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Chapter 18 Exotic companion animals.

Chapter Objectives

* Understand the challenges of having an exotic companion animal

* Learn the variety of exotic companion animals in the United States

People have made pets of a variety of animals over the course of human history. Some of these animals, such as the dog and cat, have adapted so well to domesticity that they have become standards as companion animals. Some people wish for a companion that is unique and out of the ordinary, and turn to exotic animals as companions.

Many challenges are associated with having exotic companion animals, including meeting their social, nutritional, and housing needs. It is important to extensively research the needs of an exotic pet before acquiring one. Very little infrastructure is in place to provide assistance if problems arise with these pets. Finding medical care for exotic pets can also be challenging, so locating a veterinarian that has the experience to treat the animal is important. Many exotic companion animals are tamed wild animals, and are not domesticated. This leads to animals that may have a wide range of behaviors that may not be acceptable in a companion environment.

Choosing to take on the responsibility for any animal should be carefully decided, and this is especially true for exotic companion animals. Something as simple as going out of town for a weekend becomes more complicated with an exotic companion animal because care for the animal will be harder to find than it is for a dog or cat.


Most exotic companion animals are identified by species, not breed. Some exotic animals are dangerous, and have been banned by local or state legislation. Before acquiring an exotic animal, ensure that it is legal in the community. Also work with a veterinarian who specializes in exotic pets to ensure that the animal is properly vaccinated. Be aware that even if you vaccinate an exotic animal, it may be treated as an unvaccinated animal if it bites a person, due to the lack of research regarding the effectiveness of vaccines in some exotic animals. This is especially important in regard to rabies, which can be transmitted to humans from any mammal. The following are examples of exotic pets:

Chinchillas (chihn-chihl-ah) A small rodent from South America, the chinchilla was hunted nearly to extinction because of its soft, dense fur. Chinchillas are very active animals with distinctive large ears (see Figure 18-1). They are friendly and rarely bite. They can be any shade of gray, white, or black.

Ferrets (fair-ehts) Ferrets are members of the weasel family, and have been domesticated for hundreds of years. Although now exclusively companion animals, ferrets have been used for hunting throughout history (see Figure 18-2). The ferret has a long, lean body, and is an active and entertaining pet. Ferrets are available in more than 20 color varieties.



Frogs Frogs are amphibians and are becoming popular as small pets. The following are popular frog pets:

African clawed frog A small frog that lives exclusively in the water (aquatic). The front legs, which have claws, are not strong enough for the frog to be on land.

Bullfrogs A large frog that spends some time in water and some on land. Bullfrogs have loud distinctive voices, and may live over 30 years.

Tree frogs A variety of tree frogs of different colors and patterns are available as pets. Tree frogs are arboreal (ar-bor-e-ehl), and must have trees and twigs in their environment, as well as moisture.

Gerbils (jer-behls) The most common gerbil used as a pet is the Mongolian gerbil, which is from Southeast China and Mongolia. These are small rodents with short hair, long tails, and bright dark eyes (see Figure 18-3). Their most common color is brown, but other color varieties have been developed.

Guinea pigs (gihn-e) The guinea pig is a short-legged, large-bodied animal with small ears. Guinea pigs originated in South America where they were raised for thousands of years as a meat source. Guinea pigs have short-haired and long-haired varieties, and are bred in a wide variety of colors and patterns. Several breeds of guinea pigs are exhibited. Guinea pigs are also known as cavies (ka--ve-z), and are known as such in the exhibition arena. The following are breeds of guinea pigs:



Abyssinian A variety with rosettes in the hair coat (see Figure 18-4).

American The most popular breed of guinea pig, the American has a dense body and a short, straight coat (see Figure 18-5).

Coronet A guinea pig characterized by a long lock of hair on the top of the head (see Figure 18-6).

Peruvian A guinea pig with uniform long hair over the entire body (see Figure 18-7).

Teddy A guinea pig with a short, kinky hair coat (see Figure 18-8).

Hamsters Small rodents that originated in the Middle East, hamsters are popular pets. They can have either long or short hair, and are found in a wide variety of colors. Hamsters are stockier and heavier-bodied than gerbils, with short tails.

Lizards A wide variety of lizards are purchased as companions or pets. Each species has very distinct environmental and nutritional needs. Lizards and other cold-blooded animals need special care in regard to their environment. Because they cannot maintain their own body temperature, they must have cages that can provide supplemental heat. For some types of lizards, maintaining proper body temperature is important for digestion of their food, and utilization of nutrients. Care must be taken that the environment is not too hot, and that the animal does not become scalded on the heat source. Common species of lizards as pets include the following:



Anole (ah-nol) A small lizard that is from the same family as the iguana, the anole is between 6 and 18 inches long. Depending on the species, anoles can be green, brown, or gray.

Chameleon (kah-mel-yhun) Small lizards that have some ability to change color to match their surroundings, chameleons primarily eat insects, which they catch with their sticky tongues.

Dragon A medium-sized lizard with a muscular body, the Australian bearded is a common dragon species and ranges in color from light to dark brown, to bright orange.

Gecko (gehk-o) Small lizards that are popular as pets, geckos may be a variety of colors and are easily kept in captivity.



Iguana (ih-gwahn-ah) There are more than 600 species of iguana. Green iguanas are the most common companion animals. They grow up to 6.5 feet in length.

Monitor A large lizard that has powerful jaws and claws that can cause significant injury. Monitors are banned in some communities because of the potential for injury. Savannah monitors are the most common pet monitors, and can grow up to 5 feet long, and live up to 15 years.

Mice White mice are most often used as pets. Mice have a short life span of between 2 and 3 years.

Prairie Dogs Prairie dogs are large rodents originally from the American West. Prairie dogs are brown in color, with short dense hair. They are very social animals, and it is recommended that owners buy prairie dogs in pairs.

Rats Varieties of laboratory rats are most often used as pets. These rats can be white or black and white. Rats are intelligent animals, and some people train them to walk on a leash. Rats live between 2 and 3 years, and are prone to cancers, especially later in life.

Snakes A wide variety of snake species are available as companions or pets. Each species has very distinct environmental and nutritional needs. Common species of snakes as pets include the following:

Boas (bo-uh) Snakes generally originating in South or Central America, boas are constrictors, and kill their prey by suffocation. Boas can grow up to 18 feet in length, and are popular as pets because of their wide range of colors and their docile temperaments. Two common pet varieties are the Peruvian red tail and the Mexican red tail boa.

Corn snake Corn snakes are nonvenoumous snakes indigenous to the United States that live from 10 to 15 years. They can be black, or a variety of colors. These are good snakes for the novice owner because of their moderate size (between 3 and 5 feet) and docile temperament.

Pythons (pi-thahn) Pythons are constrictors, and a variety of species are used as pets. The ball python, which grows from 3 to 5 feet in length, is the most popular species as a pet. It is important to research python species before acquiring one, as some species get very large (more than 20 feet long and 200 pounds), and others can have unpredictable temperaments.

Vipers A broad term for a group of venomous snakes including rattlesnakes. Vipers are very dangerous, and are not recommended as pets.

Sugar glider A small marsupial from Australia, the sugar glider is gray or brown with large dark eyes, and dark and white markings on the face. The sugar glider is highly social, and must have either human companionship, or the companionship of other sugar gliders to flourish.

Turtles There are over 200 species of turtles worldwide, and several are kept as pets. Turtles may either be aquatic, and spend much of their time in the water, or terrestrial, and spend much of their time on land. The following are types of turtles commonly kept as pets:

Box With several varieties, box turtles are indigenous to the United States and have a dark shell that is rounded on top. When frightened, box turtles will pull their legs, tail, and head completely into their shell.

Painted Painted turtles are primarily olive green or black, with red and yellow markings on the ends of their shells. They also have red and yellow stripes on their legs, tail, and head. They are small turtles (between 4 and 9 inches long) and are good pets.


Exotic companion animals are used only as companions.


Aquatic (ah-kwa-tihck) Living in water.

Agouti (ah-goo-te) A hair color in hamsters and gerbils that results from bands of color on the hair shaft.

Boar A male guinea pig.

Carapace (ka-r-ah-pa-s) The top of a turtle or tortoise shell.

Cavy (ka-ve) A guinea pig.

Constrictor A snake that suffocates its prey by squeezing it.

Hob A male ferret.

Hooded In rats, coloring pattern characterized by color over the head and shoulders that may include a stripe down the back and other color spots on the body.

Hyperestrogenism A serious condition in female ferrets if the estrus period lasts more than one month. Ferrets are induced ovulators, so will stay in estrus until mating occurs, unless hormonal intervention occurs.

Indigenous (ihn-dihj-eh-nahs) Native to a region.

Jill A female ferret.

Kit A baby ferret.

Marsupial (mahr-soop-e-ehl) A mammal that gives birth to undeveloped young that mature in a pouch on the female. Sow A female guinea pig.

Terrestrial (teh-rehs-tre-ehl) Living on land.

Tortoise A type of turtle that lives on land.

Turtle Any of a variety of reptiles with hard shells and the ability to withdraw their head, neck, and tail into their shells.

Venomous An animal that uses venom, or poison, to kill prey.

Viper A type of venomous snake.


The decision to have an exotic companion animal requires much thought and consideration. A wide range of animals have been selected over the years to serve a role as companions. A prospective exotic pet should be thoroughly researched to ensure you know its nutritional, behavioral, and housing needs. For many species, these needs are not well researched, and commercially available products are not readily available. Veterinary care may also be difficult to find, and research should be conducted to determine the zoonotic diseases that different exotic animals may carry. Finally, it is important to know the zoning laws in a particular area, as some exotic pets are not allowed in certain areas.


Match the animal in the left column with the term in the right column.
1. -- Boa                a. Marsupial

2. -- Guinea pig         b. Poisonous snake

3. -- Sugar glider       c. Transferred from animal to human

4. -- Anole              d. Constrictor snake

5. -- Viper              e. Large lizard

6. -- Zoonotic disease   f. Hooded

7. -- Monitor            g. Mongolian

8. -- Jill               h. Cavy

9. -- Gerbil             i. Female ferret

10. -- Rat               j. Small lizard

11. What disease can female ferrets get if they do not ovulate?

a. Pyometra

b. Hyperestrogenism

c. Salmonella

d. Cushing's disease

12. What term describes a species that is native to an area?

a. Exogenous

b. Endogenous

c. Primogenous

d. Indigenous

13. How would you tell a gerbil from a hamster?

14. What is an aquatic turtle?

15. What is an agouti color?

16. Select an exotic species you would consider as a pet. Research its nutritional and medical needs, and determine if they may have any zoonotic diseases that may be a threat.


Match the aspect of the animal science industry with its definition.
1. c Aquaculture            a. A place where beef cattle are fed to
                            slaughter weight.

2. d Boarding stable        b. A place where chicks can be purchased.

3. j Fingerling             c. Production of fish for human

4. f Stocker                d. A place where an owner can pay a fee to
                            have a horse cared for.

5. b Hatchery               e. An operation that feed pigs until they
                            are ready for processing.

6. i Vertical integration   f. Calves that are postweaning, but too
                            small for the feedlot.

7. a Feedlot                g. A facility that houses dogs.

8. k Seedstock              h. A swine facility that raises pigs from
                            birth to market.

9. l Puppy mill             i. The ownership by one entity of all
                            aspects of production.

10. g Kennel                j. A small fish.

11. h Farrow-to-finish      k. Animals that are used for breeding.

12. e Finishing operation   l. An operation that raises large numbers
                            of dogs in unacceptable conditions.

13. List the operations involved in beef cattle production beginning with the birth of a calf and ending with the consumer purchase of a product.


14. What are the primary products of animal agriculture?

Milk, meat, fiber, offspring

15. List 10 careers in animal agriculture that are not listed in this chapter. Include the degree of education required or recommended for each position.

Variable answers. Objective is for students to understand what a wide range of career opportunities are available for those interested in animal agriculture.

1. Complete the following table with the correct information:

Species     Male Castrate          Male Intact

Bovine      Steer                  Bull

Canine      Dog                    Dog

Equine      Gelding                Stallion

Chicken     Capon or caponette,    Rooster
            depending on method

Match the stage of the estrous cycle with its description.
2. d Estrus       a. A period when no activity is occurring.

3. c  Proestrus   b. The period between estrus periods.

4. e  Metestrus   c. The time when FSH is stimulating follicular

5. b  Diestrus    d. The period when the female is receptive to the

6. a  Anestrus    e. The time immediately after the cessation of
                  receptive behavior.

7. Which of the following refers to the change in genes due to natural selection?

a. Population genetics

b. Genetic drift

c. Genetic waves

d. Gene frequency

8. Which describes the visual appearance of the animal?

a. Phenotype

b. Genotype

c. Heterozygous

d. Homozygous

9. Which breeding strategy results in animals that are the most similar genetically?

a. Crossbreeding

b. Natural selection

c. Inbreeding

d. Outcrossing

10. A dilution gene affects the expression of a color. This gene changes a chestnut horse to a palomino.

11. An allele that is present but not expressed is recessive.

12. A male animal with one testicle that does not descend into the scrotum is a/an cryptorchid.

13. The surgical procedure to remove all reproductive organs of a female is a/an ovariohysterectomy.

14. A horse breeder bred a bay stallion and a bay mare, and they had a chestnut offspring. In horses, the chestnut color is recessive. If bay is represented by B, and chestnut is represented by b, what is the genotype of the foal? What is the genotype of each parent? What percentage of the offspring of this mating would be bay? What percentage would be chestnut?
Foal: bb

Stallion: Bb

Mare: Bb

75% bay offspring; 25% chestnut offspring

    B    b

B   BB   Bb

b   bB   bb

15. Animal species have a wide range of heritable diseases. Select the species of your choice, and conduct an Internet search to determine what heritable diseases are of concern in that species. Select one disease, research how it is inherited, and make a recommendation on how to control the disease in the population.

Highly variable. Would suggest having students present their findings to class to increase everyone's understanding of genetic diseases.


Match the correct skeletal part with the correct external part. Skeletal part External part
1. d Humerus             a. Stifle

2. f Cranium             b. Coffin bone

3. b P3                  c. Croup

4. g Third metacarpal    d. Arm

5. h Thoracic vertebra   e. Hock

6. i Carpal joint        f. Skull

7. e Tarsal joint        g. Cannon bone

8. a Patellar joint      h. Back

9. c Sacral vertebrae    i. Knee

10. Where in the digestive tract does the most absorption of nutrients take place?

a. Stomach

b. Small intestine

c. Large intestine

d. Cecum

11. Describe the structural differences between a vein and an artery.

Arteries have three layers of tissue: connective tissue, muscular tissue, and endothelial tissue. Arteries have no valves.

Veins: less muscular, have valves

12. What four parts make up the ruminant stomach, and what is the role of each part?

Abomasum: True stomach that digests food and adds gastric juices

Omasum: Muscular portion that mechanically digests and removes excess water

Rumen: Largest portion of the ruminant stomach; the site of fermentation

Reticulum: Honeycomb-like portion of the stomach that contains liquid portions of food. Debris in food often ends up trapped in the reticulum (hardware disease).

13. List the three muscle types, and give an example of where in the body each muscle type is found.

Striated involuntary muscle: The cardiac muscle found in the heart.

Striated voluntary muscle: The skeletal muscle that is connected to the skeleton and moves bones.

Unstriated involuntary muscle: These surround internal organs and work independent of conscious thought.

14. List the types of connective tissue, and give an example of where each type of connective tissue would be found.

Bone: The skeleton

Cartilage: In joints between bones, or forms parts independent of bone (for example, ear, nose)

Ligament: Connects bone to bone, found in any joint

Tendon: Connects muscle to bone; found wherever skeletal muscle exists

15. What are the parts of the pulmonary circulatory system?

Lungs, heart, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein

16. What types of feathers are found on the wings of birds?


17. Properly label the parts of the heart indicated in the following diagram:


18. Label the part the sperm cell, and identify the primary role of each part.


19. List the parts of the female mammalian reproductive tract, in order, from the ovary to the vulva.

Ovary > infundibulum > oviduct > uterine horn > uterine body > cervix > vagina > vulva

20. List the bones in the front leg of the cow in order from the ground to the top.

Phalanges (P3, P2, P1) > metacarpus > carpus > ulna and radius > humerus > scapula

21. Name two parts of the avian female reproductive tract that are not found in the mammalian reproductive tract.

Cloaca, vent, sperm nests

22. What is the purpose of "sperm nests" and in what species do they exist?

In chickens, they store sperm in the reproduction tract until ovulation occurs, and the ova can be fertilized.


1. What are the five classes of nutrients?

Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals

2. In what part of the digestive tract is pepsin added to the digesta?


3. In what part of the digestive tract do horses ferment roughages?


4. Legumes are the forage source with the highest protein.

5. Maintenance is the classification for energy need on which all other classifications are based.

6. List three feedstuffs that qualify as concentrates.

Any feed product that is high in energy and low in fiber: barley, oats, corn, wheat, millet, etc.

7. What nutrient is the most energy dense?


8. What part of the ruminant stomach is the site of bacterial fermentation?

a. Rumen

b. Reticulum

c. Omasum

d. Abomasum

9. What is a balanced ration?

A ration that meets all of the nutritional needs of the animal, without feeding excess of some nutrients.

10. Call a local feed provider and learn the cost of some common feedstuffs.What class of feeds is most expensive per pound,forages or concentrates?

Generally concentrates, but can vary if the supply of forages is low

11. Select a species of interest and research what amino acids are essential, and nonessential for that species.

Variable answer depending on species selected


1. What are the major approaches to the study of animal behavior?

Behavioral ecology, comparative psychology, ethology, sociobiology

2. What is a stereotypy? Give an example.

A repetitive behavior with no apparent purpose. Examples include weaving, cribbing in horses, tongue-rolling in hogs, excessive licking in dogs and cats, or pacing in any species.

3. How does successive approximation modify behavior?

Rewarding increments of the behavior as it approaches the desired behavior.

4. Why is it difficult to modify behavior successfully using punishment?

* Timing must be precise for an animal to associate punishment with the behavior.

* The punishment must happen every time the behavior occurs.

* Punishment needs to be associated with the behavior, not the handler.

5. What can you learn from an animal's body language?

The primary method of communication from animals is through body language. You can learn how animals respond to their environment at a given time, anticipate potential reactions to a situation, and gain information on the overall well-being of the animals.

6. What message is a cat sending when its ears are flattened to its head?

It is angry/upset.

7. What is anorexia?

Failure to eat

8. On the Internet, find pictures of a species of your choice exhibiting different body language. Print the pictures and describe the message the animal is sending.

9. Make an ethogram of your day.


7:00 a.m.Woke up and showered

7:30 a.m. Ate breakfast

7:45 a.m. Drove to work

8:00 a.m.-10:30 a.m. Sat at desk working on X

10:30 a.m.Walked down the hall to talk to Sam Etc.


1. What disease affects the central nervous system and is a zoonotic disease that affects all mammals?


2. Bacteria and viruses are examples of what type of disease-causing organisms?


3. What is the process of introducing an antigen to the body so that the immune system will respond with antibodies?


4. What is antibiotic resistance, and why is it a concern in treatment of animal disease?

Pathogens mutate and develop a resistance to antibiotics, so the antibiotics are no longer of use, or are of limited use, in treating disease. It becomes a concern because animals, and also humans, with disease are more difficult to treat when pathogens develop antibiotic resistance.

5. What disease is the degeneration of a bone in the foot of the horse?

Navicular disease

6. What ectoparasite causes mange?

Mites: demodectic and sarcoptic

7. What endoparasite is carried by mosquitoes and affects both dogs and cats?


8. What management steps can be taken to decrease the incidence of disease? Sanitation, proper vaccination, good nutrition

9. What is the difference between a modified-live and a killed vaccine?

A modified-live vaccine contains a pathogen that has been changed in such a way that it cannot multiply in the animal to reach an infective level, but can still elicit a response from the immune system. A killed vaccine involves a pathogen that is the disease-causing form, but it is killed. The recommendation of which form of vaccine to use varies with the disease and the animal. For example, killed vaccines are often preferred for pregnant females.

10. What internal parasite has the largest impact on the swine industry?


11. What is the name of the group of chemicals that are used to treat internal parasites in animals?


12. List three diseases that affect the central nervous system, and what species in which they are found.

Bovine spongiform encephalitis: cattle

Canine distemper: dogs

Equine protozoal myelitis: horses

Scrapie: sheep and goats

Rabies: all mammals

West Nile encephalitis: humans, horses, dogs

13. What is a vector?

A living thing that carries disease from one animal to another. Insects are common vectors.

14. What disease, and in what species, do many states have a law requiring vaccination.

Rabies in dogs

15. Select one of the diseases listed in this chapter. Research and write a paper on the disease, including species affected, causes, symptoms, and treatment. What management practices can be used to prevent the disease?


Match the breed with the place of origin. Place of origin may be used more than once.
1. a Salers            a. France

2. b Hereford          b. England

3. c Angus             c. Scotland

4. j Santa Gertrudis   d. Germany

5. a Limousin          e. India

6. i Chianina          f. United States

7. e Zebu              g. Australia

8. f Beefmaster        h. Switzerland

9. h Simmental         i. Italy

10. g Murray Grey      j. Texas

11. Which of the following breeds is used extensively in crossbreeding to increase heat and disease tolerance?

a. Hereford

b. Brangus

c. Brahman

d. Simmental

12. What beef breed also has a dairy breed associated with it?

a. Hereford

b. Shorthorn

c. Murray Grey

d. Angus

13. The following crossbred is a result of breeding Angus and Herefords.

a. Beefmaster

b. Brangus

c. Simmental

d. Black baldie

14. What term describes an animal's skeletal size?

a. Frame

b. Stature

c. Mass

d. Conformation

15. Creep feeding is the method of feeding young calves that prevents older animals from accessing the feed.

16. List three beef breeds that are composite breeds, and the breeds that were combined to develop them.

Beefmaster: Hereford/Shorthorn/Brahman

Braford: Brahman/Hereford

Brangus: Brahman/Angus

Santa Gertrudis: Brahman/Shorthorn

17. List the primal, or wholesale, cuts of beef.

Brisket, chuck, flank, loin, plate, rib, round

18. From what primal cut do we get T-bone and porterhouse steaks?


19. What is the current price per pound that producers are receiving for beef? Compare to the current cost per pound for beef in the grocery store

Go to Select current Ag Prices, then select a sales location in your region.


Match the dairy breed with its characteristic
1. d Jersey              a. Produces the largest volume of milk.

2. e Ayrshire            b. Golden brown and white in color.

3. f Brown Swiss         c. Red and white with roaning acceptable.

4. a Holstein            d. Produces the highest percentage of

5. c Milking Shorthorn   e. Originally from Scotland.

6. b Guernsey            f. Bred as a dual-purpose milking and draft

7. What state has the most dairy cattle?

a. Wisconsin

b. Texas

c. California

d. New York

8. What state produces the most cheese and butter?

a. Wisconsin

b. Texas

c. California

d. New York

9. Which is used as a house for young calves?

a. Parlor

b. Tie stall

c. Free stall

d. Hutch

10. What is the DHIA, and what does it do?

The Dairy Herd Improvement Association collects and maintains production records, and makes them available to member producers to assist in optimal management.

11. What is the purpose of teat dip?

To disinfect the teat following milking

12. List three dairy products other than fluid milk.

Butter, cheese, sour cream, half-and-half, evaporated milk, powdered milk, ice cream, cream

13. What is the current price that producers receive for fluid milk in your state?

14. What is the difference between ice milk and ice cream?

The amount of milk fat present in the product

15. Obtain a container of cream from the grocery store. Pour the cream into a jar with a tight lid. Make sure the jar is large enough that the cream fills it between half and three-quarters full. Shake the cream until it divides into a solid and liquid portion. What is each portion? Butter and buttermilk

If one person uses heavy cream and another uses light cream, which will produce more of the solid product? Why? Heavy cream would make more butter because it has more butterfat present.

This can also be done with a blender or mixer. Just blend or mix through whipped cream stage until separation occurs.


Match the breed on the left with its characteristic on the right.
1. i Tamworth        a. Black and white with a characteristic belt.

2. h Berkshire       b. Developed in Ohio and involved in the
                     development of several other breeds.

3. j Duroc           c. Large white hogs known for their mothering
                     ability and floppy ears.

4. a Hampshire       d. A Belgian breed with extremely lean carcasses.

5. f Landrace        e. Developed in Indiana with contributions from a
                     breed from Gloucester.

6. b Poland China    f. The premier bacon breed of Denmark.

7. c Yorkshire       g. A red pig with white face and legs.

8. e Spotted Swine   h. The pig that had the first organized registry.

9. g Hereford        i. The "bacon pig" of Ireland and England.

10. d Pietrain       j. A large red pig developed in the eastern
                     United States.

11. A mating that results in a pig that is not going to be used for breeding is called:

a. Mismating

b. Market mating

c. Terminal cross

d. Dead-end mating

12. What continent is known for breeds of hogs that produce extremely large litters, and reach puberty at an early age?

a. Asia

b. Africa

c. Australia

d. Europe

13. What small sharp teeth are clipped on baby pigs?

a. Incisors

b. Fangs

c. Needle teeth

d. Molars

14. What is farrowing?

a. The mating of two pigs

b. The process of removing part of the tail to prevent chewing

c. Feeding pigs in a natural setting

d. The birth/delivery of baby pigs

15. What is the national organization that promotes the swine industry?

National Pork Board

16. List three management phases for a hog being prepared for market.

Growing phase, finishing phase, nursery phase

17. What is vertical integration?

Ownership by a single entity (individual or company) of animal production, processing, and distribution aspects. Integration may include two or three aspects, or all aspects of production, processing, and distribution.


Match the breed of bird with the class to which it belongs. One of the listed classes is used twice.
1. g Pekin              a. Mediterranean

2. h Khaki Campbell     b. Bantam duck

3. b Call               c. Heavyweight goose

4. a Leghorn            d. Continental

5. i Orpington          e. All other standard

6. c Embden             f. American

7. f Rhode Island Red   g. Heavyweight duck

8. i Old English Game   h. Lightweight duck

9. d Lakenvelder        i. English

10. e Frizzle

11. Which of the following is a variety?

a. Embden

b. Bantam

c. Buff

d. Orpington

12. Which practice is used to reduce damage done through cannibalization?

a. Candling

b. Debeaking

c. Plucking

d. Molting

13. Which breed constitutes virtually all commercial laying hens?

a. Rhode Island White

b. Wyandotte

c. Ameracauna

d. Leghorn

14. What organization publishes the Poultry Standard of Perfection?

American Poultry Association

15. How many classes of geese are recognized in the Standard of Perfection, and what are they?

3: heavyweight, medium weight, lightweight

16. What English class breed is used extensively in the production of commercial broilers?


17. What is a bantam?

A very small bird

18. What breed of duck is popular for meat production in England?


19. Draw and label the primary parts of the egg.


20. The poultry industry is a common target for people opposed to commercial farming. Identify a controversial topic in the poultry industry, research both sides of the controversy, and prepare a short report for your classmates.


Match the breed of sheep or goat with the description.
1. h Lincoln       a. Kept primarily as a pet.

2. i Angora        b. The most popular sheep breed in the
                   United States.

3. f Nubian        c. A hair sheep.

4. b Suffolk       d. An old breed of sheep that was integral in the
                   development of many other breeds.

5. c Katahdin      e. A goat with very small ears.

6. d Merino        f. A goat with large, floppy ears.

7. j Saanen        g. A large sheep with some wool on the face and

8. e LaMancha      h. The largest breed of sheep.

9. g Hampshire     i. A goat raised for its hair.

10. a Pygmy goat   j. A white or cream-colored dairy goat.

11. Which breed of goat is raised primarily for meat production?

a. French Alpine

b. Boer

c. Toggenburg

d. Angora

12. What device can be used to castrate lambs?

a. Elastrator

b. Browser

c. Spinner

d. Tilt table

13. What is the term for a baby goat?

a. Lamb

b. Calf

c. Kid

d. Wether

14. What are the wool types by which sheep breeds are categorized?

Carpet wool, fur sheep, hair sheep, long wool, medium wool, fine wool

15. What practice involves feeding females more to increase reproductive efficiency?


16. What are the market classifications of lambs?

Fed lambs, hothouse lambs, spring lambs, lambs

17. What is a wether?

Castrated male sheep

18. What breed of sheep sets the standard for wool quality?


19. What is culling?

Permanent removal of an animal from the herd


Match the product with the species that produces it. Although more than one species may produce the product, use each product only once.
1. b Velvet                     a. Deer

2. a Venison                    b. Elk

3. e Feathers                   c. Bison

4. c Mounted heads with humps   d. Rabbit

5. d White meat                 e. Ostriches

6. Which is the result of mating a bison with a beef cow?

a. Cuffalo

b. Beefalo

c. Biscow

d. Cowson

7. Which ratite is not used for production in the United States?

a. Ostrich

b. Rhea

c. Kiwi

d. Emu

8. What is the form of aquaculture where fish are released into the wild to be recaught?

a. Food fishing

b. Mussel fishing

c. Release fishing

d. Sport fishing

9. What is the difference between a four-class and six-class breed of rabbit?

The number of classifications for them at a rabbit show

10. What products can be sold from ostriches?

Meat, eggs, skin, feathers

11. What is aquaculture?

The production of fish and fish products for human consumption

12. List three species of fish raised for human consumption.

Catfish, salmon, trout, tilapia, perch

13. Name one market, other than human consumption, for fish raised in aquaculture production.

Sport fishing, baitfish

14. What is the largest deer raised?


15. What is the difference between a llama and an alpaca?

Llamas are larger, and have ears that are more banana-shaped, whereas alpacas have smaller, sharper ears and muzzles. Alpacas also have a finer fiber of higher quality.


Match the breed with the fact provided.
1. e Arabian                   a. Best known for racing on the flat.

2. h Percheron                 b. Results when a horse and donkey
                               are bred.

3. j Quarter horse             c. The smallest of the pony breeds.

4. g Appaloosa                 d. Naturally performs the running walk.

5. b Mule                      e. The oldest and purest breed.

6. c Shetland                  f. A golden draft horse.

7. i Saddlebred                g. A stock-type horses with a
                               distinctive spotted coat.

8. d Tennessee Walking Horse   h. A gray or black draft horse.

9. f Belgian                   i. The "peacock of the show ring."

10. a Thoroughbred             j. The most popular breed in the
                               United States.

11. What rodeo event involves jumping off the horse to tackle a steer?

a. Calf roping

b. Steer wrestling

c. Cow tipping

d. Steerdogging

12. How many barrels are in a barrel racing pattern?

a. 4

b. 3

c. 2

d. 1

13. What three horses were the foundation sires for the Thoroughbred?

Darley Arabian, Byerly Turk, Godolphin Arabian

14. What organization is the legislative arm of the horse industry?

American Horse Council

15. What color is a palomino?

Golden yellow with a white mane and tail

16. What Indian tribe created the Appaloosa horse?

Nez Perce

17. What breed races with a sulky? Standardbred

18. What three races are in the Thoroughbred Triple Crown?

Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes

19. Draw and label three leg markings.

Refer to Figure 14-7

Match the breed of dog with the group it belongs in.

1. c Ibizan                a. Terrier

2. d Great Pyrenees        b. Herding

3. e Shih tzu              c. Hound

4. g Dalmatian             d. Working

5. f English Setter        e. Toy

6. a Airedale terrier      f. Sporting

7. b Australian shepherd   g. Nonsporting

8. What herding breed has long curly hair, similar to dreadlocks?

a. Puli

b. Vizsla

c. German shepherd

d. Greyhound

9. What sport involves dogs running over a course of jumps and obstacles?

a. Flyball

b. Lure coursing

c. Bench trial

d. Agility

10. What are the two breeds of corgis?

Pembroke and Cardigan

11. What is the difference between a sight hound and a scent hound?

Sight hounds are lighter-framed dogs that use vision and speed to track and chase prey. Scent hounds are heavier-bodied dogs, typically with long, drooping ears, that use scent to track and locate prey.

12. List three organizations that train and place service dogs.

Canine Companions for Independence, the Delta Society, Leader Dogs for the Blind

13. What organization certifies boarding kennels?

American Boarding Kennel Association

14. What is an undershot jaw?

The lower jaw projects out farther than the upper jaw. This is a characteristic in some breeds, and a major fault in others.

15. What is the miscellaneous group? Go to the Internet and find what breeds are currently in the miscellaneous group.

The miscellaneous group is comprised of dogs that are on the waiting list for full admission into the American Kennel Club.


Match the cat breed with the characteristic.
1. c Abyssinian           a. A cat with a short tail.

2. h Egyptian Mau         b. A spotted coat pattern similar to a
                          wild cat.

3. j Siamese              c. An ancient breed with short hair and a
                          ticked coat.

4. i Burmese              d. A long-haired cat with a round head.

5. g Exotic               e. A short-haired cat developed in the eastern
                          United States.

6. d Persian              f. A long-haired cat that is large with a
                          straight face.

7. e American Shorthair   g. A short-haired cat with a short nose and
                          round head.

8. b Ocicat               h. An ancient breed with spotted coat.

9. a Manx                 i. A sturdy cat originating in
                          Southeast Asia.

10. f Maine Coon          j. A lean-bodied cat with dark points and
                          distinctive voice.

11. What organization registers and recognizes breeds of cats in the United States?

a. AFC

b. CFA

c. FAC

d. AKC

12. What breed of cat has no hair?

a. Siamese

b. Sphynx

c. Maine coon

d. Exotic

13. What is the most popular registered breed of cat?


14. What two cat colors are sex-linked?

Calico and tortoiseshell

15. What term is used for a female cat?


16. What are the three layers of hair on most cats?

Undercoat, awn hairs, guard hairs

17. On the Internet, find out how many stray cats were euthanized in the United States in the current year. Is that number higher or lower than the previous year?


Match the bird with the characteristic.
1. c African gray    a. A passerine.

2. a Canary          b. Green South American parrot.

3. d Cockatoo        c. A parrot that may learn to talk.

4. b Monk parakeet   d. An Australian bird with a distinctive crest.

5. What item can be provided in the cage for birds to naturally wear down their beaks?


6. What is the most common order of birds?

Passerine (Passeriformes)

7. Name two species of birds that can learn to speak.

African gray, budgerigar

8. What is another name for a parakeet?


9. What type of bird was once used for hunting?


10. What management practice limits the ability of the bird to fly?

Wing clipping

11. What order of birds has two toes facing forward, and two toes facing backward?


12. List three types of finches that are common pets. Select a species of companion bird, and research the proper diet for that bird.

Canary, zebra finch, purple finch, goldfinch, society finch

Match the animal in the left column with the term in the right column.

1. d Boa                a. Marsupial

2. h Guinea pig         b. Poisonous snake

3. a Sugar glider       c. Transferred from animal to human

4. j Anole              d. Constrictor snake

5. b Viper              e. Large lizard

6. c Zoonotic disease   f. Hooded

7. e Monitor            g. Mongolian

8. i Jill               h. Cavy

9. g Gerbil             i. Female ferret

10. f Rat               j. Small lizard

11. What disease can female ferrets get if they do not ovulate?

a. Pyometra

b. Hyperestrogenism

c. Salmonella

d. Cushing's disease

12. What term describes a species that is native to an area?

a. Exogenous

b. Endogenous

c. Primogenous

d. Indigenous

13. How would you tell a gerbil from a hamster?

Gerbils have longer tails, smaller frames, and usually shorter hair.

14. What is an aquatic turtle?

A turtle that lives in water

15. What is an agouti color?

Color resulting from banding on the hair shaft

16. Select an exotic species you would consider as a pet. Research its nutritional and medical needs, and determine if they may have any zoonotic diseases that may be a threat.


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Author:Brandy, Colleen
Publication:An Illustrated Guide to Animal Science Terminology
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Previous Article:Chapter 17 Companion birds.

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