Printer Friendly

Chapter 19 Frozen desserts.



After reading this chapter, you should be able to

* discuss the ingredients used in frozen desserts and the role each plays in creating texture, and if applicable, flavor.

* describe the distinction between churned and still-frozen desserts. calculate and balance a churned frozen dessert formula for ice cream and sorbet.

* discuss the physical structure of ice cream and the challenges faced in maintaining its quality during storage and transport.

* make a selection of churned and still-frozen desserts.

* practice proper hygiene, sanitation, and storage for frozen desserts.


The category of frozen desserts represents a wide range of sweet preparations that are served in a frozen state. The most popular of these is ice cream, along with similar products such as sorbet, gelato, and frozen yogurt. Others include granita, frozen mousse, parfait, and a long list of variations. The light, smooth, creamy textures of these frozen concoctions have universal appeal. Air bubbles contribute the lightness, and sugar lowers the freezing point, thus preventing the mixture from becoming rock-solid at typical freezer temperatures.

Based on the process used to make them, frozen desserts can be divided into two general categories: churned desserts and still-frozen desserts. Churned desserts are constantly agitated during freezing to break up the ice crystals as they form. Smaller crystals result in a smoother texture. Air is also incorporated during the churning. This process is usually done with an ice cream machine but can also be performed by hand, as is the case with granita. In contrast, still-frozen desserts are prepared, assembled, and left undisturbed in the freezer until they reach a somewhat solid state. They are composed of a liquid base plus a foam, such as whipped egg whites or cream. The foam provides air bubbles and gives the dessert a light texture.


Frozen desserts, and ice cream in particular, are physically complex, unstable mixtures. Stability is maintained primarily through low storage temperature, but support also comes from special physical properties of the core ingredients.

Ice cream is a unique mixture of all three states of matter: gas, liquid, and solid. It consists of fat globules, air bubbles, and ice crystals that are evenly dispersed in an aqueous solution. The solution is able to remain liquid at freezer temperatures due to its high concentration of sugar, a substance that can lower the freezing point of water. Low storage temperatures maintain the existing ice crystals and prevent the trapped air bubbles from escaping. Frozen desserts that contain dairy products benefit from fat's ability to trap air bubbles, but it also introduces the instability of a water-fat emulsion. Again, freezer temperatures help to slow the separation that occurs naturally between these two substances. The lecithin in the egg yolk and milk proteins in the milk and cream work as emulsifiers. Their molecules are surface active, meaning that one end is attracted to water and the other is attracted to fat. This relationship works to help maintain an even dispersion of fat globules within the water-based liquid.


When preparing any edible product, the best results are achieved by using high-quality, flavorful ingredients. Likewise, this should be a guide in selecting ingredients for frozen desserts. It is equally important, however, to consider the role each ingredient plays in determining the texture of the final product. Frozen dessert formulations are a delicate balance between flavor and texture. Ingredients contribute to the flavor but can also affect melting point, mouthfeel, and smoothness. The ingredients detailed in this section pertain specifically to those commonly used in frozen desserts. The guidelines set forth by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for ice cream production specify the minimum and maximum amounts of specific ingredients that must be included to classify the product as ice cream. General information about these ingredients may also be found in the online companion. To download information about the ingredients in this section, go to http://www


Dairy products form the basis of most frozen desserts. Not only do they provide the desired richness and characteristic dairy flavor expected in high-quality ice cream, gelato, frozen mousse, and more, but the fat and proteins in milk and cream are also responsible for the smooth, creamy texture found in these desserts. As in whipped cream, milk fat's unique ability to trap air bubbles lends a pleasant lightness to the texture. The milk proteins, casein and whey, assist by stabilizing the foam.

Dairy products that are used in frozen desserts are available in many different forms. They are selected based on the quality and type of ice cream to be produced. The following products include the most commonly used products:
Whole, concentrated, and skimmed liquid milk
Skimmed milk powder and whey powder
Buttermilk and buttermilk powder

Skimmed or nonfat milk powder has had its water and fat components removed. It consists of a mixture of proteins, lactose, and minerals that are also referred to as milk solids nonfat (MSNF). Adding powdered milk to an ice cream mix reinforces its framework, resulting in an improved texture and overrun percentage. MSNF helps stabilize the water that is present from milk and other ingredients, but too much will cause lactose crystals to form. These triangular lactose crystals are noticeable to the tongue and will be perceived as a sandy texture. Whey, a by-product of cheese manufacturing, is sometimes used for low-cost ice cream. Buttermilk may be used to replace skim milk. In general, the selection of raw material is based on availabilities, cost, and final product quality.

Milk fat is one of the most expensive ingredients used in ice cream. For this reason, lower-quality products contain less of it than premium ice creams. The average fat content in ice cream is between 7 and 20 per cent, most commonly falling between 7 and 12 percent. The combination of milk solids nonfat and milk fat ranges from 16 to 22 percent. USDA regulations specify the minimum amounts of fat required for each classification of ice cream. They range from standard, with 10 percent milk fat by weight, to super premium, with as much as 20 percent. (See Figure 19-1 for more details.)
Figure 19-1
Dairy Product Specifications

Percentage                         Percentage   Percentage
Product                 Water        Solids        Fat

Whole milk            88           12            3.60
Nonfat milk           91            9.30         0.06
Condensed milk        66           34           10
Condensed nonfat      68.50        31.50         0.50
Sweet condensed       26           74            9
26% fat milk powder    4           94           26
Nonfat milk powder     3           97            0
18% fat cream         74.46        25.54        18.00
20% fat cream         72.46        27.36        20
25% fat cream         68.10        31.90        25
30% fat cream         63.56        36.44        30
35% fat cream         59.02        40.98        35
40% fat cream         54.48        45.52        40
Butter *              16           84           82
Concentrated butter    0.10        99.90        99.90

Percentage            Percentage   Weight Per   Percentage
Product                  NFMS      Quart (kg)    Lactose

Whole milk             8.40         1.036
Nonfat milk            9.24         1.035
Condensed milk        24.00
Condensed nonfat      31
Sweet condensed       23
26% fat milk powder   71                          37
Nonfat milk powder    97                          50
18% fat cream          7.54         1.015
20% fat cream          7.36         1.000
25% fat cream          6.90         1.005
30% fat cream          6.44         1.000
35% fat cream          5.98         0.998
40% fat cream          5.52         0.993
Butter *               2.00
Concentrated butter    0.00

* Water in dairy butter varies. This butter
listed is considered a high fat butter.

It is possible to recombine milk solids and fat to achieve whole milk. Through the combination of water, milk solids, and butter, ice cream manufacturers can create whole milk at a fraction of the cost for fresh whole milk. Figure 19-2 shows the formulas to make a liter of whole milk when using 26 percent milk powder and with nonfat milk powder.

In ice cream formulations, whole milk, cream, and butter are the most common sources of fat. Other frozen products are sometimes made with vegetable oils or a combination of milk fat and vegetable oil. Whichever fat is used, it is important that the melting point fall within a particular temperature range: high enough to allow for the creation of a stable foam and low enough to melt at body temperature. Fats that have a melting point higher than human body temperature coat the mouth and leave an unpleasant, greasy, waxy residue when consumed. Palm oil and coconut oil are two alternative fats with melting profiles similar enough to those of dairy fat to produce a reasonable product.


Many ice cream formulas include egg yolks or occasionally, whole eggs. This type is referred to as custard-style or French custard ice cream since the ice cream base preparation is similar to that of custard (that is, the eggs are cooked with milk, cream, sugar, and flavoring). The eggs add richness and the lecithin in the egg yolk acts as an emulsifier, stabilizing the even dispersion of water and fat in the mixture. Egg yolk contains approximately 30 percent fat and 10 percent lecithin. Further information on egg yolk composition is detailed in Figure 19-3.
Figure 19-2
Formulas to Make Whole Milk

                         Using 26%      Using Nonfat
Recombine             Fat Milk Powder   Milk Powder

Water *                    914 g           908 g
26% fat milk powder        114 g            N/A
Nonfat milk powder          N/A             84 g
Butter                      8 g             44 g

* The water is reduced to compensate for water contained in the butter.

Figure 19-3
Egg Yolk Composition and
Egg Conversion and Lecithin

Egg Yolk Composition

           Water   Lecithin   Protein   Other Fats   Minerals

Egg yolk    50%       9%        16%        23%          2%

Egg Conversion and Lecithin Equivalencies

1 kg whole egg    20 whole eggs
1 kg egg white    30 egg whites
1 kg egg yolk     56 egg yolks
1 egg yolk        18 g
1 egg yolk         2 g lecithin
10 g lecithin     90 g egg yolk


Frozen egg yolk contains an average of 10 percent sugar to minimize
freezing damage. This quantity of sugar should be considered in the
sugar calculation of the final formula.


Sugar plays an essential role in the taste and texture of frozen desserts. It raises sweetness to the desired level and balances bitter or acidic flavorings such as fruit, coffee, or chocolate. In addition, sugar is the primary ingredient responsible for giving ice cream and like products its "scoopable" texture. This means that it is soft enough to scoop, yet solid enough to maintain its shape once served. As the amount of sugar in a solution increases, the freezing point is lowered. This prevents ice cream from being rock-solid at freezer temperatures. At the typical serving temperature of 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C), about 28 percent of the water present in ice cream remains in a liquid state. Sucrose is the primary sweetener for frozen desserts, although various other sugars are commonly used in combination with it. Invert sugars such as glucose, dextrose, and corn syrup are often included due to their ability to prevent crystallization and extend the shelf life of a product. These sugars are available in liquid or dry form and in varying levels of sweetness. Sweetness levels are measured relative to sucrose, which has been assigned a value of 100. This system provides an easy way to identify the sweetening power of a particular sugar and the corresponding effect it will have on the freezing point of a mixture. The combined sweetening level in a mix has a very important influence on the final texture. For more information about different sugars and their sweetening power, refer to Figure 19-4.

Another system for measuring sweetness applies exclusively to products that are obtained through hydrolysis, a process that converts starch to glucose (dextrose) by the application of heat and an acid or enzymes. Hydrolysis can be full or partial. The extent of conversion is expressed as its dextrose equivalent (DE). A higher DE indicates a higher level of sweetness. Starch has a DE of 0, as it has undergone no conversion. Dextrose, obtained through full conversion, has a DE of 100. Commercial corn syrups have DE in the range of 35 to 65.
Figure 19-4
Sugar Composition and
Sweetening Power

Product                  Percentage    Percentage    Sweetening
                            Water        Solids         Power

Sugar                      1 to 5          95            100
Inverted sugar               22            78            125
Honey *                      20            80            130
Glucose DE 38                30            70            45
Glucose DE 60                30            70            60
Glucose powder DE 38       1 to 5          95            45
Dextrose                   1 to 5          95            70
Fructose                   1 to 5          95            130
Sorbitol                   1 to 5          95            55
Lactose                    1 to 5          95         15 to 20
Lactose powder             1 to 5          95         65 to 85
Maltose                    1 to 5          95            33
Isomalt                    1 to 5          95            40


This chart is presented with sugar at the top because the sweetening
power of all other products is based on it. The presentation of
ingredients is based on an approximation of how frequently they are
used in the industry.

* In a natural product such as honey, water and solids can vary.

There is some confusion regarding terminology with these products. Technically, dextrose is a specific form of glucose. In the food industry, the two terms are often used interchangeably, but commercial products labeled glucose and dextrose can be quite different. In general, glucose syrup or powder refers to a starch-based sweetener obtained through partial hydrolysis. At least 20 percent of the starch has been converted to dextrose. In contrast, products sold as dextrose imply that they have undergone a fuller conversion and have a considerably higher DE. It is important to note that two dry sweeteners commonly used in ice cream production, glucose powder and dextrose powder, can have different composition and sweetening levels.

Selection of various sugars provides a means of modifying the sweetness, texture, and overrun of the product. Overrun is the air that is incorporated during the churning phase of ice cream production. When using powdered glucose, 6 percent is recommended, and 10 percent is the maximum suggested amount. Glucose DE 50 is known to provide the best overrun. Dextrose DE 75 will reduce the freezing point by 0.9[degrees]F (0.5[degrees]C) for each percentage point added and is also known to reduce overrun. The maximum amount of dextrose used should not exceed 2 percent. An excess of either glucose or dextrose will produce an ice cream with a rubbery texture. The invert sugar, Trimoline, is sometimes used in ice cream formulas that have high fat content. It contains an emulsifier and has a high DE of 127 which will soften the texture. Powdered sugar is never used for ice cream since it contains starch, a potential source of spoilage if not fully cooked.

The sweetness of an ice cream mix can be measured with a refractometer, an optical instrument that is capable of determining the sugar concentration in most substances. It is a very precise tool, but to obtain an accurate reading, the user must follow proper procedures. To start, the glass must be cleaned with distilled water, then a drop of ice cream mix is set on it and the cover is closed. With the refractometer held level and pointed toward a light source, the user looks through the eyepiece. A reading will correspond to the percentage of sugar in the solution. This percentage is also referred to as Brix.

An alternative method of determining the percentage of sugar is to reference the table of all ingredients and calculate the total sugar compared to the total weight of the mix. Everything must be considered, including the lactose in the milk, which has a sweetening power of 16.


In order to protect against the temperature fluctuations that are likely to occur during transport and storage, many manufacturers enlist the aid of emulsifiers and/or stabilizers. When ice crystals in a product melt, they tend to migrate and join other water droplets. Once refrozen, the crystals formed are larger and the ice cream takes on a coarse, icy texture. This explains the condition commonly found in an old container of ice cream that has been sitting in the freezer or one that is left out to melt and is later refrozen.

A fine-textured, smooth ice cream is composed of evenly dispersed tiny ice crystals, small enough to be undetectable by the tongue. When ice cream is inevitably subjected to varying temperatures, it undergoes a sequence of melting and refreezing called heat shock. This is the process that takes place when the tiny ice crystals melt and water droplets join together as they migrate within the solution. When the mixture is refrozen, the larger water drops become larger ice crystals and create a coarse ice cream texture, with crystals often visible on the surface. Heat shock, which damages both the texture and the flavor of the product, is one of manufacturers' biggest concerns.

Emulsifiers maintain a homogenous water-fat mixture and work to keep the two disparate substances from separating. Egg yolks traditionally provide this function in ice cream and still do in many natural products; however, some ice cream manufacturers choose to include other commercially produced emulsifiers such as polysorbates and monoand diglycerides due to their increased strength and relative low cost.

Stabilizers are also used to prevent water migration by increasing the viscosity of the solution. After ice crystals melt, they are held in isolation, and then, once refrozen, the crystal size and numbers are maintained and little damage is done. An additional benefit of the viscous texture is that it helps to mask detection of larger crystals when they do form. However, too much stabilizer in a mix will produce an unpleasant rubbery consistency. Common stabilizers include sodium alginate, carrageenan, locust bean gum/carob gum, guar gum, xanthan gum, pectin, and gelatin.

Best results are obtained by using a combination of stabilizers to take advantage of the particular characteristics of each. Some differences to consider are how well a particular substance reacts to acid, heat, or milk proteins and how easily it dissolves. Special formulations designed specifically for sorbet or ice cream can be purchased. Emulsifier-stabilizer compound products also provide an easy alternative for small producers.

Selection of an appropriate mix of stabilizers is important to achieve the best results. Comments on some of the popular ones follow, and see Figure 19-5 for their recommended usages.

* Alginate is extracted from seaweds. It dissolves easily in water. The gelling properties of alginate diminish in highly acidic mixtures (3.4 pH). In a well-balanced mixture, it provides very good viscosity.

* Agar is a gelatinous substance that is extracted from certain species of seaweed and red algae native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is not often used in ice cream production. To dissolve fully, it requires boiling liquid, higher temperatures than are used for ice cream.

* Carrageenan is also a seaweed. It reacts very well with milk proteins and protects the casein in a highly acidic mix.

* Guar flour, like guar gum, is produced from guar seeds. The flour dissolves more easily than guar gum. It is cold water soluble and reacts very nicely in a neutral pH mixture.

* Carob flour comes from the carob fruit. It has similar properties as the guar flour but produces an ice cream texture that is less elastic.

* Pectin is extracted from citrus skin, apples, and beets. There are two types of pectin: low methoxy (LM) pectin and high methoxy (HM) pectin. HM pectin gives a better result in solutions that are acidic and have a high sugar concentration. Pectin has very good gelling properties and is often used for vegetarian or Kosher production.

* Gelatin is an animal protein product that is produced from the bones, cartilage, skin, and connective tissue of animals, primarily pigs and cows. It is frequently used as a stabilizer because it has no taste, odor, or color. Gelatin gives a nice viscosity and smooth texture and retards thawing.

* Egg whites are not generally used because heat diminishes their stabilizing properties. Powdered egg whites are sometimes used in cold sorbet mixes.
Figure 19-5
Stabilizers and Suggested
Percentage Usage

Product                   Suggested Percentage Usage

Sodium alginate                  0.20 to 0.30
Agar                             0.30 to 0.35
Carrageenan                      0.15 to 0.25
Carob flour                      0.15 to 0.30
Guar flour                       0.15 to 0.30
Pectin                           0.30 to 0.50
Gelatin                          0.25 to 0.50

Emulsifiers increase the ability of an ice cream mix to hold air bubbles and maintain its volume. Mono- and diglycerides are chemical emulsifiers that are made from partially hydrolyzed vegetable fat, such as soybean or palm oil. See Figure 19-6 for suggested usage of emulsifiers.


Possibilities for flavoring an ice cream mix are limited only by one's imagination and a few factors that may affect texture and taste. For example, when including ingredients that are high in fat, sugar, or alcohol, it is important to consider their impact on the final texture. Like sugar, alcohol lowers the freezing point and will produce a softer product.

Flavor ingredients are generally added to the base mixture. Others may be added at the end of the process, depending on the desired result. Base flavorings in liquid, powder, or paste form can easily be blended into the mix. Strong flavors such as herbs or spices are more suited to flavoring by infusion. In this case, the base is cooked as usual with the flavorings added. Heat encourages extraction of the flavors but harsh and bitter notes are avoided by straining the substances from the mix prior to freezing. In order to maintain their size and texture, solid pieces, referred to as inclusions, are folded in at a later stage, after churning. Examples of popular inclusions are fruit chunks, nuts, candies, and baked goods. It is important to consider that solid inclusions will take on moisture from the ice cream mix. To help prevent soggy textures, nuts can be toasted, baked pieces can be fully dried, and items can be coated in a protective layer of chocolate or cocoa butter. Rippled sauces and swirls are also added at the stage between churning and freezing. Sauces should contain an appropriate level of sugar or alcohol to ensure a soft texture that is consistent with the base when frozen.
Figure 19-6
Emulsifiers and Suggested
Percentage Usage

Product                   Suggested Percentage Usage

Mono- and diglyceride            0.10 to 0.30
Polysorbate                      0.10 to 0.20


Fruit is a very popular flavoring for frozen desserts. It can be added as a puree to flavor the base, mixed in as bite-size pieces, or inserted in the form of fruit swirls. Figure 19-7 shows suggested percentages of fruit to be used in sorbet. When using fresh fruit, it is important to choose ripe, full-flavored produce. Following the seasons is the best way to find the highest quality fruit at the lowest price. Clean the fruit well, select only the best portions, and remove coarse pieces such as seeds or skins. Mix fruits that have a tendency to oxidize with lemon juice or citric acid to prevent them from discoloring.

Most fruits contain a high percentage of water which, when incorporated into a frozen dessert, can have detrimental effects on taste and texture. Extra water can bleed from the fruit, form large ice crystals, and result in an icy texture. Equally unpleasant are fruit inclusions that become hard as ice cubes when frozen. Both of these conditions can easily be avoided.

To remove excess water from pureed or chunk fruit, mix it with an amount of sugar equal to 25 percent of its weight and then refrigerate it for 12 to 24 hours to draw out the natural juices. The pulp will fall to the bottom of the container and the water can be easily drained. Alternatively, fruit can be cooked or roasted to remove moisture and intensify flavor. The textural changes that occur, especially in fruits high in pectin, have the added benefit of producing a creamier base for sorbet or granita. Cooked fruit has a very different flavor than fresh, which may or may not be desired.

Ingredients such as sugar and alcohol lower the freezing point of water. This behavior is exploited to give frozen desserts a soft texture, but it can also be applied to fruit inclusions to give them softness at typical freezer temperatures. Macerate fruit pieces in sugar syrup or alcohol, drain, and add to the dessert mixture prior to the hardening phase. Dried fruits also benefit from being rehydrated in this manner. Candied or glazed fruits such as cherries, pineapple, and candied citrus peels do not require this extra step because they have ample sugar content.
Figure 19-7
Recommended Percentage
of Fruit in Sorbet

Fruit                     Percentage

Apricot                    50 to 60
Pineapple                  45 to 60
Banana                     35 to 40
Black currant              30 to 35
Lime                       15 to 20
Lemon                      20 to 30
Coconut                       50
Strawberry                 47 to 70
Raspberry                  45 to 55
Passion Fruit              30 to 35
Morello cherry             40 to 50
Gooseberry                 35 to 45
Kiwi                       50 to 60
Mandarin                   45 to 55
Mango                      50 to 60
Melon                      60 to 80
Mirabelle prune            50 to 60
Blackberry                  45 to 5
Muroise                    40 to 50
Blueberry                  45 to 55
Orange                     55 to 70
Peach                      50 to 70
Pear                       50 to 70
Grapefruit                 35 to 50
Prune                      50 to 60
Lychee                        50


Fruit puree added sugar content, 10 percent; recommended solid content
in sorbet, 31 to 33 percent; recommended solid content with alcohol,
22 to 28 percent; recommended sugar with alcohol, 14 to 16 percent;
recommended sugar, 20 to 33 percent; recommended glucose, 10 percent
max; recommended fat, 2 percent max; recommended MSNF, 3 percent max;
recommended fresh fruits, 1.25.

Using prepack fruit puree has some advantages. The producer often has a purchase agreement with the farmers allowing the fruits to be closely monitored and harvested at the peak of ripeness. This arrangement allows them to obtain the best flavor and sweetness. Immediately after harvest, the fruit is processed to remove the seeds or pit, sifted to eliminate excess skin and foreign particles, and then frozen to a low temperature. Fruits may also be analyzed for acidity and sweetness levels to maintain a consistent product and to monitor for potential contamination. Sucrose, generally added at an average of 10 percent, heightens flavors and helps shorten the defrosting time.


Nuts, valued both for their flavor contribution and textural contrast, are a delicious addition to ice cream and frozen desserts. Whole nuts or pieces can be folded in as crunchy inclusions or they can be ground and used as a base ingredient. Toasting the nuts beforehand enhances their flavors and increases crispness. Candying or coating them in chocolate or cocoa butter before adding to a creamy dessert will further prevent them from softening.


Chocolate is one of the most popular flavoring ingredients used in ice cream. It can be incorporated in a multitude of ways: as a flavoring for the base, as solid bits, as coating for inclusions, or as a rippled sauce. When adding chocolate to the base mixture, it is important to consider the composition of the specific chocolate being used, namely, its sugar, solids, and fat content. These components have an important impact on the texture as well as flavor of the ice cream. The amounts of each vary considerably between types of chocolate as well as between different brands. Figure 19-8 details the composition of Valrhona chocolates. It is important to determine this information for the particular brand and type of chocolate being used.


Churned frozen desserts are generally produced using an ice cream machine. Exceptions to this rule are granita and similar frozen ices. In both cases, the mixture is stirred or churned during freezing in order to break up the size of the ice crystals that form. Ice cream machines are very efficient at this task and produce smooth desserts with tiny ice crystals. The ice crystals in granita are periodically broken up manually as the mixture freezes. This creates a refreshing crunchy, icy texture.


Though the scale of the operation and the equipment are very different in commercial ice cream production, the procedure is quite similar to home production. An ice cream base is made by mixing and heating milk and/or cream, sweetener, flavoring, and, optionally, eggs. After reaching a temperature suitable for pasteurization, the mixture is refrigerated and aged for a number of hours. It then goes into the ice cream maker, where it is subjected to freezing temperatures and constant churning. Eventually, the liquid becomes a semifrozen solid and is placed in a freezer for further hardening.
Figure 19-8 Valrhona Chocolate Compositioti

                        Percentage     Percentage     Percentage
Product                   Cocoa          Sugar           Fat


Caraibe                    66.5           33             40.6
Caraque                    56             43.5           37
Equatoriale noire          55.5           44             37.4
Extra amer                 67             32             38
Extra bitter               61             38             38
Guanaja                    70.5           29             42.5
Manjari                    64.5           35             40
Noir extra                 53             46.5           30


Equatoriale lait           35             44.5           36.8
Guanaja lait               41
Jivara                     40             36             40.4
Super alpins               39


Ivoire                     30             43.5           37

                        Percentage     Percentage
Product                Cocoa Solid    Milk Powder


Caraibe                    26.5
Caraque                    19
Equatoriale noire          18
Extra amer                 30
Extra bitter               23
Guanaja                    28
Manjari                    24.5
Noir extra                 23.5


Equatoriale lait                          20
Guanaja lait
Jivara                                    23.5
Super alpins


Ivoire                                    20

Cocoa Powder--Paste

                          Solids         Water

Cocoa paste                99%             1%
Cocoa powder 22%           98%             2%
Low-fat cocoa powder       98%             2%

                            pH           Fates

Cocoa paste                               54%
Cocoa powder 22%            8             22%
Low-fat cocoa powder        8             10%

Preparing the Base

Blending the base ingredients and heating the mix are the first steps in ice cream production. Heat helps to dissolve dry ingredients like milk powder and stabilizers and encourages flavor extraction when flavoring by infusion. Even more important though is the need to pasteurize the mix. Pasteurization is an essential step to ensuring a safe product. Heating to a specified temperature for a determined length of time prevents the development of dangerous microbes that are present in eggs and dairy products.

There are two pasteurization options for frozen products. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization is the most commonly used method for ice cream. It requires the mixture be heated to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 to 3 minutes. An alternate method, low-temperature longtime (LTLT) pasteurization requires that the mixture be heated to a minimum temperature of 149[degrees]F (65[degrees]C) for 30 minutes. This method may be preferable for mixtures that contain ingredients whose flavors or composition would be adversely affected by high heat.

Making the Ice Cream Mix Using HTST Pasteurization

* Scale all the ingredients and keep in separate sanitized containers.

* Mix the stabilizer with 10 times its weight of sugar to dilute it.

* In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk or water, if powdered milk is being used.

* When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip.

* At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add all the sugar and spices, coffee flavor, and tea if part of the formula.

* At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream (35 percent milk fat) or melted butter or oil.

* At 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), add the egg yolks that have been mixed with a little milk. Make sure to whip continuously while the egg yolks are being added.

* At 111[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer-sugar mixture. Stir constantly to prevent burning. Bring the mixture to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes.

* Remove from the heat, and add the melted chocolate, peanut butter, or any nut paste, if part of the ice cream base.

* Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), and refrigerate in a closed container. The refrigerator should be 36[degrees]F (2[degrees]C) to 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C).

* If you have some concern about the quality of the nut's source or about contamination of any flavor, the addition of the paste should be part of the pasteurization stage: 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes for HTST or 149[degrees]F (65[degrees]C) for 30 minutes for LTLT.


After pasteurization, the mixture is quickly cooled to 40[degrees]F (4[degrees]C). This temperature should be reached within 1 hour to minimize the time spent in the critical temperature zone of 50[degrees]F (10[degrees]C) to 140[degrees]F (60[degrees]C), a range that is most conducive to dangerous bacteria growth. During the aging or ripening stage, the mixture is held in a refrigerated compartment in a sanitized covered container. Specific times and temperatures are as follows: 24 hours maximum at 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) or 48 hours maximum at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C); maturation can be achieved in as few as 4 hours at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C) with the assistance of slow agitation. Extended resting time is highly recommended, however, because it allows the fat inside the globules to begin to crystallize, the emulsifiers to adhere to water droplets, and the stabilizers to hydrate fully. The mixture will become thicker and creamier. All these conditions build a better, more stable environment for the air bubbles that will be incorporated in the next step. Heat-sensitive ingredients like flavorings, colorings, or fruit purees can also be added this time. Also, large productions may test the mix for viscosity and microbiological safety before going to the freezing.


The three structural components of ice cream are fat globules, ice crystals, and air bubbles. By the end of the aging phase, the partially crystallized fat globules have created a network that provides a structure to hold the ice crystals and air bubbles, which will be formed during the freezing stage. The chilled mix is placed into the freezing tank of an ice cream maker where a central vertical paddle, called a dasher, spins. The action simultaneously aerates the mix and continuously scrapes frozen crystals off the sides of the canister, preventing them from growing too large.

Air that is incorporated, also referred to as overrun, gives ice cream its characteristic lightness. The amount can be significant, with overrun accounting for up to half the volume of some lower quality ice creams. Heavy use of emulsifiers allows for such high overrun amounts. When the mix has reached a consistency similar to that of soft-serve ice cream, it is removed from the freezing tank. At this point, inclusions such as fruits, nuts, and baked items may be gently folded in, and sauces can be inserted. If left in the freezing tank too long, the ice cream will harden and air will be forced out.


Overrun is the measure of additional volume the ice cream acquires during churning, as a result of air bubbles becoming trapped by the fat. Emulsifiers encourage higher overrun. Typical overrun for ice cream is between 50 and 100 percent and for sorbet from 30 to 40 percent. Premium products have levels at the lower range, whereas economy brands contain significantly more. Overrun provides lightness and good mouthfeel, yet too much dilutes the flavor and produces an undesirable, overly airy texture.

How to Calculate Overrun Using the same container, weigh the ice cream mix before and after freezing. Be careful to fill to the top to ensure that there are no air pockets.


1 quart ice cream mix before freezing = 1,200 g 1 quart ice cream after freezing = 750 g

1200 - 750 / 750 X 100% = 60% overrun


After removal from the ice cream maker, about half of the liquid has been frozen into ice crystals, and the ice cream is in a very unstable state. It is essential to lower the temperature as quickly as possible to prevent water migration and a coarse texture. Once inclusions have been added, the ice cream is packaged and its temperature quickly lowered. Because colder temperatures produce a smoother product, the ideal range is -22[degrees]F (-30[degrees]C) to -40[degrees]F (-40[degrees]C). Once the product is hardened, ice cream can be stored indefinitely at -13[degrees]F (-25[degrees]C) or colder. Ice crystal growth is prevented at these extreme low temperatures.


Ice cream at its simplest is made with dairy products, sugar, various flavorings, and sometimes eggs. There are two main styles: Philadelphia-style ice cream and custard-style ice cream. Philadelphia-style ice cream is made from an uncooked mixture of cream, sugar, and flavorings. It can have a slightly grainy texture because it lacks the emulsifying capabilities of egg yolk, and larger ice crystals may form. However, the addition of bulky flavoring ingredients such as chocolate or fruit puree can help emulsify the mixture and produce a smooth-textured ice cream. A custard-style ice cream base is a cooked mixture of milk, cream, whole eggs or egg yolks, and sugar that is similar to creme Anglaise. It produces a rich, smooth ice cream. To define ice cream as French or custard-style, the USDA requires that it contain a minimum of 1.4 percent egg solids. Processing methods for both styles are the same.


Gelato is an Italian frozen dessert that is similar to ice cream. Although the process for making gelato and ice cream is almost identical, the two differ slightly in taste and texture. While ice cream is loved for its lightness and creamy, rich taste, a good gelato is valued for its dense consistency and intense flavor. In gelato, the proportion of flavoring to fat is substantially higher than that of ice cream. The dense texture is a result of minimal air incorporation.


Sorbet is composed primarily of fruit or vegetable juice or puree, sugar syrup, and an acid. They are characteristically light and refreshing. Some formulations include alcohol or infusions of tea, coffee, herbs, and spices. Sorbet is often served as a palate cleanser between courses or as a light dessert.

Sorbet, like ice cream, has a smooth and creamy texture that is the result of careful control of ice crystal size. The process for making it is basically the same as for ice cream; however, sorbet contains no fat or dairy. This results in lower overrun levels because fat is responsible for trapping most of the air in ice cream. Maximum overrun levels for sorbet can reach 30 to 60 percent compared to 100 percent or more for ice cream. The high percentage of fruit puree in some sorbet formulas provides bulk that can help trap air and produces a light texture. Emulsifiers are unnecessary due to an absence of fat, but stabilizers may be added to prevent the texture from coarsening, which can occur over time from water recrystallization.

The balance of solids and sugar is important to maintain overrun and hold the scoop shape. The content of solids should fall between 31 to 33 percent, and the sugar should be between 20 and 33 percent. Up to 10 percent powdered glucose may be added to create a firmer texture. This is due to it having a lower sweetening power than sucrose and consequently less impact on the freezing point. Some sorbets may add low levels of fat or nonfat milk solids to help trap air. The amounts should not exceed 2 and 3 percent, respectively. Sorbets that include alcohol may require a reduction in sugar content because alcohol also depresses the freezing point.


Granita, or granite, is a crisp, refreshing ice that can be made from a wide assortment of flavorings, including fruit purees, fruit or vegetable juices, wine, alcohol, coffee, or tea. It can also be infused with unlimited variations of zests, herbs, and spices. Ingredients are mixed with simple syrup or water, depending on the flavoring ingredients used and desired level of sweetness. Granita is frequently served as an intermezzo or light dessert, although a growing trend is to offer savory versions that provide texture and temperature contrast to other courses.

The basic ratio for granita is three parts juice to one part simple syrup. The ideal sugar content for ice crystal formation is between 8[degrees] and 12[degrees] baume. When making a savory granita, sugar can be substituted with salt and alcohol to achieve the desired texture. These ingredients also lower the freezing point and prevent the mixture from becoming a solid block of ice. A small amount of salt is recommended, even for sweet granitas, because it helps balance and enhance flavors.


Still-frozen desserts offer a delicious alternative to traditional ice cream. They do not require an ice cream machine for their preparation and therefore are a good option for kitchens with limited equipment.

Desserts that fall into this category are largely composed of the ingredients that go into a classic mousse. Whipped foam made of egg whites or yolks and heavy cream may be folded into a flavored base. Any of the inclusions that are used for ice cream can be incorporated into the mixture. And, there are endless possibilities for creating sophisticated desserts by layering multiple flavors and contrasting textural elements such as cake, crisp cookies, or meringue.

Some examples of still-frozen desserts follow:

* Frozen mousse, the simplest of these preparations, is a combination of a Swiss or Italian meringue, whipped cream, and a flavoring base.

* Frozen parfait is a mixture of pate a bombe or Italian or Swiss meringue, with flavoring and whipped cream folded in. In the United States, parfait also refers to a dessert of ice cream layered with fruit and whipped cream.

* Frozen souffle is similar to a frozen mousse. The distinction is attributed to its presentation, made to mimic the appearance of a hot souffle. Frozen and served in ramekins that have been fitted with a collar, the additional height that is exposed when the collar is removed mimics the puff of a classic hot souffle.

* Semifreddo, which means "half frozen" in Italian, is a frozen dessert composed of a custard base lightened with whipped cream or meringue. Chocolate, nuts, fruits, or other inclusions can be incorporated. Semifreddo is served frozen, but the incorporated air softens it and makes it seem less cold.

* Bombe is a molded frozen dessert named for its classic dome shape. It is traditionally comprised of multiple layers of parfait-type mixtures.


Creation of an ice cream or sorbet formula requires careful balance of the substances that affect both flavor and texture, especially fat, MSNF, sugars, solids, and water. These components are found in a number of the ingredients in the mix so it is necessary to evaluate all to determine an accurate total. For example, sugar concentration is calculated from the lactose in milk or milk powder, sugar included in fruit puree or other ingredients, and any type of sugar that is added directly to the base. The formula calculation spreadsheet (Figure 19-9) included later in this chapter contains recommended percentage levels for each component, allowing for easy formula creation or modification of an existing formula. Breaking a formula down into component percentages can help identify problems with texture or sweetness when compared against the recommended ranges. For large-scale production there are computer programs available that do similar analysis.

To balance a formula, the fat, MSNF, water, and total solids in the dairy products and other ingredients must be calculated. For each component, add the weights contributed from the various ingredient sources and divide by the total weight of the batch to obtain a percentage. These numbers can then be compared to the recommended percentages noted on the spreadsheet. These guidelines help to create the ice cream/sorbet texture and flavor desired. For large commercial production it is necessary to observe the USDA guidelines in order to label the ice cream/ sorbet according to the classification. Smaller production such as that in restaurant or pastry shops does not require as strict adherence.

In the ice cream example below, metric measurements are used to facilitate calculation; however, US decimal point can also be used.
Ice Cream Calculation Example

Formula Guidelines

9% fat
14% MSNF
17% sucrose
0.2% stabilizer
0.2% emulsifier
Total weight of batch: 10,000 g

Ingredient Composition Selected

Butter 82% butterfat
Skim milk powder 97% solids

Quantity of butter needed to make 9% fat in the final formula
using butter with 82% butterfat

Formula    Batch      Butterfat

9% fat     10,000     82%

9 X 10,000 / 82 = 1,097 g butter

Quantity of powdered skim milk needed for 149,6 solids or 1,400 g

First, determine the weight of solids in the amount of butter calculated previously. This particular butter has 2 percent MSNF
Weight of butter X MSNF in butter = 1,097 g X 2%

1,097 g X 2 / 100 = 21.94 g MSNF in the butter
                  = 22 g when rounded up

Deduct this amount (22 g) from the total number of solids needed for the batch (1,400 g). Then, determine the amount of milk powder needed to provide the rest. The skim milk powder chosen has 97 percent MSNF
Desired            MSNF in butter

14% of 10,000          22 g

1,400 g - 22 g =    1,378 g

1,378g X 100 / 97 = 1,420 g

Amount of sucrose needed for 1796 of 10,000 g batch

10,000 X 17 / 100 = 1,700 g


10,000 X 0.17 = 1,700g

Amount ofstabilizer needed for 0.2% of 10,000 g batch

Total batch = 10,000 g X 0.2% / 100 = 20g


               10,000 X 0.002 = 20 g

Amount of emulsifier needed for 0.296 of 10,000g batch

Total batch = 10,000 g X 0.2% / 100 = 20g


              10,000 g X 0.002 = 20 g

Now that we have the total of all ingredients, we can determine the amount of water needed.
Quantity of water needed

Batch = 10,000 g - (1,097 g butter + 1,420 g milk powder + 1,700 g sugar
                     + 20 g emulsifier + 20 g stabilizer) = 5,743 g

So, 5,743 g of water is 57.43 percent of the total 10,000 g batch.

Replacing Water With Fresh Whole Milk

If fresh whole milk is used instead of water, we need to calculate the composition of the whole milk considering that whole milk contains 3.6 percent fat, 8.4 percent MSNF, and 88 percent water, the sum of which equals 100 percent.

First, we calculate the amount of fresh milk needed to replace the water. Then, we evaluate the fat and MSNF in this quantity and adjust the butter and powdered skim milk to reflect the change.

Quantity of milk to replace the water
Water weight   Water in milk

5,473               88%

5,743 g X 100 / 88 = 6,526 g milk

This is the total weight of whole milk needed to replace the water. Next, calculate the fat and MSNF and deduct the result from your earlier calculation.
Fat weight in the milk (3.6%)

6,526 g X 3.6 / 100 - 235 g


6,526 g X 0.036 = 235 g

MSNF weight in the whole milk (8.4%)

6,526 g X 8.4 / 100 = 548 g


6,526 g X 0.084 = 548 g

These two components can be deducted from the other ingredients.
Final Formula Comparison

                         Using        Change       Using
                         Water       Required    Whole Milk

Water                    5,743 g                       0 g
Whole milk                   0 g                   6,526 g
Powdered skim milk       1,420 g       -548 g        872 g
Sugar                    1,700 g                   1,700 g
Butter                   1,097 g       -235 g        862 g
Emulsifier                  20 g                      20 g
Stabilizer                  20 g                      20 g
Total                  10,000 kg                 10,000 kg

If cream is an ingredient of the ice cream mix, it is necessary to determine its fat content, which can vary from 18 to 40 percent. The water and MSNF contribution from the cream should also be reflected.

The composition of each ingredient is the most important part to consider. What is added with one must be balanced with the others. To balance the solids, first calculate the other ingredients, then the MSNF, and finally the water. Information on dairy products, sugars, and egg yolks are detailed in their associated composition tables found in the ingredients section of this chapter. Enter values into the formula calculation spreadsheet (Figure 19-9) later in this chapter to organize the calculation of an ice cream or sorbet formula.

One equation can be used to calculate the MSNF Add the other solid percentages and subtract from 100. The result is then divided by 6.9 for short conservation and 6.4 for longer conservation. Short conservation applies to a product that will be stored up to 1 week. Long conservation refers to storage of a month or longer. A larger quantity of solids helps stabilize the ice cream structure for extended storage.
Example of MSNF Calculation

                             Solid of the Mix

Butter           1097 g              2%
Sugar            1700 g             17%
Emulsifier         20 g            0.2%
Stabilizer         20 g            0.2%

100% - 19.4% = 80.6%

Short Conservation

80.6/6.9 = 11.68% MSNF

Total solid = 11.68% + 19.4% = 30.91% solids

Long Conservation

80.6/6.4 = 12.6% MSNF

Total solid = 12.6% + 19.4% = 32% solids

These calculated MSNF and total solids percentages fall within the recommended ranges.


Sorbet is slightly easier to calculate because fewer ingredients are involved. First, add the percentage of the solids in the ingredients used. Keep in mind that frozen puree generally includes 10 percent sugar for better flavor, easier usage, and increased shelf life. For best results, follow this guide, which applies the average rule.
Guidelines for Sorbet Formulas

                                                Percentage Solid *

Sugar         20% to 33%                        100%
MSNF          0.5% to 3%         If used        Varies by product
Fat           0.5% to 2%         If used        Varies by product
Fruit pulp                                      Varies
Stabilizer    0.2% to 0.3%                      100%
Emulsifier    None

* Total solids from 31 to 33 percent.

Sorbet Calculation Example

Batch Mix Formula

31 % of solid (7,000 g strawberry puree with 10% sucrose included)
0.2% stabilizer
Total weight of the batch: 10,000 g

Actual quantity of strawberry puree: 7,000 g with 10% sucrose

7,000 g X (10% sugar) / 100 = 700 g sucrose


7,000 g X 0.10 = 700 g

7,000 g - 700 g = 6,300 g puree

Actual quantity of solids considering the puree has 11 % solid

Actual strawberry puree X Solid = 6,300 g - 11%

6,300 X 11 / 100 = 693 g


6,300 X 0.11 = 693 g

Actual quantity of stabilizer: 0.2%

10,000 g X 0.2 / 100 = 20 g


10,000 X 0.002 = 20 g

Total solids known = 693 + 20 = 713 g solids

Solids selected: 319,6

Batch size X Solid selected = 10,000 X 31%

10,000 X 31 / 100 = 3,100 g


10,000 X 0.31 = 3,100 g

Sugar to add to balance the solids 3,100 g with 31

Selected solids - (Existing solid + Sucrose in puree)

= 3,100 g - (713 + 700 ) = 1,687 g sucrose

Water to be added

Batch - (Sucrose + Stabilizer + Puree)

= 10,000 - (1,687 + 20 + 7,000) = 1,292 g water

Mineral water can be used for ice cream/sorbet to avoid
off flavors and potential contamination.

Calculate sugar percentage to compare to guideline

Sucrose + Sucrose in puree = 1,687 g + 700 g = 2,387 g total sugar

2,387 X 100 / 10,000 = 3.87%


2,387 X 0.010 = 23.87%

Final Formula Balance


713 + 2,387 = 3,100 g or 31% (31 to 33%) recommended


700 + 1,687 = 2,387 g or 23.87% (20 to 30%) recommended


1,293 X 100 / 10,000 g = 12.93%


1,293 X 0.010 = 12.93%

If fat, MSNF, or powdered glucose are selected for this formula, add the solids of those ingredients and make adjustments to stay within the 31 percent range. Make the same calculation when adding chocolate to make chocolate sorbet. Refer to Figure 19-9 for an example of a formula calculation spreadsheet.
Figure 19-9 Formula Calculation Spreadsheet

Products                 Weight         % Fat        Weight

Whole milk                              3.6%
Nonfat milk powder
Butter                                 82.0%
Sucrose                                 0.0%
Inverted sugar                          0.0%
Other sweetener
Other sweetener
Egg yolk                               33.5%
Stabilizer                              0.0%
Emulsifier                              0.0%
Vanilla powder                          0.0%
Fruit puree

Total weights
Ice cream %                            7%-12%
Sorbet %                                 2%

                                      MSNE Dry
Products                % MSNE8%       Extract      % Solids

Whole milk
Nonfat milk powder        97%
Butter                     2%
Sucrose                    0%                          95%
Inverted sugar             0%
Other sweetener
Other sweetener
Egg yolk                   0%
Stabilizer                 0%
Emulsifier                 0%
Vanilla powder             0%
Fruit puree

Total weights
Ice cream %              8%-11%                      35%-45%
Sorbet %                   3%                        31%-32%

Products                 Solids        % Water        Water

Whole milk                              88.0%
Nonfat milk powder                        3%
Butter                                   16%
Sucrose                                   5%
Inverted sugar                           22%
Other sweetener
Other sweetener
Egg yolk                                 50%
Vanilla powder
Fruit puree

Total weights
Ice cream %
Sorbet %

Products                 Lactose        SC *         % Sugar

Whole milk
Nonfat milk powder
Inverted sugar
Other sweetener
Other sweetener
Egg yolk
Vanilla powder
Fruit puree

Total weights
Ice cream %                            16%-23%      18%-22% **
Sorbet %                                            20%-33%

Products                  Sugar       Egg Yolk     Stabilizer

Whole milk
Nonfat milk powder
Inverted sugar
Other sweetener
Other sweetener
Egg yolk
Vanilla powder
Fruit puree

Total weights
Ice cream %                                         0.2%-0.3%
Sorbet %

Products               Emulsifier     Flavoring      Alcohol

Whole milk
Nonfat milk powder
Inverted sugar
Other sweetener
Other sweetener
Egg yolk
Vanilla powder
Fruit puree

Total weights
Ice cream %               0.25%
Sorbet %

* Process to Calculate Sweetness Concentration (SC)

** Suggested Percentages of Select Ingredients for Sorbet and Ice

To calculate the SC from the casein take the MSNF and divide it by
2 (50%). This gives the casein content since the casein is 16 DE.

Multiply the result by 0.16 and then place the result in the column

All the other sweeteners are multiplied by the DE given number.
Sucrose is 100 percent.

When you have all the sweetness concentration numbers, add them up
and divide the result by 100 to give the actual percentage.

Sugar percentage for ice cream with alcohol 14 to 15 percent

Sorbet with alcohol 22 to 28 percent

Alcohol maximum in sorbet 7 percent

Glucose powder in sorbet 10 percent

MSNF plus fat in sorbet 16 to 22 percent


* For simplicity and consistency, formulas are presented in kilograms only, as is the example on how to balance an ice cream formula.

* The low storage temperatures specified in this section provide the ideal environment for sorbet and ice cream. As explained in this chapter, such low temperatures prevent water migration and the formation of large crystals, which destroy the desirable smooth texture. If a blast freezer is unavailable, frozen desserts may be stored for shorter periods at typical freezer temperatures. Note that degradation will occur over time.

* Mineral water is specified in a number of formulas due to its neutral taste and lack of bacteria. If you are lucky enough to have good tap water, it can be substituted.

* Monostearate, an ingredient listed in most of the ice cream formulas, is a fat emulsifier. It is used in combination with an ice cream stabilizer for improved texture. Commercially available stabilizer-emulsifier blends can be substituted. Follow the manufacturer's guidelines for usage. Lecithin powder or egg yolks can also be used as emulsifiers. Keep in mind that these ingredients will affect the flavor of the product. Additional egg yolks will also increase the fat level and mouthfeel of the ice cream.

* Commercially available inverted sugar is a liquid sweetener composed of equal parts fructose and glucose. The sweetening power is higher than sucrose by weight. Glucose and corn syrup are not appropriate replacements.


A classic favorite, our version of vanilla ice cream features a
generous amount of vanilla bean, which lends a clean, refreshing
vanilla flavor. This ice cream makes a great base for additions of
fresh fruit, liqueur, cookies, and more.

Ingredients                            Kilogram

Whole milk                               1.129
Nonfat powdered milk                     0.080
Sugar                                    0.220
Glucose powder                           0.060
Vanilla bean (1 per kg mix)              2.000
Inverted sugar                           0.040
35% cream                                0.400
Egg yolks                                0.060
Stabilizer                               0.006
Monostea rate                            0.005
Total                                    2.000


1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized

2. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with 10 times their combined
weight of sugar (from the sugar already in the formula) to dilute
it for better incorporation.

3. In a stainless steel pan, heat up the milk.

4. When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the
powdered milk, and mix with a whisk.

5. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add all the sugar, glucose
powder, and vanilla bean.

6. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream.

7. At 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), add the egg yolks, which have
been mixed with a little milk. Make sure to whip continuously while
the egg yolks are added.

8. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the monostearate and
stabilizer mixed with the sugar and the inverted sugar.

9. Stir constantly to prevent scorching. Bring the mixture to
185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes.

10. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C),
cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at
42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C).

11. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight
under refrigeration.

12. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a
smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the

13. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable
components. 14. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank.

15. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency.

16. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean,
frozen container.

17. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C).

18. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F
(-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C).

19. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F



The rival to vanilla ice cream is almost certainly chocolate ice
cream. Rich with cream and flavored with bittersweet couverture,
this chocolate ice cream will please the most discerning of

Ingredients                            Kilogram

Whole milk                               1.165
Nonfat powdered milk                     0.050
Sugar                                    0.150
35% cream                                0.280
Stabilizer                               0.005
Monostea rate                            0.005
Inverted sugar                           0.080
67% chocolate couverture                 0.265
Total                                    2.000


1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized

2. Melt the couverture in a microwave to 120[degrees]F
(49[degrees]C) and reserve.

3. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with 10 times their combined
weight of sugar (from the sugar already in the formula) to dilute
it for better incorporation.

4. In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk.

5. When the temperature of the milk reaches 39[degrees]F
(4[degrees]C), add the powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip.

6. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add the sugar.

7. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream.

8. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer and
monostearate mixed with the sugar and then the inverted sugar.

9. Next, add the melted chocolate.

10. Stir constantly to prevent scorching. Bring the mixture to
185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes.

11. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C),
cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at
42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C).

12. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight
under refrigeration.

13. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a
smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the
monostearate and stabilizers.

14. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable

15. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank.

16. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency.

17. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean,
frozen container.

18. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C).

19. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F
(-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C).

20. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F



A perfect treat after a meal, this coffee ice cream is made with
fresh ground coffee and espresso powder for an extra kick.

Ingredients                            Kilogram

Whole milk                               1.060
Nonfat powdered milk                     0.080
Sugar                                    0.230
Instant coffee                           0.020
Ground coffee                            0.040
35% cream                                0.400
Egg yolks                                0.060
Stabilizer                               0.006
M onostea rate                           0.005
Glucose                                  0.060
Inverted sugar                           0.040
Total                                    2.001


1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized

2. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with 10 times their combined
weight of sugar (from the sugar already in the formula) to dilute
it for better incorporation.

3. In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk.

4. When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the
powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip.

5. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add all the sugar, the instant
coffee, and the crushed coffee.

6. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream.

7. At 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), add the egg yolks, whipping

8. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer and
monostearate mixed with the sugar; then add the glucose and
inverted sugar.

9. Stir constantly to prevent scorching. Bring the mixture to
185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes.

10. Strain through a fine mesh chinois to extract the ground

11. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C),
cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at
42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C).

12. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight
under refrigeration.

13. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a
smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the

14. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable

15. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank.

16. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency.

17. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean,
frozen container.

18. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C).

19. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F
(-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C).

20. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F



In Japan, this product is referred to as matcha ice cream. Matcha
is a fine powdered green tea. It is popular in the United States,
especially at small ice cream shops and Japanese restaurants.

Ingredients                        Kilogram

Whole milk                           1.130
Heavy cream                          0.355
Green tea powder                     0.045
Sugar                                0.240
Nonfat powdered milk                 0.110
Glucose powder                       0.110
Stabilizer                           0.010
Total                                2.000


1. Boil the milk, cream, and green tea powder. Add the sugar,
powdered milk, glucose powder, and stabilizer mix.

2. Cook to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C).

3. Mix and cool to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C).

4. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight
in a covered container at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C).

5. Stir the ice cream mix.

6. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank.

7. Churn until the ice cream gets the desired consistency.

8. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean

9. Freeze right away at -31[degrees]F (-35[degrees]C).

10. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F
(-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C).

11. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F



The rich flavors of hazelnut praline shine through in this ice
cream, making it a perfect finish to any meal or a delightful
afternoon treat.

Ingredients                        Kilogram

Whole milk                           1.185
Nonfat powdered milk                 0.045
35% cream                            0.280
Sugar                                0.070
Stabilizer                           0.005
Monostea rate                        0.005
Inverted sugar                       0.080
Hazelnut praline 50% fruit           0.330
Total                                2.000


1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized

2. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with all of the sugar to
dilute it for better incorporation.

3. In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk.

4. When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the
powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip.

5. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream.

6. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer mixed with
sugar, the inverted sugar, and the hazelnut praline.

7. Stir constantly to prevent burning. Bring the mixture to
185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for

2 minutes.

8. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C),
cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at
42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C).

9. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight
under refrigeration.

10. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a
smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the

11. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable

12. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank.

13. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency.

14. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean,
frozen container.

15. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C).

16. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F
(-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C).

17. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F



The color and flavor of this sorbet is bright and fresh. It can be
enjoyed at the end of a meal or as a treat on a hot summer

Ingredients                        Kilogram

Water                                0.490
Sugar                                0.270
Glucose powder                       0.120
Stabilizer                           0.010
Raspberry puree, 10% sugar           1.090
Lemon juice                          0.020
Total                                2.000


1. Combine the sugar, glucose powder, and stabilizer.

2. Bring the water toward the boiling point.

3. When the water is at 113[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the sugar

4. Bring the liquid to a boil: 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C).

5. Add the raspberry puree and lemon juice and mix.

6. Quickly cool to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), and cover to the
surface with plastic wrap.

7. Let the sorbet mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight in a
covered container at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C).

8. Blend the sorbet mix with an immersion blender.

9. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable

10. Pour the mix in the ice cream machine tank.

11. Churn until the sorbet gets the desired consistency.

12. Remove from the machine, and transfer to a clean, frozen

13. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C).

14. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F
(-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C).

15. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F


Use this chart to make a variety of fruit ice creams.

Ice Creams Using Fruit Puree

Ingredients             Apricot       Banana     Strawberry

Fruit puree              800 g        750 g      1,200 g
Whole milk             1,036 g      1,036 g      1,036 g
Nonfat powdered          140 g        130 g        240 g
Heavy cream              360 g        600 g        700 g
  35% fat
Butter                    90 g                     100 g
Sugar                    300 g        270 g        400 g
Glucose powder            90 g        120 g        150 g
Inverted sugar
Cognac or
Stabilizer-               10 g          8 g         20 g
Total weight           2,826 g      2,914 g      3,846 g

Ingredients            Raspberry      Lychee      Chestnut

Fruit puree              800 g        700 g        650 g
Whole milk             1,036 g      1,036 g      1,036 g
Nonfat powdered          150 g        110 g        120 g
Heavy cream              360 g        330 g        550 g
  35% fat
Butter                   110 g         70 g
Sugar                    320 g        290 g        250 g
Glucose powder            95 g        110 g
Inverted sugar                                      90 g
Cognac or                                           20 g
Stabilizer-               10 g         10 g          8 g
Total weight           2,356 g      2,658 g      2,724 g

Ingredients              Pabana      Passion      Coconut

Fruit puree              850 g        700 g        600 g
Whole milk             1,036 g      1,036 g      1,036 g
Nonfat powdered          140 g        150 g        120 g
Heavy cream              350 g        450 g        140 g
  35% fat
Butter                   110 g         80 g
Sugar                    240 g        310 g        160 g
Glucose powder            90 g        100 g         40 g
Inverted sugar                                      90 g
Cognac or
Stabilizer-               10 g         10 g          7 g
Total weight           2,826 g      2,836 g      2,193 g


1. Put the milk in a stainless steel pot, and bring toward a boil.

2. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add the nonfat powdered milk, and
whisk constantly.

3. At 86[degrees]F (30[degrees]C), add three-fourths of the sugar,
which has been blended with the powdered glucose. Next add the
inverted sugar.

4. Blend the remainder of the sugar with the stabilizer-emulsifier.

5. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream and the butter
(if needed).

6. At 113[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the sugar, which has been
mixed with the stabilizer-emulsifier.

7. Pasteurize at 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) in a machine or at
188[degrees]F (87[degrees]C) in a saucepan.

8. Let mature/age for 1 to 4 hours.

9. Combine the puree and the base, and put in the ice cream machine.

10. For recipes using alcohol, place the alcohol in the cold mix.


Use this chart to make a variety of fruit sorbets. Note: All formulas
are based on 1 kg of puree.

Sorbets Using Fruit Puree

                       Fruit Puree
Flavor                 Percentage    Sugar   Glucose Powder

Apricot                    75%       130 g         50 g
Pineapple                  75%       115 g         65 g
Banana                     70%       100 g         70 g
Boysenberry                70%       160 g         70 g
Black currant              55%       230 g         70 g
Lemon                      40%       510 g        150 g
Lime                       40%       510 g        150 g
Coconut                    60%       210 g         50 g
Fig                        75%        85 g         55 g
Strawberry                 75%       155 g         80 g
Wild strawberry            55%       215 g        110 g
Mara des bois              70%       210 g         85 g
Raspberry                  70%       130 g         85 g
Fruits of the forest       70%       145 g         85 g
Guava                      70%       200 g         55 g
Morello cherry             70%       115 g         85 g
Red currant                65%       200 g         90 g
Kiwi                       70%       185 g         55 g
Lychee                     70%       130 g         85 g
Mandarin                   75%       135 g         55 g
Mango                      70%       120 g         70 g
Melon                      75%       145 g         55 g
Mirabelle                  75%        70 g         50 g
Blackberry                 70%       140 g         85 g
Blueberry                  70%       170 g         70 g
Orange                     70%       145 g         85 g
Blood orange               70%       170 g         85 g
Pabana                     70%        90 g         85 g
Pink grapefruit            65%       190 g         90 g
Papaya                     70%       165 g         70 g
Passion                    45%       335 g        135 g
White peach                75%       150 g         50 g
Yellow peach               75%       140 g         50 g
Vine peach                 70%       145 g         55 g
Comice pear                75%       100 g         55 g
Williams pear              75%       110 g         55 g
Green apple                70%       145 g         55 g
Pruneau                    70%        10 g         55 g
Chestnut                   70%        70 g         55 g

Flavor                  Dextrose   Stabilizer   Water

Apricot                   25 g        4 g       110 g
Pineapple                 25 g        4 g       125 g
Banana                                4 g       255 g
Boysenberry                           4 g       200 g
Black currant                         5 g       430 g
Lemon                                 8 g       830 g
Lime                                  8 g       830 g
Coconut                   35 g        5 g       370 g
Fig                       25 g        4 g       170 g
Strawberry                            4 g        95 g
Wild strawberry           35 g        5 g       455 g
Mara des bois                         4 g       130 g
Raspberry                 30 g        5 g       180 g
Fruits of the forest      30 g        5 g       165 g
Guava                     25 g        4 g       145 g
Morello cherry                        5 g       225 g
Red currant                           5 g       240 g
Kiwi                      30 g        4 g       155 g
Lychee                                4 g       210 g
Mandarin                  25 g        4 g       115 g
Mango                     30 g        5 g       205 g
Melon                     25 g        4 g       105 g
Mirabelle                 25 g        4 g       180 g
Blackberry                            3 g       200 g
Blueberry                             5 g       180 g
Orange                                4 g       190 g
Blood orange                          5 g       165 g
Pabana                                4 g       250 g
Pink grapefruit                       4 g       250 g
Papaya                                3 g       190 g
Passion                               7 g       745 g
White peach               25 g        4 g       105 g
Yellow peach              25 g        4 g       110 g
Vine peach                25 g        3 g       195 g
Comice pear               25 g        4 g       150 g
Williams pear             25 g        4 g       140 g
Green apple               30 g        4 g       190 g
Pruneau                   25 g        4 g       330 g
Chestnut                              4 g       240 g

Process for Fruit Sorbets Using High Percentages of Fruit Purees

1. Weigh all the ingredients.

2. Mix the stabilizer with one-fourth of the total weight of sugar.

3. Mix the rest of the sugar with atomized glucose and dextrose.

4. Warm the water to 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C).

5. At 86[degrees]F (30[degrees]C), add the mix sugar-atomized glucose
and dextrose and mix.

6. At 113[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the sugar-stabilizer and mix.

7. Boil the mix.

8. Remove from the heat, and cover the surface with a plastic film.
Cool the mix as quickly as possible (with ice).

9. Let mature for 4 hours minimum.

10. Mix the syrup with the puree thawed at 46[degrees]F (8[degrees]C).

11. Put in the ice cream machine.



This style of slow stirred frozen dessert is perfect for anyone who
wants to serve frozen desserts but lacks the required equipment.
The more the granite is stirred, the smaller the ice crystals will
be. For an even quicker preparation, freeze the mix proportioned by
weight (2 or 2'/y oz, etc.) and when needed, turn the frozen
granite onto a cutting board and chop it up quickly.

Ingredients               Kilogram

Sugar                      0.295
Orange zest                2 each
Orange juice               0.135
Lemon juice                0.051
Cinnamon stick             2 each
Cloves                     4 each
Water                      0.253
Red wine                   1.266
Total                      2.000


1. Combine the sugar, orange zest, orange juice, lemon juice,
cinnamon stick, and cloves in a pot.

2. Add the water and red wine, and heat over low heat to dissolve
the sugar.

3. After the sugar is completely dissolved, bring it to a simmer
and keep simmering for 3 minutes.

4. Strain the liquid, pour in a shallow metal container, and place
in the freezer.

5. Allow to harden for at least 6 hours.

6. To serve, scrape the surface of the ice and place in glassware
that has been kept in the freezer.



The distinctive flavor of meyer lemon adds a floral note to this

Ingredients               Kilogram

Cream                      1.067
Egg yolks                  0.267
Sugar                      0.267
Water                      0.133
Meyer lemon juice          0.267
Lemon zest                 1 each
Total                      2.000

* Some examples are candied orange peel, candied lemon peel,
currants, roasted whole almonds, and pistachios.


1. Whip the cream to medium peaks. Reserve in the refrigerator.

2. Combine the egg yolks with a third of the sugar, and whip on
medium speed of a stand mixer until triple in volume.

3. Combine the remaining sugar and water, and cook to 248[degrees]F

4. Turn the mixer on high speed, and slowly pour the cooked sugar
into the egg yolk mixture. Be careful to pour between the whip and
the side of bowl. Continue whipping until cool.

5. Lighten the lemon juice with a small amount of the egg yolk
mixture, and then add it to the remaining egg yolk mixture. Mix in
the lemon zest.

6. Add the whipped cream into the egg yolk mixture in three stages.

7. Deposit in the desired molds, and freeze until ready to serve.



The pleasing flavors of this traditional candy are delicious in a
frozen dessert.

Ingredients               Kilogram

Sliced almond              0.235
Sugar                      0.235
Egg whites                 0.294
Sugar                      0.118
Honey                      0.176
Cream                      0.588
Dried fruits and nuts *    0.353
Total                      2.000


1. Whip the cream to soft peaks. Reserve in the refrigerator.

2. Cook the first quantity of sugar until it begins to caramelize
and add the sliced almonds, stirring until completely coated.
Spread onto a silicone mat and let cool; then crush coarsely.

3. Combine the sugar and honey in a saucepan. Place the egg whites
in a mixer to whip. When the honey mixture reaches 230[degrees]F
(110[degrees]C), start whipping the whites on medium speed.

4. Cook the sugar to 255[degrees]F (124[degrees]C), remove from the
heat, and slowly pour into the whipping egg whites; continue
whipping the egg whites until cool.

5. Fold the nuts and fruits into the meringue and then fold in the

6. Deposit in the desired molds and freeze until ready to serve.



The intense flavor of mandarin orange in this souffle glacee comes
from a reduction of mandarin orange juice. Paired with the
super-light texture due to the use of an Italian meringue as well
as whipped cream, this is a very refreshing frozen dessert.

Ingredients               Kilogram

Mandarin orange juice      0.507
Sugar                      0.320
Egg whites                 0.159
Cream                      1.014
Total                      2.000


1. Reduce the mandarin orange juice by half and cool completely.

2. Cook the sugar with a third of its weight in water.

3. When the sugar reaches 240[degrees]F (116[degrees]C), whip the
egg whites on second speed.

4. When the sugar reaches 246[degrees] F (119[degrees]C) to
250[degrees]F (121[degrees]C), slowly pour it down the side of the
mixing bowl into the whipping egg whites.

5. Whip until room temperature.

6. Lighten the mandarin reduction with a small amount of meringue
to make a similar texture to the lightness of the meringue.

7. Combine into the remaining meringue, and then fold in the cream.

8. Deposit in the desired molds, and freeze until ready to serve.


Ice cream, sorbet, and other frozen desserts are extremely popular and quite easy to produce. The variety of texture combinations and endless flavor possibilities can offer the pastry chef much creative inspiration. Whether still-frozen or churned, produced with an ice cream machine or manually, there is a process that works for every kitchen. However, the simplicity in creating a satisfying frozen dessert belies its physically complex structure and delicate balance of ingredients. Technical knowledge about structure and the role each ingredient plays in texture and flavor is essential for modifying and creating frozen dessert formulas as well as product storage.


* Bombe

* Brix

* Churned desserts

* Custard-style (French custard) ice cream

* Dasher

* Dextrose equivalent (DE)

* Emulsifier

* Freezing point

* Frozen mousse

* Frozen parfait

* Frozen souffle

* Granita (granite)

* Heat shock

* High-temperature short-time (HTST)

* Hydrolysis

* Inclusions

* Low-temperature long-time (LTLT)

* Milk solids nonfat (MSNF)

* Overrun

* Pasteurization

* Philadelphia-style ice cream

* Refractometer

* Semifreddo

* Stabilizer

* Still-frozen desserts


1. What is the function of fat in ice cream?

2. What is the function of milk protein in ice cream derived from MSNF?

3. What is DE? Why is it important to consider in ice cream formulation?

4. Why is it necessary to use emulsifiers and stabilizers for ice cream?

5. What is hardening? Why is it important?

6. What is overrun? How does it differ for sorbet and ice cream?
COPYRIGHT 2009 Delmar Learning
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michael
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Previous Article:Chapter 18 Petits fours and confections.
Next Article:Chapter 20 Plated desserts.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters