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Chapter 16 Cookies.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

* Define a cookie.

* List the eight categories of cookies.

* Explain the three basic cookie mixing methods.

* Manipulate ingredients to attain desirable cookie characteristics.

* Prepare the recipes at the end of this chapter.

KEY TERMS

bar cookies

cookies

creaming method

drop cookies

egg-foam method

molded cookies

one-bowl method

piped cookies

refrigerator cookies

rolled cookies

sheet cookies

wafer cookies

Memories of cookie jars full of homemade cookies always seem to evoke feelings of caring and love. Everyone loves cookies and there are about as many cookie recipes and varieties of cookies as there are personalities in people. Cookies can range anywhere from soft and chewy to crisp and crunchy.

Cookies are defined as a diverse group of small, sweet cakes or pastries that are described and categorized by how the dough is prepared and shaped for baking.

Cookies are similar to cakes in several respects. Just as with cakes, some categories of cookies rely on chemical leaveners to help them rise and some cookie recipes share certain of the same cake mixing methods, such as the creaming, one-bowl, and egg-foam methods.

Although there are clear-cut mixing methods for cakes, the same is not always true for cookies. There are so many varieties of cookies and preparation techniques that recipes can vary greatly even among cookies within the same category. It is this diversity of recipes within each category that makes cookies so much fun to prepare and so popular.

This chapter discusses the different categories of cookies and how to manipulate ingredients to attain desirable cookie characteristics.

Categories of Cookies

There are eight categories of cookies, but for the professional pastry chef, just a few of these categories can be mass produced easily without being too labor intensive. The eight categories of cookies are:

* drop cookies

* refrigerator cookies

* molded cookies

* bar cookies

* sheet cookies

* rolled cookies

* piped cookies

* wafer cookies

Drop Cookies

Drop cookies tend to be made from a soft, moist dough that is dropped from a spoon or ice cream scooper onto a sheet pan. Drop cookies need to be spaced out to allow them to spread during baking (e.g., Sour Cream Fudge Cookies).

Refrigerator Cookies

Refrigerator cookies tend to be made from stiffer doughs. The dough is rolled into logs, or other shapes, then wrapped in plastic or parchment paper and chilled or frozen before being sliced and baked (e.g., Brown Sugar Pecan Refrigerator Cookies).

Molded Cookies

Molded cookies are made from a moderately stiff dough that can be molded and shaped. For example, molded cookie dough may be rolled into balls and coated with sugar or chopped nuts. The balls are then placed on a sheet pan and a weight of some sort, such as a flat-bottomed drinking glass, is pressed onto the balls to mold them into flattened circles. Other molded cookies may be left to bake as balls that are not flattened (e.g., Truffled Peanut Butter Cookies).

Bar Cookies

Bar cookies consist of a stiff dough formed into long, flattened, rectangular bars. These are baked and then cut into slices. Biscotti is a bar cookie that is sliced and baked again for a short time to make each slice crunchy (e.g., Espresso Almond Biscotti I and Espresso Almond Biscotti II).

Sheet Cookies

Sheet cookies are one of the easiest and least labor intensive of any category. A batter, which can be thin or stiff, is made up and evenly spread into a pan with sides. Some recipes include a cookie or crumb base that is pressed onto the bottom of a pan before a batter is poured over it. After baking, the cookies are cut into squares or even triangles or diamonds. There are endless varieties (e.g., Fudge Brownies).

Rolled Cookies

Rolled cookies tend to be made from stiff dough that, very often, needs chilling to harden the fat within the dough. The dough is then rolled out and cookie cutters are used to cut the dough into shapes before baking (e.g., Golden Coconut Cutouts).

Piped Cookies

Piped cookies are made of soft doughs that can be easily pushed through a pastry bag fitted with a pastry tip to form cookies of various shapes (e.g., Citrus Butter Rings and Chocolate Almond Lady Fingers).

Wafer Cookies

Wafer cookies, also known as tuiles (French for "roof tiles"), are much more labor intensive. A thin batter, consisting of egg whites, sugar, flour, butter, and sometimes heavy cream, often referred to as a tulipe or stencil batter, is spread over stencils placed on a silicone baking mat or parchment-covered sheet pan or dropped from a spoon and spread into a circle. This stencil is carefully removed and the cookies are baked. The cookies retain their shape without spreading. They bake very quickly and must be monitored carefully so that they do not burn. While hot, they are very malleable and can be molded over cups, cut into shapes, or layered over a rolling pin to create curves and other shapes. As the cookie cools, the melted sugar within the batter recrystallizes, creating a very thin, crisp, delicate cookie. Often, wafer cookies are so thin they are translucent (e.g., Polka-Dotted Pirouettes).

There is another type of wafer cookie batter that spreads during baking. This type of batter contains corn syrup, brown sugar, butter, flour, and sometimes nuts. It is prepared on the stove and the batter is spooned onto sheet pans. Each mound of batter must be spaced out because the batter spreads. While the cookies are still warm, they may be trimmed or a cookie cutter can be used to cut out various shapes before the cookie cools and hardens. These cookies can also be molded around various objects such as bowls and wooden spoons.

Three Basic Cookie Mixing Methods

Cookies are really nothing more than small cakes, so the mixing methods for preparing cookies are very similar to those for mixing cakes (Chapter 14). These methods include the creaming method, the one-bowl method, and the egg-foam method.

Because there are so many variations of cookies, it is sometimes difficult to identify a mixing method within a specific category. For example, Chocolate Almond Lady Fingers are piped onto a sheet pan. They are prepared in a similar manner to a sponge cake in that they rely on beaten eggs, yolks, and/or egg whites for leavening. So how are they to be categorized? They are a piped cookie that uses the egg-foam method of mixing. (Note: Not all cookie recipes have a clearly defined mixing method.)

Creaming Method

The creaming method is the same one used for cakes in Chapter 14. A solid fat (e.g., butter or shortening) is blended in the bowl of an electric mixer with some form of sugar and mixed with the paddle attachment until the mixture is well blended. Air bubbles that are beaten into the butter become enlarged when combined with chemical leaveners. It is important to read directions carefully because overcreaming and incorporating too much air will cause cookies to puff, rise too much and then fall. Undercreaming and simply blending the fat and the sugar yields a more compact, denser cookie that will not spread as much. Recipes for cookies using the creaming method vary greatly.

The Creaming Method

1. Cream fat and sugar until well combined in an electric mixer using the paddle attachment.

2. Add eggs gradually.

3. Blend in the dry ingredients until just combined.

4. Fold in solid ingredients such as nuts, chocolate chips, and raisins by hand using a rubber spatula or spoon.

One-Bowl Method

The one-bowl method is the easiest mixing method for cakes and is also used successfully for cookies. All ingredients are placed in the bowl of an electric mixer and blended using the paddle attachment. Avoid overmixing the ingredients as this will cause gluten to develop. On the other hand, in recipes in which chewiness is a desirable characteristic, gluten development may be encouraged.

The One-Bowl Method

1. Place dry ingredients into the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment.

2. Combine liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients.

3. Fold in solid ingredients such as nuts, chocolate chips, or raisins by hand using a rubber spatula or spoon.

Egg-Foam Method

The egg-foam method used for cookies is similar to the egg-foam method used for cakes. Whole eggs, yolks, or whites are beaten to a foam using the whip attachment of an electric mixer and then folded gently into other ingredients. Care must be taken to maintain as much air as possible within the batter. Warmer eggs at room temperature make superior egg foams.

The Egg-Foam Method

1. Beat egg yolks and part of the sugar in an electric mixer using the paddle attachment until thick and light in color.

2. Blend dry ingredients into the egg yolk mixture.

3. Beat egg whites with the remaining sugar in the bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment until stiff peaks form.

4. Whisk a small portion of the egg whites into the yolk mixture to lighten it.

5. Fold the remaining egg whites into the batter using a rubber spatula.

Understanding the Characteristics of Cookies and How to Manipulate Them

Some bakers may prefer to tweak or fiddle with a recipe to make it their own unique version. Perhaps their customers crave a crisper chocolate chip cookie versus a softer version or a thicker cookie compared to a thinner one. How can a baker manipulate a recipe to produce cookie characteristics that are customized to his or her needs?

The answer lies in understanding what factors produce certain characteristics within a cookie. There is a certain amount of science in baking, and by understanding the role each ingredient plays, the baker can manipulate the ingredients to produce chosen characteristics in the final product. Example: Look at the chocolate chip cookie recipes in Table16-1. The recipe on the left produces a chewy cookie. The same recipe with a few minor changes in the ingredients on the right will produce a crisper version of the same cookie.

When describing characteristics of a cookie, desirable adjectives like "crisp," "soft," "chewy," "brown," "pale," "thin," and "thick" come to mind. Generally, cookies do not have only one characteristic such as "soft" or "crisp"; often they share many characteristics within the same type of cookie. The following discussion explores how these adjectives can be translated directly into a recipe using specific ingredients.

Crisp

A crisp cookie is generally produced from a dough with little moisture or liquid in it. It also contains a large amount of granulated sugar and fat. Wafer cookies have more liquid batters but they contain high amounts of sugar and fat that help them to become crisp as they cool and the sugar re-crystallizes. Cookies baked with large amounts of butter versus shortening tend to spread out more, creating thinner and crisper cookies. This is because butter has a lower melting point. Flours containing a higher protein content absorb more liquid from the dough, thereby producing a crisper cookie. Keep the cookie thin. Rolled-out cookies should be no thicker than 1/4 inch (6 mm) and refrigerator cookies should be sliced very thin to produce the most crispness. Higher amounts of baking soda in a cookie dough will also produce a crisper cookie. The baking soda weakens gluten strands, causing the cookie to spread out more during baking. More spread means more surface area of the dough (batter) is exposed to the heat; this causes the moisture to evaporate and results in a crisper cookie.

Soft

Soft cookies and cakes have a similar texture. Using hygroscopic sugars such as brown sugar, molasses, corn syrup, and honey that easily absorb moisture from the air, produces a softer cookie much like cake. A lower granulated sugar and fat content will also soften a cookie. A batter that has some acidity in it will not spread out or brown as well and will produce a softer cookie. Adding acidic ingredients such as sour cream or yogurt helps toward this end. A cookie that is slightly underbaked will also be softer. Softer cookies are created when a low-protein flour is used because low-protein flours do not bind with or absorb as much water as a high-protein flour. This unbound moisture or water in the dough forms steam in the oven, causing the cookies to become puffy and soft.

Chewy

Cookies made with high-protein flour are chewy because of the gluten development. Cookie doughs that contain greater amounts of liquid ingredients and granulated sugar with less fat also produce chewiness. Using more eggs causes the proteins to coagulate, yielding a chewier cookie.

Brown

The easiest way to increase the browning of a cookie is to increase the oven temperature or the baking time. Cookies containing only a small amount of corn syrup (containing glucose not fructose) brown at a lower temperature than granulated sugar. Browning occurs also when a higher proportion of baking soda is used. Acidic batters do not brown well and baking soda, a base, neutralizes the acidity of the dough, allowing the cookie to brown. Flours that are high in protein also produce cookies that brown better than flours lower in protein.

Pale

Underbaking is one way to prevent a cookie from browning. To prevent a cookie from coloring, acidity in the dough must be maintained. To maintain this acidity, the amount of baking soda is kept to a minimum while the amount of baking powder is increased. Baking powder, which already contains an acid, does not neutralize any acidity in the batter and browning is inhibited. The lower the protein content of a flour used in a cookie dough, the less browning occurs. Flours that are bleached and acidic, such as cake flour, also produce paler cookies.

Spread

Varying ingredients of a cookie dough can also affect how much the dough will spread in the oven.

Increased Spread

A thinner cookie dough with a great deal of liquid in it produces a cookie with more spread. A high amount of granulated sugar also increases spread. Using a higher amount of baking soda weakens gluten strands, neutralizes acidity, and causes the cookie to spread. Flours with low protein produce more spread. For cookies using the creaming method of mixing, overcreaming creates more spread. Using a fat with a lower melting point, such as butter, produces a cookie with more spread. Baking at a lower oven temperature gives the dough more time to spread. Placing the dough on a greased cookie sheet also increases spread.

Decreased Spread

Using flours with high-protein contents decreases spread by binding with more liquid within the dough, creating more structure. When using the creaming method, cream the fat and sugar only until combined and until there are no lumps. The less air incorporated into the mixture, the less the cookie dough will puff up and spread out. Using confectioners' sugar instead of granulated sugar also decreases spread because confectioners' sugar contains cornstarch, which absorbs moisture and produces a drier, stiffer dough. Using baking powder, which leavens without decreasing acidity, reduces spread because acidic doughs set more quickly. Baking at higher temperatures reduces spread because the cookie dough sets faster. Placing the cookie dough on an ungreased sheet pan reduces spread. Thicker doughs using a fat with a higher melting point such as vegetable shortening produce a cookie with less spread. Chilling the dough before baking also decreases spread.

Table 16-2 illustrates how different ingredients can achieve desired characteristics.

Tips for Making Successful Cookies

* While they are still slightly warm, remove cookies from sheet pans that have been greased or parchment lined using an offset spatula.

* Do not overbake cookies. Often, cookies appear soft and underbaked after the allotted time in the oven, but they firm up as they cool.

* For cookies that are not meant to rise, it is important for the dough to remain the same shape after baking as it was when it went into the oven. Because little or no chemical leaveners are used in these recipes, it is important not to overmix the dough, which would cause air to be incorporated and the cookie to rise.
SOUR CREAM
FUDGE COOKIES

Makes approximately
3 dozen cookies

(Note: To make giant cookies, use
a 2-ounce [1/4 cup; 60-mL] ice
cream scoop and bake the cookies
for 2 minutes longer.)

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a drop cookie.

* The creaming method of mixing provides air bubbles that, in
  conjunction with chemical leaveners, help the cookies to rise.

* Baking soda neutralizes acidic ingredients like brown sugar and sour
  cream to create carbon dioxide gas for leavening.

* Decreasing the acidity of the batter allows better browning.

* A high-protein flour increases chewiness.

* Sour cream adds richness and tenderness.

* A higher quantity of sugar with less fat creates chewiness.

                      MEASUREMENTS                      INGREDIENTS

                U.S.              METRIC    BAKER'S %

6 1/4 ounces    1 1/4 cups        175 g      100%       bread flour

                1 teaspoon          4 g        2.3%     baking powder

                1 teaspoon          4 g        2.3%     baking soda

                1/2 teaspoon        3 g        1.7%     salt

2 1/2 ounces    3/4 cup            70 g       40%       Dutch processed
                                                        cocoa powder

9 ounces        1 1/2 cups        255 g      146%       semisweet cho-
                                                        colate, chopped

3 ounces                           85 g       49%       unsweetened
                                                        chocolate

3 ounces        6 tablespoons      85 g       49%       unsalted
                                                        butter,
                                                        softened

5 1/2 ounces    3/4 cup           155 g       89%       granulated
                                                        sugar

5 1/2 ounces    3/4 cup           155 g       89%       light brown
                                                        sugar (packed,
                                                        if measured
                                                        by volume)

2 each                             94 g       54%       large eggs

4 ounces        7 tablespoons     115 g       66%       sour cream

                1 teaspoon          5 mL        2.9%    pure vanilla
                                                        extract

9 ounces        1 1/2 cups        255 g      146%      semisweet
                                                        chocolate chips

                                                        nonstick
                                                        cooking spray

                                              837.2%    Total Sour
                                                        Cream Fudge
                                                        Cookies
                                                        Percentage

1. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C). Sift together
   the flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt, and cocoa powder into
   a bowl. Whisk the mixture and set it aside.

2. Melt the semisweet and unsweetened chocolate in a double boiler or
   in a bowl placed over a pot of simmering water. Cool to room
   temperature and set aside.


3. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream
   the butter and sugars together on medium speed for approximately 1
   to 2 minutes, or until the mixture becomes somewhat light (Figure
   16-1).

[FIGURE 16-1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-3 OMITTED]

4. On low speed, add the eggs, one at a time, incorporating each one
   well before adding the next. Stop the machine occasionally and
   scrape down the sides of the bowl.

5. With the machine still on low speed, slowly add the cooled melted
   chocolate and blend well (Figure 16-2). Stop the mixer and scrape
   down the sides of the bowl with a rubber spatula. Add the sour
   cream and vanilla extract, blending well (Figure 16-3).

6. On low speed, add the flour and cocoa mixture and blend only until
   combined (Figure 16-4). Remove the bowl from the electric mixer
   and, using a rubber spatula or metal spoon, blend in the chocolate
   chips by hand.

7. Using a 1-ounce (1/8 cup; 30-mL) ice cream scoop, place scoopfuls
   of batter onto a sheet pan covered with parchment paper; space each
   scoopful 3 inches (7.5 cm) apart (Figure 16-5). With a moistened
   hand, flatten each cookie slightly (Figure 16-6). Bake for about 18
   minutes. The fudge cookies will be soft but will firm up as they
   cool. Allow the cookies to cool on the sheet pan for 5 minutes
   before removing and placing them on cooling racks.

[FIGURE 16-4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-5 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-6 OMITTED]

BROWN SUGAR
PECAN
REFRIGERATOR
COOKIES

Makes approximately
100 cookies

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a refrigerator cookie using the creaming method.

* A small amount of brown sugar adds flavor without softening the
  cookie.

* Confectioners' sugar prevents too much spread.

* Baking soda neutralizes any acidity from the brown sugar, producing
  a browner and crisper cookie.

* Using some bread flour reduces spread while producing more crispness.

* Chilling the dough reduces spread.

* Ground pecans add flavor.

                  MEASUREMENTS                   INGREDIENTS

              U.S.          METRIC   BAKER'S %

8 ounces                    226 g      34%       unsalted butter
3 3/4         1/2 cup       106 g      16%       light brown sugar
ounces                                           (packed, if
                                                 measuring by
                                                 volume)
3 ounces      3/4 cup        85 g      13%       confectioners'
                                                 sugar
12            3/4 ounces    360 g      54%       bread flour
              2 1/2 cups
              2 teaspoons
10            3/4 ounces    305 g      46%       cake flour
              2 1/2 cups
              2 1/2
              tablespoons
              1 teaspoon      6 g       1%       salt
              1 teaspoon      4 g       1%       baking soda
5 1/2         1 1/2 cups    160 g      24%       pecans, finely
ounces                                           ground
2 each                       94 g      14%       large eggs
2 teaspoons                  10 mL      1.5%     vanilla extract
                                                 1 large egg
                                                 white to be used
                                                 as glue pecan
                                                 halves for garnish
                                       204%      Total Brown Sugar
                                                 Pecan Refrigerator
                                                 Cookies percentage

[FIGURE 16-7 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-9 OMITTED]

1. Preheat the oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). In the bowl of
   an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter and
   sugars until the mixture just begins to lighten in color.

2. In another bowl, whisk together the flours, salt, baking soda, and
   pecans. Set aside.

3. Slowly add the eggs and vanilla to the butter and sugar mixture and
   mix on low speed until well blended.

4. On low speed, add the flour mixture, mixing until just combined.

5. Divide the dough in half.

6. Form each half into a log 13 inches (33 cm) long (Figure 16-7).
   Wrap each log in plastic wrap and chill for at least 3 hours or
   until firm.

(Note: After step 6, the logs of
dough can be wrapped airtight
and stored in the freezer for 2 to
3 months. Thaw the dough in
the refrigerator before slicing.)

7. Slice each log crosswise into 1/4-inch (6-mm) thick slices and
   place them on a sheet pan covered with parchment paper (Figure
   16-8). Using a pastry brush, brush some egg white in the middle
   of each cookie. Place 1 pecan half on top of each cookie,
   pressing gently to adhere (Figure 16-9).

8. Bake the cookies for about 9 to 12 minutes or until the bottoms
   and edges are light brown. Allow the cookies to cool on the sheet
   pan for 5 minutes before removing and placing them on cooling racks.

TRUFFLED
PEANUT
BUTTER
COOKIES

Makes approximately
40 3-inch (7.5-cm) cookies

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a molded cookie using the creaming method.

* The high proportions of fat in the form of butter and peanut butter
  add to the tenderness of the cookie.

* Equal parts of granulated and brown sugars balance out the
  crispness, so the cookie is firm, yet tender.

* A high-protein flour binds with liquid in the dough, forming some
  chewiness and less spread.

* The whole-wheat flour adds a nutty texture, playing up the peanut
  butter theme while adding to the nutritional value.

* The addition of baking soda neutralizes the acidity in the brown
  sugar, resulting in better browning.

* Adding a larger quantity of baking powder helps the cookies to puff
  up and rise.

* Chilling the dough before baking prevents spread, forming a thicker
  cookie.

STEP A: TRUFFLE FILLING

                 MEASUREMENTS       INGREDIENTS

             U.S.          METRIC

8 ounces     1 cup         240 mL   heavy cream
24 ounces    4 cups        680 g    semisweet chocolate, finely chopped
             1 teaspoon      5 mL   vanilla extract

1. In a heavy saucepan, bring the cream to a boil. Remove it from heat.

2. Add the chocolate to the cream and stir the mixture gently with a
   whisk until the chocolate melts. Whisk in the vanilla and blend
   well.

3. Pour the truffle mixture into a 15-inch by 10-inch (38-cm by 25-cm)
   rectangular pan with sides lined with foil (Figure 16-10). Chill
   the truffle mixture for approximately 2 hours or until it is very
   firm.

4. Remove the pan from the refrigerator and pull the foil with the
   truffle mixture out of the pan and place on a work surface. Using a
   1 3/4-inch (4.5-cm) fluted, round cookie cutter, cut out as many
   rounds as possible (Figure 16-11). Reserve the rounds on a
   parchment-lined sheet pan. Chill the rounds until needed.

[FIGURE 16-10 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-12 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-13 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-14 OMITTED]

STEP B: PEANUT BUTTER COOKIES

                  MEASUREMENTS                     INGREDIENTS

            U.S.            METRIC    BAKER'S %

8 ounces                    225 g        58%       unsalted butter
                                                   at room temperature
7 ounces    3/4 cup         200 g        51%       granulated sugar
            2 1/2
            tablespoons
7 1/2       1 cup           212 g        54%       light brown sugar
ounces                                             (packed, if
                                                   measuring by volume)
9 ounces    1 cup           255 g        65%       smooth peanut butter
            2 tablespoons
10 1/4      2 cups          290 g        74%       bread flour
ounces      1 tablespoon
3 1/2       3/4 cup         100 g        26%       whole-wheat flour
ounces      1 tablespoon     12 g         3.1%     baking powder
            1 teaspoon        4 g         1.0%     baking soda
            1/2 teaspoon      3 g         0.8%     salt
2 each                       94 g        24%       large eggs
            2 teaspoons      10 mL        2.6%     vanilla extract
6 ounces    1 1/4 cups      175 g        45%       salted, roasted
                                                   peanuts granulated
                                                   sugar for rolling
                                       404.5%      Total Truffled
                                                   Peanut Butter
                                                   Cookies (Step B)
                                                   percentage

1. Preheat the oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). In the bowl of
   an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter,
   sugars, and peanut butter for 1 to 2 minutes or until the mixture
   lightens in color.

2. In another bowl, thoroughly whisk together the flours, baking
   powder, baking soda, and salt; set the mixture aside.

3. On low speed, add the eggs, one at a time, to the peanut butter
   mixture, blending to incorporate one egg before adding the next.
   Add the vanilla extract.

4. On low speed, add the flour mixture to the peanut butter and blend
   until just combined. Add the peanuts. Scrape the dough into a large
   bowl. Cover and chill for at least 2 hours or overnight.

5. Using a 1-ounce (30-mL) ice cream scoop, scoop the dough into rough
   ball shapes. Smooth each ball by rolling it between the palms of
   your hands. Roll each ball into a bowl of granulated sugar and
   place them spaced 2 inches (5 cm) apart on a parchment lined sheet
   pan (Figure 16-12).

6. Using the flat bottom of a drinking glass or a solid measuring cup,
   flatten each ball into a circle (Figure 16-13).

7. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes or until the cookies are very light
   brown. Do not overbake.

8. Remove the cookies from the oven and immediately place 1 of the
   reserved chocolate truffle disks in the center of each cookie,
   pressing down slightly to help them adhere (Figure 16-14). Allow
   the cookies to cool for 5 minutes before removing them from
   the sheet pan and cooling on racks.

ESPRESSO
ALMOND
BISCOTTI I

Makes approximately
36 to 40 biscotti

Biscotti in Italian means "twice baked." First, a log of dough is
baked and sliced. The slices are then baked again for a shorter time
just to lightly toast them. Traditionally, biscotti cookies are so
hard that the only way to eat them without breaking teeth is to dip
them into wine or coffee. The first biscotti recipe results in a more
traditional, hard biscotti whereas the second biscotti recipe
that follows results in a crisp, yet more tender and crumbly cookie
that will not break teeth.

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a bar cookie that is twice baked using the one-bowl
  method.

* Very little liquid in the dough produces crispness.

* A high-protein flour absorbs any liquid, creating a crisper cookie.

* A simple one-bowl method of mixing is used.

* Coarsely ground coffee beans and lemon zest produce a cookie that
  mimics the beverage for which this cookie is named. Orange zest is
  added for extra citrus flavor.

* A small amount of baking powder is used for leavening and a larger
  amount of baking soda is used to neutralize any acidity, which aids
  browning and crisping.

* Little fat in the dough produces a hard cookie.

* The crisp texture is beneficial in that whole almonds can be used to
  produce attractive slices that will not crumble when sliced.

* Cutting the logs into thinner slices will produce a crisper biscotti
  when baked again.

                       MEASUREMENTS               INGREDIENTS

             U.S.            METRIC   BAKER'S %

10 ounces    2 cups          285 g       80%      bread flour
2 1/2        1/2 cup          70 g       20%      whole wheat flour
ounces
3 3/4        1/2 cup          85 g       24%      light brown sugar
ounces                                            (packed, if
                                                  measuring by volume)
3 1/2        1/2 cup         100 g       28%      granulated sugar
ounces       1 teaspoon        6 g        1.7%    grated lemon zest
             1 teaspoon        6 g        1.7%    grated orange zest
             2 tablespoons    10 g        2.8%    instant espresso
                                                  powder
1/4 ounce    2 tablespoons    10 g        2.8%    coffee beans,
                                                  coarsely ground
             1 teaspoon        4 g        1.1%    baking soda
             1/2 teaspoon      2 g        0.6%    baking powder
             1/2 teaspoon      3 g        0.8%    salt
3 each                       140 g       39%      large eggs
1/2 fluid    1 tablespoon     15 mL       4.2%    vegetable oil
ounces       1 teaspoon        5 mL       1.4%    vanilla extract
             1/2 teaspoon      2.5 mL     0.7%    almond extract
5 ounces     1 cup           140 g       39%      whole natural
                                                  almonds (with the
                                                  skin on), lightly
                                                  toasted
             1 teaspoon        5 mL       1.4%    egg wash, as needed
                                                  granulated sugar
                                                  for sprinkling
                                        249.2%    Total Espresso
                                                  Almond Biscotti
                                                  I percentage

1. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C). In the bowl of
   an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, blend the flours,
   sugars, the zest, espresso powder, ground coffee beans, baking
   soda, baking powder, and salt on low speed until combined.

2. On low speed, add the eggs, one at a time, then the oil followed by
   the vanilla and almond extracts. Mix just enough to form a dough.

3. Using a rubber spatula or a spoon, blend in the almonds by hand.

4. Form the dough into two logs approximately 15 inches (37.5 cm) long
   by 3 1/2 inches (8.7 cm) wide, and place them on a parchment-
   covered sheet pan, leaving 4 inches (10 cm) between them.

5. Brush the logs with egg wash and sprinkle each one generously with
   granulated sugar. Bake for 30 minutes or until light brown.

6. Remove the logs from the oven and allow them to cool in the pan for
   5 to 10 minutes. Using a serrated knife, cut each log crosswise, on
   the diagonal, into slices 1/4 inch (6 mm) thick and place the
   slices cut-side down back on the baking sheet.

7. Return the biscotti to the oven for 6 to 8 minutes. Turn the
   biscotti over and return them to the oven for another 6 to 8
   minutes. Cool.

TIP

This particular recipe for
biscotti keeps for several
weeks in an airtight
container.

ESPRESSO
ALMOND
BISCOTTI II

Makes approximately
40 biscotti

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a bar cookie that is twice baked using the one-bowl
  method.

* Changing from bread flour to all-purpose flour decreases gluten
  formation, making a more crumbly cookie.

* Adding some brown sugar along with granulated sugar attracts
  moisture to produce a softer cookie.

* Beating the eggs and sugar until light creates air in the dough,
  producing a lighter, less dense cookie, which aids leavening.

* An increased amount of baking powder provides leavening while
  decreasing spread and browning, producing a thicker cookie.

* A small amount of baking soda is used to neutralize some acidity
  and provide some leavening.

* Because the biscotti are so tender, using slivered almonds instead
  of whole prevents crumbling the biscotti as they are sliced.

* A higher oven temperature causes the dough to set faster, thereby
  producing a thicker cookie.

* Adding a large quantity of oil coats gluten strands and produces a
  tender biscotti.

* Cutting the logs into thicker slices also produces a more tender
  biscotti.

                  MEASUREMENTS                   INGREDIENTS

U.S.                        METRIC   BAKER'S %

16 1/2      3 1/2 cups      470 g      78%       all-purpose flour
ounces
4 3/4       1 cup           135 g      22%       whole wheat flour
ounces      2 tablespoons    10 g       1.7%     instant espresso
                                                 powder
1/4 ounce   2 tablespoons    10 g       1.7%     coffee beans,
                                                 coarsely ground
1/4 ounce   2 teaspoons       8 g       1.3%     baking powder
            1/2 teaspoon      2 g       0.3%     baking soda
            1/2 teaspoon      3 g       0.5%     salt
11 ounces   2 1/2 cups      310 g      51%       slivered almonds
5 1/2       3/4 cup         155 g      26%       light brown sugar
ounces                                           (packed, if
                                                 measuring by volume)
3 1/2       1/2 cup         100 g      17%       granulated sugar
ounces      1 teaspoon        6 g       1%       grated lemon zest
            1 teaspoon        6 g       1%       grated orange zest
4 each                      188 g      31%       large eggs
8 fluid     1 cup           240 mL     40%       vegetable oil
ounces      1/2 teaspoon      2.5 mL    0.4%     vanilla extract
            1 teaspoon        5 mL      0.8%     almond extract
            1 teaspoon        5 mL      0.8%     egg wash, as
                                                 needed
                                      274.5%     Total Espresso
                                                 Almond Biscotti
                                                 II percentage

[FIGURE 16-15 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-16 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-17 OMITTED]

1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C). In a mixing
   bowl, whisk together the flours, espresso powder, coffee beans,
   baking powder, baking soda, salt, and almonds. Set the mixture
   aside.

TIP

If time is short, the slices
can be placed upright (not
on their sides) and baked
once for 6 to 8 minutes.

2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment,
   blend the two sugars, the zests, and the eggs on medium speed
   until the mixture is slightly thickened.

3. On low speed, gradually add the oil, vanilla, and almond extracts.

4. On low speed, add the dry ingredients and blend until just combined.

5. Divide the dough in half and form each half into a log
   approximately 15 inches (37.5 cm) long by 3 1/2 inches (8.7 cm)
   wide. Place each log onto a sheet pan covered with parchment paper.
   The logs will rise and spread as they bake.

6. Brush each log with egg wash using a pastry brush and generously
   sprinkle each one with granulated sugar (Figure 16-15).

7. Bake the logs for approximately 30 to 32 minutes or until they are
   firm but have little color. The top of the logs should look
   crackled.

8. Allow the logs to cool for 5 to 10 minutes and then cut each log
   crosswise on the diagonal into 3/4-inch (2-cm) slices using a
   serrated knife (Figure 16-16). Place the slices cut side down on
   the same sheet pan.

9. Return the slices to the oven and bake for 6 to 8 minutes on each
   side (Figure 16-17). Cool completely.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FUDGE
BROWNIES

Makes one 11-inch by
15-inch (27.5-cm by
37.5-cm) pan or
two 8-inch (20-cm)
square pans

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a sheet cookie.

* Beating the eggs and sugar incorporates air into the batter, which
  works in tandem with the baking powder for leavening power.

* Brown sugar increases moistness because of its hygroscopic
  qualities, producing a fudgy brownie.

* Bread flour, a high-protein flour, increases chewiness.

* Slightly underbaking brownies increases chewiness.

                      MEASUREMENTS                 INGREDIENTS

            U.S.            METRIC    BAKER'S %

12 ounces                   340 g       166%       unsalted butter
5 ounces                    145 g        71%       unsweetened
                                                   chocolate,
                                                   coarsely chopped
5 ounces                    145 g        71%       semisweet
                                                   chocolate,
                                                   coarsely chopped
            2 tablespoons    10 g         4.9%     instant coffee
                                                   powder
3 1/2       3/4 cup         100 g        49%       all-purpose flour
ounces
3 3/4       3/4 cup         105 g        51%       bread flour
ounces      1/2 teaspoon      2 g         1%       baking powder
            1/2t easpoon      3 g         1.5%     salt
15 ounces   2 cups          425 g       207%       light brown sugar
                                                   (packed, if
                                                   measuring by
                                                   volume)
14 1/2      2 cups          410 g       200%       granulated sugar
ounces
8 each                      376 g       183%       large eggs
            1 1/2           7 1/2 mL      3.7%     vanilla extract
            teaspoons
7 ounces    2 cups          200 g        98%       walnuts, chopped
6 ounces    1 cup           170 g        83%       semisweet
                                                   chocolate,
                                                   coarsely chopped
                                       1190.1%     Total Fudge
                                                   Brownies percentage

1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Grease an
   11-inch by 15-inch (27.5-cm by 37.5-cm) rectangular pan or two
   8-inch (20-cm) square pans. Set aside.

2. In a bowl placed over a pot of simmering water, melt the butter,
   the two chocolates, and the coffee. Set the mixture aside to cool.

3. In a mixing bowl, whisk the two flours, the baking powder, and the
   salt. Set aside.

4. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, beat
   the sugars on low speed and gradually add the eggs and vanilla.
   Beat at medium speed until well blended and slightly thickened.

5. On low speed, slowly add the melted chocolate and butter mixture to
   the sugar and eggs. Blend the mixture until well combined (Figure
   16-18).

6. Blend in the flour mixture on low speed and mix only until blended.
   Remove the bowl from the mixer. Blend in the chocolate and the
   walnuts by hand using a rubber spatula or spoon until just combined
   (Figure 16-19).

7. Pour the batter into the prepared pan and spread it evenly (Figure
   16-20).

8. Bake for 32 to 35 minutes or until the brownies are set and firm on
   top but still slightly soft in the center. (Note: A cake tester
   inserted into a brownie will not come out clean.)

9. Cool completely and chill the brownies for 1 hour in a refrigerator
   to make cutting them into bars easier.

[FIGURE 16-18 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-19 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-20 OMITTED]

GOLDEN
COCONUT
CUTOUTS

Makes approximately
3 1/2 dozen cookies

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a rolled cookie using the creaming method.

* Using confectioners' sugar creates less spread.

* Using some low-protein flour creates tenderness.

* Rolling the dough thin produces a crisp cookie.

* This dough resembles a pate sucree with coconut added.

* Less liquid in the dough contributes to crispness as does a high
  sugar and fat content.

                  MEASUREMENTS                  INGREDIENTS

            U.S.           METRIC   BAKER'S %

7 ounces    1 1/2 cups     200 g      63%       all-purpose flour
4 ounces    1 cup          115 g      37%       cake flour
            1/2 teaspoon     1 g       0.3%     ground cinnamon
            1/4 teaspoon     1 g       0.3%     salt
3 ounces    1 cup           85 g      27%       shredded, sweetened
                                                coconut, lightly
                                                toasted and then
                                                finely ground in a
                                                food processor
8 ounces                   225 g      71%       unsalted butter,
                                                softened
4 ounces    1 cup          115 g      37%       confectioners'
                                                sugar, sifted
1 each                      19 g       6%       large egg yolk
            1 teaspoon       5 mL      2%       coconut extract
                                                extra confectioners'
                                                sugar, for dusting
                                                extra all-purpose
                                                flour, for dusting
1 each                      28 g       9%       large egg white
1 1/2        1/2cup         40 g      13%       shredded, sweetened
ounces                                          coconut, coarsely
                                                chopped in a food
                                                processor, not toasted
                                     265.2%     Total Golden Coconut
                                                Cutouts percentage

1. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (163 [degrees]C). In a bowl, sift
   together the flours, cinnamon, and salt. Add the ground, toasted
   coconut and mix until well blended. Set aside.

2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream
   the butter and sugar on medium speed until light. Do not overcream.
   Add the egg yolk and the extract to the butter mixture (Figure
   16-21).

3. On low speed, add the flour and coconut mixture, mixing until just
   incorporated.

4. Gather the dough into a ball. Wrap it in plastic wrap and chill for
   2 to 3 hours or until it is firm enough to roll out (Figure 16-22).
   The dough can be placed in the freezer for a short period of time
   to speed up the chilling process.

[FIGURE 16-21 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-22 OMITTED]

5. Cut the dough in half, placing one half back into the refrigerator.
   On a surface that has been lightly dusted with flour and
   confectioners' sugar, roll out the dough to a 1/4-inch (6-mm)
   thickness. Using a scalloped or fluted, round, 3-inch (7.5-cm)
   cookie cutter, cut out shapes (Figure 16-23). Cookie cutters in
   different shapes also work. Place the cookies on parchment-lined
   sheet pans. Repeat rolling and cutting the other half of the dough.

6. Using a pastry brush, glaze each cookie with the reserved egg white
   and sprinkle with some of the coarsely chopped untoasted coconut
   (Figure 16-24). Bake for 10 to 14 minutes or until lightly browned.

[FIGURE 16-23 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-24 OMITTED]

CITRUS BUTTER
RINGS

Makes 18 ring cookies,
approximately 3 inches
(7.5 cm) in diameter

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a piped cookie using the creaming method.

* The creaming method of mixing produces a cookie that is light in
  texture while not overcreaming to ensure less spread.

* A low-protein flour is used for tenderness and to prevent
  overbrowning.

* An egg white dries out the dough, adding crispness and little color.

* Confectioners' sugar and cornstarch both prevent spread.

* No chemical leavener is used, so these cookies should look the same
  size going in the oven as they do coming out.

                         MEASUREMENTS             INGREDIENTS

             U.S.            METRIC   BAKER'S %

7 ounces                     200 g      118%      unsalted butter,
                                                  softened
2 ounces     1/2 cup          55 g       32%      confectioners'
                                                  sugar, sifted
6 ounces     1 1/2 cups      170 g      100%      cake flour
1 1/4        1/4 cup          35 g       21%      cornstarch
ounces
1 each                        28 g       16%      large egg white
1/2 fluid    1 tablespoon     15 mL       9%      orange juice, no
                                                  pulp
ounce        1 teaspoon        5 mL       3%      lemon extract
             1/2 teaspoon      2.5 mL     1.5%    vanilla extract
             1/2 teaspoon      3 g        2%      lime zest
             1/2 teaspoon      3 g        2%      lemon zest
                                                  confectioners'
                                                  sugar for dusting
                                        304%      Total Citrus
                                                  Butter Rings
                                                  percentage

[FIGURE 16-25 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-26 OMITTED]

1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). In the bowl of
   an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter and
   sugar only until they form a smooth paste.

2. In another bowl, sift together the flour and cornstarch. Set aside.

3. On low speed, add the egg, orange juice, extracts, and zests to the
   butter and sugar mixture. Mix until well combined.

4. Slowly add the flour mixture. Mix only until a dough forms.

5. Place the dough into a large pastry bag fitted with a medium star
   tip.

6. Pipe the dough into 3-inch (7.5-cm) diameter ring shapes onto a
   parchment-lined sheet pan (Figure 16-25).

7. Bake the rings for 15 minutes or until the cookies are set and the
   bottoms are light brown. The cookies should be pale and have little
   color.

8. Cool and dust each cookie with confectioners' sugar (Figure 16-26).

CHOCOLATE
ALMOND LADY
FINGERS

Makes approximately
2 1/2 dozen lady fingers

[FIGURE 16-27 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-28 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-29 OMITTED]

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a piped cookie using the egg-foam method.

* Beating warm eggs gives better volume.

* The egg-foam mixing method is used to produce a light, sponge
  cake-like cookie.

* Lady fingers follow the mixing method similar to an egg foam cake.

* Air beaten into the eggs leavens the cookie.

* An acid like cream of tartar provides stability to the meringue.

                         MEASUREMENTS           INGREDIENTS

           U.S.            METRIC   BAKER'S %

3 each                     57 g       143%      large egg yolks
1 3/4      1/4 cup         50 g       125%      granulated sugar
ounces
1 1/4      1/3 cup         40 g       100%      cake flour
ounces                      1 g         1%      pinch salt
           2 tablespoons   16 g        40%      Dutch processed
                                                cocoa powder
           1 teaspoon       5 mL       13%      vanilla extract
           1/2 teaspoon     2.5 mL      6%      almond extract
3 each                     84 g       210%      large egg whites,
                                                room temperature
           1/4 teaspoon     0.5 g       1%      cream of tartar
2 ounces   1/4 cup         55 g       138%      granulated sugar
                                                sliced almonds
                                                for sprinkling
                                                confectioners'
                                                sugar for dusting
                                      777.3%    Total Chocolate
                                                Lady Fingers percentage

 1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). On a sheet pan
    covered with parchment paper, using a pencil and ruler, draw 2
    lines down the length of the sheet pan, spaced 3 inches (7.5 cm)
    apart (Figure 16-27). Directly below those, make two more lines 3
    inches (7.5 cm) apart 1 inch away from the first lines. Turn the
    side with the pencil marks facing down so the marks are now on the
    underside but can still be seen through the paper (Figure 16-28).
    Set aside.

 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, mix
    the egg yolks and sugar on medium-high speed until the eggs turn
    pale yellow and appear thickened (Figure 16-29). This takes about
    5 minutes.

 3. In another bowl, sift the cake flour, salt, and cocoa powder
    together. Whisk to blend.

 4. On low speed, blend in the flour and cocoa into the egg yolks and
    then add the extracts until they are well combined. Transfer the
    batter to a large mixing bowl (Figure 16-30). The batter will be
    thick.

 5. In a clean, dry bowl of an electric mixer using the whip
    attachment, beat the whites on high until foamy. Add the cream of
    tartar and continue beating until soft peaks form.

 6. Slowly add the 2 ounces (1/4 cup; 55 g) granulated sugar and beat
    until stiff peaks form (Figure 16-31). Do not overbeat.

[FIGURE 16-30 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-31 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-32 OMITTED]

 7. Using a rubber spatula, scoop 1/3 of the whites on top of the
    chocolate batter and whisk in thoroughly to lighten (Figure 16-32).

 8. Scoop the remaining whites onto the chocolate batter and, using a
    rubber spatula, gently fold the whites in until they are well
    combined (Figure 16-33). Do not overfold.

 9. Take the prepared sheet pan and place it so that the long side is
    facing you. Working quickly, scoop half of the batter into a large
    pastry bag with 1/2-inch (1.25-cm) opening and squeeze out 3-inch
    (7.5-cm) long finger shapes from one line to the next, like the
    rungs of a ladder, spacing them approximately 1 inch apart using
    the pencil marks as a guide (Figure 16-34). Refill the bag and
    repeat forming lines of batter between the second set of lines.

10. Sprinkle each line of batter with sliced almonds and dust with
    confectioners' sugar (Figure 16-35).

11. Bake the lady fingers for 12 minutes or until they are puffed and
    cooked through. Remove them from the oven and cool on racks. Peel
    each lady finger off gently using an offset spatula.

TIP

If the lady fingers will not
be used immediately they
can be cooled and kept
right on the parchment
paper and stored in an
airtight plastic container for
2 to 3 days at room
temperature. Keeping them
on the parchment paper in
an airtight container
prevents them from drying
out and maintains their
spongy texture.

[FIGURE 16-33 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-34 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-35 OMITTED]

POLKA-DOTTED
PIROUETTES

Makes about 3 dozen
pirouette cookies

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a wafer cookie.

* High sugar and high fat create a crisp cookie.

* The cookies are quite malleable when hot and set as they cool,
  because sugar melts in the oven and recrystallizes upon cooling,
  forming a crisper cookie.

* The use of egg whites, which act as drying agents, cause the cookies
  to be crisp.

* Wafer cookies should be baked in small numbers to give the baker
  enough time to roll each cookie into a cylinder before they become
  too hard.

                   MEASUREMENTS                  INGREDIENTS

            U.S.            METRIC   BAKER'S %

4 each                      112 g      149%      large egg whites
6 3/4       1 cup           190 g      253%      superfine sugar
ounces
2 3/4       2/3 cup          75 g      100%      cake flour, sifted
ounces
2 ounces    4 tablespoons    57 g       76%      unsalted butter,
                                                 melted
            1 teaspoon        5 mL       7%      vanilla extract
            2 teaspoons       5 g        7%      unsweetened cocoa
                                                 powder, sifted
                                       592%      Total Polka-Dotted
                                                 Pirouettes percentage

 1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). In the bowl of
    an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, combine the egg
    whites and the sugar. Mix on medium speed until foamy.

 2. On low speed, add the flour and mix until well combined.

 3. Slowly add the melted butter and vanilla extract (Figure 16-36).

 4. Remove 2 ounces (1/4 cup; 60 mL) of the batter to a small bowl and
    whisk in the cocoa powder until smooth and well combined (Figure
    16-37). This cocoa batter will be used to make the polka dots. Set
    aside.

[FIGURE 16-36 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-37 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-38 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-39 OMITTED]

 5. On a parchment-lined or silicone mat-lined half sheet pan, drop 1
    teaspoon (5 mL) of batter onto the prepared pan, keeping cookies
    at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) apart. Do not bake more than 4 to 6
    cookies at a time or they will harden before they can be rolled.

 6. Using a spoon or an offset spatula, spread the batter into a
    3-inch (7.5-cm) circle (Figure 16-38). Repeat this procedure for
    each cookie.

 7. Place the cocoa batter into a pastry bag with a small round tip.
    Pipe dots of cocoa batter randomly on each circle of batter
    (Figure 16-39).

 8. Bake for 6 to 9 minutes or until the cookies are light brown
    around the edges.

 9. Immediately, flip one cookie upside down using an offset spatula
    and roll it around the handle of a small wooden spoon, a small
    dowel rod, or a chopstick until it forms a tight cylinder (Figure
    16-40). Gently slide the pirouette off the spoon handle and place
    it on a rack to cool completely (Figure 16-41).

10. If the cookies become cool and harden before they can be rolled,
    return the pan to the oven for a few seconds to soften them.

TIP

Alternatively, the batter can
be thinly spread over a
stencil that has been cut
into various shapes and
then baked as described.

[FIGURE 16-40 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16-41 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]


REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What are hygroscopic sugars?

2. Why do cookies containing brown sugar, molasses, corn syrup, or honey become soft after baking?

3. How does the protein content of a flour affect a cookie's texture?

4. What is the mixing method used when making lady fingers or meringue cookies?

5. Name the eight categories of cookies.

6. Why is baking soda used to help make cookies browner and crisper?

7. Name the three basic mixing methods used in cookie preparation.

8. Why does cake flour produce a paler cookie?

9. How are wafer cookies or tuiles able to be formed into different shapes without breaking?

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Professional Profile

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Jenn Solloway-Malvitz

Chef Instructor

Fox Valley Technical College

Appleton, WI

Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?

Answer: My grandmother was in the restaurant business in San Francisco so I've been around a professional kitchen since I was five. It wasn't until I went to City College of San Francisco that I was encouraged to go into baking and pastry.

Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?

Answer: My pastry chef instructor at City College of San Francisco, Chef Henri Cochennec, saw in me abilities and talents that I didn't realize I had. He supported me and helped me in so many ways.

Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?

Answer: From the very beginning I loved working in baking and pastry. Baking to me is eatable art. My biggest challenge has always been a lack of time. There are not enough hours in the day to do what I want to do.

Question: When and where was your first practical experience in a professional baking setting?

Answer: My first job after school was pastry chef at a Sheraton Hotel in Phoenix. The property had five dining venues. To take on this type of responsibility and work--just out of school--was a huge step.

Question: How did this experience affect your later professional development?

Answer: I learned some valuable lessons there, many through hard knocks. I made a coconut macaroon cookie, drizzled with chocolate, that was used for the turndown service. It was beautiful but a lot of work. I had to make about 1000 of them each night--every night. I learned that just because you can do something doesn't mean you should do it!

Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?

Answer: I had the opportunity to work with Bradley Ogden and learned a lot from him while doing my internship. I also had the privilege of working with Annie Somerville at Greens at Fort Mason in San Francisco. From her I learned so much about the benefit of using whole, natural foods while working in a peaceful kitchen environment. I have really been blessed to work with these people.

Question: What would you list as your greatest rewards in your professional life?

Answer: I waited a long time to become a full-time chef instructor. For eight years I was an adjunct, running my company and doing teaching on the side. The opportunity to give back and share my knowledge with the students is the greatest reward. The responsibility that has been placed on me to teach Culinary and Pastry Arts is truly a blessing.

Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field?

Answer: Stamina, creativity, passion, and compassion are the four most important traits anyone entering this field needs. Any student who plans to make a career in this area needs to learn compassion. It is only through compassion that a manager can attract and keep good staff. And it is only with a top notch staff that any business can be competitive. Without creativity and passion your work goes flat.

Question: If there were one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?

Answer: You can never think that you are done learning. You can take a break but you can't stop. If you stop then you become stagnant and obsolete. Education is the power that yields creativity.
Table 16-1 Comparison Between a Chewy and Crispy Chocolate Chip
Cookie Recipe

CHEWY                                   CRISPY

4 ounces (115 g) unsalted butter,       9 ounces (255g) unsalted
softened                                butter, softened

4 ounces (115 g) solid vegetable
shortening

8 ounces (225 g) light brown sugar      3 ounces (85 g) light brown
                                        sugar

4 ounces (115 g) confectioners'         8 ounces (225 g) granulated
sugar                                   sugar

13 ounces (370 g) bread flour           13 ounces (370 g) bread flour

1 teaspoon (6 g) baking powder

1/4 teaspoon (1 g) baking soda          1 1/2 teaspoons (9 g) baking
                                        soda

1 teaspoon (6 g) salt                   1 teaspoon (6 g) salt

2 large eggs                            1 large egg

                                        1 large egg white

1 1/2 teaspoons (7.5 mL) vanilla        1 1/2 teaspoons (7.5 mL)
extract                                 vanilla extract

12 ounces (340 g) semisweet             12 ounces (340 g) semisweet
chocolate chips                         chocolate chips

Bake at 375[degrees]F                   Bake at 350[degrees]F
(190[degrees]C) for                     (175[degrees]C) for 12 to
10 to 12 minutes.                       14 minutes.

For a chewier cookie:                   For a crisper cookie:

Some solid vegetable shortening will    Using a fat with a low
decrease spread, producing a            melting point such as butter
chewier cookie.                         will cause more spread.

                                        High granulated sugar
                                        content enhances crispness.

The protein in the eggs will produce    One less egg decreases
a chewier cookie through the            chewiness.
coagulation of proteins.

Baking powder will help the cookie
to rise, producing a thicker cookie,
while a small amount of baking soda
neutralizes some of the acidity of
the brown sugar, allowing
some browning but not too much.

Bread flour is used to absorb more      Bread flour is used to absorb
water, reducing spread and              moisture for a drier,
increasing chewiness.                   crisper cookie.

Confectioners' sugar prevents           Replacing the liquid from the
spread resulting in a thicker           additional egg with an egg
cookie.                                 white will produce a drier,
                                        crisper cookie.

More brown sugar will keep the          A large amount of baking
cookie softer after baking.             soda will neutralize any
                                        acidity from the brown sugar
                                        and allow the cookie to brown
                                        and crisp.

                                        Making the cookies thinner
                                        and smaller will increase
                                        crispness.

Underbaking produces a chewier,         Baking at a lower temperature
softer cookie.                          for a longer time will allow
                                        more spread before the
                                        cookie sets, producing a
                                        crisper cookie.

Table 16-2 Desired Characteristics of Cookies Using Various Ingredients

USE                          CRISP        SOFT       CHEWY

High-protein flour          [check]                 [check]

Low-protein flour                       [check]

Eggs                                                [check]

Egg whites                  [check]

Less liquid                 [check]

More liquid                             [check]     [check]

Baking powder (does not                 [check]
neutralize acidity)

Baking soda (neutralizes    [check]
acidity)

Less granulated sugar                   [check]
and fat

More granulated sugar,                              [check]
less fat

More granulated sugar       [check]
and fat

Hygroscopic sugars                      [check]

Confectioners' sugar

Fats with high melting
points

Fats with low melting
points

USE                          BROWN        PALE

High-protein flour          [check]

Low-protein flour                       [check]

Eggs

Egg whites

Less liquid

More liquid

Baking powder (does not                 [check]
neutralize acidity)

Baking soda (neutralizes    [check]
acidity)

Less granulated sugar
and fat

More granulated sugar,
less fat

More granulated sugar
and fat

Hygroscopic sugars

Confectioners' sugar

Fats with high melting
points

Fats with low melting
points

                            INCREASED   DECREASED
USE                          SPREAD      SPREAD

High-protein flour                      [check]

Low-protein flour           [check]

Eggs

Egg whites

Less liquid                             [check]

More liquid                 [check]

Baking powder (does not                 [check]
neutralize acidity)

Baking soda (neutralizes    [check]
acidity)

Less granulated sugar
and fat

More granulated sugar,
less fat

More granulated sugar       [check]
and fat

Hygroscopic sugars

Confectioners' sugar                    [check]

Fats with high melting                  [check]
points

Fats with low melting       [check]
points

Note: The same ingredients may affect a cookie's characteristics in
different ways depending on the other ingredients added to them.
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Article Details
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Author:Sokol, Gail
Publication:About Professional Baking
Article Type:Recipe
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:9669
Previous Article:Chapter 15 Frostings.
Next Article:Chapter 17 Building blocks with sugar.
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