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Chapter 18 International air travel basics.

OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this chapter, you should be able to

* explain the differences between domestic and international air travel.

* identify the IATA Traffic Conference Areas.

* convert 12-hour time to 24-hour time and vice versa.

* explain the effect the IDL has on travel.

* calculate time comparison.

* calculate elapsed flying time.

* identify many of the major international city, airport, and airline codes.

KEY TERMS

24-hour clock

Traffic Conference Areas

TRAVEL DIFFERENCES

There are many similarities between international air travel and what you have already learned about domestic air travel. Unfortunately, there are just as many differences. Perhaps the easiest way to learn about the differences is to compare each feature individually.

1. Airports. Although each domestic airport is different in design and layout, they seem somewhat familiar to most travelers. U.S. airports in international gateway and hub cities may be formidable, especially to inexperienced travelers.

Each international airport bears little resemblance to others, even in the same country. Within the airport, security may be more visible; it is not uncommon to see armed security guards patrolling the area. Customs, immigration, passport control, and duty-free shops are found only in international airports. The national airline in many foreign countries is given the preferred gates and check-in areas, unlike U.S. airports.

2. Agency appointing body. As you learned in Chapter 6, most U.S. travel agencies obtain ARC appointment, which is, in essence, approval to sell ARC-member airlines. ARC's appointment includes both domestic and international airlines. Many travel agencies also obtain International Airlines Travel Agency Network (IATAN) appointments as well. For travel agencies located outside of the United States, all appointments are handled by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).

3. Baggage allowance. Most domestic airlines allow two checked suitcases per passenger. The allowable weight of each suitcase varies among airlines, but generally each suitcase must weigh under 50 pounds. On domestic airlines, suitcases must also comply with a size limitation, usually 70 inches (length plus width plus height). Internationally, each suitcase is generally limited to less than 50 pounds (some carriers use kilos), but this can vary widely depending on airline. The length plus width plus height cannot usually exceed 107 inches.

4. Check-in time. Domestically, most airlines recommend that passengers check in no less than one hour prior to flight time. On international flights, checkin may be required at least two hours before the flight.

5. Connection time. On domestic connection service, a change of planes must be scheduled in under four hours. A domestic connection that exceeds four hours becomes a stopover, and the fare is usually higher. An international connection must take place in less than 24 hours; more than 24 hours is considered a stopover and the airfare may be increased.

6. Equipment. To remain cost effective, most domestic flights use narrow-body equipment and offer first-class and coach-class service. Wide-body aircraft are used on transcontinental flights and heavily traveled routes. Internationally, many narrow-body aircraft offer only one class of service. During high season, wide-body equipment is used more frequently for international travel, and coach class, business class, and first class are offered.

7. Fares. For domestic travel, fares are set by each airline, with little or no government interference. Travel counselors obtain most domestic fares from their airline computer systems, but sometimes they use the assistance of an airline rate desk. International fares must be negotiated between each foreign government and the IATA. International fares are also found in the airline computer systems; however, travel counselors may use an international airline rate desk more frequently.

8. Infants. Domestically, lap-held infants under two years of age travel free when accompanied by an adult. Internationally, the same infant under the same circumstances is charged 10 percent of the adult fare. Many domestic and international fares allow for an infant (under two years of age) to be in a carrier secured in the seat next to the adult for 50 percent of the adult fare.

9. Pet acceptance. Travel with pets is quite common on domestic flights, although the cost of pet travel varies among airlines. Because of many countries' laws against the importation of animals, travel with pets on international flights is seldom done. Consider the import law in the United Kingdom, which orders that the incoming pet must be held in quarantine at the owner's expense for six months!

10. Reconfirmation. Although reconfirming a domestic flight number and departure time (24 hours prior) is not required, reconfirming might prevent the client from missing his flight. Internationally, some airlines require reconfirmation 72 hours prior to flight time. These international airlines cancel any reservations that have not been reconfirmed by that time.

11. Schedules. Domestic flight schedules are available to travel counselors through their GDSs, in the OAG Flight Guide--North American Edition, and in the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition. Flight schedules involving city pairs outside of North America can be obtained in the GDS and the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition only.

12. Ticketing. Domestic airline tickets are almost always priced automatically and issued by computer; only about 1 percent of domestic airline tickets issued in the United States are handwritten. Internationally, a greater number of tickets are issued by hand. International tickets generally involve complicated fare ladders, may use the baggage allowance box, and may require pricing in foreign currency. Many times computer-generated international tickets must be priced manually by the travel counselor.

As you can see, some of the differences are subtle and others are major. One of the biggest differences between domestic and international air travel is the involvement of the IATA.

IATA AND TRAFFIC CONFERENCE AREAS

Founded in 1919, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) is jointly owned by approximately 77 international airlines. Prior to May 1985, IATA was responsible for, among other things, appointing U.S. travel agencies for the sale of international airline tickets. Now, IATA appoints travel agencies that are located outside of the United States.

IATA still plays a very important role in international air travel. One of IATA's responsibilities is the negotiation of airfares between its member airlines and the foreign governments for each route. Because many foreign airlines are owned in whole or in part by the country's government, IATA's role becomes one of foreign policy. To make the tasks of administration and setting airfares, routes, airports used, and stopover points easier to manage, IATA has created three distinct Traffic Conference Areas (see Figure 18-1).

[FIGURE 18-1 OMITTED]

Each IATA Traffic Conference Area is identified as TC-1, TC-2, or TC-3. Traffic Conference Area 1 (TC-1) is the entire Western Hemisphere and includes the Bermuda Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Hawaiian, Johnston, and Easter Islands in the Pacific Ocean.

Traffic Conference Area 2 (TC-2) includes the islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (except Bermuda), all of Europe (including the western part of Russia), Africa, and the Middle Eastern countries out to and inclusive of Iran.

Traffic Conference Area 3 (TC-3) includes the remaining countries in Asia, New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti, and all major islands of the Pacific Ocean except the Hawaiian, Johnston, and Easter Islands.

Twenty-Four-Hour Clock

Before you can begin to plan international itineraries and obtain flight schedules from the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition, you must first learn about the 24-hour clock. Flight schedules in the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition and almost all airline tickets written outside the United States indicate the flight departure time using the 24-hour clock. If you have lived abroad or been in the military, the 24-hour clock is not new to you. In Figure 18-2, you can easily see how time is expressed using this method.

Using the 24-hour clock avoids confusion and reduces errors in identifying A.M. and P.M. The 24-hour clock is always portrayed by four digits, to include both hours and minutes. The cycle begins at one minute past midnight (0001), progressing through the day and ending at midnight (2400). You never have a number higher than 2400.

Morning hours are fairly obvious. For P.M. times, the simplest thing to do is add 1200 to any of the morning hours, so they become the corresponding P.M. time.

0100 (1:00 A.M.)

+1200/1300 (1:00 P.M.)

To convert the 24-hour clock back to the 12-hour clock, just subtract 1200 from the P.M. time.

2130 (19:30 P.M.)

1200/930 (becomes 9:30 A.M.)

[FIGURE 18-2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 18-3 OMITTED]

INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE (IDL)

You will remember that time around the world is figured in relation to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). For international travel, the International Date Line (IDL) must also be considered. On the opposite side of the world from the GMT line is the imaginary vertical line known as the International Date Line (see Figure 18-3).

It is at the IDL that the calendar date changes from one day to the next. When a passenger is traveling from Los Angeles to Sydney, for example, the calendar changes from Sunday to Monday during the flight as the IDL is crossed. This means that a day is lost. The calendar has advanced one day, even though the passenger has not lived those 24 hours; therefore, the passenger has "lost" that day.

On the other hand, as the passenger crosses the IDL in an eastbound direction, a day is gained. The calendar regresses one day, but the passenger has already lived that day once; therefore, a day is "gained."

TIME COMPARISON

Time comparison for international cities is accomplished by following the same steps you learned for domestic time comparison. There are, however, two differences in the calculations that may arise when dealing with international cities.

1. Domestically, the IDL was not a factor; internationally, it may be.

2. Domestically, all cities were expressed as minus numbers in relationship to GMT. Internationally, both cities may be expressed as a negative number or a positive number, or one city might be a positive and the other city a negative number.
Steps to Calculate International
Time Comparison

Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relationship to
GMT.

Step 2: If both numbers are positive or both numbers are negative,
subtract the smaller from the larger to obtain
the number of hours difference between the two cities.
If one city is a positive and the other a negative, add
the two numbers together to obtain the number of
hours difference in time.

Step 3: Put yourself in the city where you know the time. If you
flew to the other city using the shortest route, do you
cross the IDL? If yes, use "IDL Region"; if no, use "Basic
Region" in Table 18--1. Which direction did you fly?

Step 4: Find the region and direction in Table 18--1. Go to the
Time Comparison column to find the correct math step.
Based on this math step, either add or subtract the
number of hours difference between the two cities to
the known time.


The OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition contains a time chart that lists each country alphabetically. The chart on bottom of page 281 shows how each location is expressed in relationship to GMT, and if Daylight Savings Time is observed, the effective and discontinue dates are also shown. Please note that this text always indicates the expression for all cities.

ELAPSED FLYING TIME

Calculating international elapsed flying time follows the same steps you learned for the domestic calculation. Because international flights often take much longer, some of the calculations may seem more difficult, especially when a flight arrives on a different day from when it departed.
Steps to Calculate Elapsed Flying Time

Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relation to GMT.

Step 2: If both numbers are positive or both numbers are negative,
subtract the smaller from the larger to obtain
the number of hours difference between the two cities.
If one city is a positive and the other a negative, add
the two numbers together to obtain the number of
hours difference in time.

Step 3: Subtract the departure time from the arrival time to
determine the apparent flying time.

Step 4: Using the shortest route, does the flight cross the IDL?
Is the flight going east or west? Use your answers to
these questions and the math chart in Table 18--1 to
learn whether to add or subtract the number of hours
difference between the two cities to the apparent flying
time.


When subtracting the departure time from the arrival time, it may be necessary to borrow an hour, convert to a 24-hour clock, or even manipulate time. Consider the following:
Arrival Time        11:25 P.M.
--Departure Time     9:43 P.M.

You must borrow 1 hour:

Arrival Time        10:85 P.M.
--Departure Time     9:43 P.M.

=             1 hour 42 minutes

Arrival Time         2:15 P.M.
--Departure Time    10:15 A.M.

You must convert to 24-hour clock:

Arrival Time          14 15
--Departure Time      10 15

=                   4 hours

Arrival Time         8:00 A.M. Wed.
--Departure Time     2:00 P.M. Tue.

You must convert to a 24-hour clock and manipulate
time by adding 24 hours to the arrival time:

Arrival Time          32 00
--Departure time      14 00

=                   18 hours


INTERNATIONAL CITY, AIRPORT, AND AIRLINE CODES

Much as you might wish otherwise, there are still more codes that you have to become familiar with. Table 18-2 represents many of the major city, airport, and airline codes that you will come in contact with throughout your career. You can find a complete list of city/airport codes in the front of the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition. International airlines are a separate listing, also found in the front of the Worldwide edition.

As with U.S. cities, many international cities have a "generic" city code, as well as a specific code for each airport. In many cases, both types of codes are shown in Table 18-2. The table is shown alphabetically, first by country name, then by city name (a great way to practice your knowledge of world geography). You will also notice listings for airlines beside some countries. This is because many international airlines are associated with their respective governments. Many, in fact, are owned by the governments of their home countries. The airlines included here represent only the major carriers you will use on a routine basis.
? What Would You Do?

Your client is flying to Sydney and you have told him that his flight
arrives at 2:35 P.M., two days after he departs. He says that this
simply cannot be correct.

1. Do you tell him that he is probably correct and that there is
a mistake in the GDS flight schedule?

2. Do you explain that the flight simply takes more than
48 hours?

3. Do you show him how the International Date Line plus the actual
flying time explains the arrival two days after departure?


SUMMARY

There are many differences between domestic and international air travel. Airport areas, agency appointing bodies, baggage allowance, check-in time, and pet acceptance are just a few. International airfares are established through collaboration between the airline, origin and destination countries, and the IATA. International air travelers appreciate a travel professional who is well versed in and willing to explain the various differences the client will encounter while traveling. It is also very important that travel professionals understand international fare construction and various pricing techniques. A client who feels that their travel counselor is using all of the applicable tools at his disposal to obtain the best airfare will return to this counselor again and again.

For additional Travel and Tourism resources, go to http://www.hospitality-tourism.delmar.com.

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 18-1 IATA Traffic Conference Area

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

EXERCISE 18-2

Directions: Convert either 12-hour or 24-hour time.

1230

1420

0005

2020

1906

1150

11:15 A.M.

11:29 P.M.

12:02 P.M.

12:15 A.M.

9:23 P.M.

1750

2300

0955

0222

1212

2:23 P.M.

6:15 A.M.

3:15 P.M.

8:23 A.M.

3:58 A.M.

0035

1010

1645

0345

1530

0007

8:15 A.M.

1:01 A.M.

9:29 P.M.

10:05 A.M.

10:38 P.M.

EXERCISE 18-3 Time Comparison

1. It is 2:00 P.M. in New York (-5). What time is it in Honolulu (-10)?

2. It is 12:00 P.M. in Chicago (-6). What time is it in Paris (+1)?

3. It is 9:00 P.M. Tuesday in Los Angeles (-8). What time and day is it in Tokyo (+9)?

4. It is 10:00 A.M. in Denver (-7). What time is it in London (0)?

5. It is 3:00 A.M. in Honolulu (-10). What time is it in London (0)?

6. You have to call a tour operator in Paris (+1) at 4:00 P.M. Paris time. What time should you place the call, Des Moines (-6) time?

7. It is 3:00 A.M. Wednesday in Cairo (+2). What time and day is it in Chicago (-6)?

8. Your office is in New York City (-5) and your office hours are 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. You have to call a supplier in Athens (+2) at 3:30 P.M., Athens time. When should you place the call?

9. It is 9:03 P.M. in Zurich (+1). What time is it in Chicago (-6)?

10. It is 9:35 A.M. in Vancouver (-8). What time is it in Boston (-5)?

11. It is 9:25 P.M. in Santiago (-4). What time is it in Honolulu (-10)?

12. It is 8:30 P.M. in Paris (+1). What time is it in London (0)?

13. It is 2:15 P.M. in Miami (-5). What time is it in London (0)?

14. It is 10:45 P.M. in Madrid (+1). What time is it in Atlanta (-5)?

15. It is 12:33 P.M. in Manila (+8). What time is it in Houston (-6)?

16. It is 7:30 A.M. in Tokyo (+9). What time is it in London (0)?

17. It is 2:14 A.M. in Bogota (-5). What time is it in Seattle (-8)?

18. It is 4:56 P.M. in Calcutta (+5 1/2). What time is it in Lisbon (0)?

19. It is 12:15 A.M. in Singapore (+8). What time is it in Stockholm (+1)?

20. It is 11:07 A.M. in San Diego (-8). What time is it in Nassau (-5)?

EXERCISE 18-4 Elapsed Flying Time

1. A flight departs Chicago O'Hare (-6) at 6:00 P.M. Monday and arrives in Sydney (+10) at 6:20 A.M. Wednesday. What is the elapsed flying time?

2. A flight departs Istanbul (+2) at 11:20 A.M. and arrives in Berlin (+1) at 1:20 P.M. What is the elapsed flying time?

3. A flight departs Hong Kong (+8) at 8:00 A.M. and arrives in Bangkok (+7) at 9:55 A.M. What is the elapsed flying time?

4. A flight departs Boston (-5) at 7:10 P.M. Sunday and arrives in Athens (+2) at 2:25 P.M. Monday. What is the elapsed flying time?

5. A flight departs Rio de Janeiro (-3) at 2:30 P.M. and arrives at New York Kennedy (-5) at 8:30 P.M. What is the elapsed flying time?

6. A flight departs Los Angeles (-8) at 12:30 P.M. Tuesday and arrives in Seoul (+9) at 6:50 P.M. Wednesday. What is the elapsed flying time?

7. A flight departs Bogota (-5) at 10:00 A.M. and arrives in Toronto (-5) at 4:50 P.M. What is the elapsed flying time?

8. A flight departs Los Angeles (-8) at 10:00 P.M. on Monday and arrives in Sydney (+10) at 7:00 A.M. Wednesday. What is the elapsed flying time?

9. A flight departs London (0) at 10:45 A.M. and arrives in Nairobi (+3) at 9:15 P.M. What is the elapsed flying time?

10. A flight departs Singapore (+8) at 9:45 P.M. on Friday and arrives in Rome (+1) at 5:55 A.M. on Saturday. What is the elapsed flying time?

11. A flight departs Los Angeles (-8) at 7:00 P.M. on Wednesday and arrives in London (0) at 1:00 P.M. Thursday. What is the elapsed flying time?

12. A flight departs Bogota (-5) at 1:10 P.M. Sunday and arrives in Madrid (+1) at 7:35 A.M. on Monday. What is the elapsed flying time?

EXERCISE 18-5 International Codes

Directions: Indicate the city/airport code and the country name next to each city. Please print.

1. Bogota

2. Belgrade

3. Dublin

4. Beijing

5. Santiago

6. Accra

7. Guam

8. Abidjan

9. Venice

10. Lima

11. Copenhagen

12. La Paz

13. Perth

14. Caracas

15. Cape Town

16. Calcutta

17. Budapest

18. Dakar

19. Edinburgh

20. Vienna

Directions: Indicate the city name, airport name where necessary, and country name. Please print.

21. CDG

22. FCO

23. NBO

24. BUE

25. LGW

26. SVO

27. NRT

28. LHR

29. ORY

30. YMX

CHAPTER 18

Review Questions

1. Identify the IATA Traffic Conference Area for each country.

-- Peru

-- New Zealand

-- Malaysia

-- Bahamas

-- Spain

-- Norway

-- Indonesia

-- Morocco

-- Canada

-- Tanzania

-- Jamaica

-- Finland

2. Convert these times into a 24-hour clock.

-- 10:15 A.M.

-- 11:37 P.M.

-- 2:19 A.M.

-- 3:45 P.M.

-- 12:29 A.M.

-- 9:03 P.M.

-- 2:05 A.M.

-- 9:35 A.M.

-- 12:04 P.M.

3. Convert these times into a 12-hour clock.

-- 0027

-- 1212

-- 1629

-- 1455

-- 0221

-- 1812

-- 0432

-- 2324

-- 0002

4. Identify the differences between domestic and international air travel.
Item                      Domestic        International Baggage Check-in Commission Connecting Time Infants Pets Reconfirmation


5. It is 10:15 A.M. in Munich (+1). What time is it in Pittsburgh (-5)?

6. It is 9:45 P.M. Saturday in Auckland (+12). What time and day is

it in Denver (-8)?

7. A flight departs Washington Dulles (-5) at 6:00 P.M. Monday and arrives at London Heathrow (0) at 6:25 A.M. Tuesday.

What is the elapsed flying time?

8. A flight departs Los Angeles (?8) at 8:45 A.M. Friday and arrives in Tokyo (+9) at 4:25 P.M. on Saturday. What is

the elapsed

flying time?

9. Indicate the city name, airport name where necessary, and country name for these codes. Please print.

<ADD>

CAI

PRG

LGW

YUL

LED

BCN

HND

SNN

LHR

CUN

TPE

STT

IEV

CDG

ZRH

10. Indicate the city/airport code for these cities. Please print.

-- Lima

-- Johannesburg

-- Sydney

-- Helsinki

-- Oranjestad, Aruba

-- Puerto Vallarta

-- Barcelona

-- Montreal Mirabel

-- Tel Aviv

-- Nassau

-- Hamilton, Bermuda

-- Berlin, Tegel Airport

-- Amsterdam

-- San Juan, Puerto Rico

-- Acapulco

-- St. Lucia

-- Calgary

-- Bogota

-- Milan, Linate Airport

-- Toronto

-- Dar es Salaam

11. Indicate the airline name for each code. Please print.

BA

QF

SQ

SR

SK

RG

AF

JL

VS

AM

12. Indicate the code for these airlines. Please print.

-- Iberia Airways

-- Lufthansa

-- Aer Lingus

-- All Nippon

-- Mexicana

-- Air Canada

-- Cathay Pacific

-- Canadian Airlines

-- KLM Royal Dutch

-- Avianca

-- El Al Israel

-- Air New Zealand
TABLE 18-1 Math steps for time calculation.

Basic: Used when the shortest distance between the cities in
question does not cross the IDL.

IDL: Used when the shortest distance between the cities in
question does cross the IDL.

Area                              Elapsed
and                  Time         flying
direction            comparison   time

Basic east to west   Subtract     Add
Basic west to east   Add          Subtract
IDL east to west     Add          Subtract
IDL west to east     Subtract     Add

TABLE 18-2 International code list.

Afghanistan
  Ariana Afghan--FG
     Kabul--KBL
Algeria
  Air Algerie--AH
     Algiers--ALG
Antigua
  Liat--LI
     Antigua (St. John's)--ANU
Argentina
  Aerolineas Argentinas--AR
     Buenos Aires--BUE
       Ministro Pistarini Airport--EZE
     San Carlos de Bariloche--BRC

Aruba
  Air Aruba--FQ
  ALM (Curacao)--LM
    Aruba (Oranjestad)--AUA

Australia
  Ansett Australia--AN

  Qantas--QF
    Adelaide--ADL
    Brisbane--BNE
    Darwin--DRW
    Hobart--HBA
    Melbourne--MEL
    Perth--PER
    Sydney--SYD

Austria
  Austrian Airlines--OS
  Lauda Air--NG
    Vienna--VIE

Bahamas
  Bahamasair--UP
    Freeport--FPO
    Nassau--NAS

Bahrain
  Gulf Air--GF
    Bahrain (Manama)--BAH

Bangladesh
  Biman Bangladesh--BG
  GMG Airlines--Z5
    Dhaka--DAC

Barbados
    Barbados (Bridgetown)--BGI

Belgium
  City Bird--H2
  Sabena--SN
    Brussels--BRU

Belize
  Maya Airways--MW
    Belize City--BZE

Bermuda
    Bermuda (Hamilton)--BDA

Bhutan
  Druk Airlines--KB
    Thimphu (Paro)--PBH

Bolivia
  Lloyd Aereo Boliviano--LB
    La Paz--LPB

Bosnia Herzegovina
  Air Bosna--JA
    Sarajevo--SJJ

Brazil
  Varig--RG
  Vasp--VP
    Brasilia--BSB
    Rio de Janeiro--RIO
      Rio International--GIG
    Sao Paulo--SAO
      Congonhas Airport--CGH
      Guarulhos Airport--GRU
      Viracopos Airport--VCP

British Virgin Islands
      Tortola (Road Town)--TOV
      Virgin Gorda (Spanish Town)--VIJ

Brunei Darussalam
  Royal Brunei--BI
    Bandar Seri Begawan--BWN

Bulgaria
  Balkan-Bulgarian Airlines--LZ
    Sofia--SOF

Cambodia
  Kampuchea Airlines--KT
    Phnom Penh--PNH

Canada
  Air Canada--AC
  Canada 3000--2T
  Canadian Airlines--CP
  Pem-Air--PD
  Royal Aviation--QN
    Calgary--YYC
    Montreal--YMQ
      Dorval Airport--YUL
      Mirabel Airport--YMX
    Ottawa--YOW
    Quebec City--YQB
    Toronto--YTO
      Pearson International--YYZ
    Winnipeg--YWG
    Vancouver--YVR

Cayman Islands
  Cayman Airways--KX
    Grand Cayman (George Town)--GCM

Chile
  Ladeco Airlines--UC
  Lan Chile--LA
    Santiago--SCL

Colombia
  Aces--VX
  Avianca--AV
    Bogota--BOG
    Cartagena--CTG

Cote d'Ivoire
  Air Afrique--RK
     Abidjan--ABJ

Congo, Democratic Republic of
  Congo Airlines--EO
    Kinshasa--FIH

Costa Rica
  Lacsa--LR
    San Jose--SJO

Croatia
  Croatia Airlines--OU
    Dubrovnik--DBV
    Zagreb--ZAG

Cuba
  Cubana--CU
    Havana--HAV

Cyprus
  Cyprus Airways--CY
    Larnaca--LCA

Czech Republic
  Czech Airlines CSA--OK
    Prague--PRG

Denmark
  Cimber Air--QI
  Maersk Air--DM
  Muk Air--ZR
    Copenhagen--CPH

Dominican Republic
  Queen Air--5G
    Santo Domingo--SDQ

Ecuador
  Ecuatoriana--EU
    Guayaquil--GYE
    Quito--UIO

Egypt
  Egyptair--MS
    Cairo--CAI

El Salvador
  Taca International Airlines--TA
    San Salvador--SAL

Estonia
  Estonian Air--OV
    Tallinn--TLL

Fiji
  Air Fiji--PC
  Air Pacific--FJ
    Nadi--NAN
    Suva--SUV

Finland
  Finnair--AY
    Helsinki--HEL

France
  Air France--AF
  Air Liberte--IJ
  AOM French Airlines--IW
    Marseille--MRS
    Paris--PAR
      Charles de Gaulle Airport--CDG
      Orly Airport--ORY
    Nice--NCE

Ghana
  Ghana Airways--GH
    Accra--ACC

Georgia
  Air Georgia--DA
    Tbilisi--TBS

Germany
  Condor--DE
  Eurowings--EW
  Lufthansa--LH
    Berlin--BER
      Schoenfeld Airport--SXF
      Tegel Airport--TXL
    Dusseldorf--DUS
    Frankfurt--FRA
    Munich--MUC

Greece
  Olympic Airways--OA
    Athens--ATH

Guam
  Guam--GUM

Guatemala
  Aviateca--GU
    Guatemala City--GUA

Haiti
  Tropical Airways d'Haiti--M7
    Cap Haitien--CAP
    Port-au-Prince--PAP

Honduras
  Aero Lineas Sosa--P4
    La Ceiba--LCE
    Tegucigalpa--TGU

Hungary
  Malev Hungarian Airlines--MA
    Budapest--BUD

Iceland
  Icelandair--FI
    Reykjavik--REK
      Keflavik Airport--KEF

India
  Air India--AI
  Indian Airlines--IC
  Jet Airways India--9W
  Sahara Airlines--S2
    Calcutta--CCU
    Chennai (formerly Madras)--MAA
    Delhi/New Delhi--DEL
    Mumbai (formerly Bombay)--BOM

Indonesia
  Garuda Indonesia--GA
  Merpati Nusantara Airlines--MZ
    Denpasar--DPS
    Jakarta--JKT
      Soekarno-Hatta Airport--CGK

Ireland, Republic of
  Aer Lingus--EI
  Cityjet--WX
  Ryanair--FR
    Dublin--DUB
    Shannon--SNN

Israel
  El Al Israel--LY
    Jerusalem--JRS
    Tel Aviv--TLV

Italy
  Alitalia--AZ
    Florence--FLR
    Milan--MIL
      Linate Airport--LIN
      Malpensa Airport--MXP
    Rome--ROM
      Ciampino Airport--CIA
      Fiumincino (da Vinci) Airport--FCO
    Venice--VCE
      Marco Polo Airport--VCE
      Treviso Airport--TSF

Jamaica
  Air Jamaica--JM
    Kingston--KIN
    Montego Bay--MBJ
    Ocho Rios--OCJ

Japan
  All Nippon--NH
  Japan Air--JL
  Japan Asia--EG
    Nagoya--NGO
    Naha (Okinawa)--OKA
    Osaka--ITM
    Sapporo--OKD
    Tokyo--TYO
      Haneda Airport--HND
      Narita Airport--NRT

Jordan
  Royal Jordanian Airlines--RJ
    Amman--AMM

Kenya
  Kenya Airways--KQ
    Mombasa--MBA
    Nairobi--NBO

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North)
  Air Koryo--JS
    Pyongyang--FNJ

Korea, Republic of (South)
  Asiana Airlines--OZ
  Korean Air--KE
    Seoul--SEL

Kuwait
  Kuwait Airways--KU
    Kuwait--KWI

Laos
  Lao Aviation--QV
    Vientiane--VTE

Lebanon
  MEA (Middle East Airlines)--ME
    Beirut--BEY

Libya
  Libyan Arab Airlines--LN
    Tripoli--TIP

Luxembourg
  Luxair--LG
    Luxembourg--LUX

Malaysia
  Malaysia Airlines--MH
    Kuala Lumpur--KUL
      Kuala Lumpur International--KUL
      Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport--SZB
    Penang--PEN

Maldives
  Air Maldives--L6
    Male--MLE

Martinique
  Fort de France--FDF

Mexico
  Aeromexico--AM
  Mexicana--MX
  Taesa--GD
    Acapulco--ACA
    Cancun--CUN
    Cozumel--CZM
    Guadalajara--GDL
    Ixtapa/Zihuatenjo--ZIH
    Mazatlan--MZT
    Mexico City--MEX
    Puerto Vallarta--PVR

Morocco
  Royal Air Moroc--AT
    Casablanca--CAS
    Marrakech--RAK
    Rabat--RBA
    Tangier--TNG

Myanmar
  Air Mandalay--6T
  Myanmar Airways--UB
    Yangon--RGN

Nepal
  Royal Nepal Airlines--RA
    Kathmandu--KTM

Netherlands
  KLM Royal Dutch Airlines--KL
    Amsterdam--AMS

New Zealand
  Air New Zealand--NZ
  Ansett New Zealand--ZQ
    Auckland--AKL
    Christchurch--CHC
    Rotorua--ROT
    Wellington--WLG

Nicaragua
  Nica--6Y
    Managua--MGA

Nigeria
  Nigerian Airways--WT
    Lagos--LOS

Norway
  Bergen--BGO
    Oslo--OSL

Oman
  Oman Air--WY
    Muscat--MCT

Pakistan
  Pakistan International Airlines--PK
    Islamabad--ISB
    Karachi--KHI

Panama
  Copa--CM
    Panama City--PTY

Papua New Guinea
  Air Niugini--PX
    Port Moresby--POM

Paraguay
  Asuncion--ASU

People's Republic of China
  Air China--CA
  Air Macau--NX
  Cathay Pacific--CX
  Hong Kong Dragon Airlines--KA
    Beijing--PEK
    Guangzhou--CAN
    Hong Kong--HKG
    Shanghai--SHA

Peru
  Aero Continente--N6
  Aviandina--SJ
  Transportes Aereos Nacionales de Selva--TJ
    Cuzco--CUZ
    Lima--LIM

Philippines
  Philippine Air--PR
    Manila--MNL

Poland
  LOT Polish Airlines--LO
    Warsaw--WAW

Portugal
  TAP Air Portugal--TP
    Lisbon--LIS

Puerto Rico
  Dominair--YU
    San Juan--SJU

Qatar
  Qatar Airways--QR
    Doha--DOH

Romania
  Tarom--RO
    Bucharest--BUH
      Baneasa Airport--BBU
      Otopeni Airport--OTP

Russian Federation
  Aeroflot--SU
    Moscow--MOW
      Bykovo Airport--BKA
      Domodedovo Airport--DME
      Sheremetyevo Airport--SVO
      Vnukovo Airport--VKO
    St. Petersburg--LED

Saudi Arabia
  Saudi Arabian Airlines--SV
    Jeddah--JED
    Riyadh--RUH

Senegal
  Dakar--DKR

Seychelles
  Air Seychelles--HM
    Mahe Island--SEZ

Singapore
  Silk Air--MI
  Singapore Airlines--SQ
    Singapore--SIN

Slovakia
  Air Slovakia--GM
  Slovak Airlines--6Q
    Bratislava--BTS

South Africa
  South African Airways--SA
    Cape Town--CPT
    Johannesburg--JNB

Spain
  Iberia Airways--IB
  Spannair--JK
    Barcelona--BCN
    Madrid--MAD
    Seville--SVQ

Sri Lanka
  SriLankan Airlines--UL
    Colombo--CMB

St. Lucia
  Helenair--2Y
    St. Lucia (Castries)--SLU

St. Maarten / Sint Martin
  Windward Islands Airways--WM
  St. Maarten (Philipsburg)--SXM

Sweden
  SAS Scandinavian Airlines--SK
    Stockholm--STO
      Arlanda Airport--ARN
      Bromma Airport--BMA
      Skavsta Airport--NYO

Switzerland
  Swissair--SR
    Basel--BSL
    Geneva--GVA
    Zurich--ZRH

Syria
  Syrian Arab Airlines--RB
    Damascus--DAM

Tahiti and French Polynesia
  Air Tahiti--VT
  Air Tahiti Nui--TN
    Bora Bora--BOB
    Moorea--MOZ
    Papeete--PPT

Taiwan (Republic of China)
  China Airlines--CI
  Eva Airlines--BR
  Mandarin Airlines--AE
    Taipei--TPE

Tanzania
  Air Tanzania--TC
    Dar es Salaam--DAR

Trinidad and Tobago
  BWIA West Indies Airways--BW
    Port of Spain--POS

Thailand
  Thai Airways--TG
    Bangkok--BKK
    Phuket--HKT

Tunisia
  Tunis Air--TU
    Tunis--TUN

Turkey
  Turkish Airlines--TK
    Ankara--ANK
      Esenboga Airport--ESB
    Istanbul--IST

Ukraine
  Air Ukraine--6U
  Ukraine International Airlines--PS
    Kiev--IEV
    Odessa--ODS

United Arab Emirates
  Emirates--EK
    Abu Dhabi--AUH
     Dubai--DXB

United Kingdom
  British Airways--BA
  British Midland--BD
  Virgin Atlantic--VS
    Belfast, Northern Ireland--BFS
    Birmingham, England--BHX
    Cardiff, Wales--CWL
    Edinburgh, Scotland--EDI
    Glasgow, Scotland--GLA
      Glasgow International Airport--GLA
      Prestwick Airport--PIK
    Manchester, England--MAN
    London, England--LON
      Gatwick Airport--LGW
      Heathrow Airport--LHR
      London City Airport--LCY
      Luton Airport--LTN
      Stansted Airport--STN

Uruguay
  Pluna--PU
    Montevideo--MVD

U.S. Virgin Islands
  St. Croix (Christiansted)--STX
  St. Thomas (Charlotte Amalie)--STT

Venezuela
  Air Venezuela--7Q
  Avensa--VE
  Vensecar International--V4
    Caracas--CCS

Vietnam
  Vietnam Airlines--VN
    Hanoi--HAN
    Ho Chi Minh City--SGN

Yugoslavia
  Belgrade--BEG
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Title Annotation:SECTION VI: International Air Travel
Author:Gorham, Ginger; Rice, Susan
Publication:Travel Perspectives, A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2007
Words:4859
Previous Article:Chapter 17 Practical advice for international travelers.
Next Article:Chapter 19 International airfares, taxes, schedules, and ticketing.
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