Chapter 19 Frozen desserts.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
* discuss the ingredients used in frozen desserts and the role each plays in creating texture, and if applicable, flavor.
* describe the distinction between churned and still-frozen desserts. calculate and balance a churned frozen dessert formula for ice cream and sorbet.
* discuss the physical structure of ice cream and the challenges faced in maintaining its quality during storage and transport.
* make a selection of churned and still-frozen desserts.
* practice proper hygiene, sanitation, and storage for frozen desserts.
The category of frozen desserts represents a wide range of sweet preparations that are served in a frozen state. The most popular of these is ice cream, along with similar products such as sorbet, gelato, and frozen yogurt. Others include granita, frozen mousse, parfait, and a long list of variations. The light, smooth, creamy textures of these frozen concoctions have universal appeal. Air bubbles contribute the lightness, and sugar lowers the freezing point, thus preventing the mixture from becoming rock-solid at typical freezer temperatures.
Based on the process used to make them, frozen desserts can be divided into two general categories: churned desserts and still-frozen desserts. Churned desserts are constantly agitated during freezing to break up the ice crystals as they form. Smaller crystals result in a smoother texture. Air is also incorporated during the churning. This process is usually done with an ice cream machine but can also be performed by hand, as is the case with granita. In contrast, still-frozen desserts are prepared, assembled, and left undisturbed in the freezer until they reach a somewhat solid state. They are composed of a liquid base plus a foam, such as whipped egg whites or cream. The foam provides air bubbles and gives the dessert a light texture.
Frozen desserts, and ice cream in particular, are physically complex, unstable mixtures. Stability is maintained primarily through low storage temperature, but support also comes from special physical properties of the core ingredients.
Ice cream is a unique mixture of all three states of matter: gas, liquid, and solid. It consists of fat globules, air bubbles, and ice crystals that are evenly dispersed in an aqueous solution. The solution is able to remain liquid at freezer temperatures due to its high concentration of sugar, a substance that can lower the freezing point of water. Low storage temperatures maintain the existing ice crystals and prevent the trapped air bubbles from escaping. Frozen desserts that contain dairy products benefit from fat's ability to trap air bubbles, but it also introduces the instability of a water-fat emulsion. Again, freezer temperatures help to slow the separation that occurs naturally between these two substances. The lecithin in the egg yolk and milk proteins in the milk and cream work as emulsifiers. Their molecules are surface active, meaning that one end is attracted to water and the other is attracted to fat. This relationship works to help maintain an even dispersion of fat globules within the water-based liquid.
When preparing any edible product, the best results are achieved by using high-quality, flavorful ingredients. Likewise, this should be a guide in selecting ingredients for frozen desserts. It is equally important, however, to consider the role each ingredient plays in determining the texture of the final product. Frozen dessert formulations are a delicate balance between flavor and texture. Ingredients contribute to the flavor but can also affect melting point, mouthfeel, and smoothness. The ingredients detailed in this section pertain specifically to those commonly used in frozen desserts. The guidelines set forth by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for ice cream production specify the minimum and maximum amounts of specific ingredients that must be included to classify the product as ice cream. General information about these ingredients may also be found in the online companion. To download information about the ingredients in this section, go to http://www .delmarlearning.com/companions/.
Dairy products form the basis of most frozen desserts. Not only do they provide the desired richness and characteristic dairy flavor expected in high-quality ice cream, gelato, frozen mousse, and more, but the fat and proteins in milk and cream are also responsible for the smooth, creamy texture found in these desserts. As in whipped cream, milk fat's unique ability to trap air bubbles lends a pleasant lightness to the texture. The milk proteins, casein and whey, assist by stabilizing the foam.
Dairy products that are used in frozen desserts are available in many different forms. They are selected based on the quality and type of ice cream to be produced. The following products include the most commonly used products:
Whole, concentrated, and skimmed liquid milk Skimmed milk powder and whey powder Buttermilk and buttermilk powder Cream Butter
Skimmed or nonfat milk powder has had its water and fat components removed. It consists of a mixture of proteins, lactose, and minerals that are also referred to as milk solids nonfat (MSNF). Adding powdered milk to an ice cream mix reinforces its framework, resulting in an improved texture and overrun percentage. MSNF helps stabilize the water that is present from milk and other ingredients, but too much will cause lactose crystals to form. These triangular lactose crystals are noticeable to the tongue and will be perceived as a sandy texture. Whey, a by-product of cheese manufacturing, is sometimes used for low-cost ice cream. Buttermilk may be used to replace skim milk. In general, the selection of raw material is based on availabilities, cost, and final product quality.
Milk fat is one of the most expensive ingredients used in ice cream. For this reason, lower-quality products contain less of it than premium ice creams. The average fat content in ice cream is between 7 and 20 per cent, most commonly falling between 7 and 12 percent. The combination of milk solids nonfat and milk fat ranges from 16 to 22 percent. USDA regulations specify the minimum amounts of fat required for each classification of ice cream. They range from standard, with 10 percent milk fat by weight, to super premium, with as much as 20 percent. (See Figure 19-1 for more details.)
Figure 19-1 Dairy Product Specifications Percentage Percentage Percentage Product Water Solids Fat Whole milk 88 12 3.60 Nonfat milk 91 9.30 0.06 Condensed milk 66 34 10 Condensed nonfat 68.50 31.50 0.50 milk Sweet condensed 26 74 9 26% fat milk powder 4 94 26 Nonfat milk powder 3 97 0 18% fat cream 74.46 25.54 18.00 20% fat cream 72.46 27.36 20 25% fat cream 68.10 31.90 25 30% fat cream 63.56 36.44 30 35% fat cream 59.02 40.98 35 40% fat cream 54.48 45.52 40 Butter * 16 84 82 Concentrated butter 0.10 99.90 99.90 Percentage Percentage Weight Per Percentage Product NFMS Quart (kg) Lactose Whole milk 8.40 1.036 Nonfat milk 9.24 1.035 Condensed milk 24.00 Condensed nonfat 31 milk Sweet condensed 23 26% fat milk powder 71 37 Nonfat milk powder 97 50 18% fat cream 7.54 1.015 20% fat cream 7.36 1.000 25% fat cream 6.90 1.005 30% fat cream 6.44 1.000 35% fat cream 5.98 0.998 40% fat cream 5.52 0.993 Butter * 2.00 Concentrated butter 0.00 * Water in dairy butter varies. This butter listed is considered a high fat butter.
It is possible to recombine milk solids and fat to achieve whole milk. Through the combination of water, milk solids, and butter, ice cream manufacturers can create whole milk at a fraction of the cost for fresh whole milk. Figure 19-2 shows the formulas to make a liter of whole milk when using 26 percent milk powder and with nonfat milk powder.
In ice cream formulations, whole milk, cream, and butter are the most common sources of fat. Other frozen products are sometimes made with vegetable oils or a combination of milk fat and vegetable oil. Whichever fat is used, it is important that the melting point fall within a particular temperature range: high enough to allow for the creation of a stable foam and low enough to melt at body temperature. Fats that have a melting point higher than human body temperature coat the mouth and leave an unpleasant, greasy, waxy residue when consumed. Palm oil and coconut oil are two alternative fats with melting profiles similar enough to those of dairy fat to produce a reasonable product.
Many ice cream formulas include egg yolks or occasionally, whole eggs. This type is referred to as custard-style or French custard ice cream since the ice cream base preparation is similar to that of custard (that is, the eggs are cooked with milk, cream, sugar, and flavoring). The eggs add richness and the lecithin in the egg yolk acts as an emulsifier, stabilizing the even dispersion of water and fat in the mixture. Egg yolk contains approximately 30 percent fat and 10 percent lecithin. Further information on egg yolk composition is detailed in Figure 19-3.
Figure 19-2 Formulas to Make Whole Milk Using 26% Using Nonfat Recombine Fat Milk Powder Milk Powder Water * 914 g 908 g 26% fat milk powder 114 g N/A Nonfat milk powder N/A 84 g Butter 8 g 44 g * The water is reduced to compensate for water contained in the butter. Figure 19-3 Egg Yolk Composition and Egg Conversion and Lecithin Equivalencies Egg Yolk Composition Water Lecithin Protein Other Fats Minerals Egg yolk 50% 9% 16% 23% 2% Egg Conversion and Lecithin Equivalencies 1 kg whole egg 20 whole eggs 1 kg egg white 30 egg whites 1 kg egg yolk 56 egg yolks 1 egg yolk 18 g 1 egg yolk 2 g lecithin 10 g lecithin 90 g egg yolk Note Frozen egg yolk contains an average of 10 percent sugar to minimize freezing damage. This quantity of sugar should be considered in the sugar calculation of the final formula.
Sugar plays an essential role in the taste and texture of frozen desserts. It raises sweetness to the desired level and balances bitter or acidic flavorings such as fruit, coffee, or chocolate. In addition, sugar is the primary ingredient responsible for giving ice cream and like products its "scoopable" texture. This means that it is soft enough to scoop, yet solid enough to maintain its shape once served. As the amount of sugar in a solution increases, the freezing point is lowered. This prevents ice cream from being rock-solid at freezer temperatures. At the typical serving temperature of 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C), about 28 percent of the water present in ice cream remains in a liquid state. Sucrose is the primary sweetener for frozen desserts, although various other sugars are commonly used in combination with it. Invert sugars such as glucose, dextrose, and corn syrup are often included due to their ability to prevent crystallization and extend the shelf life of a product. These sugars are available in liquid or dry form and in varying levels of sweetness. Sweetness levels are measured relative to sucrose, which has been assigned a value of 100. This system provides an easy way to identify the sweetening power of a particular sugar and the corresponding effect it will have on the freezing point of a mixture. The combined sweetening level in a mix has a very important influence on the final texture. For more information about different sugars and their sweetening power, refer to Figure 19-4.
Another system for measuring sweetness applies exclusively to products that are obtained through hydrolysis, a process that converts starch to glucose (dextrose) by the application of heat and an acid or enzymes. Hydrolysis can be full or partial. The extent of conversion is expressed as its dextrose equivalent (DE). A higher DE indicates a higher level of sweetness. Starch has a DE of 0, as it has undergone no conversion. Dextrose, obtained through full conversion, has a DE of 100. Commercial corn syrups have DE in the range of 35 to 65.
Figure 19-4 Sugar Composition and Sweetening Power Product Percentage Percentage Sweetening Water Solids Power Sugar 1 to 5 95 100 Inverted sugar 22 78 125 Honey * 20 80 130 Glucose DE 38 30 70 45 Glucose DE 60 30 70 60 Glucose powder DE 38 1 to 5 95 45 Dextrose 1 to 5 95 70 Fructose 1 to 5 95 130 Sorbitol 1 to 5 95 55 Lactose 1 to 5 95 15 to 20 Lactose powder 1 to 5 95 65 to 85 Maltose 1 to 5 95 33 Isomalt 1 to 5 95 40 Note This chart is presented with sugar at the top because the sweetening power of all other products is based on it. The presentation of ingredients is based on an approximation of how frequently they are used in the industry. * In a natural product such as honey, water and solids can vary.
There is some confusion regarding terminology with these products. Technically, dextrose is a specific form of glucose. In the food industry, the two terms are often used interchangeably, but commercial products labeled glucose and dextrose can be quite different. In general, glucose syrup or powder refers to a starch-based sweetener obtained through partial hydrolysis. At least 20 percent of the starch has been converted to dextrose. In contrast, products sold as dextrose imply that they have undergone a fuller conversion and have a considerably higher DE. It is important to note that two dry sweeteners commonly used in ice cream production, glucose powder and dextrose powder, can have different composition and sweetening levels.
Selection of various sugars provides a means of modifying the sweetness, texture, and overrun of the product. Overrun is the air that is incorporated during the churning phase of ice cream production. When using powdered glucose, 6 percent is recommended, and 10 percent is the maximum suggested amount. Glucose DE 50 is known to provide the best overrun. Dextrose DE 75 will reduce the freezing point by 0.9[degrees]F (0.5[degrees]C) for each percentage point added and is also known to reduce overrun. The maximum amount of dextrose used should not exceed 2 percent. An excess of either glucose or dextrose will produce an ice cream with a rubbery texture. The invert sugar, Trimoline, is sometimes used in ice cream formulas that have high fat content. It contains an emulsifier and has a high DE of 127 which will soften the texture. Powdered sugar is never used for ice cream since it contains starch, a potential source of spoilage if not fully cooked.
The sweetness of an ice cream mix can be measured with a refractometer, an optical instrument that is capable of determining the sugar concentration in most substances. It is a very precise tool, but to obtain an accurate reading, the user must follow proper procedures. To start, the glass must be cleaned with distilled water, then a drop of ice cream mix is set on it and the cover is closed. With the refractometer held level and pointed toward a light source, the user looks through the eyepiece. A reading will correspond to the percentage of sugar in the solution. This percentage is also referred to as Brix.
An alternative method of determining the percentage of sugar is to reference the table of all ingredients and calculate the total sugar compared to the total weight of the mix. Everything must be considered, including the lactose in the milk, which has a sweetening power of 16.
EMULSIFIERS AND STABILIZERS
In order to protect against the temperature fluctuations that are likely to occur during transport and storage, many manufacturers enlist the aid of emulsifiers and/or stabilizers. When ice crystals in a product melt, they tend to migrate and join other water droplets. Once refrozen, the crystals formed are larger and the ice cream takes on a coarse, icy texture. This explains the condition commonly found in an old container of ice cream that has been sitting in the freezer or one that is left out to melt and is later refrozen.
A fine-textured, smooth ice cream is composed of evenly dispersed tiny ice crystals, small enough to be undetectable by the tongue. When ice cream is inevitably subjected to varying temperatures, it undergoes a sequence of melting and refreezing called heat shock. This is the process that takes place when the tiny ice crystals melt and water droplets join together as they migrate within the solution. When the mixture is refrozen, the larger water drops become larger ice crystals and create a coarse ice cream texture, with crystals often visible on the surface. Heat shock, which damages both the texture and the flavor of the product, is one of manufacturers' biggest concerns.
Emulsifiers maintain a homogenous water-fat mixture and work to keep the two disparate substances from separating. Egg yolks traditionally provide this function in ice cream and still do in many natural products; however, some ice cream manufacturers choose to include other commercially produced emulsifiers such as polysorbates and monoand diglycerides due to their increased strength and relative low cost.
Stabilizers are also used to prevent water migration by increasing the viscosity of the solution. After ice crystals melt, they are held in isolation, and then, once refrozen, the crystal size and numbers are maintained and little damage is done. An additional benefit of the viscous texture is that it helps to mask detection of larger crystals when they do form. However, too much stabilizer in a mix will produce an unpleasant rubbery consistency. Common stabilizers include sodium alginate, carrageenan, locust bean gum/carob gum, guar gum, xanthan gum, pectin, and gelatin.
Best results are obtained by using a combination of stabilizers to take advantage of the particular characteristics of each. Some differences to consider are how well a particular substance reacts to acid, heat, or milk proteins and how easily it dissolves. Special formulations designed specifically for sorbet or ice cream can be purchased. Emulsifier-stabilizer compound products also provide an easy alternative for small producers.
Selection of an appropriate mix of stabilizers is important to achieve the best results. Comments on some of the popular ones follow, and see Figure 19-5 for their recommended usages.
* Alginate is extracted from seaweds. It dissolves easily in water. The gelling properties of alginate diminish in highly acidic mixtures (3.4 pH). In a well-balanced mixture, it provides very good viscosity.
* Agar is a gelatinous substance that is extracted from certain species of seaweed and red algae native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is not often used in ice cream production. To dissolve fully, it requires boiling liquid, higher temperatures than are used for ice cream.
* Carrageenan is also a seaweed. It reacts very well with milk proteins and protects the casein in a highly acidic mix.
* Guar flour, like guar gum, is produced from guar seeds. The flour dissolves more easily than guar gum. It is cold water soluble and reacts very nicely in a neutral pH mixture.
* Carob flour comes from the carob fruit. It has similar properties as the guar flour but produces an ice cream texture that is less elastic.
* Pectin is extracted from citrus skin, apples, and beets. There are two types of pectin: low methoxy (LM) pectin and high methoxy (HM) pectin. HM pectin gives a better result in solutions that are acidic and have a high sugar concentration. Pectin has very good gelling properties and is often used for vegetarian or Kosher production.
* Gelatin is an animal protein product that is produced from the bones, cartilage, skin, and connective tissue of animals, primarily pigs and cows. It is frequently used as a stabilizer because it has no taste, odor, or color. Gelatin gives a nice viscosity and smooth texture and retards thawing.
* Egg whites are not generally used because heat diminishes their stabilizing properties. Powdered egg whites are sometimes used in cold sorbet mixes.
Figure 19-5 Stabilizers and Suggested Percentage Usage Product Suggested Percentage Usage Sodium alginate 0.20 to 0.30 Agar 0.30 to 0.35 Carrageenan 0.15 to 0.25 Carob flour 0.15 to 0.30 Guar flour 0.15 to 0.30 Pectin 0.30 to 0.50 Gelatin 0.25 to 0.50
Emulsifiers increase the ability of an ice cream mix to hold air bubbles and maintain its volume. Mono- and diglycerides are chemical emulsifiers that are made from partially hydrolyzed vegetable fat, such as soybean or palm oil. See Figure 19-6 for suggested usage of emulsifiers.
Possibilities for flavoring an ice cream mix are limited only by one's imagination and a few factors that may affect texture and taste. For example, when including ingredients that are high in fat, sugar, or alcohol, it is important to consider their impact on the final texture. Like sugar, alcohol lowers the freezing point and will produce a softer product.
Flavor ingredients are generally added to the base mixture. Others may be added at the end of the process, depending on the desired result. Base flavorings in liquid, powder, or paste form can easily be blended into the mix. Strong flavors such as herbs or spices are more suited to flavoring by infusion. In this case, the base is cooked as usual with the flavorings added. Heat encourages extraction of the flavors but harsh and bitter notes are avoided by straining the substances from the mix prior to freezing. In order to maintain their size and texture, solid pieces, referred to as inclusions, are folded in at a later stage, after churning. Examples of popular inclusions are fruit chunks, nuts, candies, and baked goods. It is important to consider that solid inclusions will take on moisture from the ice cream mix. To help prevent soggy textures, nuts can be toasted, baked pieces can be fully dried, and items can be coated in a protective layer of chocolate or cocoa butter. Rippled sauces and swirls are also added at the stage between churning and freezing. Sauces should contain an appropriate level of sugar or alcohol to ensure a soft texture that is consistent with the base when frozen.
Figure 19-6 Emulsifiers and Suggested Percentage Usage Product Suggested Percentage Usage Mono- and diglyceride 0.10 to 0.30 Polysorbate 0.10 to 0.20
Fruit is a very popular flavoring for frozen desserts. It can be added as a puree to flavor the base, mixed in as bite-size pieces, or inserted in the form of fruit swirls. Figure 19-7 shows suggested percentages of fruit to be used in sorbet. When using fresh fruit, it is important to choose ripe, full-flavored produce. Following the seasons is the best way to find the highest quality fruit at the lowest price. Clean the fruit well, select only the best portions, and remove coarse pieces such as seeds or skins. Mix fruits that have a tendency to oxidize with lemon juice or citric acid to prevent them from discoloring.
Most fruits contain a high percentage of water which, when incorporated into a frozen dessert, can have detrimental effects on taste and texture. Extra water can bleed from the fruit, form large ice crystals, and result in an icy texture. Equally unpleasant are fruit inclusions that become hard as ice cubes when frozen. Both of these conditions can easily be avoided.
To remove excess water from pureed or chunk fruit, mix it with an amount of sugar equal to 25 percent of its weight and then refrigerate it for 12 to 24 hours to draw out the natural juices. The pulp will fall to the bottom of the container and the water can be easily drained. Alternatively, fruit can be cooked or roasted to remove moisture and intensify flavor. The textural changes that occur, especially in fruits high in pectin, have the added benefit of producing a creamier base for sorbet or granita. Cooked fruit has a very different flavor than fresh, which may or may not be desired.
Ingredients such as sugar and alcohol lower the freezing point of water. This behavior is exploited to give frozen desserts a soft texture, but it can also be applied to fruit inclusions to give them softness at typical freezer temperatures. Macerate fruit pieces in sugar syrup or alcohol, drain, and add to the dessert mixture prior to the hardening phase. Dried fruits also benefit from being rehydrated in this manner. Candied or glazed fruits such as cherries, pineapple, and candied citrus peels do not require this extra step because they have ample sugar content.
Figure 19-7 Recommended Percentage of Fruit in Sorbet Fruit Percentage Apricot 50 to 60 Pineapple 45 to 60 Banana 35 to 40 Black currant 30 to 35 Lime 15 to 20 Lemon 20 to 30 Coconut 50 Strawberry 47 to 70 Raspberry 45 to 55 Passion Fruit 30 to 35 Morello cherry 40 to 50 Gooseberry 35 to 45 Kiwi 50 to 60 Mandarin 45 to 55 Mango 50 to 60 Melon 60 to 80 Mirabelle prune 50 to 60 Blackberry 45 to 5 Muroise 40 to 50 Blueberry 45 to 55 Orange 55 to 70 Peach 50 to 70 Pear 50 to 70 Grapefruit 35 to 50 Prune 50 to 60 Lychee 50 Note Fruit puree added sugar content, 10 percent; recommended solid content in sorbet, 31 to 33 percent; recommended solid content with alcohol, 22 to 28 percent; recommended sugar with alcohol, 14 to 16 percent; recommended sugar, 20 to 33 percent; recommended glucose, 10 percent max; recommended fat, 2 percent max; recommended MSNF, 3 percent max; recommended fresh fruits, 1.25.
Using prepack fruit puree has some advantages. The producer often has a purchase agreement with the farmers allowing the fruits to be closely monitored and harvested at the peak of ripeness. This arrangement allows them to obtain the best flavor and sweetness. Immediately after harvest, the fruit is processed to remove the seeds or pit, sifted to eliminate excess skin and foreign particles, and then frozen to a low temperature. Fruits may also be analyzed for acidity and sweetness levels to maintain a consistent product and to monitor for potential contamination. Sucrose, generally added at an average of 10 percent, heightens flavors and helps shorten the defrosting time.
Nuts, valued both for their flavor contribution and textural contrast, are a delicious addition to ice cream and frozen desserts. Whole nuts or pieces can be folded in as crunchy inclusions or they can be ground and used as a base ingredient. Toasting the nuts beforehand enhances their flavors and increases crispness. Candying or coating them in chocolate or cocoa butter before adding to a creamy dessert will further prevent them from softening.
Chocolate is one of the most popular flavoring ingredients used in ice cream. It can be incorporated in a multitude of ways: as a flavoring for the base, as solid bits, as coating for inclusions, or as a rippled sauce. When adding chocolate to the base mixture, it is important to consider the composition of the specific chocolate being used, namely, its sugar, solids, and fat content. These components have an important impact on the texture as well as flavor of the ice cream. The amounts of each vary considerably between types of chocolate as well as between different brands. Figure 19-8 details the composition of Valrhona chocolates. It is important to determine this information for the particular brand and type of chocolate being used.
CHURNED FROZEN DESSERTS
Churned frozen desserts are generally produced using an ice cream machine. Exceptions to this rule are granita and similar frozen ices. In both cases, the mixture is stirred or churned during freezing in order to break up the size of the ice crystals that form. Ice cream machines are very efficient at this task and produce smooth desserts with tiny ice crystals. The ice crystals in granita are periodically broken up manually as the mixture freezes. This creates a refreshing crunchy, icy texture.
Though the scale of the operation and the equipment are very different in commercial ice cream production, the procedure is quite similar to home production. An ice cream base is made by mixing and heating milk and/or cream, sweetener, flavoring, and, optionally, eggs. After reaching a temperature suitable for pasteurization, the mixture is refrigerated and aged for a number of hours. It then goes into the ice cream maker, where it is subjected to freezing temperatures and constant churning. Eventually, the liquid becomes a semifrozen solid and is placed in a freezer for further hardening.
Figure 19-8 Valrhona Chocolate Compositioti Percentage Percentage Percentage Product Cocoa Sugar Fat Dark Caraibe 66.5 33 40.6 Caraque 56 43.5 37 Equatoriale noire 55.5 44 37.4 Extra amer 67 32 38 Extra bitter 61 38 38 Guanaja 70.5 29 42.5 Manjari 64.5 35 40 Noir extra 53 46.5 30 Milk Equatoriale lait 35 44.5 36.8 Guanaja lait 41 Jivara 40 36 40.4 Super alpins 39 White Ivoire 30 43.5 37 Percentage Percentage Product Cocoa Solid Milk Powder Dark Caraibe 26.5 Caraque 19 Equatoriale noire 18 Extra amer 30 Extra bitter 23 Guanaja 28 Manjari 24.5 Noir extra 23.5 Milk Equatoriale lait 20 Guanaja lait Jivara 23.5 Super alpins White Ivoire 20 Cocoa Powder--Paste Solids Water Cocoa paste 99% 1% Cocoa powder 22% 98% 2% Low-fat cocoa powder 98% 2% pH Fates Cocoa paste 54% Cocoa powder 22% 8 22% Low-fat cocoa powder 8 10%
Preparing the Base
Blending the base ingredients and heating the mix are the first steps in ice cream production. Heat helps to dissolve dry ingredients like milk powder and stabilizers and encourages flavor extraction when flavoring by infusion. Even more important though is the need to pasteurize the mix. Pasteurization is an essential step to ensuring a safe product. Heating to a specified temperature for a determined length of time prevents the development of dangerous microbes that are present in eggs and dairy products.
There are two pasteurization options for frozen products. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization is the most commonly used method for ice cream. It requires the mixture be heated to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 to 3 minutes. An alternate method, low-temperature longtime (LTLT) pasteurization requires that the mixture be heated to a minimum temperature of 149[degrees]F (65[degrees]C) for 30 minutes. This method may be preferable for mixtures that contain ingredients whose flavors or composition would be adversely affected by high heat.
Making the Ice Cream Mix Using HTST Pasteurization
* Scale all the ingredients and keep in separate sanitized containers.
* Mix the stabilizer with 10 times its weight of sugar to dilute it.
* In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk or water, if powdered milk is being used.
* When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip.
* At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add all the sugar and spices, coffee flavor, and tea if part of the formula.
* At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream (35 percent milk fat) or melted butter or oil.
* At 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), add the egg yolks that have been mixed with a little milk. Make sure to whip continuously while the egg yolks are being added.
* At 111[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer-sugar mixture. Stir constantly to prevent burning. Bring the mixture to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes.
* Remove from the heat, and add the melted chocolate, peanut butter, or any nut paste, if part of the ice cream base.
* Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), and refrigerate in a closed container. The refrigerator should be 36[degrees]F (2[degrees]C) to 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C).
* If you have some concern about the quality of the nut's source or about contamination of any flavor, the addition of the paste should be part of the pasteurization stage: 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes for HTST or 149[degrees]F (65[degrees]C) for 30 minutes for LTLT.
After pasteurization, the mixture is quickly cooled to 40[degrees]F (4[degrees]C). This temperature should be reached within 1 hour to minimize the time spent in the critical temperature zone of 50[degrees]F (10[degrees]C) to 140[degrees]F (60[degrees]C), a range that is most conducive to dangerous bacteria growth. During the aging or ripening stage, the mixture is held in a refrigerated compartment in a sanitized covered container. Specific times and temperatures are as follows: 24 hours maximum at 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) or 48 hours maximum at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C); maturation can be achieved in as few as 4 hours at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C) with the assistance of slow agitation. Extended resting time is highly recommended, however, because it allows the fat inside the globules to begin to crystallize, the emulsifiers to adhere to water droplets, and the stabilizers to hydrate fully. The mixture will become thicker and creamier. All these conditions build a better, more stable environment for the air bubbles that will be incorporated in the next step. Heat-sensitive ingredients like flavorings, colorings, or fruit purees can also be added this time. Also, large productions may test the mix for viscosity and microbiological safety before going to the freezing.
The three structural components of ice cream are fat globules, ice crystals, and air bubbles. By the end of the aging phase, the partially crystallized fat globules have created a network that provides a structure to hold the ice crystals and air bubbles, which will be formed during the freezing stage. The chilled mix is placed into the freezing tank of an ice cream maker where a central vertical paddle, called a dasher, spins. The action simultaneously aerates the mix and continuously scrapes frozen crystals off the sides of the canister, preventing them from growing too large.
Air that is incorporated, also referred to as overrun, gives ice cream its characteristic lightness. The amount can be significant, with overrun accounting for up to half the volume of some lower quality ice creams. Heavy use of emulsifiers allows for such high overrun amounts. When the mix has reached a consistency similar to that of soft-serve ice cream, it is removed from the freezing tank. At this point, inclusions such as fruits, nuts, and baked items may be gently folded in, and sauces can be inserted. If left in the freezing tank too long, the ice cream will harden and air will be forced out.
Overrun is the measure of additional volume the ice cream acquires during churning, as a result of air bubbles becoming trapped by the fat. Emulsifiers encourage higher overrun. Typical overrun for ice cream is between 50 and 100 percent and for sorbet from 30 to 40 percent. Premium products have levels at the lower range, whereas economy brands contain significantly more. Overrun provides lightness and good mouthfeel, yet too much dilutes the flavor and produces an undesirable, overly airy texture.
How to Calculate Overrun Using the same container, weigh the ice cream mix before and after freezing. Be careful to fill to the top to ensure that there are no air pockets.
1 quart ice cream mix before freezing = 1,200 g 1 quart ice cream after freezing = 750 g
1200 - 750 / 750 X 100% = 60% overrun
After removal from the ice cream maker, about half of the liquid has been frozen into ice crystals, and the ice cream is in a very unstable state. It is essential to lower the temperature as quickly as possible to prevent water migration and a coarse texture. Once inclusions have been added, the ice cream is packaged and its temperature quickly lowered. Because colder temperatures produce a smoother product, the ideal range is -22[degrees]F (-30[degrees]C) to -40[degrees]F (-40[degrees]C). Once the product is hardened, ice cream can be stored indefinitely at -13[degrees]F (-25[degrees]C) or colder. Ice crystal growth is prevented at these extreme low temperatures.
Ice cream at its simplest is made with dairy products, sugar, various flavorings, and sometimes eggs. There are two main styles: Philadelphia-style ice cream and custard-style ice cream. Philadelphia-style ice cream is made from an uncooked mixture of cream, sugar, and flavorings. It can have a slightly grainy texture because it lacks the emulsifying capabilities of egg yolk, and larger ice crystals may form. However, the addition of bulky flavoring ingredients such as chocolate or fruit puree can help emulsify the mixture and produce a smooth-textured ice cream. A custard-style ice cream base is a cooked mixture of milk, cream, whole eggs or egg yolks, and sugar that is similar to creme Anglaise. It produces a rich, smooth ice cream. To define ice cream as French or custard-style, the USDA requires that it contain a minimum of 1.4 percent egg solids. Processing methods for both styles are the same.
Gelato is an Italian frozen dessert that is similar to ice cream. Although the process for making gelato and ice cream is almost identical, the two differ slightly in taste and texture. While ice cream is loved for its lightness and creamy, rich taste, a good gelato is valued for its dense consistency and intense flavor. In gelato, the proportion of flavoring to fat is substantially higher than that of ice cream. The dense texture is a result of minimal air incorporation.
Sorbet is composed primarily of fruit or vegetable juice or puree, sugar syrup, and an acid. They are characteristically light and refreshing. Some formulations include alcohol or infusions of tea, coffee, herbs, and spices. Sorbet is often served as a palate cleanser between courses or as a light dessert.
Sorbet, like ice cream, has a smooth and creamy texture that is the result of careful control of ice crystal size. The process for making it is basically the same as for ice cream; however, sorbet contains no fat or dairy. This results in lower overrun levels because fat is responsible for trapping most of the air in ice cream. Maximum overrun levels for sorbet can reach 30 to 60 percent compared to 100 percent or more for ice cream. The high percentage of fruit puree in some sorbet formulas provides bulk that can help trap air and produces a light texture. Emulsifiers are unnecessary due to an absence of fat, but stabilizers may be added to prevent the texture from coarsening, which can occur over time from water recrystallization.
The balance of solids and sugar is important to maintain overrun and hold the scoop shape. The content of solids should fall between 31 to 33 percent, and the sugar should be between 20 and 33 percent. Up to 10 percent powdered glucose may be added to create a firmer texture. This is due to it having a lower sweetening power than sucrose and consequently less impact on the freezing point. Some sorbets may add low levels of fat or nonfat milk solids to help trap air. The amounts should not exceed 2 and 3 percent, respectively. Sorbets that include alcohol may require a reduction in sugar content because alcohol also depresses the freezing point.
Granita, or granite, is a crisp, refreshing ice that can be made from a wide assortment of flavorings, including fruit purees, fruit or vegetable juices, wine, alcohol, coffee, or tea. It can also be infused with unlimited variations of zests, herbs, and spices. Ingredients are mixed with simple syrup or water, depending on the flavoring ingredients used and desired level of sweetness. Granita is frequently served as an intermezzo or light dessert, although a growing trend is to offer savory versions that provide texture and temperature contrast to other courses.
The basic ratio for granita is three parts juice to one part simple syrup. The ideal sugar content for ice crystal formation is between 8[degrees] and 12[degrees] baume. When making a savory granita, sugar can be substituted with salt and alcohol to achieve the desired texture. These ingredients also lower the freezing point and prevent the mixture from becoming a solid block of ice. A small amount of salt is recommended, even for sweet granitas, because it helps balance and enhance flavors.
Still-frozen desserts offer a delicious alternative to traditional ice cream. They do not require an ice cream machine for their preparation and therefore are a good option for kitchens with limited equipment.
Desserts that fall into this category are largely composed of the ingredients that go into a classic mousse. Whipped foam made of egg whites or yolks and heavy cream may be folded into a flavored base. Any of the inclusions that are used for ice cream can be incorporated into the mixture. And, there are endless possibilities for creating sophisticated desserts by layering multiple flavors and contrasting textural elements such as cake, crisp cookies, or meringue.
Some examples of still-frozen desserts follow:
* Frozen mousse, the simplest of these preparations, is a combination of a Swiss or Italian meringue, whipped cream, and a flavoring base.
* Frozen parfait is a mixture of pate a bombe or Italian or Swiss meringue, with flavoring and whipped cream folded in. In the United States, parfait also refers to a dessert of ice cream layered with fruit and whipped cream.
* Frozen souffle is similar to a frozen mousse. The distinction is attributed to its presentation, made to mimic the appearance of a hot souffle. Frozen and served in ramekins that have been fitted with a collar, the additional height that is exposed when the collar is removed mimics the puff of a classic hot souffle.
* Semifreddo, which means "half frozen" in Italian, is a frozen dessert composed of a custard base lightened with whipped cream or meringue. Chocolate, nuts, fruits, or other inclusions can be incorporated. Semifreddo is served frozen, but the incorporated air softens it and makes it seem less cold.
* Bombe is a molded frozen dessert named for its classic dome shape. It is traditionally comprised of multiple layers of parfait-type mixtures.
ICE CREAM FORMULA CREATION AND BALANCE CALCULATION
Creation of an ice cream or sorbet formula requires careful balance of the substances that affect both flavor and texture, especially fat, MSNF, sugars, solids, and water. These components are found in a number of the ingredients in the mix so it is necessary to evaluate all to determine an accurate total. For example, sugar concentration is calculated from the lactose in milk or milk powder, sugar included in fruit puree or other ingredients, and any type of sugar that is added directly to the base. The formula calculation spreadsheet (Figure 19-9) included later in this chapter contains recommended percentage levels for each component, allowing for easy formula creation or modification of an existing formula. Breaking a formula down into component percentages can help identify problems with texture or sweetness when compared against the recommended ranges. For large-scale production there are computer programs available that do similar analysis.
To balance a formula, the fat, MSNF, water, and total solids in the dairy products and other ingredients must be calculated. For each component, add the weights contributed from the various ingredient sources and divide by the total weight of the batch to obtain a percentage. These numbers can then be compared to the recommended percentages noted on the spreadsheet. These guidelines help to create the ice cream/sorbet texture and flavor desired. For large commercial production it is necessary to observe the USDA guidelines in order to label the ice cream/ sorbet according to the classification. Smaller production such as that in restaurant or pastry shops does not require as strict adherence.
In the ice cream example below, metric measurements are used to facilitate calculation; however, US decimal point can also be used.
Ice Cream Calculation Example Formula Guidelines 9% fat 14% MSNF 17% sucrose 0.2% stabilizer 0.2% emulsifier Total weight of batch: 10,000 g Ingredient Composition Selected Butter 82% butterfat Skim milk powder 97% solids Sucrose Stabilizer Emulsifier Quantity of butter needed to make 9% fat in the final formula using butter with 82% butterfat Formula Batch Butterfat 9% fat 10,000 82% 9 X 10,000 / 82 = 1,097 g butter Quantity of powdered skim milk needed for 149,6 solids or 1,400 g
First, determine the weight of solids in the amount of butter calculated previously. This particular butter has 2 percent MSNF
Weight of butter X MSNF in butter = 1,097 g X 2% 1,097 g X 2 / 100 = 21.94 g MSNF in the butter = 22 g when rounded up
Deduct this amount (22 g) from the total number of solids needed for the batch (1,400 g). Then, determine the amount of milk powder needed to provide the rest. The skim milk powder chosen has 97 percent MSNF
Desired MSNF in butter 14% of 10,000 22 g 1,400 g - 22 g = 1,378 g 1,378g X 100 / 97 = 1,420 g Amount of sucrose needed for 1796 of 10,000 g batch 10,000 X 17 / 100 = 1,700 g or 10,000 X 0.17 = 1,700g Amount ofstabilizer needed for 0.2% of 10,000 g batch Total batch = 10,000 g X 0.2% / 100 = 20g or 10,000 X 0.002 = 20 g Amount of emulsifier needed for 0.296 of 10,000g batch Total batch = 10,000 g X 0.2% / 100 = 20g or 10,000 g X 0.002 = 20 g
Now that we have the total of all ingredients, we can determine the amount of water needed.
Quantity of water needed Batch = 10,000 g - (1,097 g butter + 1,420 g milk powder + 1,700 g sugar + 20 g emulsifier + 20 g stabilizer) = 5,743 g So, 5,743 g of water is 57.43 percent of the total 10,000 g batch.
Replacing Water With Fresh Whole Milk
If fresh whole milk is used instead of water, we need to calculate the composition of the whole milk considering that whole milk contains 3.6 percent fat, 8.4 percent MSNF, and 88 percent water, the sum of which equals 100 percent.
First, we calculate the amount of fresh milk needed to replace the water. Then, we evaluate the fat and MSNF in this quantity and adjust the butter and powdered skim milk to reflect the change.
Quantity of milk to replace the water
Water weight Water in milk 5,473 88% 5,743 g X 100 / 88 = 6,526 g milk
This is the total weight of whole milk needed to replace the water. Next, calculate the fat and MSNF and deduct the result from your earlier calculation.
Fat weight in the milk (3.6%) 6,526 g X 3.6 / 100 - 235 g or 6,526 g X 0.036 = 235 g MSNF weight in the whole milk (8.4%) 6,526 g X 8.4 / 100 = 548 g or 6,526 g X 0.084 = 548 g
These two components can be deducted from the other ingredients.
Final Formula Comparison Using Change Using Water Required Whole Milk Water 5,743 g 0 g Whole milk 0 g 6,526 g Powdered skim milk 1,420 g -548 g 872 g Sugar 1,700 g 1,700 g Butter 1,097 g -235 g 862 g Emulsifier 20 g 20 g Stabilizer 20 g 20 g Total 10,000 kg 10,000 kg
If cream is an ingredient of the ice cream mix, it is necessary to determine its fat content, which can vary from 18 to 40 percent. The water and MSNF contribution from the cream should also be reflected.
The composition of each ingredient is the most important part to consider. What is added with one must be balanced with the others. To balance the solids, first calculate the other ingredients, then the MSNF, and finally the water. Information on dairy products, sugars, and egg yolks are detailed in their associated composition tables found in the ingredients section of this chapter. Enter values into the formula calculation spreadsheet (Figure 19-9) later in this chapter to organize the calculation of an ice cream or sorbet formula.
One equation can be used to calculate the MSNF Add the other solid percentages and subtract from 100. The result is then divided by 6.9 for short conservation and 6.4 for longer conservation. Short conservation applies to a product that will be stored up to 1 week. Long conservation refers to storage of a month or longer. A larger quantity of solids helps stabilize the ice cream structure for extended storage.
Example of MSNF Calculation Percentage Solid of the Mix Butter 1097 g 2% Sugar 1700 g 17% Emulsifier 20 g 0.2% Stabilizer 20 g 0.2% 19.4% 100% - 19.4% = 80.6% Short Conservation 80.6/6.9 = 11.68% MSNF Total solid = 11.68% + 19.4% = 30.91% solids Long Conservation 80.6/6.4 = 12.6% MSNF Total solid = 12.6% + 19.4% = 32% solids
These calculated MSNF and total solids percentages fall within the recommended ranges.
SORBET FORMULA CALCULATION
Sorbet is slightly easier to calculate because fewer ingredients are involved. First, add the percentage of the solids in the ingredients used. Keep in mind that frozen puree generally includes 10 percent sugar for better flavor, easier usage, and increased shelf life. For best results, follow this guide, which applies the average rule.
Guidelines for Sorbet Formulas Percentage Solid * Sugar 20% to 33% 100% MSNF 0.5% to 3% If used Varies by product Fat 0.5% to 2% If used Varies by product Fruit pulp Varies Stabilizer 0.2% to 0.3% 100% Emulsifier None * Total solids from 31 to 33 percent. Sorbet Calculation Example Batch Mix Formula 31 % of solid (7,000 g strawberry puree with 10% sucrose included) 0.2% stabilizer Total weight of the batch: 10,000 g Actual quantity of strawberry puree: 7,000 g with 10% sucrose 7,000 g X (10% sugar) / 100 = 700 g sucrose or 7,000 g X 0.10 = 700 g 7,000 g - 700 g = 6,300 g puree Actual quantity of solids considering the puree has 11 % solid Actual strawberry puree X Solid = 6,300 g - 11% 6,300 X 11 / 100 = 693 g or 6,300 X 0.11 = 693 g Actual quantity of stabilizer: 0.2% 10,000 g X 0.2 / 100 = 20 g or 10,000 X 0.002 = 20 g Total solids known = 693 + 20 = 713 g solids Solids selected: 319,6 Batch size X Solid selected = 10,000 X 31% 10,000 X 31 / 100 = 3,100 g or 10,000 X 0.31 = 3,100 g Sugar to add to balance the solids 3,100 g with 31 Selected solids - (Existing solid + Sucrose in puree) = 3,100 g - (713 + 700 ) = 1,687 g sucrose Water to be added Batch - (Sucrose + Stabilizer + Puree) = 10,000 - (1,687 + 20 + 7,000) = 1,292 g water Mineral water can be used for ice cream/sorbet to avoid off flavors and potential contamination. Calculate sugar percentage to compare to guideline Sucrose + Sucrose in puree = 1,687 g + 700 g = 2,387 g total sugar 2,387 X 100 / 10,000 = 3.87% or 2,387 X 0.010 = 23.87% Final Formula Balance Solid 713 + 2,387 = 3,100 g or 31% (31 to 33%) recommended Sugar 700 + 1,687 = 2,387 g or 23.87% (20 to 30%) recommended Water 1,293 X 100 / 10,000 g = 12.93% or 1,293 X 0.010 = 12.93%
If fat, MSNF, or powdered glucose are selected for this formula, add the solids of those ingredients and make adjustments to stay within the 31 percent range. Make the same calculation when adding chocolate to make chocolate sorbet. Refer to Figure 19-9 for an example of a formula calculation spreadsheet.
Figure 19-9 Formula Calculation Spreadsheet Fat Products Weight % Fat Weight Whole milk 3.6% Nonfat milk powder Butter 82.0% Cream Sucrose 0.0% Inverted sugar 0.0% Other sweetener Other sweetener Egg yolk 33.5% Stabilizer 0.0% Emulsifier 0.0% Vanilla powder 0.0% Cocoa Fruit puree Water Total weights Actual Suggested Ice cream % 7%-12% Sorbet % 2% MSNE Dry Products % MSNE8% Extract % Solids Whole milk Nonfat milk powder 97% Butter 2% Cream Sucrose 0% 95% Inverted sugar 0% Other sweetener Other sweetener Egg yolk 0% Stabilizer 0% Emulsifier 0% Vanilla powder 0% Cocoa Fruit puree Water Total weights Actual Suggested Ice cream % 8%-11% 35%-45% Sorbet % 3% 31%-32% Products Solids % Water Water Whole milk 88.0% Nonfat milk powder 3% Butter 16% Cream Sucrose 5% Inverted sugar 22% Other sweetener Other sweetener Egg yolk 50% Stabilizer Emulsifier Vanilla powder Cocoa Fruit puree Water Total weights Actual Suggested Ice cream % Sorbet % Products Lactose SC * % Sugar Whole milk Nonfat milk powder Butter Cream Sucrose Inverted sugar Other sweetener Other sweetener Egg yolk Stabilizer Emulsifier Vanilla powder Cocoa Fruit puree Water Total weights Actual Suggested Ice cream % 16%-23% 18%-22% ** Sorbet % 20%-33% Products Sugar Egg Yolk Stabilizer Whole milk Nonfat milk powder Butter Cream Sucrose Inverted sugar Other sweetener Other sweetener Egg yolk Stabilizer Emulsifier Vanilla powder Cocoa Fruit puree Water Total weights Actual Suggested Ice cream % 0.2%-0.3% Sorbet % Products Emulsifier Flavoring Alcohol Whole milk Nonfat milk powder Butter Cream Sucrose Inverted sugar Other sweetener Other sweetener Egg yolk Stabilizer Emulsifier Vanilla powder Cocoa Fruit puree Water Total weights Actual Suggested Ice cream % 0.25% Sorbet % * Process to Calculate Sweetness Concentration (SC) ** Suggested Percentages of Select Ingredients for Sorbet and Ice Cream To calculate the SC from the casein take the MSNF and divide it by 2 (50%). This gives the casein content since the casein is 16 DE. Multiply the result by 0.16 and then place the result in the column SC. All the other sweeteners are multiplied by the DE given number. Sucrose is 100 percent. When you have all the sweetness concentration numbers, add them up and divide the result by 100 to give the actual percentage. Sugar percentage for ice cream with alcohol 14 to 15 percent Sorbet with alcohol 22 to 28 percent Alcohol maximum in sorbet 7 percent Glucose powder in sorbet 10 percent MSNF plus fat in sorbet 16 to 22 percent
NOTES ON READING AN ICE CREAM FORMULA
* For simplicity and consistency, formulas are presented in kilograms only, as is the example on how to balance an ice cream formula.
* The low storage temperatures specified in this section provide the ideal environment for sorbet and ice cream. As explained in this chapter, such low temperatures prevent water migration and the formation of large crystals, which destroy the desirable smooth texture. If a blast freezer is unavailable, frozen desserts may be stored for shorter periods at typical freezer temperatures. Note that degradation will occur over time.
* Mineral water is specified in a number of formulas due to its neutral taste and lack of bacteria. If you are lucky enough to have good tap water, it can be substituted.
* Monostearate, an ingredient listed in most of the ice cream formulas, is a fat emulsifier. It is used in combination with an ice cream stabilizer for improved texture. Commercially available stabilizer-emulsifier blends can be substituted. Follow the manufacturer's guidelines for usage. Lecithin powder or egg yolks can also be used as emulsifiers. Keep in mind that these ingredients will affect the flavor of the product. Additional egg yolks will also increase the fat level and mouthfeel of the ice cream.
* Commercially available inverted sugar is a liquid sweetener composed of equal parts fructose and glucose. The sweetening power is higher than sucrose by weight. Glucose and corn syrup are not appropriate replacements.
FORMULA VANILLA ICE CREAM A classic favorite, our version of vanilla ice cream features a generous amount of vanilla bean, which lends a clean, refreshing vanilla flavor. This ice cream makes a great base for additions of fresh fruit, liqueur, cookies, and more. Ingredients Kilogram Whole milk 1.129 Nonfat powdered milk 0.080 Sugar 0.220 Glucose powder 0.060 Vanilla bean (1 per kg mix) 2.000 Inverted sugar 0.040 35% cream 0.400 Egg yolks 0.060 Stabilizer 0.006 Monostea rate 0.005 Total 2.000 Process 1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized containers. 2. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with 10 times their combined weight of sugar (from the sugar already in the formula) to dilute it for better incorporation. 3. In a stainless steel pan, heat up the milk. 4. When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the powdered milk, and mix with a whisk. 5. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add all the sugar, glucose powder, and vanilla bean. 6. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream. 7. At 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), add the egg yolks, which have been mixed with a little milk. Make sure to whip continuously while the egg yolks are added. 8. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the monostearate and stabilizer mixed with the sugar and the inverted sugar. 9. Stir constantly to prevent scorching. Bring the mixture to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes. 10. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C). 11. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight under refrigeration. 12. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the monostearate. 13. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable components. 14. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank. 15. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency. 16. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean, frozen container. 17. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C). 18. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F (-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C). 19. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C). FORMULA CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM The rival to vanilla ice cream is almost certainly chocolate ice cream. Rich with cream and flavored with bittersweet couverture, this chocolate ice cream will please the most discerning of palates. Ingredients Kilogram Whole milk 1.165 Nonfat powdered milk 0.050 Sugar 0.150 35% cream 0.280 Stabilizer 0.005 Monostea rate 0.005 Inverted sugar 0.080 67% chocolate couverture 0.265 Total 2.000 Process 1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized containers. 2. Melt the couverture in a microwave to 120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C) and reserve. 3. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with 10 times their combined weight of sugar (from the sugar already in the formula) to dilute it for better incorporation. 4. In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk. 5. When the temperature of the milk reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip. 6. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add the sugar. 7. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream. 8. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer and monostearate mixed with the sugar and then the inverted sugar. 9. Next, add the melted chocolate. 10. Stir constantly to prevent scorching. Bring the mixture to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes. 11. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C). 12. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight under refrigeration. 13. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the monostearate and stabilizers. 14. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable components. 15. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank. 16. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency. 17. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean, frozen container. 18. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C). 19. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F (-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C). 20. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C). FORMULA COFFEE ICE CREAM A perfect treat after a meal, this coffee ice cream is made with fresh ground coffee and espresso powder for an extra kick. Ingredients Kilogram Whole milk 1.060 Nonfat powdered milk 0.080 Sugar 0.230 Instant coffee 0.020 Ground coffee 0.040 35% cream 0.400 Egg yolks 0.060 Stabilizer 0.006 M onostea rate 0.005 Glucose 0.060 Inverted sugar 0.040 Total 2.001 Process 1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized containers. 2. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with 10 times their combined weight of sugar (from the sugar already in the formula) to dilute it for better incorporation. 3. In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk. 4. When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip. 5. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add all the sugar, the instant coffee, and the crushed coffee. 6. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream. 7. At 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), add the egg yolks, whipping continuously. 8. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer and monostearate mixed with the sugar; then add the glucose and inverted sugar. 9. Stir constantly to prevent scorching. Bring the mixture to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes. 10. Strain through a fine mesh chinois to extract the ground coffee. 11. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C). 12. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight under refrigeration. 13. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the monostearate. 14. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable components. 15. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank. 16. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency. 17. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean, frozen container. 18. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C). 19. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F (-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C). 20. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C).
FORMULA GREEN TEA ICE CREAM In Japan, this product is referred to as matcha ice cream. Matcha is a fine powdered green tea. It is popular in the United States, especially at small ice cream shops and Japanese restaurants. Ingredients Kilogram Whole milk 1.130 Heavy cream 0.355 Green tea powder 0.045 Sugar 0.240 Nonfat powdered milk 0.110 Glucose powder 0.110 Stabilizer 0.010 Total 2.000 Process 1. Boil the milk, cream, and green tea powder. Add the sugar, powdered milk, glucose powder, and stabilizer mix. 2. Cook to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C). 3. Mix and cool to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C). 4. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight in a covered container at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C). 5. Stir the ice cream mix. 6. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank. 7. Churn until the ice cream gets the desired consistency. 8. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean container. 9. Freeze right away at -31[degrees]F (-35[degrees]C). 10. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F (-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C). 11. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C). FORMULA HAZELNUT PRALINE ICE CREAM The rich flavors of hazelnut praline shine through in this ice cream, making it a perfect finish to any meal or a delightful afternoon treat. Ingredients Kilogram Whole milk 1.185 Nonfat powdered milk 0.045 35% cream 0.280 Sugar 0.070 Stabilizer 0.005 Monostea rate 0.005 Inverted sugar 0.080 Hazelnut praline 50% fruit 0.330 Total 2.000 Process 1. Scale all the ingredients, and hold them in separate sanitized containers. 2. Mix the stabilizer and monostearate with all of the sugar to dilute it for better incorporation. 3. In a stainless steel pan, heat the milk. 4. When the temperature reaches 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), add the powdered milk, and mix with a wire whip. 5. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream. 6. At 111 [degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the stabilizer mixed with sugar, the inverted sugar, and the hazelnut praline. 7. Stir constantly to prevent burning. Bring the mixture to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for 2 minutes. 8. Cool the ice cream very rapidly to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), cover to the surface with plastic wrap, and refrigerate at 42[degrees]F (6[degrees]C) to 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C). 9. Let the ice cream mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight under refrigeration. 10. Blend the ice cream mix with an immersion blender to ensure a smooth mix and distribution of ingredients, especially the monostearate. 11. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable components. 12. Pour the mix into the ice cream machine tank. 13. Churn until the ice cream reaches the desired consistency. 14. Remove from the ice cream machine, and transfer to a clean, frozen container. 15. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C). 16. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F (-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C). 17. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C). FORMULA RASPBERRY SORBET The color and flavor of this sorbet is bright and fresh. It can be enjoyed at the end of a meal or as a treat on a hot summer afternoon. Ingredients Kilogram Water 0.490 Sugar 0.270 Glucose powder 0.120 Stabilizer 0.010 Raspberry puree, 10% sugar 1.090 Lemon juice 0.020 Total 2.000 Process 1. Combine the sugar, glucose powder, and stabilizer. 2. Bring the water toward the boiling point. 3. When the water is at 113[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the sugar mixture. 4. Bring the liquid to a boil: 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C). 5. Add the raspberry puree and lemon juice and mix. 6. Quickly cool to 39[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), and cover to the surface with plastic wrap. 7. Let the sorbet mature/age for at least 4 hours or overnight in a covered container at 35[degrees]F (2[degrees]C). 8. Blend the sorbet mix with an immersion blender. 9. Sanitize the ice cream machine mixing tank and all applicable components. 10. Pour the mix in the ice cream machine tank. 11. Churn until the sorbet gets the desired consistency. 12. Remove from the machine, and transfer to a clean, frozen container. 13. Freeze right away at -31 [degrees]F (-35[degrees]C). 14. Storage temperature before serving should be 0[degrees]F (-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C). 15. Serve at 5[degrees]F (-15[degrees]C) to 10[degrees]F (-12[degrees]C). FRUIT ICE CREAM CHART Use this chart to make a variety of fruit ice creams. Ice Creams Using Fruit Puree Ingredients Apricot Banana Strawberry Fruit puree 800 g 750 g 1,200 g Whole milk 1,036 g 1,036 g 1,036 g Nonfat powdered 140 g 130 g 240 g milk Heavy cream 360 g 600 g 700 g 35% fat Butter 90 g 100 g Sugar 300 g 270 g 400 g Glucose powder 90 g 120 g 150 g Inverted sugar Cognac or Armagnac Stabilizer- 10 g 8 g 20 g emulsifier Total weight 2,826 g 2,914 g 3,846 g Ingredients Raspberry Lychee Chestnut Fruit puree 800 g 700 g 650 g Whole milk 1,036 g 1,036 g 1,036 g Nonfat powdered 150 g 110 g 120 g milk Heavy cream 360 g 330 g 550 g 35% fat Butter 110 g 70 g Sugar 320 g 290 g 250 g Glucose powder 95 g 110 g Inverted sugar 90 g Cognac or 20 g Armagnac Stabilizer- 10 g 10 g 8 g emulsifier Total weight 2,356 g 2,658 g 2,724 g Ingredients Pabana Passion Coconut Fruit puree 850 g 700 g 600 g Whole milk 1,036 g 1,036 g 1,036 g Nonfat powdered 140 g 150 g 120 g milk Heavy cream 350 g 450 g 140 g 35% fat Butter 110 g 80 g Sugar 240 g 310 g 160 g Glucose powder 90 g 100 g 40 g Inverted sugar 90 g Cognac or Armagnac Stabilizer- 10 g 10 g 7 g emulsifier Total weight 2,826 g 2,836 g 2,193 g Process 1. Put the milk in a stainless steel pot, and bring toward a boil. 2. At 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C), add the nonfat powdered milk, and whisk constantly. 3. At 86[degrees]F (30[degrees]C), add three-fourths of the sugar, which has been blended with the powdered glucose. Next add the inverted sugar. 4. Blend the remainder of the sugar with the stabilizer-emulsifier. 5. At 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add the cream and the butter (if needed). 6. At 113[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the sugar, which has been mixed with the stabilizer-emulsifier. 7. Pasteurize at 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) in a machine or at 188[degrees]F (87[degrees]C) in a saucepan. 8. Let mature/age for 1 to 4 hours. 9. Combine the puree and the base, and put in the ice cream machine. 10. For recipes using alcohol, place the alcohol in the cold mix. FRUIT SORBET CHART Use this chart to make a variety of fruit sorbets. Note: All formulas are based on 1 kg of puree. Sorbets Using Fruit Puree Fruit Puree Flavor Percentage Sugar Glucose Powder Apricot 75% 130 g 50 g Pineapple 75% 115 g 65 g Banana 70% 100 g 70 g Boysenberry 70% 160 g 70 g Black currant 55% 230 g 70 g Lemon 40% 510 g 150 g Lime 40% 510 g 150 g Coconut 60% 210 g 50 g Fig 75% 85 g 55 g Strawberry 75% 155 g 80 g Wild strawberry 55% 215 g 110 g Mara des bois 70% 210 g 85 g strawberry Raspberry 70% 130 g 85 g Fruits of the forest 70% 145 g 85 g Guava 70% 200 g 55 g Morello cherry 70% 115 g 85 g Red currant 65% 200 g 90 g Kiwi 70% 185 g 55 g Lychee 70% 130 g 85 g Mandarin 75% 135 g 55 g Mango 70% 120 g 70 g Melon 75% 145 g 55 g Mirabelle 75% 70 g 50 g Blackberry 70% 140 g 85 g Blueberry 70% 170 g 70 g Orange 70% 145 g 85 g Blood orange 70% 170 g 85 g Pabana 70% 90 g 85 g Pink grapefruit 65% 190 g 90 g Papaya 70% 165 g 70 g Passion 45% 335 g 135 g White peach 75% 150 g 50 g Yellow peach 75% 140 g 50 g Vine peach 70% 145 g 55 g Comice pear 75% 100 g 55 g Williams pear 75% 110 g 55 g Green apple 70% 145 g 55 g Pruneau 70% 10 g 55 g Chestnut 70% 70 g 55 g Flavor Dextrose Stabilizer Water Apricot 25 g 4 g 110 g Pineapple 25 g 4 g 125 g Banana 4 g 255 g Boysenberry 4 g 200 g Black currant 5 g 430 g Lemon 8 g 830 g Lime 8 g 830 g Coconut 35 g 5 g 370 g Fig 25 g 4 g 170 g Strawberry 4 g 95 g Wild strawberry 35 g 5 g 455 g Mara des bois 4 g 130 g strawberry Raspberry 30 g 5 g 180 g Fruits of the forest 30 g 5 g 165 g Guava 25 g 4 g 145 g Morello cherry 5 g 225 g Red currant 5 g 240 g Kiwi 30 g 4 g 155 g Lychee 4 g 210 g Mandarin 25 g 4 g 115 g Mango 30 g 5 g 205 g Melon 25 g 4 g 105 g Mirabelle 25 g 4 g 180 g Blackberry 3 g 200 g Blueberry 5 g 180 g Orange 4 g 190 g Blood orange 5 g 165 g Pabana 4 g 250 g Pink grapefruit 4 g 250 g Papaya 3 g 190 g Passion 7 g 745 g White peach 25 g 4 g 105 g Yellow peach 25 g 4 g 110 g Vine peach 25 g 3 g 195 g Comice pear 25 g 4 g 150 g Williams pear 25 g 4 g 140 g Green apple 30 g 4 g 190 g Pruneau 25 g 4 g 330 g Chestnut 4 g 240 g Process for Fruit Sorbets Using High Percentages of Fruit Purees 1. Weigh all the ingredients. 2. Mix the stabilizer with one-fourth of the total weight of sugar. 3. Mix the rest of the sugar with atomized glucose and dextrose. 4. Warm the water to 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C). 5. At 86[degrees]F (30[degrees]C), add the mix sugar-atomized glucose and dextrose and mix. 6. At 113[degrees]F (45[degrees]C), add the sugar-stabilizer and mix. 7. Boil the mix. 8. Remove from the heat, and cover the surface with a plastic film. Cool the mix as quickly as possible (with ice). 9. Let mature for 4 hours minimum. 10. Mix the syrup with the puree thawed at 46[degrees]F (8[degrees]C). 11. Put in the ice cream machine. FORMULA RED WINE GRANITE This style of slow stirred frozen dessert is perfect for anyone who wants to serve frozen desserts but lacks the required equipment. The more the granite is stirred, the smaller the ice crystals will be. For an even quicker preparation, freeze the mix proportioned by weight (2 or 2'/y oz, etc.) and when needed, turn the frozen granite onto a cutting board and chop it up quickly. Ingredients Kilogram Sugar 0.295 Orange zest 2 each Orange juice 0.135 Lemon juice 0.051 Cinnamon stick 2 each Cloves 4 each Water 0.253 Red wine 1.266 Total 2.000 Process 1. Combine the sugar, orange zest, orange juice, lemon juice, cinnamon stick, and cloves in a pot. 2. Add the water and red wine, and heat over low heat to dissolve the sugar. 3. After the sugar is completely dissolved, bring it to a simmer and keep simmering for 3 minutes. 4. Strain the liquid, pour in a shallow metal container, and place in the freezer. 5. Allow to harden for at least 6 hours. 6. To serve, scrape the surface of the ice and place in glassware that has been kept in the freezer.
FORMULA MEYER LEMON BOMBE GLACEE The distinctive flavor of meyer lemon adds a floral note to this bombe. Ingredients Kilogram Cream 1.067 Egg yolks 0.267 Sugar 0.267 Water 0.133 Meyer lemon juice 0.267 Lemon zest 1 each Total 2.000 * Some examples are candied orange peel, candied lemon peel, currants, roasted whole almonds, and pistachios. Process 1. Whip the cream to medium peaks. Reserve in the refrigerator. 2. Combine the egg yolks with a third of the sugar, and whip on medium speed of a stand mixer until triple in volume. 3. Combine the remaining sugar and water, and cook to 248[degrees]F (120[degrees]C). 4. Turn the mixer on high speed, and slowly pour the cooked sugar into the egg yolk mixture. Be careful to pour between the whip and the side of bowl. Continue whipping until cool. 5. Lighten the lemon juice with a small amount of the egg yolk mixture, and then add it to the remaining egg yolk mixture. Mix in the lemon zest. 6. Add the whipped cream into the egg yolk mixture in three stages. 7. Deposit in the desired molds, and freeze until ready to serve. FORMULA NOUGAT GLACEE The pleasing flavors of this traditional candy are delicious in a frozen dessert. Ingredients Kilogram Sliced almond 0.235 Sugar 0.235 Egg whites 0.294 Sugar 0.118 Honey 0.176 Cream 0.588 Dried fruits and nuts * 0.353 Total 2.000 Process 1. Whip the cream to soft peaks. Reserve in the refrigerator. 2. Cook the first quantity of sugar until it begins to caramelize and add the sliced almonds, stirring until completely coated. Spread onto a silicone mat and let cool; then crush coarsely. 3. Combine the sugar and honey in a saucepan. Place the egg whites in a mixer to whip. When the honey mixture reaches 230[degrees]F (110[degrees]C), start whipping the whites on medium speed. 4. Cook the sugar to 255[degrees]F (124[degrees]C), remove from the heat, and slowly pour into the whipping egg whites; continue whipping the egg whites until cool. 5. Fold the nuts and fruits into the meringue and then fold in the cream. 6. Deposit in the desired molds and freeze until ready to serve. FORMULA MANDARIN ORANGE SOUFFLE GLACEE The intense flavor of mandarin orange in this souffle glacee comes from a reduction of mandarin orange juice. Paired with the super-light texture due to the use of an Italian meringue as well as whipped cream, this is a very refreshing frozen dessert. Ingredients Kilogram Mandarin orange juice 0.507 Sugar 0.320 Egg whites 0.159 Cream 1.014 Total 2.000 Process 1. Reduce the mandarin orange juice by half and cool completely. 2. Cook the sugar with a third of its weight in water. 3. When the sugar reaches 240[degrees]F (116[degrees]C), whip the egg whites on second speed. 4. When the sugar reaches 246[degrees] F (119[degrees]C) to 250[degrees]F (121[degrees]C), slowly pour it down the side of the mixing bowl into the whipping egg whites. 5. Whip until room temperature. 6. Lighten the mandarin reduction with a small amount of meringue to make a similar texture to the lightness of the meringue. 7. Combine into the remaining meringue, and then fold in the cream. 8. Deposit in the desired molds, and freeze until ready to serve.
Ice cream, sorbet, and other frozen desserts are extremely popular and quite easy to produce. The variety of texture combinations and endless flavor possibilities can offer the pastry chef much creative inspiration. Whether still-frozen or churned, produced with an ice cream machine or manually, there is a process that works for every kitchen. However, the simplicity in creating a satisfying frozen dessert belies its physically complex structure and delicate balance of ingredients. Technical knowledge about structure and the role each ingredient plays in texture and flavor is essential for modifying and creating frozen dessert formulas as well as product storage.
* Churned desserts
* Custard-style (French custard) ice cream
* Dextrose equivalent (DE)
* Freezing point
* Frozen mousse
* Frozen parfait
* Frozen souffle
* Granita (granite)
* Heat shock
* High-temperature short-time (HTST)
* Low-temperature long-time (LTLT)
* Milk solids nonfat (MSNF)
* Philadelphia-style ice cream
* Still-frozen desserts
1. What is the function of fat in ice cream?
2. What is the function of milk protein in ice cream derived from MSNF?
3. What is DE? Why is it important to consider in ice cream formulation?
4. Why is it necessary to use emulsifiers and stabilizers for ice cream?
5. What is hardening? Why is it important?
6. What is overrun? How does it differ for sorbet and ice cream?
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||PART 4 PASTRY|
|Publication:||Advanced Bread and Pastry|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2009|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 18 Petits fours and confections.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 20 Plated desserts.|