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Chapter 18 Petits fours and confections.

FORMULA

GRAPEFRUIT AND VANILLA
CREAM MACARON

The distinctive flavors of slightly acidic fresh grapefruit and
rich vanilla mousseline cream align perfectly in this refreshing
and creamy macaron. A touch of spice is introduced with delicate
slices of ginger confit. Because of the moist fruit and the
mousseline cream used in this macaron, the shelf life should be
limited to 24 hours.

Mise en Place

Plain macaron base with vanilla bean variation, 2 1/4 Ib (1 kg)
macaron base piped at 1 1/2 inch (3.8 cm) diameter

Vanilla mousseline cream, 1 Ib 10 oz (0.75 kg)
Fresh grapefruit
Ginger confit

Yield: 50

Process, Fresh Grapefruit

1. Cut off the skin, and segment the grapefruit.

2. Slice the segments in half to achieve thin slices.

3. Cut the slices in thirds to obtain small segments of the pulp.

4. Place the pulp segments between paper towels for several hours
to draw out excess moisture.

Assembly and Finishing

1. Pipe the vanilla mousseline cream onto the base of the vanilla
macaron, and top it with a thin slice of ginger confit.

2. Place two grapefruit pulp segments over the mousseline.

3. Pipe a small dot of mousseline over the grapefruit to secure the
top macaron.

4. Place the top cookie over the mousseline. Garnish with a thin
slice of ginger confit.

FORMULA

PRALINE CREAM WITH SALTED
CARAMEL MACARON

Hazelnut and salted caramel merge effortlessly in this cream based
on creme Paris-Brest. The salted caramel is coated in cocoa butter,
helping it to remain crunchy for a longer period of time. Because
of the cream used in this macaron, the shelf life should be limited
to 24 hours.

Mise en Place

Parisian macaron base
Praline cream with salted caramel

Yield: 50 pieces
Test: 25 pieces

Salted Caramel Formula

Ingredients       Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal   Lb & Oz

Trimoline            100.00    0.080       0.176        2 3/4
Sugar                100.00    0.080       0.176        2 3/4
Salted butter         35.00    0.028       0.061        1
Unsalted butter       60.00    0.048       0.105        1 5/8
Cocoa butter          15.00    0.012       0.026          3/8
Total                313.88    0.250       0.551        8 7/8

Process, Salted Caramel

1. Heat the Trimoline, and add the sugar to it to make a caramel.

2. After the sugar has turned to caramel stage, add the salted
butter and the unsalted butter to deglaze.

3. Cook this mixture, stirring constantly.

4. Drop a small quantity in cold water. When it is ready, it will
set up to the hard crack stage.

5. Pour the mixture on a silpat, place another silpat on top of it,
and roll it out thin. Allow to cool.

6. When it is cool, break up the caramel to make small pieces.

7. Melt the cocoa butter, and toss it with the caramel to coat it.

8. Place this mixture in the freezer for 20 minutes to set the
cocoa butter. Reserve until needed.

Praline Cream With Salted Caramel Formula

Ingredients      Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Praline paste        38.00      0.232        0.511
Butter               52.00      0.317        0.699
Pastry cream        100.00      0.610        1.344
Salted caramel       15.00      0.091        0.202
Total               205.00      1.250        2.756

Ingredients        Lb & Oz             Test

Praline paste        8 1/8         3 1/4 oz
Butter              11 1/8         4 1/2 oz
Pastry cream       1 5 1/2         8 5/8 oz
Salted caramel       3 1/4         1 1/4 oz
Total             2 12 1/8    1 lb 1 5/8 oz

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Process, Praline Cream

With Salted Caramel

1. In a mixer with the paddle attachment, smooth the praline paste,
add the soft butter, and mix until incorporated.

2. Mix the pastry cream until smooth, and then fold the
butter-praline mixture into it.

3. Fold in the salted caramel.

Assembly

Pipe the praline cream with caramel onto the base of the macaron.
Place the top on and reserve until needed.

FORMULA

PETIT FOUR CREMEUX TART

A small version of the standard tart, this petit four tart is based
on pate sucree and passion fruit cremeux. The tart shell is baked
until golden and crisp, and then brushed with a thin layer of white
chocolate or cocoa butter and garnished with a circle of white
chocolate lattice. Store in the freezer for up to 1 week with the
cremeux already deposited.

Mise en Place

Pate sucree tartlet shells, 5 lb 8 oz (2.5 kg) for full batch, 2 lb
3 oz (1 kg) for test

Assorted cremeux: raspberry, lemon, passion fruit, 64 percent
chocolate

Chocolate glaze

Neutral glaze

Yield: 200-250 [1 inch (2.6 cm)] tartlets per formula
Test: 70-90 [1 inch (2.6 cm)] tartlets
Flexipan for tartlets (42 mm x 10 mm, Ref 1413)

Raspberry Cremeux Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Raspberry fruit pulp      100.00      0.528        1.165
Gelatin leaves              1.50      0.008        0.017
Egg yolks                  30.00      0.159        0.349
Eggs                       37.50      0.198        0.437
Sugar                      30.00      0.159        0.349
Butter                     37.50      0.198        0.437
Total                     236.50      1.250        2.755

Ingredients             Lb & Oz        Test

Raspberry fruit pulp   1  2 5/8    6 3/4 oz
Gelatin leaves              1/4      1/8 oz
Egg yolks                 5 5/8        2 oz
Eggs                      7        2 1/2 oz
Sugar                     5 5/8        2 oz
Butter                    7        2 1/2 oz
Total                  2 12 1/8        1 lb

Lemon Cremeux Formula

Ingredients    Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Lemon juice       100.00      0.368        0.810
Egg yolks          56.00      0.206        0.454
Eggs               64.00      0.235        0.519
Sugar              60.00      0.221        0.486
Butter             60.00      0.221        0.486
Total             340.00      1.250        2.755

Ingredients      Lb & Oz        Test

Lemon juice       13        4 3/4 oz
Egg yolks          7 1/4    2 5/8 oz
Eggs               8 1/4        3 oz
Sugar              7 3/4    2 7/8 oz
Butter             7 3/4    2 7/8 oz
Total           2 12 1/8        1 lb

Process, Raspberry and Lemon Cremeux

1. Bring the lemon juice or raspberry puree to just below the
boiling point with half of the sugar.

2. Combine the egg yolks, whole eggs, and the remainder of the
sugar.

3. Pour one-third of the puree over the egg mixture and stir with a
spatula. Do not use a whisk as it will incorporate air.

4. Return the egg mixture to the pot and continue to stir
constantly, agitating the bottom of the pot.

5. Cook until the mixture is 180[degrees]F (82[degrees]C) and
thickened. Do not overcook.

6. Strain through a fine chinois into a clean, dry container.

7. When the mixture reaches 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add tepid
butter using an immersion blender.

8. Deposit into the blind-baked tart shells, and store covered in
the refrigerator until ready for use.

Chocolate Cremeux Formula

Ingredients        Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Cream                 100.00      0.741        1.634
Gelatin leaves          0.60      0.004        0.010
Egg yolks              24.00      0.178        0.392
64% chocolate          44.00      0.326        0.719
Total                 168.60      1.250        2.755

Ingredients        Lb & Oz         Test

Cream             1 10 1/8     9 1/2 oz
Gelatin leaves         1/8      1/16 oz
Egg yolks            6 1/4     2 1/4 oz
64% chocolate       11 1/2     4 1/8 oz
Total             2 12 1/8         1 1b

Process, Chocolate Cremeux

1. Bring the cream to a boil.

2. Temper the egg yolk-sugar mixture (like creme Anglaise).

3. Cook (like creme Anglaise) with a spatula to 180[degrees]F
(82[degrees]C) using caution to not overcook.

4. Strain through a fine chinois, and add the bloomed melted
gelatin.

5. Add the chocolate and form an emulsion with a rubber spatula.
Improve the emulsion with an immersion blender, using caution to
not get any air bubbles into the mix. Let cool to 95[degrees]F
(35[degrees]C) and then deposit.

Assembly

1. Coat the pate sucribe shells with a thin layer of cocoa butter
or chocolate. For fruit cremeux, use white chocolate; for chocolate
cremeux use the corresponding chocolate as is in the cremeux.

2. Deposit the cremeux into the blind-baked tart shells, just below
the surface. Be sure that the cremeux is warm enough that it
relaxes in the shell. If it is too cold, it will not create a
smooth surface. Allow to set in the refrigerator or freezer.

Finishing

Apply a thin layer of neutral glaze over the fruit cremeux tarts
and a thin layer of black chocolate glaze over the chocolate
cremeux. Garnish with the applicable fresh fruit as desired or
chocolate decor.

FORMULA

MARZIPAN

Unlike the other edible decorative mediums, marzipan actually has a
pleasing taste and texture. Composed primarily of almonds and
sugar, it can be rolled into thin sheets for wrapping cakes, used
as a layer in pastries or a filling for chocolates, or molded into
various shapes such as fruits, animals, or other figures.

Ingredients        Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Almond paste          100.00      1.249        2.753
Powdered sugar        100.00      1.249        2.753
Kirsch                  0.25      0.003        0.007
Total                 200.25      2.500        5.512

Ingredients          Lb & Oz       Test

Almond paste            2 12       8 oz
Powdered sugar          2 12       8 oz
Kirsch                   1/8    1/4 tsp
Total                5 8 1/4       1 lb

Process

1. Blend the almond paste with the powdered sugar in the bowl of a
mixer fitted with the paddle attachment on low speed.

2. Mix until the dough just comes together, adding the kirsch as
needed.

3. Transfer to a clean work surface and knead to a uniform mass.

4. Wrap well in plastic and allow to rest for 12 hours before
using.

Notes

Adding powdered sugar is not a remedy for wet marzipan.
Use less liquid if you will be adding color (only use gel colors).
If mixed too long, oil from almonds will come out and the marzipan
will be greasy.

FORMULA

PATE DE FRUIT

Pate de fruit, loosely translated as "fruit paste," is a classic
French confection. Pate de fruit can be made with any fruit puree
but is most commonly made from high-quality frozen purees. The
process must be followed very carefully (refer to the text for more
detailed information). Temperatures are very important to consider
because they determine the quantity of water in the fruit paste,
which affects the gelling capacity of the pectin. The formulas
presented here are from Ravi Fruit and most manufacturers of
high-quality fruit purees will supply their customers with a
similar sheet.

Proportion Chart for Pate de Fruit

                                                   Powdered
Fruit                   Pectin (g)   Sugar (g)    Glucose (g)

Apricot                      24        1,140           350
Banana                       24          900           120
Blackberry                   24        1,260           170
Black currant                25        1,170           200
Blueberry                    22        1,050            70
Boysenberry                  20        1,150           150
Fig                          25          850           150
Fruit of the forest          22        1,100           150
Green apple                  18          950            80
Guanabana (soursop)          26        1,100           120
Guava                        24        1,350           200
Kiwi                         24        1,050            60
Lemon                        28        1,350           200
Lime                         26        1,450           150
Lychee                       30        1,050           200
Mandarin                     26        1,150            70
Mango                        25        1,150           200
Melon                        25        1,050           100
Mirabelle plum               25          800           200
Morello (sour) cherry        24          950            20
Orange                       24        1,100           200
Pabana cocktail              25          800           120
Papaya                       26          800            20
Passion fruit                21        1,150           250
Ruby peach                   24          900           160
White peach                  25          900           200
Pineapple                    30        1,100           100
Red currant                  20        1,000           150
Raspberry                    20        1,140           200
Strawberry                   24        1,100           100
Strawberry mara              24        1,100           140
des boil
Wild strawberry              22        1,150           150

                        Citric Acid              Cooking
                        Diluted at    Total    Temperature
Fruit                     50% (g)     Weight   ([degrees]C)

Apricot                       14      2,528          105
Banana                        16      2,060          105
Blackberry                    16      2,470          106
Black currant                 14      2,409          107
Blueberry                     14      2,156          107
Boysenberry                   16      2,036          106
Fig                           16      2,041          105
Fruit of the forest           14      2,286          105
Green apple                   14      2,062          106
Guanabana (soursop)           16      2,262          105
Guava                         16      2,590          105
Kiwi                          16      2,150          105
Lemon                          8      2,586          108
Lime                           8      2,634          107
Lychee                        16      2,296          106
Mandarin                      14      2,260          106
Mango                         16      2,391          105
Melon                         16      2,191          106
Mirabelle plum                16      2,041          106
Morello (sour) cherry         16      2,010          106
Orange                        12      2,336          106
Pabana cocktail               14      1,959          105
Papaya                        16      1,862          106
Passion fruit                 10      2,431          107
Ruby peach                    16      2,100          105
White peach                   12      2,137          105
Pineapple                     14      2,244          106
Red currant                   14      2,184          107
Raspberry                     16      2,376          105
Strawberry                    16      2,240          105
Strawberry mara               16      2,280          105
des boil
Wild strawberry               14      2,336          105

                          Cooking
                        Temperature     Brix
Fruit                   ([degrees]F)   Degree

Apricot                       221        72
Banana                        221        73
Blackberry                    222        73
Black currant                 224        75
Blueberry                     224        74
Boysenberry                   222        74
Fig                           221        73
Fruit of the forest           221        73
Green apple                   222        74
Guanabana (soursop)           221        73
Guava                         221        73
Kiwi                          221        73
Lemon                         226        73
Lime                          224        73
Lychee                        222        74
Mandarin                      222        73
Mango                         221        73
Melon                         222        75
Mirabelle plum                222        74
Morello (sour) cherry         222        73
Orange                        222        75
Pabana cocktail               221        74
Papaya                        222        74
Passion fruit                 224        74
Ruby peach                    221        73
White peach                   221        72
Pineapple                     222        75
Red currant                   224        73
Raspberry                     221        73
Strawberry                    221        74
Strawberry mara               221        74
des boil
Wild strawberry               221        74

For 1 kg of fruit puree.

Process, Pate de fruit

1. Scale all the ingredients, warm the puree, and blend one-fourth
of the sugar with the pectin.

2. At 122[degrees]F (50[degrees]C), begin to add the sugar-pectin
blend, whisking constantly.

3. When the mixture boils, begin to add the remaining sugar in
three stages, ensuring that the temperature does not drop too much.

4. After all the sugar has been added and the mixture returns to a
boil, add the powdered glucose, and continue whisking until the
desired temperature is reached.

5. Add the acid, stir well to incorporate, and deposit the mixture
in the applicable frames.

6. After the product is set, dredge it in sugar and cut as desired.

7. Submerge the cut pieces in sugar for at least 24 hours.

8. Remove the candies from the sugar, and shake off the excess
sugar.

9. Place on a sheet pan lined with parchment paper and dusted with
granulated sugar to "dry" for 24 hours.

10. Flip over the candies to dry the other side for 24 hours.

11. Package as desired, or cover in plastic and store for later
use.

FORMULA

MARSHMALLOW SQUARES

Marshmallows date back to ancient times, derived from plants called
marsh mallows, which were indigenous to Europe and Asia. The fluffy
white confection we are familiar with today originated in France
during the 19th century, but manufacturing was expensive and slow
because it involved the casting and molding of each individual
marshmallow. When mass production was introduced in America in
1948, marshmallows became much easier to make, and their popularity
exploded. These marshmallow squares showcase the best properties of
marshmallow, with appealing texture and sweetness.

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Gelatin           13.30      0.178        0.392
Sugar            250.00      3.339        7.360
Water             83.40      1.114        2.455
Glucose           62.50      0.835        1.840
Egg whites       100.00      1.335        2.944
Total            509.20      6.800       14.991

Ingredients     Lb & Oz            Test

Gelatin           6 1/4        1 5/8 oz
Sugar           7 5 3/4  1 lb 13 1/2 oz
Water           2 7 1/4        9 7/8 oz
Glucose        1 13 1/2        7 3/8 oz
Egg whites     2 15 1/8       11 3/4 oz
Total         14 15 7/8      3 lb 12 oz

Yield: 2 full sheets
Test: 1 half sheet

Process

1. Bloom the gelatin in cold water.

2. Heat the sugar, water, and glucose to 285[degrees]F
(140[degrees]C).

3. Start whipping the egg whites on medium speed, when the sugar
mixture reaches 248[degrees]F (120[degrees]C).

4. When the sugar mixture reaches 266[degrees]F (130[degrees]C)
begin to mix on high speed.

5. At 284[degrees]F (140[degrees]C), pour the bloomed, drained
gelatin on the sugar and pour into the whipping egg whites.

6. Once the foam is full volume and is stabilized, portion into a
sheet pan lined with a silicone baking mat.

7. Cool at room temperature.

8. Once at room temperature, cover with a 1:1 mixture of potato
starch and powdered sugar.

9. Cut into the desired sizes. Roll in the starch-sugar mixture to
cover the sides after cutting.

FORMULA

CHARTREUSE MARSHMALLOW LOLLIPOP

Chartreuse, a color resting somewhere between yellow and green, was
named for its resemblance to the French liqueur, green Chartreuse,
itself named after the Grande Chartreuse monastery where it is
produced. This whimsical little marshmallow lollipop is certain to
bring smiles wherever it is found.

Ingredients             Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Gelatin                      5.00      0.009        0.020
Chartreuse                  41.70      0.076        0.167
Sugar                      416.70      0.756        1.668
Water                      125.00      0.227        0.500
Egg whites                 100.00      0.182        0.400
Pastel green colorant          SQ         SQ           SQ
Total                      688.40      1.250        2.755

Ingredients              Lb & Oz        Test

Gelatin                      3/8      1/8 oz
Chartreuse                 2 5/8        1 oz
Sugar                   1 10 5/8    9 5/8 oz
Water                      8        2 7/8 oz
Egg whites                 6 3/8    2 3/8 oz
Pastel green colorant         SQ          SQ
Total                   2 12 1/8        1 lb

Yield: variable depending on mold

Process

1. Bloom the gelatin in the Chartreuse.

2. Cook the sugar and water to 261'F (127[degrees]C), and pour over
the egg whites once whipped to 50 percent volume. Add the green
colorant.

3. Whip until full volume and slightly warm.

4. Deposit into a small half-dome Flexipan.

5. Once set, remove the marshmallow, toss in potato starch, and
stick to a lollipop stick with some melted chocolate.

6. Dip in tempered dark couverture.

FORMULA

MARSHMALLOW WITHOUT EGG WHITES

The absence of egg whites in the formula is no mistake. This
formula and its process represent the majority of contemporary
marshmallow production.

Ingredients        Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Gelatin leaf            8.34      0.195        0.430
Sugar                 100.00      2.341        5.162
Water                  41.66      0.975        2.150
Honey                  37.50      0.878        1.936
Glucose                62.50      1.463        3.226
Water                  37.50      0.878        1.936
Vanilla extract         2.92      0.068        0.151
Total                 290.42      6.800       14.991

Ingredients          Lb & Oz            Test

Gelatin leaf           6 7/8        1 3/4 oz
Sugar               5  2 5/8        4 5/8 oz
Water               2  2 3/8        8 5/8 oz
Honey               1 15            7 3/4 oz
Glucose             3  3 5/8       12 7/8 oz
Water                  1 15         7 3/4 oz
Vanilla extract        2                1 oz
Total              14 15 7/8      3 lb 12 oz

Process

1. Bloom the gelatin in cold water. Reserve.

2. Combine the sugar, water, honey, and glucose and cook to
245[degrees]F (118[degrees]C).

3. Cool the mixture to 215[degrees]F (102[degrees]C), and then mix
with the gelatin.

4. Whip on high speed until soft peaks form, and add the vanilla.

5. Deposit into a frame on a silicone mat-lined sheet pan, and
allow to set.

6. When it reaches room temperature, cover with a 1:1 mixture of
potato starch and powdered sugar.

7. Cut into the desired sizes. Roll in the starch-sugar mixture to
cover the sides after cutting.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

NOUGAT DE MONTELIMAR

The Provencal region of Montelimar, with its proliferation of
almond trees, has specialized in nougat making for hundreds of
years. This beloved confection is a based on a meringue made with
sugar syrup and honey and the addition of almonds or pistachios.
Some insist that, in order for nougat to be classified as nougat de
Montelimar, it must contain lavender honey.

Ingredients        Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Orange blossom        500.37      0.978        2.157
honey
Sugar #1              620.77      1.214        2.676
Water                 250.47      0.490        1.080
Glucose               100.00      0.196        0.431
Egg whites            100.00      0.196        0.431
Sugar #2               24.02      0.047        0.104
Salt                    0.62      0.001        0.003
Powdered sugar        214.60      0.420        0.925
Cocoa butter          214.60      0.420        0.925
Almonds               623.83      1.220        2.689
Pistachio             623.83      1.220        2.689
Total                3273.11      6.400       14.109

Ingredients         Lb & Oz         Test

Orange blossom      2 2 1/2     9 1/8 oz
honey
Sugar #1           2 10 7/8    11 3/4 oz
Water              1  1 1/4     4 5/8 oz
Glucose               6 7/8     1 7/8 oz
Egg whites            6 7/8     1 7/8 oz
Sugar #2              1 5/8       1/2 oz
Salt                  < 1/8      1/8 tsp
Powdered sugar       14 3/4     3 7/8 oz
Cocoa butter         14 3/4     3 7/8 oz
Almonds            2 11        11 3/8 oz
Pistachio          2 11        11 3/8 oz
Total             14  1 3/4   3 lb 12 oz

Yield: 4 [8 inch (20 cm) x 11 inch (28 cm)] sheets
Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 11 inch (28 cm)] sheet

Process

1. Roast the almonds. Then, combine with the pistachios and hold in
a warm oven, 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C), until needed.

2. Boil the honey to 250[degrees]F (120[degrees]C).

3. Bring the first sugar, water, and glucose to 300[degrees]F
(150[degrees]C).

4. Begin to whip the egg whites, second sugar, and salt when the
honey is at 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C).

5. Pour the boiling honey on the egg whites and whip with the whisk
attachment.

6. Switch to the paddle attachment before adding the cooked sugar.

7. Continue to whip with the paddle on medium speed.

8. At 125[degrees]F (50[degrees]C) add the powdered sugar, cocoa
butter, almonds, and pistachios.

9. Pour onto a silicone mat and roll out between metal bars.
Optional: Cover the surface of the nougat with rice paper.

10. Cut to 3/4 inch (21 mm) x 1 1/8 inch (28 mm) or the desired
size.

11. Dip the sides in 70% dark couverture.

12. Wrap in plastic when cooled.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE NOUGAT

French historians think that the nougat traces back to a Greek
walnut confection known as nux gatum or mougo that was originally
made using walnuts. In the 17th century, Olivier of Serres planted
almond trees close to Montelimar. It is thought that the almonds
replaced the walnuts in the Greek recipe and evolved into nougat.
Today, nougat is central to the history of the city of Montelimar
and the traditions of Provence. This nougat emphasizes rich
chocolate along with its characteristic nuts.

Ingredients        Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar #1              830.00      1.880        4.146
Glucose               180.00      0.408        0.899
Water                 250.00      0.566        1.249
Honey                 500.00      1.133        2.497
Egg whites            100.00      0.227        0.499
Sugar #2               40.00      0.091        0.200
Chocolate liquor      170.00      0.385        0.849
Hazelnuts             275.00      0.623        1.374
Whole almonds         350.00      0.793        1.748
Pistachios            130.00      0.295        0.649
Total                2825.00      6.400       14.110

Ingredients         Lb & Oz           Test

Sugar #1            4  2 3/8    1 lb 1/2 oz
Glucose               14 3/8       3 5/8 oz
Water                  1 4             5 oz
Honey                  2 8         9 7/8 oz
Egg whites             8               2 oz
Sugar #2               3 1/4         3/4 oz
Chocolate liquor      13 5/8       3 3/8 oz
Hazelnuts           1  6           5 1/2 oz
Whole almonds       1 12               7 oz
Pistachios            10 3/8       2 5/8 oz
Total              14  1 3/4      3 lb 8 oz

Yield: 4 [8 inch (20 cm) x 11 inch (28 cm)] sheets
Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 11 inch (28 cm)] sheet

Process

1. Toast the hazelnuts and almonds until golden to the core. Add
the pistachios and keep the nut mixture warm.

2. Cook the first sugar, glucose, and water to 302[degrees]F
(150[degrees]C).

3. When the sugar mixture reaches 248[degrees]F (120[degrees]C),
start cooking the honey.

4. Cook the honey to 266[degrees]F (130[degrees]C). The goal is to
have both mixtures finish cooking close to the same time.

5. Using the whisk attachment, whip the egg whites with the second
sugar.

6. Make a meringue by slowly pouring the hot honey onto the
whipping whites.

7. Switch to the paddle attachment, and add the hot sugar mixture.

8. When full volume is reached, add the melted chocolate liquor,
and mix until blended.

9. Next, add the warm nuts, and mix to incorporation.

10. Deposit into a metal frame lined with rice paper. Press the
rice paper into the top of the nougat.

11. Allow to set. When the nougat is cool, cut into the desired
sizes.

FORMULA

CARAMELS

According to The New Larousse Gastronomic(ue the name caramel comes
from the Latin Cannamella ("sugar cane"), and it is also the French
word for "burnt sugar." Food historians place the first mentions of
caramelization in 17th-century France. Known for their incredibly
chewy texture, and requiring a good set of teeth, perfect caramels
should melt in the mouth for a while, giving the taste buds time to
savor each sweet moment.

Creamy Caramel Formula

Ingredients        Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Heavy cream            29.70      0.215        0.475
Half and half          29.70      0.215        0.475
Sugar                 100.00      0.725        1.598
Salt                    3.70      0.027        0.059
Glucose               112.80      0.818        1.803
Vanilla bean            Each      2            2
Total                 275.90      2.000        4.410

Ingredients         Lb & Oz       Test

Heavy cream           7 5/8   1 3/4 oz
Half and half         7 5/8   1 3/4 oz
Sugar               1 9 5/8   5 3/4 oz
Salt                  1         1/4 oz
Glucose            1 12 7/8     1/2 oz
Vanilla bean          2       1/2 each
Total               4 6 1/2       1 lb

Process, Creamy Caramel

1. Bring all of the ingredients to a boil in a stainless steel or
copper pot.

2. Stir constantly and cook to the desired temperature. (See the
list of temperatures.)

3. After the bubbles have subsided, pour the caramel into arranged
metal bars on top of a silicone mat to a depth of?/2 inch (1 cm).

4. When it is set, cut to the desired size, and wrap or enrobe with
chocolate.

Final Temperature                Texture

250[degrees]F (121 [degrees]C)    Soft

255[degrees]F (124[degrees]C)     Chewy

266[degrees]F (130[degrees]C)     Hard

Note

The resulting texture of the caramels will be determined by the
maximum temperature reached in cooking. Humidity will also have an
effect. When working in a humid environment, it is advisable to add
a few degrees to the chosen temperature.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Vanilla Caramel Formula

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Heavy cream       47.60      0.544        1.200
Honey             21.80      0.249        0.550
Sugar            100.00      1.144        2.521
Vanilla bean       Each      4            4
Butter             5.50      0.063        0.139
Total            174.90      2.000        4.410

Ingredients     Lb & Oz       Test

Heavy cream     1 3 1/4   4 3/8 oz
Honey             8 3/4       2 oz
Sugar           2 8 3/8   9 1/8 oz
Vanilla bean      4         1 each
Butter            2 1/4     1/2 oz
Total           4 6 1/2       1 lb

Process, Vanilla Caramel

1. Bring all the ingredients, except the butter, to a boil in a
stainless steel or copper pot.

2. Stir constantly and cook to the desired temperature. (See the
list of temperatures.)

3. After reaching the chosen temperature, stir in the butter.

4. After the bubbles have subsided, pour the caramel into arranged
metal bars on top of a silicone mat to a depth of 1/2 inch (1 cm).

5. When it is set, cut to the desired size, and wrap or enrobe with
chocolate.

Final Temperature                Texture

250[degrees]F (121 [degrees]C)    Soft

255[degrees]F (124[degrees]C)     Chewy

266[degrees]F (130[degrees]C)     Hard

Note

The resulting texture of the caramels will be determined by the
maximum temperature reached in cooking. Humidity will also have an
effect. When working in a humid environment, add a few degrees to
the chosen temperature.

Coffee Caramel Formula

Ingredients      Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Heavy cream          47.60      0.473        1.043
Honey                45.60      0.453        0.999
Sugar               100.00      0.994        2.192
Coffee extract        2.50      0.025        0.055
Butter                5.50      0.055        0.121
Total               201.20      2.000        4.410

Ingredients      Lb & Oz        Test

Heavy cream        1 3/4    3 3/4 oz
Honey              1 0      3 5/8 oz
Sugar            2 3 1/8        8 oz
Coffee extract       7/8      1/4 oz
Butter             1 7/8      1/2 oz
Total            4 6 1/2        1 lb

Process, Coffee Caramel

1. Bring all of the ingredients, except the butter, to a boil in a
stainless steel or copper pot.

2. Stir constantly and cook to the desired temperature. (Seethe
list of temperatures.)

3. After reaching the chosen temperature, stir in the butter.

4. After the bubbles have subsided, pour the caramel into arranged
metal bars on top of a silicone mat to a depth of 1/2 inch (1 cm).

5. When it is set, cut to the desired size, and wrap or enrobe with
chocolate.

Final Temperature                Texture

250[degrees]F(121[degrees]C)      Soft

255[degrees]F (124[degrees]C)     Chewy

266[degrees]F (130[degrees]C)     Hard

Note

The resulting texture of the caramels will be determined by the
maximum temperature reached in cooking. Humidity will also have an
effect. When working in a humid environment, add a few degrees to
the chosen temperature.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

SWISS ROCHER

These delicate, candied almonds are great on their own, or they may
be coated in chocolate, either milk or dark.

Ingredients       Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar                 36.67      0.367        0.808
Water                 11.67      0.117        0.257
Vanilla bean           Each      1            1
Toasted almonds      100.00      1.000        2.204
Total                148.34      1.483        3.270

Ingredients         Lb & Oz       Test

Sugar                12 7/8   3 1/4 oz
Water                 4 1/8       1 oz
Vanilla bean          1       1/4 each
Toasted almonds     2 3 1/4   8 3/4 oz
Total               3 4 3/8      13 oz

Process

1. Bring the sugar, water, and vanilla to 241[degrees]F
(116[degrees]C).

2. Add the toasted almonds and stir, creating constant agitation.

3. When the nuts become white and sandy, transfer them to a sheet
pan lined with parchment paper.

4. After they are cool, store in a covered, airtight container.

FORMULA

DRAGEE

A dragee, from the Greek tragemata or "sweets," is used primarily
as a decorative element. The town of Verdun, France, had acquired a
reputation for these ancient confections by the 13th century.
Historic dragees, called confetti in Italian and Jordan almonds in
English, are whole almonds coated with a pastel colored sugar
shell. Traditionally associated with weddings and special
celebrations, throwing dragees or confetti has been symbolic for
centuries to ensure prosperity, fertility, happiness, and good
luck. Dragees have evolved to include chocolate versions and
varieties with nonedible metallic coating.

Mise en Place

Candied nuts, SQ

Chocolate couverture at 92[degrees]F (34[degrees]C) to 95[degrees]F
(35[degrees]C), SQ

Cocoa powder, SQ

Powdered sugar, SQ

Cool work room [65[degrees]F (58[degrees]C)]

Process

1. In a tumbler, turn the nuts and add the melted chocolate in a
slow, steady stream at the crashing point of the nuts. Use caution
to not coat the tumbling unit.

2. Once the nuts have been coated once, break up any pieces using a
spatula. Allow the nuts to tumble for a few minutes to crystallize
the chocolate. Continue this process until the nuts have been
sufficiently coated (three or four times).

3. After the last addition of chocolate, and before the chocolate
has crystallized, add either cocoa powder or powdered sugar to coat
the nuts.

4. Scoop out of the tumbler and repeat the process as needed.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Note

If a cool work room is not available, use tempered chocolate.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

HARD CANDY

Hard candies are one of the oldest confections. The key to a
successful hard candy is in cooking the sugar syrup. It is
essential to prevent crystallization for these candies. Flavorings
and colors can vary according to preference. Essential oils provide
the best flavors and should be added to taste.

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar            100.00      0.804        1.772
Glucose           33.33      0.268        0.591
Water             22.26      0.179        0.394
Flavoring           SQ
Coloring            SQ
Total            155.59      1.250        2.756

Ingredients    Lb & Oz       Test

Sugar         1 12 3/8  10 1/4 oz
Glucose          9 1/2   3 3/8 oz
Water            6 1/4   2 1/4 oz
Flavoring
Coloring
Total         2 12 1/8       1 lb

Note

Some examples of flavoring are orange oil and cinnamon oil.

Process

1. Cook the sugar and glucose with the water to 284[degrees]F
(140[degrees]C).

2. Add the coloring.

3. Continue cooking the syrup to 311[degrees]F (155[degrees]C), and
then add the flavoring.

4. Pour the cooked syrup onto a silicone mat to cool.

5. Satinize the mass as needed.

6. Cut into the desired shapes or pillows. Package as soon as the
candies are at room temperature.

7. Alternately, after cooking the syrup, deposit into molds for
nonpillow hard candies.


FORMULA

ENGLISH TOFFEE

Traditional English toffee is slightly salty and very rich in
butter; its full caramel flavor is a result of the Maillard
reaction. For an American version, enrobe in dark chocolate and
roll in chopped, roasted almonds.

Ingredients            Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Butter, salted             80.00      0.446        0.983
Water                      22.00      0.123        0.270
Sugar                     100.00      0.558        1.229
Salt                        0.50      0.003        0.006
Lecithin powder             0.20      0.001        0.002
Almond, raw, chopped       21.50      0.120        0.264
Total                     224.20      1.250        2.756

Ingredients             Lb & Oz        Test

Butter, salted           15 3/8    5 3/4 oz
Water                     4 3/8    1 5/8 oz
Sugar                  1  3 5/8    7 1/8 oz
Salt                        1/8     1/8 tsp
Lecithin powder           0         1/8 tsp
Almond, raw, chopped      4            2 oz
Total                  2 12 1/8        1 lb

Process

1. Place the butter in a large and heavy pot, and melt the butter
over medium heat.

2. Add the water, sugar, salt, and lecithin and continue cooking
over medium heat while continuously stirring.

3. When the mixture reaches 260[degrees]F (127[degrees]C), add the
almonds.

4. Continue cooking until the mixture turns a golden brown color.
The temperature should be between 305[degrees]F (152[degrees]C) and
310[degrees]F (154[degrees]C).

5. Pour the cooked syrup onto a buttered granite slab or a silicone
baking mat. Spread out quickly and as thinly as possible. Be
careful not to overly agitate the toffee.

6. While the toffee is still plastic, score to a desired size with
a knife or a pastry wheel.

7. Cut or break the toffee into pieces.

8. Place the toffee in an airtight container until ready to dip it
in chocolate.

9. To finish, dip the cut toffee in tempered couverture chocolate.

FORMULA

TOFFEE SQUARES

This toffee is made without nuts and is flavored with vanilla.

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar            100.00      0.619        1.364
Glucose           13.73      0.085        0.187
Water             29.73      0.184        0.405
Butter            57.19      0.354        0.780
Salt               0.81      0.005        0.011
Vanilla            0.65      0.004        0.009
Total            202.11      1.250        2.756

Ingredients    Lb & Oz        Test

Sugar          1 5 7/8    7 7/8 oz
Glucose          3        1 1/8 oz
Water            6 1/2    2 3/8 oz
Butter          12 1/2    4 1/2 oz
Salt               1/8      1/8 oz
Vanilla          0         1/4 tsp
Total         2 12 1/8        1 lb

Process

1. Combine the sugar, glucose, and water, and cook to 275[degrees]F
(135[degrees]C).

2. Stir in the butter, and continue to cook to 315[degrees]F
(157[degrees]C); stir in the salt.

3. Cook the mixture until it reaches 320[degrees]F (160[degrees]C),
and stir in the vanilla.

4. Prepare the confectionery bars by setting to a desired size on a
silicone baking mat, and adjust the bars to contain the toffee in
an even layer. Pour the candy between the bars.

5. The toffee must be scored while it is still warm with an oiled
knife; this will allow the toffee to be broken easily.

6. Break along the score marks and dip in tempered chocolate to
coat.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE NUT FUDGE

This chocolate fudge is rich in chocolate flavor and crunchy with
nuts. Follow the formula carefully; the specified temperatures and
proper agitation are necessary to the desired crystallization of
the sugars.

Ingredients          Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Inverted sugar           10.00      0.032        0.070
Evaporated milk          65.00      0.206        0.455
Sugar                   100.00      0.317        0.700
Glucose                  35.40      0.112        0.248
Butter #1, salted        25.00      0.079        0.175
Lecithin powder           0.20      0.001        0.001
Cream                    40.00      0.127        0.280
Butter #2, salted        10.08      0.032        0.071
Chocolate liquor         36.13      0.115        0.253
Walnuts                  39.50      0.125        0.276
Fondant                  30.25      0.096        0.212
Vanilla extract           2.40      0.008        0.017
Total                   393.96      1.250        2.756

Ingredients          Lb & Oz        Test

Inverted sugar         1 1/8      3/8 oz
Evaporated milk        7 1/4    2 5/8 oz
Sugar                 11 1/4        4 oz
Glucose                4        1 1/2 oz
Butter #1, salted      2 3/4        1 oz
Lecithin powder        0        1/16 tsp
Cream                  4 3/4    1 5/8 oz
Butter #2, salted      1 1/8      3/8 oz
Chocolate liquor       4        1 1/2 oz
Walnuts                4 3/8    1 5/8 oz
Fondant                3 3/8    1 1/2 oz
Vanilla extract          1/4      1/8 oz
Total               2 12 1/8        1 lb

Process

1. Toast the walnuts lightly. Cool completely and reserve.

2. Combine the inverted sugar, evaporated milk, sugar, glucose,
first butter, and lecithin in a heavy pot. Stir with a spatula for
5 minutes to dissolve the sugars.

3. Place the pot over low to medium heat, and cook the mixture to
250[degrees]F (121 [degrees]C).

4. Add the cream, and bring the temperature back to 241 [degrees]F
(116[degrees]C).

5. Remove the pot from the heat and mix in the second butter.

6. Once the butter is incorporated, stir in the chocolate, then the
walnuts.

7. Let the mixture cool to 180[degrees]F (82[degrees]C) and then
add the fondant and vanilla, and stir to incorporate.

8. Deposit the mixture into a frame on a silicone mat and allow to
crystallize.

9. Cut into the desired shapes, and enrobe in chocolate or wrap in
plastic for storage.

FORMULA

PEANUT BRITTLE

Peanut brittle is an old-fashioned confection popular in the South.
The flavors and crunchy texture of caramel candy loaded with rich
nuts make for a timeless treat.

Ingredients      Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar               100.00      0.410        0.904
Glucose              50.00      0.205        0.452
Water                25.12      0.103        0.227
Peanuts, raw        125.12      0.513        1.131
Baking soda           2.20      0.009        0.020
Vanilla               0.98      0.004        0.009
Butter                0.98      0.004        0.009
Salt                  0.49      0.002        0.004
Total               304.89      1.250        2.756

Ingredients       Lb & Oz        Test

Sugar              14 1/2    5 1/4 oz
Glucose             7 1/4    2 5/8 oz
Water               3 5/8    1 3/8 oz
Peanuts, raw     1  2 1/8    6 5/8 oz
Baking soda           3/8      1/8 oz
Vanilla               1/8     1/2 tsp
Butter                1/8     1/2 tsp
Salt                  1/8     1/4 tsp
Total            2 12 1/8        1 lb

Process

1. Cook the sugar, glucose, and water to 280[degrees]F
(138[degrees]C).

2. Add the peanuts, and cook to a golden brown.

3. Remove from the heat and stir in the soda, vanilla, butter, and
salt.

4. Stir well and pour out onto a lightly greased granite slab or
silicone mat.

5. Spread and pull into thin sheets.

FORMULA

FONDANT

Fondant is a versatile confection that can be used as icing or a
filling for chocolates.

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar            100.00      0.453        0.999
Glucose           20.00      0.091        0.200
Water             20.00      0.091        0.200
Total            140.00      1.250        2.756

Ingredients    Lb & Oz       Test

Sugar         1  0       5 3/4 oz
Glucose          3 1/4   1 1/8 oz
Water            3 1/4   1 1/8 oz
Total         2 12 1/8       1 lb

Process

1. Combine the sugar, glucose, and water in a heavy pot. Cook to
244[degrees]F (118[degrees]C), while washing down the sides to
prevent crystallization.

2. Pour the hot syrup onto a marble table, and cool to
110[degrees]F (43[degrees]C).

3. Agitate the mixture by folding and pressing it, using a wide
metal spatula. Continue until the mass completely crystallizes.

4. Reserve in an airtight container for at least 24 hours to" cure
and then use as needed.

Fondant for Enrobing

For use in starch molds or free form.

Process

1. Heat the fondant to 160[degrees]F (71 [degrees]C).

2. Add flavorings and colorant as desired.

3. Pour into a confectionary funnel that has been warmed.

4. Deposit into a starch mold or onto a silicone baking mat to the
desired size.

5. Allow to crystallize.

6. If using a starch mold, dust off the starch.

7. Enrobe in chocolate.

FORMULA

LIQUEUR CORDIAL

These confections are a surprise in the mouth when the delicate
sugar crust breaks and slightly sweetened alcohol fills the mouth.
Try this with any alcohol, but when substituting for alcohols with
a different percentage of alcohol, be sure to recalculate the sugar
solution using the guidelines in this chapter.

Ingredients    Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar             100.00      0.641        1.413
Water              45.00      0.288        0.636
Calvados 45%       50.00      0.321        0.707
Total             195.00      1.250        2.756

Ingredients     Lb & Oz        Test

Sugar          1  6 5/8    8 1/4 oz
Water            10 1/8    3 3/4 oz
Calvados 45%     11 1/4    4 1/8 oz
Total          2 12 1/8        1 lb

Note

Some examples of other liqueurs to use are Pear Brandy or Armagnac.

Process

1. Prepare the starch molds or truffle shells of desired shapes.

2. Cook the sugar and water to 246[degrees]F (119[degrees]C).

3. Remove the syrup from the heat. Gently mix in the liqueur, which
has been warmed to 105[degrees]F (41'C). Be careful not to overly
agitate the syrup, but make sure that the liqueur is completely
mixed in.

4. Carefully deposit the warm syrup into the prepared molds. The
temperature of the syrup should be below 120[degrees]F
(49[degrees]C) for starch molds, and below 78[degrees]F
(28[degrees]C) for chocolate shells.

5. If using starch molds, sift a thin layer of warm starch to bury
the molds.

6. Allow to set for 4 to 5 hours.

7. Place a lid over the starch mold and flip it over to allow for
even crystallization. Let set for at least another 10 hours.

Finishing

1. When using starch molds, carefully brush off the starch and dip
in tempered couverture chocolate.

2. When using truffle shells, seal the shells with a drop of
tempered couverture chocolate. Enrobe carefully, and decorate as
desired.


CHAPTER SUMMARY

It is possible for a pastry shop to have a variety of sugar confections and petits fours available. The petits fours may include miniature versions of the items already offered. The range of products (which can be made as petits fours sec, glaces, frais, deguises, and prestige) can add an exciting product line to a pastry shop, hotel, or catering company. Common sugar confections in a pastry shop may include marshmallow, caramels, nougats, and fudge. Even though petits fours take more labor than entremets to produce by number of units, the food cost is significantly less by weight. For confections, skilled employees are required to carry out the work, which utilizes cooked sugar syrups and techniques like pulling sugar and whipping hot egg foams. Customers get excited about small treats and may take interest in having one for an afternoon snack or in bringing several dozen to a party. In hotels, their use ranges from amenities to welcome guests, to high tea service, to complements from the chef after dinner. Wherever petits fours and confections are served, it is important to maintain a balance of products for presentation and display.

KEY TERMS

* Aerated confections

* Amuses bouche

* Binding agents

* Brittles

* Caramel

* Caramelization

* Chocolate confections

* Chocolate panning

* Confectionary fondant

* Confections

* Crystalline confections

* Doctors

* Dragees

* Flour confections

* Friandise

* Fudge

* Guitar

* Hard candies

* Hysteresis

* Jelly confections

* Liqueur cordials

* Marshmallows

* Nougat

* Marzipan

* Medium rapid set pectin

* Mignardise

* Noncrystalline confections

* Panning

* Parisian macaron

* Pastry fondant

* Pates de fruits

* Pectin

* Pectin NH

* Petits fours

* Petits fours deguises

* Petits fours frais

* Petits fours glaces

* Petits fours prestige

* Petits fours sec

* Saturated solution

* Seed

* Starch molds

* Sugar confections

* Sugar solution

* Supersaturated solution

* Toffee

* Yellow pectin (apple pectin)

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What are petits fours?

2. What are the main categories of petits fours? What distinguishes them from one another?

3. How does a saturated sugar solution differ from a supersaturated sugar solution?

4. What will be the differences between a marshmallow made with egg whites and gelatin and one made with gelatin (no egg whites)?

5. When making peites de fruits, why is it important to cook the solution as quickly as possible and to add the sugar in stages?
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Title Annotation:Part 2: PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michael
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:7843
Previous Article:Chapter 18 Petits fours and confections.
Next Article:Chapter 19 Frozen desserts.
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