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Chapter 2 Status and future of the horse industry.

The golden age of horses in the United States extended from the 1890s to the mechanization of agriculture. Industries associated with horses were essential parts of the national economy. In 1900 the automobile was still a rich man's toy, and the truck and tractor were unknown. Then in 1908, Henry Ford produced a car to sell for $825. The truck, the tractor, and improved roads soon followed. As the automobile, truck, and tractor numbers increased, horse numbers declined.

Today few horses are ever seen on the streets of cities or towns. Horses hitched to a delivery wagon or plow are a novelty. Now the horse is popular for recreation and sport.

OBJECTIVES

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

* Identify countries or areas with the most horses, donkeys, and mules

* Compare the population of horses, donkeys, and mules in the United States to that in the world

* Describe the rise and fall of the horse population in the United States

* Compare the total worldwide population of horses, donkeys, and mules

* Project changes in the horse population in the United States

* Identify the top 10 horse-producing states

* Name four general areas of equine research and give two specific research projects in each

* Identify activities and organizations associated with the U.S. horse industry

* Discuss the future of the U.S. horse industry

KEY TERMS

bucked shins

colic

dressage

embryo

farrier

Food and Agriculture

Organization (FAO)

genetic

gymkhana

immune system

influenza

jockeys

laminitis

protozoal

synovitis

tack

Triple Crown winners

viral

WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF HORSES, DONKEYS, AND MULES

Most of the world's horses, donkeys, and mules are not found in the United States. According to statistics maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (<http://www.fao.org>), just less than 10 percent of the world's horses and less than 1 percent (0.15 percent) of the donkeys and mules in the world are located in the United States (Table 2-1).

Distribution of Horses

The world population of horses is about 54.7 million. As Table 2-1 shows, Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Mongolia, Russian Federation, and the United States all have significant horse populations compared to other countries. Mexico and China have the largest populations of horses.

Over the years, the world population of horses has fluctuated from a high of 61 million in 1960 to a low of 54.7 million in 2005 (Figure 2-1).

Distribution of Donkeys and Mules

As Table 2-2 indicates, most of the donkeys, mules, and hinnies in the world are found in the countries of Afghanistan, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Sudan, and Turkey. The worldwide population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies is about 52.9 million. The United States has only about 80,000 donkeys, mules, and hinnies, or 0.15 percent of the world's population. Mexico, on the other hand, has the second largest population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies. Over one-fifth of all the donkeys, mules, and hinnies of the world are in China.

GROWTH AND DECLINE OF THE U.S. HORSE, DONKEY, AND MULE INDUSTRY

In the United States, the number of horses increased until 1915. At that time, statistics showed over 21 million horses in this country. As discussed in Chapter 1, horse production expanded with the growth and development of manufacturing, commerce, and farming. But by 1960, only slightly more than 3 million horses remained in the United States--the lowest number ever recorded. After 1960, as Figure 2-2 shows, horse numbers increased slightly and declined slightly. Since the year 2000, horse numbers in the United States have remained relatively constant at about 5 million, according to the statistics of FAO.

[FIGURE 2-1 OMITTED]

Numbers provided by the FAO are only estimates, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) does not track horse numbers like it does other livestock, so an accurate estimate of horse numbers in the United States is difficult to find. In 2005 the American Horse Council <http://www.horsecouncil.org/statistics.htm> released the results of a study conducted by Deloitte Consulting, LLC, and commissioned by the American Horse Council Foundation. (1) This study put the total number of horses in the United States at 9.2 million. So, depending on the source of the information, the U.S. horse population is between 5.3 and 9.2 million.

According to the study commissioned by the American Horse Council Foundation, Texas (1 million), California (700,000) and Florida (500,000) are the leading horse states; but 45 of 50 states have at least 20,000 horses. Quarter horses (3,288,203) and Thoroughbreds (1,291,807) are the leading breeds; however, other breeds represent 4,642,739 horses. Recreation is the leading activity for horses (3,906,923), with showing (2,718,954) and racing (844,531) being the second and third place uses. Other activities, involving another 1,752,439 horses, include farm and ranch work, rodeo, carriage horses, polo, police work, informal competitions, and so on.

Since 1965, according to FAO statistics, the donkey mule, and hinny population in the United States steadily increased from 1965 to about 1990. Since 1990 the population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies in the United States has remained quite constant (Figure 2-3).

STATUS OF THE U.S. HORSE INDUSTRY

For many people, the horse industry is a business and a way of life. The horse industry directly produces goods and services amounting to $38.8 billion and has a total impact of $101.5 billion on U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). Racing, showing, and recreation each contribute more than 25 percent to the total value of goods and services produced by the horse industry.

[FIGURE 2-2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2-3 OMITTED]

The industry's contribution to the U.S. GDP is greater than that of either the motion picture services, railroad transportation, furniture and fixtures manufacturing, or tobacco product manufacturing industries. It is only slightly smaller than the apparel and other textile products manufacturing industry. The industry pays a total of $1.9 billion in taxes to federal, state, and local governments.

In terms of employment, the industry directly employs more people than do railroads, radio and television broadcasting, petroleum and coal products manufacturing, or tobacco product manufacturing. Of the 701,946 people directly employed by the industry, some are parttime and seasonal employees, which equates to 453,612 full-time equivalent jobs. This is the standard way that the Bureau of Labor Statistics measures employment in the United States. Overall, the industry generates over 1.4 million full-time equivalent jobs across the United States both directly and in related services. (2)

Revenue derived directly from horses includes the actual sale of horses, stud (breeding) fees, races, shows, rodeos, and entertainment. The indirect revenue from horses includes such items as feed, training, veterinary and farrier services, transportation, labor, and equipment. Money from all of these revenue sources stimulates the economy.

Sports that involve horses attract more than 110 million spectators each year. Horse racing is a leading spectator sport and, as with other sports, can lead to status and big money. Attendance at racetracks exceeds 70 million people each year, and people wager over $13 billion on the races. Leading jockeys can win millions of dollars a year and include great professionals such as Willie Shoemaker, Braulio Baeza, Laffit Pincay Jr., Chris McCarron, and Angel Cordero Jr.

Many small racetracks operate throughout the United States, and racing is a part of county fairs or other annual events, contributing to about 14,000 racing days each year. The three most famous races are the:

* Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs, started in 1875; a distance of 1.25 miles

* Preakness at Pimlico in Baltimore, started in 1873; a distance of 13/16 miles

* Belmont Stakes at Elmont, New York, started in 1867; a distance of 1.5 miles

Three-year-old horses winning all three of these races in one season are called Triple Crown winners. These horses and their owners, trainers, and jockeys make their way into sports history (Table 2-3).

About 800 rodeos representing over 2,200 performances are held each year in the United States, and the number continues to grow. The 10 major rodeos based on prize money are given in Table 2-4.

The horse industry is a diverse activity (Figure 2-4) with stakeholders including recreational and show horse riders as well as moderate-income track, show, and stable employees and volunteers. Approximately 34 percent of horse owners have a household income of less than $50,000, and 28 percent have an annual income of over $100,000; but most horse owners (46 percent) have an income of $25,000 to $75,000. Over 70 percent of horse owners live in communities of 50,000 or less.

[FIGURE 2-4 OMITTED]
Horses for the Canadian Mounted Police

On May 23, 1873, the Canadian
Parliament authorized the establishment
of the North West Mounted
Police (NWMP) force. The force's immediate
objectives were to stop the liquor trade among
Native Americans, halt tribal warfare and
attacks on white settlers, collect customs fees,
and perform normal police duties. Their vast
area of responsibility was roughly composed of
today's provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
Alberta, and the Northwest Territories. In the
fall of 1874, the first post was established on
the banks of Old Man River and was named for
the force's assistant commissioner, James
Macleod.

One of the first problems of the newly
formed NWMP was to obtain and train horses
suitable for the rigors of their western duties.
The sleek black horses of today's Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) bear little
resemblance to the tough work animals originally
used to patrol the vast Canadian wilderness.
Initially two types of horse were selected:
the tough western bronco and a primarily
Standardbred-type purchased in Ontario. In
1875, the NWMP first began breeding their
own horses. This proved to be too expensive
and was turned over to private ranchers. By
1889, specifications for the force's mounts
called for "a horse standing from 14.3 to 15.2
hands, fine clean-cut head, long neck, high
chest, broad round quarters with plenty of
good flat bone, and strong feet."

Throughout the rest of the 19th century,
the NWMP continued to bring law and
order to the Canadian wilderness. Recognition
of their outstanding contributions came in
1904 when King Edward VII proclaimed that
the prefix "Royal" be added to their name.

By the outbreak of World War I, the Royal
North West Mounted Police (RNWMP) had
grown to 1,268 officers and men. In 1920, the
RNWMP name was changed to the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). Between
1928 and 1950, the RCMP assumed the
Provincial Police duties for all Canadian
provinces except Ontario and Quebec.

As the equestrian (as opposed to law
enforcement) duties of the RCMP shifted
from practical to ceremonial, a need was
identified to provide a different type of mount.
The result was the reestablishment in 1943 of
the RCMP's breeding program to supply the
primarily black Thoroughbred-type mares and
geldings used in their famous exhibition, the
musical ride.

Since the breeding program began, the
force has continued to experiment, introducing
the genetics of Clydesdales, Percherons,
Hanoverians, and Trakehners in an effort to
develop a heavier boned, well-mannered,
Thoroughbred-type horse.

The Musical Ride. The origins of the famous
musical ride can be traced to the intricate
Prussian Cavalry drills of the 18th century. The
first recorded riding exhibition performed by
the NWMP was at Ft. Macleod in 1876, and
the first performance accompanied by music
was presented in 1887. Since 1966 the only
RCMP members to receive equestrian training
are those associated with the ride. Today's
musical ride consists of 32 horses and riders
performing numerous intricate figures, always
ending in a charge.


People ride horses for pleasure more than ever before. More than 27 million people ride horses each year. In the national forests, horseback riding is the third most popular activity, involving about 24 million visitor-days each year. The number of 4-H club horse and pony projects is about double the number of 4-H beef cattle projects. As family pets, horses rank fourth behind dogs, cats, and pet birds.

Horse shows have also increased in size and number. In the past 20 years, their number has more than doubled.

Despite all the mechanization in today's world, some jobs are still better suited to horses. For example, the U.S. Forest Service uses horses; remote areas inaccessible to vehicles require horses for packing and travel; and law enforcement agencies have found that mounted patrols are the most effective way to handle crowds and riots (Figure 2- 5).

[FIGURE 2-5 OMITTED]

FUTURE OF THE U.S. HORSE INDUSTRY

Even though horse numbers in the United States may never again match those they reached at the beginning of the 20th century, horses have never been so popular. More people are enjoying a greater variety of equestrian activities than ever before. For example, the art of coachman, almost lost, has made an exciting return to competitive performance trials, and sidesaddle riding, showing, hunting, jumping, and dressage all are attracting more devotees. Riding has never enjoyed so much popularity, and this popularity continues to grow among all ages.

A short list of some of the myriad equestrian activities provides some idea of the popularity, diversity, and promising future of the U.S. horse industry.
Popular Equestrian Activities

* Horse shows

--Hunter division
--Jumper division
--Saddle-horse division
--Harness division
--Western division
--Equitation division
--Breed divisions

* Dressage

* Rodeos

* Cutting

* Polo

* Combined training

* Fox hunting

* Driving

* Gymkhanas (games for horses and
riders)

* Distance riding

* Riding for disabled people

* Holidays on horseback

--Summer camps
--Dude ranching
--Pack trips
--Cross-country riding

* Draft horse demonstrations


Another indication of the popularity and future of horses is the number of publications, videos, and organizations that support the various equestrian activities. Membership in equine organizations has grown in the past decade. Table A-17 in the appendix lists more than 50 international horse organizations with their addresses, including:

* American Horse Shows Association

* United States Dressage Federation

* United States Combined Training Association

* National Cutting Horse Association

* American Driving Society

* Canadian Belgian Horse Association

Many of the breed registries have their own magazine or newsletter. Almost every equestrian activity has an organization and some type of publication. The popularity of horses also caused a proliferation of books and videos on every imaginable equine-related topic. Finally, the Internet and the World Wide Web contain numerous home pages and interest groups dedicated to equestrian activities. Based on the increasing activity in all areas of publication and communication, horses in the United States have a bright future.

The making and selling of tack or virtually anything a horse or rider wears is a growing multimillion-dollar industry. For each type of horse-related activity, catalogs or stores sell needed equipment and apparel.

People have more money to spend and more leisure time than at any other period in history. A shorter workweek, increased automation, and more suburban and rural living contribute to more free time. Equestrian activities will play a larger role in physical fitness and well-being.

RESEARCH IN THE HORSE INDUSTRY

Research in the horse industry involves four general areas-unsoundness and injury, breeding and reproduction, nutrition, and disease prevention and control. Research is slow and costly but it is necessary if the growing horse industry is to take advantage of science and technology.
Current Areas of Research

Unsoundness and Injury

* Safe anesthetization of horses after strenuous
exercise

* Relationship of training to the occurrence of
bucked shins

* Molecular mechanism in synovitis

* Blood clots and laminitis

* Investigations into the skeletal muscles and the
"tying up" syndrome

* Fatal muscular and skeletal injuries

* Horseshoeing and shoes associated with injury

* Types and management of surfaces for prevention
of injury

* Identification, prevention, and treatment of
injuries

* Best techniques for training

Breeding and Reproduction

* Pregnancy diagnosis

* Estrous cycle of the mare

* Causes of reproductive failure

* Embryo transfer

* Genetic mapping

* Cloning

Nutrition

* Reduction and understanding of colic

* Grazing methods and pasture types

* Factors influencing nutritional requirements

* Interactions of nutrients

* Nutrient requirements: energy, protein, minerals,
and vitamins

* Characteristics and suitability of feeds

Disease Prevention and Control

* More effective immunizations against herpes virus,
equine influenza, equine viral arteritis, and
pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi

* Isolation of the agent causing equine protozoal
myeloencephalitis

* Prevention and treatment of equine influenza

* Better avoidance and cure for most diseases

* Improvement of resistance to disease by stimulating
response of the immune system

* Improved control of parasites


Research solves many problems and increases our understanding. Good research also generates new questions and the need for more research. This progress will help move the horse industry successfully into the 21st century.

Organizations that fund important research projects include:

* Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation, Inc. <http://home.jockeyclub. com/grayson.html>

* Morris Animal Foundation <http://www.morrisanimalfoundation.org/>

* University of Kentucky Equine Research Foundation <http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/vetscience/ukerf1.htm>

SUMMARY

Even though the number of horses has declined drastically since the early 1900s, the horse industry is a major agricultural-based industry that combines business, sport, and recreation into a program of economic impact involving millions of people. Opportunities for expansion and participation by even more people seem unlimited. The industry involves many types of horses and horse programs and events. It may be divided into three major segments: racing, showing, and recreation. These segments involve numerous support industries including feed, veterinary, education, insurance, tack, farriery, and so on. Racing, shows, and other events also involve the general public as spectators. In the United States today, around 80 percent of all horses are kept for recreation and 40 percent of all horses are used in youth programs. Horse owners represent a wide socioeconomic group and reside in rural, urban, and suburban areas.

Opportunities are unlimited to expand the user and spectator base. Youth programs of all kinds form the foundation for sport and recreation and have wide appeal. Growing markets include new owners, suburban horse owners, senior citizens, and amateurs. Horses provide for a lifelong sport and interest for all people.

Challenges facing the industry include the need for improved marketing and more educational programs, recognition by traditional public service bureaucracies, lack of adequate census and economic analysis, expanding youth programs, the long-term agenda of animal rights extremists, lack of adequate trails and riding areas, zoning and related environmental concerns, increasing costs and profitability for the business segments, insurance issues, and the overall lack of unity and communication between the various parts of a large, complex industry.

Meeting challenges will become increasingly complex. The industry needs to enhance unity and communication and to expand advertising, promotional, marketing, and educational programs. This includes promoting the generic horse with the public, expanding support for youth programs, implementing cost-effective management, expanding trail development, and increasing riding instruction and opportunities for more people.

REVIEW

Success in any career requires knowledge. Test your knowledge of this chapter by answering these questions or solving these problems.

True or False

1. The United States has more horses, mules, and donkeys than any other country in the world.

2. New York is one of the top 10 horse-producing states.

3. Horse shows have decreased in size and number over the past 20 years.

4. A gymkhana is an equestrian activity.

5. Genetic mapping is an area of equine research.

Short Answer

6. List 5 of the top 10 horse-producing states.

7. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, what percentage of the world's horses are located in the United States?

8. List five equine organizations.

9. List five equine activities.

10. Name four general areas of equine research.

11. Where are most of the donkeys in the world? Critical Thinking/Discussion

12. Briefly describe the changes in the U.S. horse population from 1900 to the present.

13. Describe four trends that suggest the U.S. horse industry has a bright future.

14. Using the statistics from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, compare the worldwide populations of horses, donkeys, and mules.

15. Why does the number of equestrian activities and membership in equestrian organizations give some idea of the popularity and future of the U.S. horse industry?

16. Compare the U.S. population of horses, donkeys, and mules to that of the world.

STUDENT ACTIVITIES

1. Contact your state Department of Agriculture or Cooperative Extension Service for current statistics on horses, donkeys, and mules in your state.

2. Locate and attend an equine event. Or, instead of attending the event, check the schedule of ESPN and view several types of events on television.

3. Write to one of the equine organizations listed in appendix Table A-17 and ask how members of the organization have benefited from equine research. Also ask what type of research the organization supports.

4. The Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation maintains a database of equine research projects. Develop a report, written or oral, on one of these equine research areas. Describe the problem and the current progress being made through scientific research.

5. Write a report on the importance and use of horses, donkeys, or mules in other areas of the world, for example, Asia, Mexico, South America, Africa, or Europe.

6. Investigate how science has changed horse racing. Report your findings.

7. Research the Internet for information about equine associations or equine events. Report your findings.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Books

American Horse Council. (2005). The economic impact of the horse industry in the United States. Washington, DC: Author.

American Horse Council. (2006). Horse industry directory.Washington, DC: Author.

Davidson, B., & Foster, C. (1994). The complete book of the horse. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.

Dossenbach, M., & Dossenbach, H. D. (1998). The noble horse. New York: Crescent Books.

Ennor, G., & Mooney, B. (2001). World encyclopedia of horse racing. Hertfordshire, England: Carlton Publishing Group.

Gonzago, P. G. (2003). The history of the horse. J. A. Allen & Company.

Kimball, C. (2006). The complete horse: An entertaining history of horses. St. Paul, MN: Voyageur Press.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (1960). Power to produce: The yearbook of agriculture 1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Internet

Internet sites represent a vast resource of information, but remember that the URLs (uniform resource locator) for World Wide Web sites can change without notice. Using one of the search engines on the Internet such as Yahoo!, Google, or About.com, find more information by searching for these words or phrases:

dressage

farrier

gymkhanas

horse jockey

horse tack

Triple Crown winners

donkeys

mules

Kentucky Derby

Preakness

Belmont Stakes

horse shows

police horses

Royal Canadian

Mounted Police

horses

equestrian activities

cutting horses

fox hunting

equine research

Table A-18 in the appendix also provides a listing of some useful Internet sites that can serve as a starting point for further exploration.

END NOTES

(1.) Major funding support for this study was received from the American Quarter Horse Association, The Jockey Club, the National Thoroughbred Racing Association and Breeders' Cup Limited, Keeneland Association, American Paint Horse Association, American Association of Equine Practitioners, U.S. Trotting Association, Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders Association, and the U.S. Equestrian Federation.

(2.) American Horse Council. (2005). The economic impact of the horse industry in the United States.Washington, DC: Author.
TABLE 2-1 Estimated World Population of Horses, 2005

Country                        Head      Percentage

Afghanistan                  104,000          0.19%
Albania                       65,000          0.12%
Algeria                       44,000          0.08%
Argentina                  3,655,000          6.68%
Australia                    220,000          0.40%
Austria                       85,000          0.16%
Azerbaijan                    71,000          0.13%
Belarus                      180,800          0.33%
Bolivia                      323,300          0.59%
Brazil                     5,700,000         10.42%
Bulgaria                     150,000          0.27%
Canada                       385,000          0.70%
Chad                         275,000          0.50%
Chile                        670,000          1.22%
China                      7,639,000         13.97%
Colombia                   2,750,000          5.03%
Costa Rica                   115,000          0.21%
Cuba                         465,000          0.85%
Dominican Republic           342,500          0.63%
Ecuador                      540,000          0.99%
Egypt                         62,000          0.11%
El Salvador                   96,000          0.18%
Ethiopia                   1,500,000          2.74%
Finland                       59,000          0.11%
France                       350,625          0.64%
Germany                      500,400          0.91%
Guatemala                    124,000          0.23%
Haiti                        500,000          0.91%
Honduras                     181,000          0.33%
Hungary                       67,000          0.12%
Iceland                       72,000          0.13%
India                        800,000          1.46%
Indonesia                    405,446          0.74%
Iran                         140,000          0.26%
Ireland                       70,000          0.13%
Italy                        300,000          0.55%
Kazakhstan                 1,120,000          2.05%
Kyrgyzstan                   360,000          0.66%
Lesotho                      100,000          0.18%
Lithuania                     63,628          0.12%
Macedonia                     57,100          0.10%
Mali                         172,000          0.31%
Mexico                     6,260,000         11.44%
Moldova                       73,000          0.13%
Mongolia                   2,005,300          3.67%
Morocco                      155,000          0.28%
Myanmar                      120,000          0.22%
Netherlands                  128,500          0.23%
New Zealand                   83,000          0.15%
Nicaragua                    268,000          0.49%
Niger                        106,000          0.19%
Nigeria                      206,000          0.38%
Pakistan                     300,000          0.55%
Panama                       180,000          0.33%
Paraguay                     360,000          0.66%
Peru                         730,000          1.33%
Philippines                  230,000          0.42%
Poland                       320,000          0.59%
Romania                      840,000          1.54%
Russian Federation         1,505,000          2.75%
Senegal                      509,000          0.93%
South Africa                 270,000          0.49%
Spain                        240,000          0.44%
Sweden                        95,700          0.17%
Switzerland                   54,700          0.10%
Tajikistan                    74,600          0.14%
Tunisia                       57,000          0.10%
Turkey                       271,000          0.50%
Ukraine                      640,000          1.17%
United Kingdom               184,000          0.34%
United States              5,300,000          9.69%
Uruguay                      380,000          0.69%
Uzbekistan                   145,000          0.27%
Venezuela                    500,000          0.91%
Viet Nam                     111,000          0.20%
Other Countries1           1,115,847          2.04%
World Total               54,698,374        100.00%

Source: FAOSTAT on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO) Web site <http://faostat.fao.org/>.

(1) Total of those countries with less than 0.1 percent of the
world's population of horses

TABLE 2-2 Estimated World Population of Donkeys, Mules,
and Hinnies, 2005

Country                       Head      Percentage

Afghanistan                 950,000          1.79%
Albania                     127,000          0.24%
Algeria                     213,000          0.40%
Argentina                   283,000          0.53%
Bolivia                     717,000          1.35%
Botswana                    332,500          0.63%
Brazil                    2,380,000          4.49%
Bulgaria                    215,000          0.41%
Burkina Faso              1,028,127          1.94%
Chad                        388,000          0.73%
China                    11,659,000         22.02%
Colombia                  1,360,000          2.57%
Dominican Republic          291,000          0.55%
Ecuador                     455,000          0.86%
Egypt                     3,071,150          5.80%
Ethiopia                  4,125,000          7.79%
Greece                       96,000          0.18%
Haiti                       280,000          0.53%
Honduras                     92,600          0.17%
India                     1,050,000          1.98%
Iran                      1,775,000          3.35%
Iraq                        391,200          0.74%
Lesotho                     155,200          0.29%
Mali                        720,000          1.36%
Mauritania                  158,000          0.30%
Mexico                    6,540,000         12.35%
Morocco                   1,510,000          2.85%
Namibia                     146,991          0.28%
Nicaragua                    57,000          0.11%
Niger                       580,000          1.10%
Nigeria                   1,050,000          1.98%
Pakistan                  4,300,000          8.12%
Peru                        910,000          1.72%
Portugal                    165,000          0.31%
Saudi Arabia                100,000          0.19%
Senegal                     416,000          0.79%
South Africa                164,000          0.31%
Spain                       252,000          0.48%
Sudan                       750,630          1.42%
Syrian Arab Republic        137,000          0.26%
Tajikistan                  156,100          0.29%
Tanzania                    182,000          0.34%
Tunisia                     311,000          0.59%
Turkey                      559,000          1.06%
United States                80,000          0.15%
Uzbekistan                  150,000          0.28%
Venezuela                   512,000          0.97%
Yemen                       500,000          0.94%
Zimbabwe                    113,220          0.21%
Other Countries (1)       1,000,875          1.89%

World Total              52,956,358        100.00%

Source: FAOSTAT on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO) Web site <http://faostat.fao.org/>.

(1) Total of those countries with less than 0.1 percent of the
world's population of donkeys, mules, and hinnies

TABLE 2-3 Triple Crown Winners

Year  Horse Name    Jockey              Trainer        Owner

1919  Sir Barton    John Loftus         H. G. Bedwell  J. K. L. Ross
1930  Gallant Fox   Earl Sande          James          Belair Stud
                                          Fitzsimmons
1935  Omaha         William Saunders    James          Belair Stud
                                          Fitzsimmons
1937  War Admiral   Charley Kurtsinger  George Conway  Samuel D.
                                                         Riddle
1941  Whirlaway     Eddie Arcaro        Ben A. Jones   Calumet Farm
1943  Count Fleet   John Longden        Don Cameron    Mrs. J. D.
                                                         Hertz
1946  Assault       Warren Mehrtens     Max Hirsch     King Ranch
1948  Citation      Eddie Arcaro        Ben A. Jones   Calumet Farm
1973  Secretariat   Ron Turcotte        Lucien Laurin  Meadow Stable
1977  Seattle Slew  Jean Cruguet        William        Karen L. Taylor
                                          Turner Jr.
1978  Affirmed      Steve Cauthen       Lazaro S.      Harbor View
                                          Barrera        Farm

TABLE 2-4 Major Rodeos in North America

Location (1)     Month      Location          Month

Las Vegas, NV    December   Reno, NV          June
Houston, TX      March      Calgary, Canada   July
Scottsdale, AZ   October    Denver, CO        January
Pocatello, ID    March      Fort Worth, TX    January
Cheyenne, WY     July       San Antonio, TX   February

(1) Las Vegas is by far the biggest rodeo, with prize money over
$2 million. Prize money at the other rodeos ranges between $200,000
and $100,000.
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Article Details
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Author:Parker, Rick
Publication:Equine Science, 3rd ed.
Article Type:Statistical data
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:4838
Previous Article:Chapter 1 History and development of the horse.
Next Article:Chapter 3 Breeds, types, and classes of horses.
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