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Chapter 19: An introduction to research II--using and citing your sources.

After reading this chapter, you should begin to ...

* take careful notes as you research outside sources;

* avoid cutting and pasting outside material to create a paper; instead, add quotes, paraphrases, and summaries of outside material to supplement but not replace your own writing;

* identify when to cite and when not to cite outside sources;

* cite outside sources appropriately both within the text and in a Works Cited page; and

* use the format required by your instructor or publisher.

Once the CSI investigators described in the last chapters have processed a crime scene, they begin to analyze and reflect on the evidence they've gathered. They will draw conclusions based on this evidence and write them up in a report. In some cases the investigators will appear in the courtroom to testify as to the accuracy of their information. Similarly, once you've assembled your sources for a report or research paper, you must read and think about the information they provide. Perhaps, like Morgan Spurlock, you will literally eat your sources! Finally, you will write up your report or research paper, which should reflect your own interpretation of the information and should draw its basic focus and organization from you--not your sources. Like the crime scene investigators, you will make an independent assessment of the facts and write up your conclusions in your own words.

USING YOUR SOURCES

First, be sure to leave enough time to do the research, that is, to find useful material and to read it carefully. Many problems with plagiarism are caused by procrastination. Students wait until the last minute, then cut and paste paragraphs from hastily retrieved Internet sources. That is the culinary equivalent of opening three or four cans of processed food, arranging the contents on a plate, and leading the customer to believe you spent the day laboring over a hot stove!

Second, as you're doing the research, read carefully (see also Chapter 2), and take notes on the main ideas and interesting details. You can certainly start with a yellow highlighter. However, once you've identified useful passages in your material, it's helpful to write down the main points on a separate sheet of paper or on individual index cards. If you copy the words exactly, enclose them in quotation marks. If you paraphrase or summarize the information--that is, rewrite it entirely in your own words--do not use quotation marks. Even in your notes, it is essential to distinguish between another author's words and your own.

When you take notes, be sure to write the name of the book or article and the name of the author at the top of each page or note card. Include all publishing information as well: the publishing company, city, and date for books; the periodical title, volume, number, and date for articles; and the URL, site sponsor, date posted, and date accessed for Internet sites. Another option is to keep a separate card (or list) that includes the title and publishing information for each source. Whether you quote, paraphrase, or summarize, be sure to write the page number of the original text in your notes.

Next, after you finish reading each chapter or article, it is especially helpful to stop and ask yourself, What did I learn? Without looking back at your notes or the text itself, write down what you discovered. In this way you begin to integrate the new information into your own thinking. Once you've written a brief summary, refer back to the text to check its accuracy and make any necessary corrections. If you add lines of text directly to your notes, however, be certain to enclose them in quotation marks. Any sloppiness in this area could result in a charge of plagiarism.

TAKING NOTES

Whether you use notebook paper or note cards, you must be sure to write down the source's author, title, publishing information, and page number (if applicable). You must also be absolutely certain to distinguish between sentences that you have copied exactly from the source and those that you have paraphrased or summarized. Let's try an example. Suppose, like student Travis Becket, whose research paper is printed in Appendix D, we are interested in environmentally friendly agriculture. Our research might lead to The Real Green Revolution: Organic and Agroecological Farming in the South by Nicholas Parrott and Terry Marsden, which contains the following passage on page 39:

   Zai (or tassa) is a traditional agricultural method used in Burkina
   Faso to restore arid and crusted areas of fields. The technique
   involves making seed holes 20-30 cm wide and deep and using the
   earth to make a raised 'demilune' barrier on the downslope side.
   Compost and/or natural phosphate is placed in each hole and sorghum
   or millet seeds planted when it rains. This technique improves the
   organic structure of the soil, helps retain moisture and, through
   promoting termite activity, increases water filtration into the
   soil. The crops are planted relatively densely to increase
   groundcover and prevent water loss through evapotranspiration.
   Stones removed from the field while digging the holes are often
   used to make contour bunds to further stabilize the soil and reduce
   run-off and erosion.


Once we read the paragraph, we stop and think about what it means and about how to record the main ideas and important details. The first step is to copy down all the relevant information about the source. We'll need the authors' names, the title, and the publishing information, which for a book is city, publisher, and year:

Author Nicholas Parrott and Terry Marsden

Title The Real Green Revolution: Organic and Agroecological

Farming in the South

Publishing information London: Greenpeace Environmental Trust, 2002

Because this book was viewed on the Internet, we will need that information as well:

Medium Web

Date accessed October 5, 2005

Finally, we think about the passage and decide what information seems important enough to put on our note cards. We must also decide whether to copy the text exactly, or whether to write a paraphrase or summary of the material.

QUOTING THE ORIGINAL TEXT

Words that are copied directly from the text (direct quotes) should be enclosed in quotation marks, even in your notes. You must be able to distinguish which words are yours and which belong to the original source. For example, the second sentence looks difficult to paraphrase because of such technical terms as demi-lune and downslope. Let's copy the sentence exactly onto a note card (Figure 19.1) and enclose it in quotation marks.

Figure 19.1 Taking Notes

Zai--traditional farming method

Parrott, Nicholas, and Terry Marsden. The Real Green Revolution:
Organic and Agroecological Farming in the South. London: Greenpeace
Environmental Trust. 2002. Web. 05 Oct. 2005.

Zai "involves making seed holes 20-30 cm wide and deep and using
the earth to make a raised 'demi-lune' barrier on the downslope
side" (39).

The process allows seeds to grow in a reservoir of fertilized water
in what would otherwise be barren land (39).


Again, even in your notes, any phrases copied directly from the original passage should be in quotation marks.

Original text

Zai (or tassa) is a traditional agricultural method used in Burkina Faso to restore arid and crusted areas of fields. The technique involves making seed holes 20-30 cm wide and deep and using the earth to make a raised 'demi-lune' barrier on the downslope side.

Direct quote

Zai "involves making seed holes 20-30 cm wide and deep and using the earth to make a raised 'demi-lune' barrier on the downslope side" (39).

The number in parentheses following the quote refers to the page on which the passage is found.

Whatever the length of the direct quote, be sure that you have copied words and punctuation exactly and noted the page number(s). Double check the correctness of each quotation before you submit the paper. Any carelessness in your use of sources may look like plagiarism.

WRITING A SUMMARY

A good summary captures the main idea of the original in a condensed form, using your own words. A summary does not include material copied directly from the text unless it's placed within quotation marks. The next entry on the note card has been summarized by student writer Travis P. Becket:

Original text

Zai (or tassa) is a traditional agricultural method used in Burkina Faso to restore arid and crusted areas of fields.... Compost and/or natural phosphate is placed in each hole and sorghum or millet seeds planted when it rains.

Summary

The process allows the seeds to grow in a reservoir of fertilized water in what would otherwise be barren land (39).

Exercise 19.1 | Summarizing the Original Text

Write a one-sentence summary of the following passage, also from The Real Green Revolution.

   Egypt has what is probably the most developed organic sector in
   North Africa. Initial interest in organic production was triggered
   as a reaction to increasing health problems experienced by farmers
   and rural dwellers from pesticide poisoning, and cotton yields
   remaining constant or declining despite increased use of
   pesticides. Aerial spraying of cotton is now banned in Egypt and
   much pest control now done through the use of pheromones, even
   though systems are not wholly organic.


WRITING A PARAPHRASE

Sometimes neither the summary nor the direct quote is appropriate. We may need more detail than the summary provides, yet we cannot write a coherent paper by simply adding a bunch of quotes together. The solution may be a paraphrase, changing the structure and wording of the original text to fit in with our own style and to support our own points more effectively. Remember that a paraphrase translates the exact meaning of the original while using your own vocabulary and sentence structure. Look at the following example:

Original text

Thus this simple and traditional technique is proving of multiple benefit in increasing yields, restoring degraded land and, by generating employment opportunities, helping slow the process of rural/urban migration.

Draft paraphrase

The "simple and traditional" process of Zai has been proven to restore degraded land, increase crop yields, and simultaneously slow the process of urban migration (39).

Although the phrase "simple and traditional" is correctly enclosed within quotation marks, there are too many other identical or similar words in this draft paraphrase--for example, "is proving" versus "has been proven," "in increasing yields" versus "increase crop yields," and "helping slow the process of rural/urban migration" versus "slow the process of urban migration." Note how the following revised paraphrase changes both the structure of the original sentence and the words themselves:

Revised paraphrase

As the soil continues to improve through this ancient, environmentally friendly method, both crop production and jobs have expanded while the movement of the population away from the countryside and toward the cities has decelerated (39).

In addition to the structural changes, the wording has been appropriately altered. Where the original reads "this simple and traditional technique," the revised paraphrase reads "this ancient, environmentally friendly method." Where the original says "restoring degraded land," the revision says "as the soil continues to improve." Finally, where the original reads "helping slow the process of rural/urban migration," the revision reads "the movement of the population away from the countryside and toward the cities has decelerated."

QUOTE, PARAPHRASE, AND SUMMARY

Direct Quote

"Whan that April with his showres soote The droughte of March hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veine in swich licour, Of which vertu engendered in the flowr ... Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages."

(Chaucer, "Prologue," lines 1-4,12)

Paraphrase

When April rains drench the parched earth and wash each root with pure water, from whose strength the flowers grow ... people feel like taking trips.

Summary

April showers bring May flowers ... and spring fever.

Work Cited

Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales." Chaucer's Poetry: An Anthology for the Modern Reader. Selected and edited by E. T. Donaldson. New York: Ronald Press, 1975. Print.

Let's look at another example:

Original

This technique improves the organic structure of the soil, helps retain moisture and, through promoting termite activity, increases water filtration into the soil.

Paraphrase

As a result of using the Zai method, more water seeps into and is retained in the earth because of its enhanced composition and proliferating insect population.

Again, notice that both the sentence structure of the paraphrase and the words themselves are different from the original text. The original begins with the main subject, the paraphrase with a pair of phrases. Instead of the original "helps retain moisture," the paraphrase reads "more water seeps into and is retained in the earth."

Exercise 19.2 | Paraphrasing the Original Text

Write a paraphrase of each of the following sentences from Parrott and Marsden. Use your own words and sentence structure, but include the important details. Try to translate the quote's meaning exactly.

1. "The system [Zai] is labour intensive and best suited to farms with a labour surplus." [note on the British spelling of labour]

2. "Initial interest in organic production was triggered as a reaction to increasing health problems experienced by farmers and rural dwellers from pesticide poisoning."

Study your paraphrases carefully, and remember that it is imperative that you can distinguish in your notes between a direct quote on one hand and a summary or paraphrase on the other. As a final check before submitting your essay, be sure to compare your quotes, paraphrases, and summaries with the original text.

PROCESSING THE INFORMATION IN YOUR SOURCES

At each stage of your research, try to process new information and connect it to what you already know about your topic. Think about the focus of your paper. Jot down questions, ideas, outlines. Brainstorm. When you ask yourself what a passage from an information source means and how it might relate to what you already know and to what you want to write about, you are using a similar process. This kind of creative reflection helps to make the essay a product of your own thinking, supported but not dominated by other people's words.

As your research progresses, do some freewriting or diagramming of the scope of the paper. Perhaps even do a draft that incorporates the major bits of information, however loosely. But remember--that information should have already been processed, that is, paraphrased or summarized. Do NOT begin a draft by copying chunks of material from outside sources, although you may begin your notes that way. A draft should come straight from you. Then, as you rewrite, you can add quoted or paraphrased material to back up your points. As you do so, be sure to give credit to the authors from whom you've borrowed information.

Once you have a rough draft of the research paper, think about whether it says what you want it to say, just as you would with any other piece of writing. Again, try to avoid writing a research paper by pasting together chunks of information from outside sources. Instead, blend this information well with your own thoughts and ideas. If you don't mix the batter well enough, you'll end up serving a cake with gobs of flour in it!

In his research paper on environmentally friendly agriculture, Travis Becket begins with a story of his childhood, riding with his mother every Saturday to the farmers' market to sell their fresh herbs and eating up what didn't sell. "I remember wondering if everybody else in America ate as well as I did," he writes in the introduction.

I wondered this same idea at the University of California Santa Cruz while eating a lunch that, once again, consisted of foods that had been submerged in dirt just a few hours prior. The apprentices who worked in the fields agreed with me about the superior quality of the organic food they had grown. As I saw the way that the apprentices relied on organic foods and how they supported organic farming and eating, a new question arose. "If this is the way that food should be produced in America, is it possible to produce enough for everybody?" For the rest of my time at UCSC, this was the thought in my mind and the question on my lips. If organics is best for the soil and the body, can it be utilized in a way that will feed everybody?

--Travis P. Becket, student writer

Travis begins his research with a question that has its roots in his childhood. Like the agriculture it explores, the question itself is organic. While the paper goes on to use many different sources and to explore farming techniques on the other side of the globe, its origin is in the "small arid plot of land just outside of town where [his mother] would slave on her hands and knees bringing up delicate flowers and herbs from the dusty soil." We hear the writer's own voice throughout the paper, strengthened rather than replaced by his outside experts.

INCORPORATING SOURCES INTO YOUR PAPER

As we discussed earlier, you can use outside sources in your writing in three ways: direct quote, paraphrase, and summary. Most information from outside sources will be incorporated in the form of paraphrases or summaries. Your research paper should not be packed full of direct quotes; they are a strong seasoning and should be used sparingly. In general, save direct quotes for material that is especially important to your topic or that is explained particularly well in the original text. There is one exception, however. If you are writing about a literary text--where the text is the subject--you will tend to use many more direct quotes to give readers a "flavor" of the original.

Much of the information you use from outside sources will be paraphrased; that is, you will translate the ideas into your own words, sentence structure, and style. In this way your paper will read more smoothly as a product of your thinking, rather than as an assortment of other people's ideas. It will be a casserole made of fresh ingredients rather than a collection of prepackaged foods arranged on a plate.

WRITING TAG LINES

In order to integrate quotes and paraphrases smoothly into your paper, it is extremely important to introduce them with an appropriate tag line. A good server doesn't plop the plate down in front of the customer and stalk away with a toss of the head. Instead, the plate is introduced with a small remark, such as "Here we are" or "Enjoy your dinner," and perhaps a smile. The tag line in a paper often names the author of the original text, as in the following example:

   Nicholas Parrott and Terry Marsden note that the traditional
   farming method of Zai "involves making seed holes 20-30 cm wide and
   deep and using the earth to make a raised 'demi-lune' barrier on
   the downslope side" (39).


The tag line may also contain the title of the original text, particularly the first time you cite it or if you are citing more than one work by the same author.

   In The Real Green Revolution: Organic and Agroecological Farming in
   the South, Nicholas Parrott and Terry Marsden [the authors] note
   that the traditional farming method of Zai "involves making seed
   holes 20-30 cm wide and deep and using the earth to make a raised
   'demi-lune' barrier on the downslope side" (39).


The tag line may emphasize the author's credentials:

   Nicholas Parrott and Terry Marsden, both at Cardiff University,
   note that the traditional farming method of Zai "involves making
   seed holes 20-30 cm wide and deep and using the earth to make a
   raised 'demi-lune' barrier on the downslope side" (39).


In the next example, the tag line suggests the tone of the quote:

   It was Kate Posey, the wistful tour guide at Santa Cruz, who said,
   "We see things so neatly arranged in grocery stores, sometimes we
   forget what the plant looks like."


In addition to varying in content, the tag line may also vary in placement. As in the example above, the tag line may precede the quoted or paraphrased material. It may also interrupt it.

"We see things so neatly arranged in grocery stores," said Kate Posey, the wistful tour guide at Santa Cruz, "sometimes we forget what the plant looks like."

Or the tag line may follow the quoted or paraphrased material.

   "We see things so neatly arranged in grocery stores, sometimes we
   forget what the plant looks like," said Kate Posey, the wistful
   tour guide at Santa Cruz.


It is also important to incorporate borrowed ideas smoothly into the flow of your own thinking. For example, Travis Becket cites Posey within the following passage in a paper on environmentally friendly agriculture:

It is often said that "United we stand, divided we fall." I believe that this old adage holds true for mankind's relationship with the environment. It was Kate Posey, the wistful tour guide at Santa Cruz, who said, "We see things so neatly arranged in grocery stores, sometimes we forget what the plant looks like." She was speaking of the disconnect between mankind and its food, how we as a society often forget that food comes not from a grocery store, but from being submerged in very unappetizing dirt.

--Travis P. Becket, student writer

Travis uses the quote to illustrate and emphasize the point he has already made. Quotes must not substitute for your own statements and interpretations; instead, they are added--like a condiment or garnish--as support, illustration, or proof.

Exercise 19.3 | Writing Tag Lines

Write three different tag lines for the following quote from Dr. Christos Vasilikiotis's paper "Can Organic Farming 'Feed the World'?" written when he was at the University of California, Berkeley. Include the following quote: "Organic farming systems have proven that they can prevent crop loss to pests without any synthetic pesticides."

CITING YOUR SOURCES

You must Cite your sources--that is, tell the reader where you used outside information and where you found it originally (but see What NOT to Cite on page 349). Within the text itself you supply the basic information that will lead the reader to the complete bibliographic entry at the end of your paper. The format of these citations is very precise. In this textbook, most of the examples will be given in MLA style. Figure 19.7 later in this chapter summarizes the important points of APA style. MLA style is generally used for papers in the humanities, such as history, literature, philosophy, and rhetoric and composition. APA style is generally used for the social sciences, including anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. Check with your instructor or publisher.

Documentation can be quite a complex process, and this introductory chapter will cover only the basics. For further information, visit the Web sites listed at the end of this chapter or consult one of the several excellent books devoted exclusively to this topic.

USING PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS

A parenthetical Citation names the outside source you used for particular wording or concepts. Its purpose is to direct the reader to the complete citation on the Works Cited page. In MLA format only two bits of information are generally included in the parenthetical citation: the author's last name and the page number. (See Figure 19.7 for APA format.)

"I learned to cook by sight as the colors of the spices turned and then by smell--sweet, earthy, heady, sharp if they are roasting correctly, or the unforgiving acrid smells if they burn" (Bhide 103).

Note that the parentheses lie outside the quotation mark but inside the period. However, if the quote is long enough to be set in a separate, indented paragraph, the parentheses begin one space after the period. Quotes should generally be indented if they are longer than four lines (three lines for poetry). See the passage quoted under Taking Notes earlier in this chapter for an example.

If you've used the author's name in a tag line, put just the page number in parentheses:

   Monica Bhide explains, "I learned to cook by sight as the colors of
   the spices turned and then by smell--sweet, earthy, heady, sharp if
   they are roasting correctly, or the unforgiving acrid smells if
   they burn" (103).


If you use more than one source by the same author, write both the author's name and the title, as well as the page number, in parentheses.

"I learned to cook by sight as the colors of the spices turned and then by smell--sweet, earthy, heady, sharp if they are roasting correctly, or the unforgiving acrid smells if they burn" (Bhide, "A Question of Taste" 103).

If the source has two or three authors, put all the names in the parenthetical citation or in the tag line.

(Kirszner and Mandell 3)

If the source has four or more authors, you may list them all or you may use only the first author's name followed by et al., which means "and others."

(Alasalvar et al. 1411)

If the source has no author, use just the title and page number:

(Encyclopedia of Food and Culture 193)

If you're quoting text that is found in another source, use the names of both, perhaps by putting the first source in the tag line and the second in parentheses. Study the following example:

According to Monsanto CEO Robert Shapiro, the end result of these stressors is "loss of topsoil, of salinity of soil as a result of irrigation, and ultimate reliance on petrochemicals" (qtd. in Vasilikiotis).

--Travis P. Becket, student writer

If the source has no page numbers, as is the case with many Internet sites, you may leave them out or put n.pag. for "no pagination." For example, since the article by Christos Vasilikiotis quoted in the last example is from an Internet site without page numbers, none appear in the parenthetical citation. If paragraphs or sections are clearly numbered, you may cite these in parentheses. Consult your instructor, publisher, or librarian for further information.

Although parenthetical citations are most common in research papers, a book like this one may also use a note format, that is, a small number or letter raised slightly above the line of type that refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page or to an end note in the back of the book. Follow the preference of your instructor or publisher.

Exercise 19.4 | Parenthetical Citations

Write a parenthetical citation in MLA format for the following items:

1. A quote from page 96 of Anthony Bourdain's Kitchen Confidential

2. A quote from page 96 of Anthony Bourdain's Kitchen Confidential in an essay in which you also quote from Anthony Bourdain's A Cook's Tour

3. A quote from page 36 of The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America

4. A quote from page 20 of Coffee Basics by K. Knox and J. S. Huffaker

5. A quote from the Web site of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), FishWatch

Exercise 19.5 | More Practice Writing Tag Lines

Write a tag line for each of the sources in Exercise 19.4.

WHAT NOT TO CITE

In writing your research paper, you've probably used the following types of information: your own thoughts and experiences, material from outside sources that represents the thoughts and experiences of other writers, and general knowledge, information that everyone shares. You only need to cite the middle type of information, the words and ideas of other writers.

General knowledge includes such information as scientific facts (water boils at 212[degrees]F) or historical facts (Barack Obama was the 44th president of the United States). Such information is considered general knowledge even though you yourself may not have known it before. For example, the fact that the boiling point of water is lower (203[degrees]F) at mile-high elevations is general knowledge, even though a particular individual may not know it. General knowledge also includes observations or conclusions based on common sense: Burned toast doesn't taste good. If the knowledge is more specialized, such as the precise chemical reaction that occurs when the toast burns, then you must cite the source.

It is not always clear what information falls into the category of general knowledge, that is, what needs to be cited, and what does not. If you read the same information in several different sources, it is possible that it is general knowledge within the subject area. However, it is usually better to err on the side of caution. When in doubt, cite the source of your information.

Exercise 19.6 | To Cite or Not to Cite

Label each of the following items as "Yes" if it needs to be cited or "No" if it is general knowledge and does not need to be cited. Be prepared to explain the reason for your answer.

-- 1. "Nothing really matters to me" is the concluding line of Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody."

-- 2. The Beatles took the world by storm in the 1960s.

-- 3. Julia Child was one of the first celebrity chefs in the United States.

-- 4. Anthony Bourdain had a life-changing job in a restaurant on Cape Cod in 1974.

-- 5. Anthony Bourdain is the author of Bone in the Throat and Gone Bamboo.

DEVELOPING THE WORKS CITED PAGE

The Works Cited page (in MLA style) contains an alphabetized list of all the outside material used or cited in the paper, including publishing information for each one. The purpose of the Works Cited page is not only to acknowledge the outside sources you have used in your paper, but also to give your readers the information they need to find the sources themselves. Readers see the author's name or the source's title in a parenthetical citation and can find the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page. (APA uses the term References for this page. See Figure 19.7.) Occasionally, as in this textbook, a writer will use a Works Consulted page, which includes sources that influenced her thinking, whether or not they were actually cited in the text.

The Works Cited entries are like little "hanging" paragraphs; that is, the first line begins at the left-hand margin, while the subsequent lines are indented. This is the opposite of a typical paragraph in a text, where the first line is indented and the remaining lines begin at the left-hand margin. In general, the entries for print sources have four parts, each of which ends with a period. Note that Print is the medium of publication.

Author. Title. Publishing information. Print.

The citation for a book with one author is fairly straightforward:

McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Scribner, 2004. Print.

The same principle apples throughout the many variations described in this section. If the source has more than one author, only the name of the first author is inverted. Notice that subsequent editions of the book are added after the title (Figure 19.2).

Figure 19.2 Book Format

Kirszner, Laurie G., and Stephen R.
Mandell. Patterns for College Writing: A Rhetorical Reader and
Guide. 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2001. Print.


Kirszner, Laurie G., and Stephen R. Mandell. Patterns for College Writing: A Rhetorical Reader and Guide. 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2001. Print.

If the source has an editor instead of an author, alphabetize the item by title, and add the editor's name after it:

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Solomon H. Katz. New York: Scribner, 2003. Print.

If the source is a collection of works by various authors, begin with the author and title of the work you used in your paper. Then add the information on the collection, followed by the page numbers of the particular title.

Bhide, Monica. "A Question of Taste." Best Food Writing 2005. Ed. Holly Hughes. New York: Marlowe, 2005. 102-104. Print.

For a weekly or monthly magazine, write the author's name, the title of the article, the title of the magazine, the date, and the page numbers of the article:

Wemischner, Robert. "Crimson Tide." Food Arts Sep. 2004: 87-89. Print.

For a quarterly magazine, write the volume number and issue following the title (Figure 19.3).

Bordelon, Suzanne. "George Pierce Baker's Principles of Argumentation: 'Completely Logical'?" The Journal of the Conference on College Composition and Communication 57:3 (2006): 416-441. Print.

For an article from a newspaper, include the section as well as the page number (Figure 19.3). If the newspaper's title does not name the city in which it is published, put that information in brackets.

Bowen, Dana. "With City Inspectors in Kitchen, Chefs Can't Cook in a Vacuum." New York Times 9 Mar. 2006: A1. Print.

Figure 19.3 Periodical Entries

Journal or Magazine

Bordelon, Suzanne. "George Pierce Baker's Principles of
Argumentationi:  'Completely Logical'?' The Journal of the
Conference on College Composition and
Communication 57:3 (2006): 416-441. Print.

Newspaper

Bowen, Dana. "With City Inspectors in Kitchen, Chefs Can't
Cook in a Vacuum." New York Times 9 Mar. 2006: A1. Print.


For a movie or video, list the title (italicized), director, distributor, year of release, and medium (such as Film or DVD). You may include additional information about the actors or writers before the name of the distributor.

Crash. Written and directed by Paul Haggis. Perf. Don Cheadle, Matt Dillon, Terence Howard, Thandie Newton, Ryan Phillippe. Lion's Gate, 2005. Film.

Electronic sources present some unique issues. Often, it is not clear who the author is, or who has sponsored the site, or even when it was written (Figure 19.4). There may be no page numbers. Further, the site itself may change over time so that it is important to include the date on which you last viewed the material, called the date Of access, in your notes. Consult an MLA reference work, the MLA's Web site (http://www.mla.org), your instructor, or a librarian if you get stuck.

For a Web site, list as much of the following information as you can find:

* author's name

* title of the work (in quotation marks if it is separate from the title of the site; otherwise in italics)

* name of the Web site (if different from the title of the work) in italics

* version or edition

* sponsoring organization

* date of publication (day, month, year, if available)

* medium of publication (Web)

* date of access

Figure 19.4 Electronic Sources

Web Site

Fox, Louis, and Jonah Sachs. The Meatrix. Free Range Graphics
with the Global Action Center for the Environment (GRACE), 2003.
Web. 13 Mar. 2006.

Newspaper Article Published on a Web Site

Bowen, Dana. "With City Inspectors in Kitchen, Chefs Can't Cook
in a Vacuum. New York Times 9 Mar. 2006: A1. Web. 12 Mar. 2006.


For example:

Fox, Louis, and Jonah Sachs. The Meatrix. Free Range Graphics with the Global Action Center for the Environment (GRACE), 2003. Web. 13 Mar. 2006.

If your instructor or publisher requires that you also give the URL, place it within angle brackets beginning one space after the final period:

Fox, Louis, and Jonah Sachs. The Meatrix. Free Range Graphics with the Global Action Center for the Environment (GRACE), 2003. Web. 13 Mar. 2006. <http://www.themeatrix.com>.

For an online magazine, list as much of the same information as you can.

StarChefs.com: The Magazine for Culinary Insiders. StarChefs. Web. 13 Mar. 2006.

For an article published or republished online, add information on the Web site.

Bowen, Dana. "With City Inspectors in Kitchen, Chefs Can't Cook in a Vacuum." New York Times 9 Mar. 2006: A1. Web. 12 Mar. 2006.

Exercise 19.7 | Creating a Works Cited Page

Using the sources in Exercise 19.4, create a Works Cited page. You will have to look up the full publishing information on the Internet.

Creating a Works Cited page becomes easier as you gain experience. The two keys are to take accurate notes of the author, title, publishing information, and date of access as you consult each source and to follow the format carefully as you prepare each entry. Keeping a "working bibliography" in an electronic file that can be easily edited will save you time later.

FORMATTING A PAPER IN MLA STYLE

In many professional and academic contexts, readers will first begin to judge your credibility by the care you take in adhering to the appropriate format. When submitting a paper in MLA format, follow these guidelines carefully:

* Papers should be typed, double spaced, all the way through in a readable size and font, such as 12-point Times New Roman. One-inch margins are preferable.

* The first line of each paragraph should be indented one-half inch from the left margin (press the Tab key). Leave one space between sentences, unless your instructor or publisher prefers two.

* No cover sheet is needed because the heading on the top left corner of the first page includes the student's name, professor's name, course title, and date (Figure 19.5).

* The title of the paper is centered two lines below the heading. The title should be in ordinary text; it should not be italicized or underlined, enclosed in quotation marks, or typed in bold or capital letters.

* Put page numbers in a header, with the numbers in the right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top of the paper, with your last name one space to the left. Page or p. is unnecessary.

* Begin the Works Cited page on a separate sheet (Figure 19.6). The heading is centered two spaces above the text, which is also double spaced.

Except for the header, APA format for a research paper or article is quite similar to MLA format. See Figure 19.7.

Figure 19.5 First Page of a Research Paper in MLA Format

Travis P. Becket

Professors Zraly and Storm

Food and Wine Seminar

10 October 2005

An In-Depth Analysis of a Life Lived in the Dirt

My mother used to be a farmer. She didn't grow tomatoes or corn or
soybeans, but she had a small, arid plot of land just outside of
town where she would slave on her hands and knees bringing up
delicate flowers and herbs from the dusty soil. Before dawn every
Saturday, the flowers that were open and the herbs that were mature
would be snipped or dug up and transplanted into small pots, loaded
into our family station wagon, and chauffeured to the weekly
farmers' market held on the capital square of our little town.
There they were put on display and sold to the local townspeople
for either home planting or consumption. This farmers' market, like
most local farmers' markets, was open from spring to early winter,
or as long as there was anything to grow and sell in the area.

I have very vivid memories of these early Saturday mornings because
I would participate in them with my mother. I remember anxious car
trips in the pre-dawn light, hoping that the plants wouldn't tip
over during the ride to the square and that once we arrived, the
plants would be sold. I remember eating the herbs that weren't
sold, along with vegetables that my mother traded for the plants
that weren't sold. I remember eating items that had been submerged
in the very unappetizing dirt of my mom's field just a few hours
prior. I remember wondering if everybody else in America ate as
well as I did.

Figure 19.6 Sample Works Cited Page in MLA Format

Becket 14

Works Cited

Massiello, Geneva. "Organic Food and Global Sustainability." Term
paper. Plaza at the University of Florida. U of Florida, 2002. Web.
07 Oct. 2005.

Organic Agriculture at FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations. Web. 07 Oct. 2005.

Parrott, Nicholas, and Terry Madsen. The Real Green Revolution:
Organic and Agroecological Farming in the South. London: Greenpeace
Environmental Trust, 2002. 24-25, 37-39, 41. Greenpeace. Web. 05
Oct. 2005.

Posey, Kate. "Organic Nature." Talk given at University of
California Santa Cruz, Organic Garden, 14 Sept. 2005. Lecture.

Sustainable Agriculture Farming Systems Project (SAFS). "Economic
Viability of Organic and Low-Input Farming Systems." Sustainable
Agriculture Farming Systems Project Sept. 1997. U of California
Davis. Web. 07 Oct. 2005.

Vasilikiotis, Christos, PhD. "Can Organic Farming Feed the World?"
November 2000. U of California, Berkeley. Web. 07 Oct. 2005.

The WorldFactbook. 2005. Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 07 Oct.
2005.


RECIPE FOR REVIEW

USING YOUR SOURCES

1. Read and think about the information in your sources.

2. Take careful notes. Distinguish quoted material from material that is paraphrased or summarized. Your notes must always include the name and author of the source, as well as the page number and publishing information.

3. Write the paper from scratch; do not cut and paste quotes from your sources.

4. Add quotes, paraphrases, and summaries of outside sources to support or illustrate your points.

PROCESSING THE INFORMATION IN YOUR SOURCES

1. At each stage of your research, try to process new information and connect it to what you already know about your topic.

2. Try to avoid writing a research paper by pasting together chunks of information from outside sources. Think it through. Use your own words.

INCORPORATING SOURCES INTO YOUR PAPER

1. Most information from outside sources will be incorporated in the form of summaries or paraphrases. Use direct quotes sparingly.

2. Introduce material from outside sources with an appropriate tag line.

CITING YOUR SOURCES

1. Cite material from outside sources in parentheses in the text.

2. You must cite information that you obtained from another source, unless it is general knowledge. Always cite wording obtained from another source.

3. List all the outside sources you cited in your paper on the Works Cited page.

4. Use the format required by your instructor or publisher.

Figure 19.7 Highlights of APA Format

The following examples of APA format highlight some of its key
differences from MLA. Compare the sample entries in the right-hand
column with those for the same sources in MLA format (pp. 350-353).

A book with one author:

* use just first initial of last name

* follow name with date in parentheses

* capitalize only first word of title/subtitle

A book with more than one author:

* always put last name first

* put additional data about title in
parentheses

* always include both city and state

A source with editor instead of author:

* follow name with Ed. in parentheses

Source in a collection of works:

* follow source title with In and
editor's name

* include page numbers in parentheses

* use p. or pp. before page numbers

Weekly or monthly magazine:

* follow year of publication with a
comma and the name of the month

* do not use p. or pp. before page
numbers

Newspaper:

* follow year of publication with a
comma and the month and day

* use p. or pp. before page numbers

Film:

* begin entry with producer(s) & director

* put medium in brackets following title

* end entry with country of origin & studio

Newspaper article published on Web:

* use Retrieved from followed by URL

* do not add punctuation after URL

Parenthetical citations:

* follow author's last name with
comma and year of publication

* if page numbers are cited, use p. or pp.

Notes on formatting a research paper in APA:

* The title of the paper is put in all capital letters and used as
a running head.

* The title is also centered on the first page with the author's
name and institutional
affiliation below it.

* See the APA manual or website for additional information.

McGee, H. (2004). On food and cooking: The
science and lore of the kitchen. New
York, NY: Scribner.

Kirszner, L.G., & Mandell, S.R. (2001).
Patterns for college writing: A rhetorical
reader and guide (8th ed.). Boston, MA:
Bedford/St. Martin's.

Katz, S.H. (Ed.). (2003). Encyclopedia of food
and culture. New York, NY: Scribner.

Bhide, M. (2005). A question of taste. In
H. Hughes (Ed.), Best food writing 2005
(pp. 102-104). New York,
NY: Marlowe & Company.

Wemischer, R. (2004, September). Crimson
tide. Food Arts, 87-89.


Bowen, D. (2006, March 9). With city inspectors
in the kitchen, chefs can't cook in
a vacuum. New York Times, p. A1.

Grasic, M., Korbelin, J., Nunan, T., and
Reimer, A. (Executive Producers), &
Haggis, P. (Director). (2005). Crash
[Motion picture]. USA: Lion's Gate.

Bowen, D. (2006, March 9). With city
inspectors in the kitchen, chefs can't
cook in a vacuum. The New York
Times. Retrieved from http://www.
nytimes.com

(Bhide, 2005)

(Bhide, 2005, p. 103)


HELPFUL WEB SITES

1. For additional help with MLA style, visit http://www.mla.org/style.

2. For APA style, see http://www.apastyle.org.

3. For Chicago style, see http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org or The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 15th ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003.

IDEAS FOR WRITING

1. Explore the Web site StarChefs.com (http://www.starchefs.com), and find an article of interest. Summarize the main points of the article in a paragraph. Then write a one-page summary in which you use two direct quotes from the article. Be sure to cite the information parenthetically, as well as in a complete Works Cited entry at the end.

2. Watch "The Meatrix" at http://www.themeatrix.com. Then pick one of the subtopics, such as antibiotics, factory farming, or genetic engineering. Take notes on the information, and develop a summary of the main points.

3. Do further research on one of the topics above or on another of your choice. Consult three reputable sources, using the evaluation techniques discussed in Chapter 16. Take notes on the information, and summarize the main points of each article. Then write a page or two about the topic, incorporating the information you learned as quotes or paraphrases. Use parenthetical citations, and create a Works Cited page.

4. What food-related jobs involve research? Consult at least three information sources as you investigate this question, and incorporate at least two in your answer.
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Title Annotation:UNIT 2: PATTERNS
Author:Cadbury, Vivian C.
Publication:A Taste for Writing, Composition for Culinarians
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2015
Words:7618
Previous Article:Chapter 18: An introduction to research I--finding and evaluating your sources.
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