Chapter 2 Status and future of the horse industry.
Today few horses are ever seen on the streets of cities or towns. Horses hitched to a delivery wagon or plow are a novelty. Now the horse is popular for recreation and sport.
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
* Identify countries or areas with the most horses, donkeys, and mules
* Compare the population of horses, donkeys, and mules in the United States to that in the world
* Describe the rise and fall of the horse population in the United States
* Compare the total worldwide population of horses, donkeys, and mules
* Project changes in the horse population in the United States
* Identify the top 10 horse-producing states
* Name four general areas of equine research and give two specific research projects in each
* Identify activities and organizations associated with the U.S. horse industry
* Discuss the future of the U.S. horse industry
Food and Agriculture
Triple Crown winners
WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF HORSES, DONKEYS, AND MULES
Most of the world's horses, donkeys, and mules are not found in the United States. According to statistics maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (<http://www.fao.org>), just less than 10 percent of the world's horses and less than 1 percent (0.15 percent) of the donkeys and mules in the world are located in the United States (Table 2-1).
Distribution of Horses
The world population of horses is about 54.7 million. As Table 2-1 shows, Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Mongolia, Russian Federation, and the United States all have significant horse populations compared to other countries. Mexico and China have the largest populations of horses.
Over the years, the world population of horses has fluctuated from a high of 61 million in 1960 to a low of 54.7 million in 2005 (Figure 2-1).
Distribution of Donkeys and Mules
As Table 2-2 indicates, most of the donkeys, mules, and hinnies in the world are found in the countries of Afghanistan, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Sudan, and Turkey. The worldwide population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies is about 52.9 million. The United States has only about 80,000 donkeys, mules, and hinnies, or 0.15 percent of the world's population. Mexico, on the other hand, has the second largest population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies. Over one-fifth of all the donkeys, mules, and hinnies of the world are in China.
GROWTH AND DECLINE OF THE U.S. HORSE, DONKEY, AND MULE INDUSTRY
In the United States, the number of horses increased until 1915. At that time, statistics showed over 21 million horses in this country. As discussed in Chapter 1, horse production expanded with the growth and development of manufacturing, commerce, and farming. But by 1960, only slightly more than 3 million horses remained in the United States--the lowest number ever recorded. After 1960, as Figure 2-2 shows, horse numbers increased slightly and declined slightly. Since the year 2000, horse numbers in the United States have remained relatively constant at about 5 million, according to the statistics of FAO.
[FIGURE 2-1 OMITTED]
Numbers provided by the FAO are only estimates, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) does not track horse numbers like it does other livestock, so an accurate estimate of horse numbers in the United States is difficult to find. In 2005 the American Horse Council <http://www.horsecouncil.org/statistics.htm> released the results of a study conducted by Deloitte Consulting, LLC, and commissioned by the American Horse Council Foundation. (1) This study put the total number of horses in the United States at 9.2 million. So, depending on the source of the information, the U.S. horse population is between 5.3 and 9.2 million.
According to the study commissioned by the American Horse Council Foundation, Texas (1 million), California (700,000) and Florida (500,000) are the leading horse states; but 45 of 50 states have at least 20,000 horses. Quarter horses (3,288,203) and Thoroughbreds (1,291,807) are the leading breeds; however, other breeds represent 4,642,739 horses. Recreation is the leading activity for horses (3,906,923), with showing (2,718,954) and racing (844,531) being the second and third place uses. Other activities, involving another 1,752,439 horses, include farm and ranch work, rodeo, carriage horses, polo, police work, informal competitions, and so on.
Since 1965, according to FAO statistics, the donkey mule, and hinny population in the United States steadily increased from 1965 to about 1990. Since 1990 the population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies in the United States has remained quite constant (Figure 2-3).
STATUS OF THE U.S. HORSE INDUSTRY
For many people, the horse industry is a business and a way of life. The horse industry directly produces goods and services amounting to $38.8 billion and has a total impact of $101.5 billion on U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). Racing, showing, and recreation each contribute more than 25 percent to the total value of goods and services produced by the horse industry.
[FIGURE 2-2 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2-3 OMITTED]
The industry's contribution to the U.S. GDP is greater than that of either the motion picture services, railroad transportation, furniture and fixtures manufacturing, or tobacco product manufacturing industries. It is only slightly smaller than the apparel and other textile products manufacturing industry. The industry pays a total of $1.9 billion in taxes to federal, state, and local governments.
In terms of employment, the industry directly employs more people than do railroads, radio and television broadcasting, petroleum and coal products manufacturing, or tobacco product manufacturing. Of the 701,946 people directly employed by the industry, some are parttime and seasonal employees, which equates to 453,612 full-time equivalent jobs. This is the standard way that the Bureau of Labor Statistics measures employment in the United States. Overall, the industry generates over 1.4 million full-time equivalent jobs across the United States both directly and in related services. (2)
Revenue derived directly from horses includes the actual sale of horses, stud (breeding) fees, races, shows, rodeos, and entertainment. The indirect revenue from horses includes such items as feed, training, veterinary and farrier services, transportation, labor, and equipment. Money from all of these revenue sources stimulates the economy.
Sports that involve horses attract more than 110 million spectators each year. Horse racing is a leading spectator sport and, as with other sports, can lead to status and big money. Attendance at racetracks exceeds 70 million people each year, and people wager over $13 billion on the races. Leading jockeys can win millions of dollars a year and include great professionals such as Willie Shoemaker, Braulio Baeza, Laffit Pincay Jr., Chris McCarron, and Angel Cordero Jr.
Many small racetracks operate throughout the United States, and racing is a part of county fairs or other annual events, contributing to about 14,000 racing days each year. The three most famous races are the:
* Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs, started in 1875; a distance of 1.25 miles
* Preakness at Pimlico in Baltimore, started in 1873; a distance of 13/16 miles
* Belmont Stakes at Elmont, New York, started in 1867; a distance of 1.5 miles
Three-year-old horses winning all three of these races in one season are called Triple Crown winners. These horses and their owners, trainers, and jockeys make their way into sports history (Table 2-3).
About 800 rodeos representing over 2,200 performances are held each year in the United States, and the number continues to grow. The 10 major rodeos based on prize money are given in Table 2-4.
The horse industry is a diverse activity (Figure 2-4) with stakeholders including recreational and show horse riders as well as moderate-income track, show, and stable employees and volunteers. Approximately 34 percent of horse owners have a household income of less than $50,000, and 28 percent have an annual income of over $100,000; but most horse owners (46 percent) have an income of $25,000 to $75,000. Over 70 percent of horse owners live in communities of 50,000 or less.
[FIGURE 2-4 OMITTED]
Horses for the Canadian Mounted Police On May 23, 1873, the Canadian Parliament authorized the establishment of the North West Mounted Police (NWMP) force. The force's immediate objectives were to stop the liquor trade among Native Americans, halt tribal warfare and attacks on white settlers, collect customs fees, and perform normal police duties. Their vast area of responsibility was roughly composed of today's provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories. In the fall of 1874, the first post was established on the banks of Old Man River and was named for the force's assistant commissioner, James Macleod. One of the first problems of the newly formed NWMP was to obtain and train horses suitable for the rigors of their western duties. The sleek black horses of today's Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) bear little resemblance to the tough work animals originally used to patrol the vast Canadian wilderness. Initially two types of horse were selected: the tough western bronco and a primarily Standardbred-type purchased in Ontario. In 1875, the NWMP first began breeding their own horses. This proved to be too expensive and was turned over to private ranchers. By 1889, specifications for the force's mounts called for "a horse standing from 14.3 to 15.2 hands, fine clean-cut head, long neck, high chest, broad round quarters with plenty of good flat bone, and strong feet." Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the NWMP continued to bring law and order to the Canadian wilderness. Recognition of their outstanding contributions came in 1904 when King Edward VII proclaimed that the prefix "Royal" be added to their name. By the outbreak of World War I, the Royal North West Mounted Police (RNWMP) had grown to 1,268 officers and men. In 1920, the RNWMP name was changed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). Between 1928 and 1950, the RCMP assumed the Provincial Police duties for all Canadian provinces except Ontario and Quebec. As the equestrian (as opposed to law enforcement) duties of the RCMP shifted from practical to ceremonial, a need was identified to provide a different type of mount. The result was the reestablishment in 1943 of the RCMP's breeding program to supply the primarily black Thoroughbred-type mares and geldings used in their famous exhibition, the musical ride. Since the breeding program began, the force has continued to experiment, introducing the genetics of Clydesdales, Percherons, Hanoverians, and Trakehners in an effort to develop a heavier boned, well-mannered, Thoroughbred-type horse. The Musical Ride. The origins of the famous musical ride can be traced to the intricate Prussian Cavalry drills of the 18th century. The first recorded riding exhibition performed by the NWMP was at Ft. Macleod in 1876, and the first performance accompanied by music was presented in 1887. Since 1966 the only RCMP members to receive equestrian training are those associated with the ride. Today's musical ride consists of 32 horses and riders performing numerous intricate figures, always ending in a charge.
People ride horses for pleasure more than ever before. More than 27 million people ride horses each year. In the national forests, horseback riding is the third most popular activity, involving about 24 million visitor-days each year. The number of 4-H club horse and pony projects is about double the number of 4-H beef cattle projects. As family pets, horses rank fourth behind dogs, cats, and pet birds.
Horse shows have also increased in size and number. In the past 20 years, their number has more than doubled.
Despite all the mechanization in today's world, some jobs are still better suited to horses. For example, the U.S. Forest Service uses horses; remote areas inaccessible to vehicles require horses for packing and travel; and law enforcement agencies have found that mounted patrols are the most effective way to handle crowds and riots (Figure 2- 5).
[FIGURE 2-5 OMITTED]
FUTURE OF THE U.S. HORSE INDUSTRY
Even though horse numbers in the United States may never again match those they reached at the beginning of the 20th century, horses have never been so popular. More people are enjoying a greater variety of equestrian activities than ever before. For example, the art of coachman, almost lost, has made an exciting return to competitive performance trials, and sidesaddle riding, showing, hunting, jumping, and dressage all are attracting more devotees. Riding has never enjoyed so much popularity, and this popularity continues to grow among all ages.
A short list of some of the myriad equestrian activities provides some idea of the popularity, diversity, and promising future of the U.S. horse industry.
Popular Equestrian Activities * Horse shows --Hunter division --Jumper division --Saddle-horse division --Harness division --Western division --Equitation division --Breed divisions * Dressage * Rodeos * Cutting * Polo * Combined training * Fox hunting * Driving * Gymkhanas (games for horses and riders) * Distance riding * Riding for disabled people * Holidays on horseback --Summer camps --Dude ranching --Pack trips --Cross-country riding * Draft horse demonstrations
Another indication of the popularity and future of horses is the number of publications, videos, and organizations that support the various equestrian activities. Membership in equine organizations has grown in the past decade. Table A-17 in the appendix lists more than 50 international horse organizations with their addresses, including:
* American Horse Shows Association
* United States Dressage Federation
* United States Combined Training Association
* National Cutting Horse Association
* American Driving Society
* Canadian Belgian Horse Association
Many of the breed registries have their own magazine or newsletter. Almost every equestrian activity has an organization and some type of publication. The popularity of horses also caused a proliferation of books and videos on every imaginable equine-related topic. Finally, the Internet and the World Wide Web contain numerous home pages and interest groups dedicated to equestrian activities. Based on the increasing activity in all areas of publication and communication, horses in the United States have a bright future.
The making and selling of tack or virtually anything a horse or rider wears is a growing multimillion-dollar industry. For each type of horse-related activity, catalogs or stores sell needed equipment and apparel.
People have more money to spend and more leisure time than at any other period in history. A shorter workweek, increased automation, and more suburban and rural living contribute to more free time. Equestrian activities will play a larger role in physical fitness and well-being.
RESEARCH IN THE HORSE INDUSTRY
Research in the horse industry involves four general areas-unsoundness and injury, breeding and reproduction, nutrition, and disease prevention and control. Research is slow and costly but it is necessary if the growing horse industry is to take advantage of science and technology.
Current Areas of Research Unsoundness and Injury * Safe anesthetization of horses after strenuous exercise * Relationship of training to the occurrence of bucked shins * Molecular mechanism in synovitis * Blood clots and laminitis * Investigations into the skeletal muscles and the "tying up" syndrome * Fatal muscular and skeletal injuries * Horseshoeing and shoes associated with injury * Types and management of surfaces for prevention of injury * Identification, prevention, and treatment of injuries * Best techniques for training Breeding and Reproduction * Pregnancy diagnosis * Estrous cycle of the mare * Causes of reproductive failure * Embryo transfer * Genetic mapping * Cloning Nutrition * Reduction and understanding of colic * Grazing methods and pasture types * Factors influencing nutritional requirements * Interactions of nutrients * Nutrient requirements: energy, protein, minerals, and vitamins * Characteristics and suitability of feeds Disease Prevention and Control * More effective immunizations against herpes virus, equine influenza, equine viral arteritis, and pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi * Isolation of the agent causing equine protozoal myeloencephalitis * Prevention and treatment of equine influenza * Better avoidance and cure for most diseases * Improvement of resistance to disease by stimulating response of the immune system * Improved control of parasites
Research solves many problems and increases our understanding. Good research also generates new questions and the need for more research. This progress will help move the horse industry successfully into the 21st century.
Organizations that fund important research projects include:
* Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation, Inc. <http://home.jockeyclub. com/grayson.html>
* Morris Animal Foundation <http://www.morrisanimalfoundation.org/>
* University of Kentucky Equine Research Foundation <http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/vetscience/ukerf1.htm>
Even though the number of horses has declined drastically since the early 1900s, the horse industry is a major agricultural-based industry that combines business, sport, and recreation into a program of economic impact involving millions of people. Opportunities for expansion and participation by even more people seem unlimited. The industry involves many types of horses and horse programs and events. It may be divided into three major segments: racing, showing, and recreation. These segments involve numerous support industries including feed, veterinary, education, insurance, tack, farriery, and so on. Racing, shows, and other events also involve the general public as spectators. In the United States today, around 80 percent of all horses are kept for recreation and 40 percent of all horses are used in youth programs. Horse owners represent a wide socioeconomic group and reside in rural, urban, and suburban areas.
Opportunities are unlimited to expand the user and spectator base. Youth programs of all kinds form the foundation for sport and recreation and have wide appeal. Growing markets include new owners, suburban horse owners, senior citizens, and amateurs. Horses provide for a lifelong sport and interest for all people.
Challenges facing the industry include the need for improved marketing and more educational programs, recognition by traditional public service bureaucracies, lack of adequate census and economic analysis, expanding youth programs, the long-term agenda of animal rights extremists, lack of adequate trails and riding areas, zoning and related environmental concerns, increasing costs and profitability for the business segments, insurance issues, and the overall lack of unity and communication between the various parts of a large, complex industry.
Meeting challenges will become increasingly complex. The industry needs to enhance unity and communication and to expand advertising, promotional, marketing, and educational programs. This includes promoting the generic horse with the public, expanding support for youth programs, implementing cost-effective management, expanding trail development, and increasing riding instruction and opportunities for more people.
Success in any career requires knowledge. Test your knowledge of this chapter by answering these questions or solving these problems.
True or False
1. The United States has more horses, mules, and donkeys than any other country in the world.
2. New York is one of the top 10 horse-producing states.
3. Horse shows have decreased in size and number over the past 20 years.
4. A gymkhana is an equestrian activity.
5. Genetic mapping is an area of equine research.
6. List 5 of the top 10 horse-producing states.
7. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, what percentage of the world's horses are located in the United States?
8. List five equine organizations.
9. List five equine activities.
10. Name four general areas of equine research.
11. Where are most of the donkeys in the world? Critical Thinking/Discussion
12. Briefly describe the changes in the U.S. horse population from 1900 to the present.
13. Describe four trends that suggest the U.S. horse industry has a bright future.
14. Using the statistics from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, compare the worldwide populations of horses, donkeys, and mules.
15. Why does the number of equestrian activities and membership in equestrian organizations give some idea of the popularity and future of the U.S. horse industry?
16. Compare the U.S. population of horses, donkeys, and mules to that of the world.
1. Contact your state Department of Agriculture or Cooperative Extension Service for current statistics on horses, donkeys, and mules in your state.
2. Locate and attend an equine event. Or, instead of attending the event, check the schedule of ESPN and view several types of events on television.
3. Write to one of the equine organizations listed in appendix Table A-17 and ask how members of the organization have benefited from equine research. Also ask what type of research the organization supports.
4. The Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation maintains a database of equine research projects. Develop a report, written or oral, on one of these equine research areas. Describe the problem and the current progress being made through scientific research.
5. Write a report on the importance and use of horses, donkeys, or mules in other areas of the world, for example, Asia, Mexico, South America, Africa, or Europe.
6. Investigate how science has changed horse racing. Report your findings.
7. Research the Internet for information about equine associations or equine events. Report your findings.
American Horse Council. (2005). The economic impact of the horse industry in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.
American Horse Council. (2006). Horse industry directory.Washington, DC: Author.
Davidson, B., & Foster, C. (1994). The complete book of the horse. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.
Dossenbach, M., & Dossenbach, H. D. (1998). The noble horse. New York: Crescent Books.
Ennor, G., & Mooney, B. (2001). World encyclopedia of horse racing. Hertfordshire, England: Carlton Publishing Group.
Gonzago, P. G. (2003). The history of the horse. J. A. Allen & Company.
Kimball, C. (2006). The complete horse: An entertaining history of horses. St. Paul, MN: Voyageur Press.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. (1960). Power to produce: The yearbook of agriculture 1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Internet sites represent a vast resource of information, but remember that the URLs (uniform resource locator) for World Wide Web sites can change without notice. Using one of the search engines on the Internet such as Yahoo!, Google, or About.com, find more information by searching for these words or phrases:
Triple Crown winners
Table A-18 in the appendix also provides a listing of some useful Internet sites that can serve as a starting point for further exploration.
(1.) Major funding support for this study was received from the American Quarter Horse Association, The Jockey Club, the National Thoroughbred Racing Association and Breeders' Cup Limited, Keeneland Association, American Paint Horse Association, American Association of Equine Practitioners, U.S. Trotting Association, Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders Association, and the U.S. Equestrian Federation.
(2.) American Horse Council. (2005). The economic impact of the horse industry in the United States.Washington, DC: Author.
TABLE 2-1 Estimated World Population of Horses, 2005 Country Head Percentage Afghanistan 104,000 0.19% Albania 65,000 0.12% Algeria 44,000 0.08% Argentina 3,655,000 6.68% Australia 220,000 0.40% Austria 85,000 0.16% Azerbaijan 71,000 0.13% Belarus 180,800 0.33% Bolivia 323,300 0.59% Brazil 5,700,000 10.42% Bulgaria 150,000 0.27% Canada 385,000 0.70% Chad 275,000 0.50% Chile 670,000 1.22% China 7,639,000 13.97% Colombia 2,750,000 5.03% Costa Rica 115,000 0.21% Cuba 465,000 0.85% Dominican Republic 342,500 0.63% Ecuador 540,000 0.99% Egypt 62,000 0.11% El Salvador 96,000 0.18% Ethiopia 1,500,000 2.74% Finland 59,000 0.11% France 350,625 0.64% Germany 500,400 0.91% Guatemala 124,000 0.23% Haiti 500,000 0.91% Honduras 181,000 0.33% Hungary 67,000 0.12% Iceland 72,000 0.13% India 800,000 1.46% Indonesia 405,446 0.74% Iran 140,000 0.26% Ireland 70,000 0.13% Italy 300,000 0.55% Kazakhstan 1,120,000 2.05% Kyrgyzstan 360,000 0.66% Lesotho 100,000 0.18% Lithuania 63,628 0.12% Macedonia 57,100 0.10% Mali 172,000 0.31% Mexico 6,260,000 11.44% Moldova 73,000 0.13% Mongolia 2,005,300 3.67% Morocco 155,000 0.28% Myanmar 120,000 0.22% Netherlands 128,500 0.23% New Zealand 83,000 0.15% Nicaragua 268,000 0.49% Niger 106,000 0.19% Nigeria 206,000 0.38% Pakistan 300,000 0.55% Panama 180,000 0.33% Paraguay 360,000 0.66% Peru 730,000 1.33% Philippines 230,000 0.42% Poland 320,000 0.59% Romania 840,000 1.54% Russian Federation 1,505,000 2.75% Senegal 509,000 0.93% South Africa 270,000 0.49% Spain 240,000 0.44% Sweden 95,700 0.17% Switzerland 54,700 0.10% Tajikistan 74,600 0.14% Tunisia 57,000 0.10% Turkey 271,000 0.50% Ukraine 640,000 1.17% United Kingdom 184,000 0.34% United States 5,300,000 9.69% Uruguay 380,000 0.69% Uzbekistan 145,000 0.27% Venezuela 500,000 0.91% Viet Nam 111,000 0.20% Other Countries1 1,115,847 2.04% World Total 54,698,374 100.00% Source: FAOSTAT on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Web site <http://faostat.fao.org/>. (1) Total of those countries with less than 0.1 percent of the world's population of horses TABLE 2-2 Estimated World Population of Donkeys, Mules, and Hinnies, 2005 Country Head Percentage Afghanistan 950,000 1.79% Albania 127,000 0.24% Algeria 213,000 0.40% Argentina 283,000 0.53% Bolivia 717,000 1.35% Botswana 332,500 0.63% Brazil 2,380,000 4.49% Bulgaria 215,000 0.41% Burkina Faso 1,028,127 1.94% Chad 388,000 0.73% China 11,659,000 22.02% Colombia 1,360,000 2.57% Dominican Republic 291,000 0.55% Ecuador 455,000 0.86% Egypt 3,071,150 5.80% Ethiopia 4,125,000 7.79% Greece 96,000 0.18% Haiti 280,000 0.53% Honduras 92,600 0.17% India 1,050,000 1.98% Iran 1,775,000 3.35% Iraq 391,200 0.74% Lesotho 155,200 0.29% Mali 720,000 1.36% Mauritania 158,000 0.30% Mexico 6,540,000 12.35% Morocco 1,510,000 2.85% Namibia 146,991 0.28% Nicaragua 57,000 0.11% Niger 580,000 1.10% Nigeria 1,050,000 1.98% Pakistan 4,300,000 8.12% Peru 910,000 1.72% Portugal 165,000 0.31% Saudi Arabia 100,000 0.19% Senegal 416,000 0.79% South Africa 164,000 0.31% Spain 252,000 0.48% Sudan 750,630 1.42% Syrian Arab Republic 137,000 0.26% Tajikistan 156,100 0.29% Tanzania 182,000 0.34% Tunisia 311,000 0.59% Turkey 559,000 1.06% United States 80,000 0.15% Uzbekistan 150,000 0.28% Venezuela 512,000 0.97% Yemen 500,000 0.94% Zimbabwe 113,220 0.21% Other Countries (1) 1,000,875 1.89% World Total 52,956,358 100.00% Source: FAOSTAT on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Web site <http://faostat.fao.org/>. (1) Total of those countries with less than 0.1 percent of the world's population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies TABLE 2-3 Triple Crown Winners Year Horse Name Jockey Trainer Owner 1919 Sir Barton John Loftus H. G. Bedwell J. K. L. Ross 1930 Gallant Fox Earl Sande James Belair Stud Fitzsimmons 1935 Omaha William Saunders James Belair Stud Fitzsimmons 1937 War Admiral Charley Kurtsinger George Conway Samuel D. Riddle 1941 Whirlaway Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm 1943 Count Fleet John Longden Don Cameron Mrs. J. D. Hertz 1946 Assault Warren Mehrtens Max Hirsch King Ranch 1948 Citation Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones Calumet Farm 1973 Secretariat Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin Meadow Stable 1977 Seattle Slew Jean Cruguet William Karen L. Taylor Turner Jr. 1978 Affirmed Steve Cauthen Lazaro S. Harbor View Barrera Farm TABLE 2-4 Major Rodeos in North America Location (1) Month Location Month Las Vegas, NV December Reno, NV June Houston, TX March Calgary, Canada July Scottsdale, AZ October Denver, CO January Pocatello, ID March Fort Worth, TX January Cheyenne, WY July San Antonio, TX February (1) Las Vegas is by far the biggest rodeo, with prize money over $2 million. Prize money at the other rodeos ranges between $200,000 and $100,000.
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|Publication:||Equine Science, 3rd ed.|
|Article Type:||Statistical data|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2008|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 1 History and development of the horse.|
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