
Calcium       2%       Iron              3%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

HEALTHY
BLUEBERRY
CINNAMON
MUFFINS

Makes 12 4-ounce muffins

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a healthy, nutritional muffin using the creaming
  method.

* Using a small amount of a trans-fat free margarine or butter allows
  the sugar to be creamed to aid leavening and obtain a lighter,
  cake-like texture.

* Using some applesauce replaces some fat while adding moistness.

* Adding some whole wheat flour adds texture and fiber.

* Blueberries contain a pigment known as anthrocyanin, which contains
  healthy antioxidants associated with lowering the risk of certain
  cancers.

      MEASUREMENTS                                  INGREDIENTS

         U.S.               METRIC      BAKER'S %

7 ounces    1 1/2 cups      200 g          75%      all-purpose flour
2 1/4       1/2 cup          65 g          24%      whole wheat flour
ounces
            3/4 teaspoon      1 g           0.4%    ground cinnamon
            2 teaspoons       8 g           3%      baking powder
            1/2 teaspoon      3 g           1.1%    salt
2 ounces    4 tablespoons    60 g          21%      low-fat (trans-
                                                    fat-free) marga-
                                                    rine or butter
7 ounces    1 cup           200 g          79%      granulated sugar
                                                    or maltitol
                                                    granules
3 ounces    1/4 cup           8 g          32%      applesauce
2 each                       94 g          35%      large eggs or
                                                    pasteurized egg
                                                    substitute equi-
                                                    valent to 2 large
                                                    eggs
4 fluid     1/2 cup         120 mL         45%      soy milk or skim
ounces                                              cow's milk
            1 teaspoon        5 mL          1.9%    vanilla extract
1 pound     2 1/2 cups      455 g         171%      fresh or frozen
            1 teaspoon        1 g           0.4%    blueberries (not
As needed                   As needed               thawed) all-pur-
                                                    pose flour extra
                                                    granulated sugar
                                                    for sprinkling
                                           488.8%   Total Healthy
                                                    Blueberry
                                                    Cinnamon Muffins
                                                    percentage

 1. Preheat the oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). Spray a 12-cup
    muffin tin with nonstick cooking spray and set it aside.

 2. Whisk the flours, cinnamon, baking powder, and salt in a mixing bowl
    until they are well combined. Set aside.

 3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the paddle attachment, cream
    the low-fat margarine or butter with the sugar or maltitol on medium
    speed until the mixture looks light in texture. On low speed, add
    the applesauce and blend well.

 4. Gradually add the eggs or egg substitute and continue to mix on low
    speed until the mixture is well combined.

 5. On low speed, add one-third of the dry ingredients and blend well.

 6. Add one half of the milk and blend. Add another one third of the dry
    ingredients. Blend only until combined.

 7. Add the remaining milk and the vanilla extract, stopping the
    machine to scrape down the sides of the bowl periodically.

 8. Add the remaining one-third of the dry ingredients and blend until
    just combined.

 9. In another bowl, combine the blueberries and flour until they are
    well coated.

10. Add the blueberries to the batter and gently fold them in using a
    rubber spatula.

11. Fill each muffin cup with batter. The cups should be approximately
    four-fifths full (Figure 21-10).

12. Sprinkle some sugar over each muffin and bake for 20 to 30 minutes
    or until the muffins are golden brown or a knife or cake tester
    inserted into the middle of a muffin comes out clean. Serve warm or
    at room temperature.

[FIGURE 21-10 OMITTED]

Nutrition Facts
Healthy Blueberry Cinnamon Muffins

Serving Size: 4-ounce muffin

Amount Per Serving
Calories 222          Calories from Fat 35
                                    % Daily Value *
Total Fat               4 g                6%
Saturated Fat           1.95 g            10%
Cholesterol            40.26 mg           13%
Sodium                117.06 mg            5%
Total Carbohydrate     42.66 g            14%
Dietary Fiber           1.89 g             8%
Sugars                 21.93 g
Protein                 4.50 g             9%

Vitamin A 4%                    Vitamin C 6%
Calcium 2%                      Iron 9%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

LOW-FAT
CHOCOLATE
RASPBERRY
MOUSSE

Makes 20 4-ounce servings

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a healthy mousse using pureed tofu and no heavy cream.

* This would make a wonderful dessert for anyone who is lactose
  intolerant or cannot handle fat from dairy products.

* Tofu, a soy protein, contains antioxidants that are associated with
  reducing the risk of heart disease and certain cancers.

* Tofu is a "flavor follower" and takes on any flavor that surrounds it.

* Using some high-quality chocolate plus cocoa powder intensifies the
  chocolate flavor.

* High-quality dark chocolate such as semisweet or bittersweet contains
  healthy antioxidants.

           MEASUREMENTS                    INGREDIENTS

               U.S.              METRIC

1 pound +         3 cups         685 g     reduced-fat silken tofu
8 1/2 ounces
5 1/4 ounces      1 1/3 cups     150 g     confectioners' sugar
6 1/2 ounces      1/2 cup        180 g     seedless raspberry
                                           preserves
3 ounces          2/3 cup         85 g     Dutch processed cocoa
                                           powder
4 fluid ounces    1/2 cup        120 mL    piping hot brewed coffee
8 ounces          1 1/3 cups     230 g     high-quality semisweet or
                                           bittersweet chocolate,
                                           finely chopped and melted
                                           over a double boiler
                  2 teaspoons     10 mL    vanilla extract

 1. In a food processor, puree the tofu, the confectioners' sugar, and
    the preserves until the mixture is completely smooth. Stop the
    machine and scrape down the sides periodically with a rubber
    spatula.

 2. In a mixing bowl, whisk together the cocoa powder and the hot
    coffee.

 3. Whisk the melted chocolate and the vanilla into the cocoa and
    coffee mixture. Continue to whisk the mixture until the chocolate
    and cocoa are smooth.

 4. Place the chocolate mixture into the food processor with the pureed
    tofu and process until the mousse is completely smooth (Figure
    21-11).

[FIGURE 21-11 OMITTED]

 5. Divide the mousse into stemmed glasses and chill for at least 1 to
    2 hours or overnight. The mousse will thicken over time.
    Alternatively, place the mousse in a large bowl, covered, and chill
    it for 1 to 2 hours or overnight. Once thickened, it can then be
    placed in a pastry bag fitted with a large star tip and piped
    decoratively into stemmed glasses or individual prebaked tart
    shells (Figure 21-12).

 6. Garnish with fresh raspberries just before serving.

TIP

Low-fat chocolate raspberry
mousse may also be used as
a filling between cake layers

[FIGURE 21-12 OMITTED]

Nutrition Facts
Low-Fat Chocolate Raspberry Mousse

Serving Size: 4 ounces

Amount Per Serving
Calories 133           Calories from Fat 35
                                   % Daily Value *
Total Fat               4.27 g           7%
Saturated Fat           2.39 g          12%
Cholesterol             0 mg             0%
Sodium                 35.50 mg          1%
Total Carbohydrate     24.36 g           8%
Dietary Fiber           2.04 g           8%
Sugars                  8.61 g
Protein                 3.51 g           7%

Vitamin A 0%                   Vitamin C 1%
Calcium 2%                     Iron 7%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

REDUCED-FAT
"GANACHE"

Makes approximately 8
1-ounce servings

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* The combination of low-fat cocoa powder and a small amount of
  high-quality chocolate produces a deep chocolate flavor.

* Replacing heavy cream with fat-free milk and corn syrup greatly
  reduces the fat content.

* Adding instant coffee crystals intensifies the chocolate flavor.

* A dark chocolate such as semisweet or bittersweet contains healthy
  antioxidants.

         MEASUREMENTS                         INGREDIENTS

               U.S.                  METRIC

3/4 ounce         1/4 cup            25 g     unsweetened cocoa powder
1 3/4 ounces      1/4 cup            55 g     superfine sugar
2 fluid ounces    1/4 cup            60 mL    light corn syrup
2 fluid ounces    1/4 cup            60 mL    skim milk
1 fluid ounce     2 tablespoons      30 mL    water
                  1/2 teaspoon        1 g     instant espresso or
                                              coffee crystals
1/4 ounce         1/2 tablespoon      5 g     unsalted butter
4 ounces                            115 g     high-quality semisweet
                                              or bittersweet chocolate
                                              chips, finely chopped

1. Sift the cocoa and sugar into a small, heavy saucepan.

2. Add the corn syrup, milk, water, coffee, and butter. Bring the
   mixture to a rolling boil, whisking constantly. Remove the mixture
   from the heat.

3. Add the chopped chocolate and whisk until smooth (Figure 21-13). Use
   as a dessert sauce while still warm or at room temperature.

[FIGURE 21-13 OMITTED]

Nutrition Facts
Reduced-Fat Ganache

Serving Size: 1-ounce

Amount Per Serving
Calories 136          Calories from Fat 43
                                  % Daily Value *
Total Fat              5.35 g           8%
Saturated Fat          3.20 g          16%
Cholesterol            2.06 mg          1%
Sodium                17.62 mg          1%
Total Carbohydrate    25 g              8%
Dietary Fiber          1.72 g           7%
Sugars                14.60 g
Protein                1.39 g           3%

Vitamin A 1%                  Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 2%                    Iron 5%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]


REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Which fats are more healthy, the ones that are solid at room temperature or liquid at room temperature?

2. Which liquid fats are unhealthy? Why?

3. Which is a healthier fat, monounsaturated or saturated? Why?

4. Name three ways a baker could lower the amount of unhealthy fats in a cake recipe that uses butter and the creaming method.

5. Name the three key points of fat substitution.

6. Name some healthy fat substitutes.

7. Name four sugar substitutes.

8. Why must you be careful in using a sugar substitute instead of sucrose in a cake recipe?

9. Why can any sugar substitute be used to sweeten applesauce or a fruit filling?

10. How can grains other than white flour be used to boost the fiber and nutritional value of many baked goods?

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Professional Profile

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Mark Hodgson

Pastry Chef Instructor

City College of San Francisco

San Francisco, CA

1. Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?

Answer: While growing up I baked Lucy's Lemon Squares (from a Peanuts cookbook), bagels from scratch, char sui bao (barbecued pork buns), cheesecakes of every flavor, mocha tortes, and English muffins over and over again. I derived great pleasure in creating something at home that other people would normally have to purchase in a store. Although I considered going to culinary school after high school it wasn't until I was in graduate school that I decided to pursue my passion for food as a profession.

2. Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?

Answer: After preparing elaborate holiday meals on a table that stretched from one end of the room to the other in my tiny apartment, my friends and family began to suggest that I should consider cooking or baking professionally. They saw how much pleasure cooking brought to me.

3. Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?

Answer: I didn't go to a culinary school so initially working in a professional kitchen overwhelmed me. The words people spoke were an unknown jumble; a foreign language in which I had no sense of the meanings. Terms such as ganache, frangipane, creme anglaise, tuiles, joconde, genoise, or tammis, chinoise, mandoline, rondeau were all completely new to me. Likewise, the intensity of working in a professional kitchen where the expectations were very high and the work is very fast paced proved challenging.

4. Question: Where and when was your first experience in a professional baking setting?

Answer: I began my professional pastry career in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in San Francisco in 1994 as the fourth cook/apprentice in the pastry shop. I still remember making huge batches of chocolate chip cookie dough in a 60-quart mixer and then scooping the dough with an ice cream scoop into four full sheet pans for what seemed like hours (with blisters forming). Coworkers made it clear that I was going a bit slow and that I would have to pick up the pace.

5. Question: How did this first experience affect your later professional development?

Answer: I was determined that I would overcome my weakness. Little by little I improved my speed, my organization, my knowledge of kitchen and pastry terminology and, most importantly, I learned how to successfully make all of the pastries and baked goods we produced. I thrived at the Ritz. In an industry where employee turnover is quite high I was an exception; I worked there for 11 years.

6. Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?

Answer: The pastry chefs that have had the most significant impact on my career are Paul Masse, because of his endless patience and depth of experience and knowledge; Kim O'Flaherty, because of her dedication and passion for the art of pastry; and Michel Willaume, because of his pure talent and originality. All three chefs inspired and challenged me in different ways.

7. Question: What would you list as the greatest rewards in your professional life?

Answer: Recognition from guests and coworkers for creating spectacular presentations and delicious desserts are the greatest rewards for me as a pastry chef. As a pastry instructor my daily reward comes from seeing the expressions on students' faces when they make beautiful and delicious creations. I derive the greatest pleasure of all from watching the students progress and improve from the beginning to the end of the program and knowing that I played some small part in that process.

8. Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field?

Answer: To succeed in the pastry industry you must develop or possess a thick skin, determination, and "stick-to-itiveness." You should also enjoy the precision, consistency, attention to detail, and organization that pastry requires. Having a sweet tooth is also helpful.

9. Question: If there was one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?

Answer: You need to be a bit obsessive about getting things right and not let mistakes get you down. Remember your mistakes; they are invaluable lessons on what not to do the next time!
Table 21-1 Saturated versus Unsaturated Fats

SATURATED FATS                     UNSATURATED FATS

Tend to be solid at room           Tend to be liquid at room
temperature. Exceptions include    temperature. Exceptions include
tropical oils such as coconut      partially hydrogenated margarines
oil and palm kernel oil            and shortenings

Saturated fats are associated      Monounsaturated fats and specific
with an increased risk of heart    polyunsaturated fats such as omega-3
disease and certain cancers        fatty acids are associated with
                                   reducing heart disease. Transfats,
                                   although unsaturated, are associated
                                   with an increased risk of heart
                                   disease and certain cancers

Include lard, butter, cocoa        Include canola oil, olive oil,
butter, tropical oils, and fats    peanut oil, nuts (e.g., walnuts and
derived from animals (e.g.,        almonds),and seeds (e.g., flaxseed)
high-fat dairy products)

Table 21-2 Fats in Order of Healthfulness

MONOUN-         ARE PREFERRED     POLYUN-            ARE PREFERRED
SATURATED       [right arrow]     SATURATED          [right arrow]
FATS            OVER              FATS               OVER

* Canola oil                      * Corn oil
* Olive oil                       * Safflower oil
* Peanut oil                      * Sunflower oil

MONOUN-                           ARE PREFERRED
SATURATED       SATURATED         [right arrow]      TRANS-
FATS            FATS              OVER               FATS

* Canola oil    * Butter                             * Solid
* Olive oil     * Lard                                 vegetable
* Peanut oil    * Cocoa butter                         shortening
                * Coconut and                        * Margarine
                  palm kernel
                  oils

Table 21-3 Healthier Fat Substitutes

WHEN FATS ACT AS:        SUBSTITUTE:

Tenderizers              Healthier oils or fruit purees which contain
                         sugar for tenderness

Aerators                 A solid low-fat margarine or butter containing
                         no trans-fat, or half of the original butter
                         plus half light butter or fruit puree; another
                         option would be to fold beaten egg whites into
                         the batter

Creators of flakiness    Solid low-fat margarine or butter containing
                         zero trans-fats cut into cubes and frozen for
                         approximately 1 hour

WHEN FATS ACT AS:        WHY?

Tenderizers              The fats in healthier oils and the sugar in
                         fruit purees will coat gluten strands and
                         tenderize

Aerators                 Trans-fat free margarines and low-fat butters
                         still hold some air to help leaven. Beaten
                         egg whites folded into the batter will also
                         leaven

Creators of flakiness    Freezing a trans-fat free margarine or low-fat
                         butter will increase the melting point,
                         creating some flakiness

Table 21-4 Comparison of Sugar, Artificial Sweeteners, and Sugar
Alcohols

SUGAR                          ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS

A carbohydrate providing 4     Contain no carbohydrates and provide
calories per gram              little or no calories in that very
                               little is needed to provide the same
                               sweetness as sugar

Raises blood sugar levels      Blood sugar levels are not raised

Overconsumption of sugar
causes the excess to be
stored as fat

SUGAR                          SUGAR ALCOHOLS

A carbohydrate providing 4     Modified versions of carbohydrates so
calories per gram              that they provide some calories

Raises blood sugar levels      Blood sugar levels are affected to a
                               lesser degree than sugar

Overconsumption of sugar       Overconsumption may cause digestive
causes the excess to be        upset
stored as fat

Table 21-5 Fudge Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake--Original Ingredients
and Healthier Substitutions

ORIGINAL                     HEALTHIER SUBSTITUTIONS

4 ounces (1/2 cup; 115 g)    4 ounces (1/2 cup; 115 g) unsalted trans-
unsalted butter,             fat free softened margarine, softened or
                             2 ounces (1/4 cup; 55 g) unsalted butter
                             and 2 ounces, (1/4 cup; 55 g) applesauce

4 ounces (115 g) cream       4 ounces (115 g) low-fat cream cheese,
cheese, softened             softened or 4 1/2ounces (1/2cup; 130 g)
                             applesauce or half sugar and half maltitol

14 1/2 ounces (2 cups;       14 ounces (2 cups; 400 g) granulated
400 g), granulated sugar     maltitol

12 1/2 ounces (3 cups;       9 1/2 ounces (2 cups; 270 g) all-purpose
405 g) all-purpose flour     flour and 3 1/4 ounces (1 cup; 95 g) soy
                             flour

1 teaspoon (4 g) baking      1 teaspoon (4 g) baking powder
powder

1/2 teaspoon (2 g)           1/2 teaspoon (2 g) baking soda
baking soda

1/2 teaspoon (3 g) salt      1/2 teaspoon (3 g) salt

4 large eggs (190 g)         Pasteurized egg substitute equivalent to
                             4 large eggs (190 g)

2 teaspoons (10 mL)          2 teaspoons (10 mL) vanilla extract
vanilla extract

8 ounces (1 cup; 225 g)      8 ounces (1 cup; 225 g) fat-free sour
sour cream                   cream or no-fat plain or vanilla yogurt

3 1/2 ounces (7              3 1/2 ounces (7 tablespoons; 100 g)
tablespoons; 100 g)          reduced-fat "ganache" fudge sauce (recipe
Rich Chocolate Sauce         in this chapter)
(See Chapter 20)             or 2 ounces (1/3 cup; 55 g) semisweet mini
                             chocolate chips
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Author:Sokol, Gail
Publication:About Professional Baking
Article Type:Recipe
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:11753
Previous Article:Chapter 20 Dessert sauces and plating.
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