Chapter 16 Cookies.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
* Define a cookie.
* List the eight categories of cookies.
* Explain the three basic cookie mixing methods.
* Manipulate ingredients to attain desirable cookie characteristics.
* Prepare the recipes at the end of this chapter.
Memories of cookie jars full of homemade cookies always seem to evoke feelings of caring and love. Everyone loves cookies and there are about as many cookie recipes and varieties of cookies as there are personalities in people. Cookies can range anywhere from soft and chewy to crisp and crunchy.
Cookies are defined as a diverse group of small, sweet cakes or pastries that are described and categorized by how the dough is prepared and shaped for baking.
Cookies are similar to cakes in several respects. Just as with cakes, some categories of cookies rely on chemical leaveners to help them rise and some cookie recipes share certain of the same cake mixing methods, such as the creaming, one-bowl, and egg-foam methods.
Although there are clear-cut mixing methods for cakes, the same is not always true for cookies. There are so many varieties of cookies and preparation techniques that recipes can vary greatly even among cookies within the same category. It is this diversity of recipes within each category that makes cookies so much fun to prepare and so popular.
This chapter discusses the different categories of cookies and how to manipulate ingredients to attain desirable cookie characteristics.
Categories of Cookies
There are eight categories of cookies, but for the professional pastry chef, just a few of these categories can be mass produced easily without being too labor intensive. The eight categories of cookies are:
* drop cookies
* refrigerator cookies
* molded cookies
* bar cookies
* sheet cookies
* rolled cookies
* piped cookies
* wafer cookies
Drop cookies tend to be made from a soft, moist dough that is dropped from a spoon or ice cream scooper onto a sheet pan. Drop cookies need to be spaced out to allow them to spread during baking (e.g., Sour Cream Fudge Cookies).
Refrigerator cookies tend to be made from stiffer doughs. The dough is rolled into logs, or other shapes, then wrapped in plastic or parchment paper and chilled or frozen before being sliced and baked (e.g., Brown Sugar Pecan Refrigerator Cookies).
Molded cookies are made from a moderately stiff dough that can be molded and shaped. For example, molded cookie dough may be rolled into balls and coated with sugar or chopped nuts. The balls are then placed on a sheet pan and a weight of some sort, such as a flat-bottomed drinking glass, is pressed onto the balls to mold them into flattened circles. Other molded cookies may be left to bake as balls that are not flattened (e.g., Truffled Peanut Butter Cookies).
Bar cookies consist of a stiff dough formed into long, flattened, rectangular bars. These are baked and then cut into slices. Biscotti is a bar cookie that is sliced and baked again for a short time to make each slice crunchy (e.g., Espresso Almond Biscotti I and Espresso Almond Biscotti II).
Sheet cookies are one of the easiest and least labor intensive of any category. A batter, which can be thin or stiff, is made up and evenly spread into a pan with sides. Some recipes include a cookie or crumb base that is pressed onto the bottom of a pan before a batter is poured over it. After baking, the cookies are cut into squares or even triangles or diamonds. There are endless varieties (e.g., Fudge Brownies).
Rolled cookies tend to be made from stiff dough that, very often, needs chilling to harden the fat within the dough. The dough is then rolled out and cookie cutters are used to cut the dough into shapes before baking (e.g., Golden Coconut Cutouts).
Piped cookies are made of soft doughs that can be easily pushed through a pastry bag fitted with a pastry tip to form cookies of various shapes (e.g., Citrus Butter Rings and Chocolate Almond Lady Fingers).
Wafer cookies, also known as tuiles (French for "roof tiles"), are much more labor intensive. A thin batter, consisting of egg whites, sugar, flour, butter, and sometimes heavy cream, often referred to as a tulipe or stencil batter, is spread over stencils placed on a silicone baking mat or parchment-covered sheet pan or dropped from a spoon and spread into a circle. This stencil is carefully removed and the cookies are baked. The cookies retain their shape without spreading. They bake very quickly and must be monitored carefully so that they do not burn. While hot, they are very malleable and can be molded over cups, cut into shapes, or layered over a rolling pin to create curves and other shapes. As the cookie cools, the melted sugar within the batter recrystallizes, creating a very thin, crisp, delicate cookie. Often, wafer cookies are so thin they are translucent (e.g., Polka-Dotted Pirouettes).
There is another type of wafer cookie batter that spreads during baking. This type of batter contains corn syrup, brown sugar, butter, flour, and sometimes nuts. It is prepared on the stove and the batter is spooned onto sheet pans. Each mound of batter must be spaced out because the batter spreads. While the cookies are still warm, they may be trimmed or a cookie cutter can be used to cut out various shapes before the cookie cools and hardens. These cookies can also be molded around various objects such as bowls and wooden spoons.
Three Basic Cookie Mixing Methods
Cookies are really nothing more than small cakes, so the mixing methods for preparing cookies are very similar to those for mixing cakes (Chapter 14). These methods include the creaming method, the one-bowl method, and the egg-foam method.
Because there are so many variations of cookies, it is sometimes difficult to identify a mixing method within a specific category. For example, Chocolate Almond Lady Fingers are piped onto a sheet pan. They are prepared in a similar manner to a sponge cake in that they rely on beaten eggs, yolks, and/or egg whites for leavening. So how are they to be categorized? They are a piped cookie that uses the egg-foam method of mixing. (Note: Not all cookie recipes have a clearly defined mixing method.)
The Creaming Method
1. Cream fat and sugar until well combined in an electric mixer using the paddle attachment.
2. Add eggs gradually.
3. Blend in the dry ingredients until just combined.
4. Fold in solid ingredients such as nuts, chocolate chips, and raisins by hand using a rubber spatula or spoon.
The one-bowl method is the easiest mixing method for cakes and is also used successfully for cookies. All ingredients are placed in the bowl of an electric mixer and blended using the paddle attachment. Avoid overmixing the ingredients as this will cause gluten to develop. On the other hand, in recipes in which chewiness is a desirable characteristic, gluten development may be encouraged.
The One-Bowl Method
1. Place dry ingredients into the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment.
2. Combine liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients.
3. Fold in solid ingredients such as nuts, chocolate chips, or raisins by hand using a rubber spatula or spoon.
The egg-foam method used for cookies is similar to the egg-foam method used for cakes. Whole eggs, yolks, or whites are beaten to a foam using the whip attachment of an electric mixer and then folded gently into other ingredients. Care must be taken to maintain as much air as possible within the batter. Warmer eggs at room temperature make superior egg foams.
The Egg-Foam Method
1. Beat egg yolks and part of the sugar in an electric mixer using the paddle attachment until thick and light in color.
2. Blend dry ingredients into the egg yolk mixture.
3. Beat egg whites with the remaining sugar in the bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment until stiff peaks form.
4. Whisk a small portion of the egg whites into the yolk mixture to lighten it.
5. Fold the remaining egg whites into the batter using a rubber spatula.
Understanding the Characteristics of Cookies and How to Manipulate Them
Some bakers may prefer to tweak or fiddle with a recipe to make it their own unique version. Perhaps their customers crave a crisper chocolate chip cookie versus a softer version or a thicker cookie compared to a thinner one. How can a baker manipulate a recipe to produce cookie characteristics that are customized to his or her needs?
The answer lies in understanding what factors produce certain characteristics within a cookie. There is a certain amount of science in baking, and by understanding the role each ingredient plays, the baker can manipulate the ingredients to produce chosen characteristics in the final product. Example: Look at the chocolate chip cookie recipes in Table16-1. The recipe on the left produces a chewy cookie. The same recipe with a few minor changes in the ingredients on the right will produce a crisper version of the same cookie.
When describing characteristics of a cookie, desirable adjectives like "crisp," "soft," "chewy," "brown," "pale," "thin," and "thick" come to mind. Generally, cookies do not have only one characteristic such as "soft" or "crisp"; often they share many characteristics within the same type of cookie. The following discussion explores how these adjectives can be translated directly into a recipe using specific ingredients.
A crisp cookie is generally produced from a dough with little moisture or liquid in it. It also contains a large amount of granulated sugar and fat. Wafer cookies have more liquid batters but they contain high amounts of sugar and fat that help them to become crisp as they cool and the sugar re-crystallizes. Cookies baked with large amounts of butter versus shortening tend to spread out more, creating thinner and crisper cookies. This is because butter has a lower melting point. Flours containing a higher protein content absorb more liquid from the dough, thereby producing a crisper cookie. Keep the cookie thin. Rolled-out cookies should be no thicker than 1/4 inch (6 mm) and refrigerator cookies should be sliced very thin to produce the most crispness. Higher amounts of baking soda in a cookie dough will also produce a crisper cookie. The baking soda weakens gluten strands, causing the cookie to spread out more during baking. More spread means more surface area of the dough (batter) is exposed to the heat; this causes the moisture to evaporate and results in a crisper cookie.
Soft cookies and cakes have a similar texture. Using hygroscopic sugars such as brown sugar, molasses, corn syrup, and honey that easily absorb moisture from the air, produces a softer cookie much like cake. A lower granulated sugar and fat content will also soften a cookie. A batter that has some acidity in it will not spread out or brown as well and will produce a softer cookie. Adding acidic ingredients such as sour cream or yogurt helps toward this end. A cookie that is slightly underbaked will also be softer. Softer cookies are created when a low-protein flour is used because low-protein flours do not bind with or absorb as much water as a high-protein flour. This unbound moisture or water in the dough forms steam in the oven, causing the cookies to become puffy and soft.
Cookies made with high-protein flour are chewy because of the gluten development. Cookie doughs that contain greater amounts of liquid ingredients and granulated sugar with less fat also produce chewiness. Using more eggs causes the proteins to coagulate, yielding a chewier cookie.
The easiest way to increase the browning of a cookie is to increase the oven temperature or the baking time. Cookies containing only a small amount of corn syrup (containing glucose not fructose) brown at a lower temperature than granulated sugar. Browning occurs also when a higher proportion of baking soda is used. Acidic batters do not brown well and baking soda, a base, neutralizes the acidity of the dough, allowing the cookie to brown. Flours that are high in protein also produce cookies that brown better than flours lower in protein.
Underbaking is one way to prevent a cookie from browning. To prevent a cookie from coloring, acidity in the dough must be maintained. To maintain this acidity, the amount of baking soda is kept to a minimum while the amount of baking powder is increased. Baking powder, which already contains an acid, does not neutralize any acidity in the batter and browning is inhibited. The lower the protein content of a flour used in a cookie dough, the less browning occurs. Flours that are bleached and acidic, such as cake flour, also produce paler cookies.
Varying ingredients of a cookie dough can also affect how much the dough will spread in the oven.
A thinner cookie dough with a great deal of liquid in it produces a cookie with more spread. A high amount of granulated sugar also increases spread. Using a higher amount of baking soda weakens gluten strands, neutralizes acidity, and causes the cookie to spread. Flours with low protein produce more spread. For cookies using the creaming method of mixing, overcreaming creates more spread. Using a fat with a lower melting point, such as butter, produces a cookie with more spread. Baking at a lower oven temperature gives the dough more time to spread. Placing the dough on a greased cookie sheet also increases spread.
Using flours with high-protein contents decreases spread by binding with more liquid within the dough, creating more structure. When using the creaming method, cream the fat and sugar only until combined and until there are no lumps. The less air incorporated into the mixture, the less the cookie dough will puff up and spread out. Using confectioners' sugar instead of granulated sugar also decreases spread because confectioners' sugar contains cornstarch, which absorbs moisture and produces a drier, stiffer dough. Using baking powder, which leavens without decreasing acidity, reduces spread because acidic doughs set more quickly. Baking at higher temperatures reduces spread because the cookie dough sets faster. Placing the cookie dough on an ungreased sheet pan reduces spread. Thicker doughs using a fat with a higher melting point such as vegetable shortening produce a cookie with less spread. Chilling the dough before baking also decreases spread.
Table 16-2 illustrates how different ingredients can achieve desired characteristics.
Tips for Making Successful Cookies
* While they are still slightly warm, remove cookies from sheet pans that have been greased or parchment lined using an offset spatula.
* Do not overbake cookies. Often, cookies appear soft and underbaked after the allotted time in the oven, but they firm up as they cool.
* For cookies that are not meant to rise, it is important for the dough to remain the same shape after baking as it was when it went into the oven. Because little or no chemical leaveners are used in these recipes, it is important not to overmix the dough, which would cause air to be incorporated and the cookie to rise.
SOUR CREAM FUDGE COOKIES Makes approximately 3 dozen cookies (Note: To make giant cookies, use a 2-ounce [1/4 cup; 60-mL] ice cream scoop and bake the cookies for 2 minutes longer.) Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a drop cookie. * The creaming method of mixing provides air bubbles that, in conjunction with chemical leaveners, help the cookies to rise. * Baking soda neutralizes acidic ingredients like brown sugar and sour cream to create carbon dioxide gas for leavening. * Decreasing the acidity of the batter allows better browning. * A high-protein flour increases chewiness. * Sour cream adds richness and tenderness. * A higher quantity of sugar with less fat creates chewiness. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 6 1/4 ounces 1 1/4 cups 175 g 100% bread flour 1 teaspoon 4 g 2.3% baking powder 1 teaspoon 4 g 2.3% baking soda 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 1.7% salt 2 1/2 ounces 3/4 cup 70 g 40% Dutch processed cocoa powder 9 ounces 1 1/2 cups 255 g 146% semisweet cho- colate, chopped 3 ounces 85 g 49% unsweetened chocolate 3 ounces 6 tablespoons 85 g 49% unsalted butter, softened 5 1/2 ounces 3/4 cup 155 g 89% granulated sugar 5 1/2 ounces 3/4 cup 155 g 89% light brown sugar (packed, if measured by volume) 2 each 94 g 54% large eggs 4 ounces 7 tablespoons 115 g 66% sour cream 1 teaspoon 5 mL 2.9% pure vanilla extract 9 ounces 1 1/2 cups 255 g 146% semisweet chocolate chips nonstick cooking spray 837.2% Total Sour Cream Fudge Cookies Percentage 1. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C). Sift together the flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt, and cocoa powder into a bowl. Whisk the mixture and set it aside. 2. Melt the semisweet and unsweetened chocolate in a double boiler or in a bowl placed over a pot of simmering water. Cool to room temperature and set aside. 3. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter and sugars together on medium speed for approximately 1 to 2 minutes, or until the mixture becomes somewhat light (Figure 16-1). [FIGURE 16-1 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-2 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-3 OMITTED] 4. On low speed, add the eggs, one at a time, incorporating each one well before adding the next. Stop the machine occasionally and scrape down the sides of the bowl. 5. With the machine still on low speed, slowly add the cooled melted chocolate and blend well (Figure 16-2). Stop the mixer and scrape down the sides of the bowl with a rubber spatula. Add the sour cream and vanilla extract, blending well (Figure 16-3). 6. On low speed, add the flour and cocoa mixture and blend only until combined (Figure 16-4). Remove the bowl from the electric mixer and, using a rubber spatula or metal spoon, blend in the chocolate chips by hand. 7. Using a 1-ounce (1/8 cup; 30-mL) ice cream scoop, place scoopfuls of batter onto a sheet pan covered with parchment paper; space each scoopful 3 inches (7.5 cm) apart (Figure 16-5). With a moistened hand, flatten each cookie slightly (Figure 16-6). Bake for about 18 minutes. The fudge cookies will be soft but will firm up as they cool. Allow the cookies to cool on the sheet pan for 5 minutes before removing and placing them on cooling racks. [FIGURE 16-4 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-5 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-6 OMITTED] BROWN SUGAR PECAN REFRIGERATOR COOKIES Makes approximately 100 cookies Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a refrigerator cookie using the creaming method. * A small amount of brown sugar adds flavor without softening the cookie. * Confectioners' sugar prevents too much spread. * Baking soda neutralizes any acidity from the brown sugar, producing a browner and crisper cookie. * Using some bread flour reduces spread while producing more crispness. * Chilling the dough reduces spread. * Ground pecans add flavor. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 8 ounces 226 g 34% unsalted butter 3 3/4 1/2 cup 106 g 16% light brown sugar ounces (packed, if measuring by volume) 3 ounces 3/4 cup 85 g 13% confectioners' sugar 12 3/4 ounces 360 g 54% bread flour 2 1/2 cups 2 teaspoons 10 3/4 ounces 305 g 46% cake flour 2 1/2 cups 2 1/2 tablespoons 1 teaspoon 6 g 1% salt 1 teaspoon 4 g 1% baking soda 5 1/2 1 1/2 cups 160 g 24% pecans, finely ounces ground 2 each 94 g 14% large eggs 2 teaspoons 10 mL 1.5% vanilla extract 1 large egg white to be used as glue pecan halves for garnish 204% Total Brown Sugar Pecan Refrigerator Cookies percentage [FIGURE 16-7 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-8 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-9 OMITTED] 1. Preheat the oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter and sugars until the mixture just begins to lighten in color. 2. In another bowl, whisk together the flours, salt, baking soda, and pecans. Set aside. 3. Slowly add the eggs and vanilla to the butter and sugar mixture and mix on low speed until well blended. 4. On low speed, add the flour mixture, mixing until just combined. 5. Divide the dough in half. 6. Form each half into a log 13 inches (33 cm) long (Figure 16-7). Wrap each log in plastic wrap and chill for at least 3 hours or until firm. (Note: After step 6, the logs of dough can be wrapped airtight and stored in the freezer for 2 to 3 months. Thaw the dough in the refrigerator before slicing.) 7. Slice each log crosswise into 1/4-inch (6-mm) thick slices and place them on a sheet pan covered with parchment paper (Figure 16-8). Using a pastry brush, brush some egg white in the middle of each cookie. Place 1 pecan half on top of each cookie, pressing gently to adhere (Figure 16-9). 8. Bake the cookies for about 9 to 12 minutes or until the bottoms and edges are light brown. Allow the cookies to cool on the sheet pan for 5 minutes before removing and placing them on cooling racks. TRUFFLED PEANUT BUTTER COOKIES Makes approximately 40 3-inch (7.5-cm) cookies Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a molded cookie using the creaming method. * The high proportions of fat in the form of butter and peanut butter add to the tenderness of the cookie. * Equal parts of granulated and brown sugars balance out the crispness, so the cookie is firm, yet tender. * A high-protein flour binds with liquid in the dough, forming some chewiness and less spread. * The whole-wheat flour adds a nutty texture, playing up the peanut butter theme while adding to the nutritional value. * The addition of baking soda neutralizes the acidity in the brown sugar, resulting in better browning. * Adding a larger quantity of baking powder helps the cookies to puff up and rise. * Chilling the dough before baking prevents spread, forming a thicker cookie. STEP A: TRUFFLE FILLING MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 8 ounces 1 cup 240 mL heavy cream 24 ounces 4 cups 680 g semisweet chocolate, finely chopped 1 teaspoon 5 mL vanilla extract 1. In a heavy saucepan, bring the cream to a boil. Remove it from heat. 2. Add the chocolate to the cream and stir the mixture gently with a whisk until the chocolate melts. Whisk in the vanilla and blend well. 3. Pour the truffle mixture into a 15-inch by 10-inch (38-cm by 25-cm) rectangular pan with sides lined with foil (Figure 16-10). Chill the truffle mixture for approximately 2 hours or until it is very firm. 4. Remove the pan from the refrigerator and pull the foil with the truffle mixture out of the pan and place on a work surface. Using a 1 3/4-inch (4.5-cm) fluted, round cookie cutter, cut out as many rounds as possible (Figure 16-11). Reserve the rounds on a parchment-lined sheet pan. Chill the rounds until needed. [FIGURE 16-10 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-11 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-12 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-13 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-14 OMITTED] STEP B: PEANUT BUTTER COOKIES MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 8 ounces 225 g 58% unsalted butter at room temperature 7 ounces 3/4 cup 200 g 51% granulated sugar 2 1/2 tablespoons 7 1/2 1 cup 212 g 54% light brown sugar ounces (packed, if measuring by volume) 9 ounces 1 cup 255 g 65% smooth peanut butter 2 tablespoons 10 1/4 2 cups 290 g 74% bread flour ounces 1 tablespoon 3 1/2 3/4 cup 100 g 26% whole-wheat flour ounces 1 tablespoon 12 g 3.1% baking powder 1 teaspoon 4 g 1.0% baking soda 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 0.8% salt 2 each 94 g 24% large eggs 2 teaspoons 10 mL 2.6% vanilla extract 6 ounces 1 1/4 cups 175 g 45% salted, roasted peanuts granulated sugar for rolling 404.5% Total Truffled Peanut Butter Cookies (Step B) percentage 1. Preheat the oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter, sugars, and peanut butter for 1 to 2 minutes or until the mixture lightens in color. 2. In another bowl, thoroughly whisk together the flours, baking powder, baking soda, and salt; set the mixture aside. 3. On low speed, add the eggs, one at a time, to the peanut butter mixture, blending to incorporate one egg before adding the next. Add the vanilla extract. 4. On low speed, add the flour mixture to the peanut butter and blend until just combined. Add the peanuts. Scrape the dough into a large bowl. Cover and chill for at least 2 hours or overnight. 5. Using a 1-ounce (30-mL) ice cream scoop, scoop the dough into rough ball shapes. Smooth each ball by rolling it between the palms of your hands. Roll each ball into a bowl of granulated sugar and place them spaced 2 inches (5 cm) apart on a parchment lined sheet pan (Figure 16-12). 6. Using the flat bottom of a drinking glass or a solid measuring cup, flatten each ball into a circle (Figure 16-13). 7. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes or until the cookies are very light brown. Do not overbake. 8. Remove the cookies from the oven and immediately place 1 of the reserved chocolate truffle disks in the center of each cookie, pressing down slightly to help them adhere (Figure 16-14). Allow the cookies to cool for 5 minutes before removing them from the sheet pan and cooling on racks. ESPRESSO ALMOND BISCOTTI I Makes approximately 36 to 40 biscotti Biscotti in Italian means "twice baked." First, a log of dough is baked and sliced. The slices are then baked again for a shorter time just to lightly toast them. Traditionally, biscotti cookies are so hard that the only way to eat them without breaking teeth is to dip them into wine or coffee. The first biscotti recipe results in a more traditional, hard biscotti whereas the second biscotti recipe that follows results in a crisp, yet more tender and crumbly cookie that will not break teeth. Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a bar cookie that is twice baked using the one-bowl method. * Very little liquid in the dough produces crispness. * A high-protein flour absorbs any liquid, creating a crisper cookie. * A simple one-bowl method of mixing is used. * Coarsely ground coffee beans and lemon zest produce a cookie that mimics the beverage for which this cookie is named. Orange zest is added for extra citrus flavor. * A small amount of baking powder is used for leavening and a larger amount of baking soda is used to neutralize any acidity, which aids browning and crisping. * Little fat in the dough produces a hard cookie. * The crisp texture is beneficial in that whole almonds can be used to produce attractive slices that will not crumble when sliced. * Cutting the logs into thinner slices will produce a crisper biscotti when baked again. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 10 ounces 2 cups 285 g 80% bread flour 2 1/2 1/2 cup 70 g 20% whole wheat flour ounces 3 3/4 1/2 cup 85 g 24% light brown sugar ounces (packed, if measuring by volume) 3 1/2 1/2 cup 100 g 28% granulated sugar ounces 1 teaspoon 6 g 1.7% grated lemon zest 1 teaspoon 6 g 1.7% grated orange zest 2 tablespoons 10 g 2.8% instant espresso powder 1/4 ounce 2 tablespoons 10 g 2.8% coffee beans, coarsely ground 1 teaspoon 4 g 1.1% baking soda 1/2 teaspoon 2 g 0.6% baking powder 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 0.8% salt 3 each 140 g 39% large eggs 1/2 fluid 1 tablespoon 15 mL 4.2% vegetable oil ounces 1 teaspoon 5 mL 1.4% vanilla extract 1/2 teaspoon 2.5 mL 0.7% almond extract 5 ounces 1 cup 140 g 39% whole natural almonds (with the skin on), lightly toasted 1 teaspoon 5 mL 1.4% egg wash, as needed granulated sugar for sprinkling 249.2% Total Espresso Almond Biscotti I percentage 1. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C). In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, blend the flours, sugars, the zest, espresso powder, ground coffee beans, baking soda, baking powder, and salt on low speed until combined. 2. On low speed, add the eggs, one at a time, then the oil followed by the vanilla and almond extracts. Mix just enough to form a dough. 3. Using a rubber spatula or a spoon, blend in the almonds by hand. 4. Form the dough into two logs approximately 15 inches (37.5 cm) long by 3 1/2 inches (8.7 cm) wide, and place them on a parchment- covered sheet pan, leaving 4 inches (10 cm) between them. 5. Brush the logs with egg wash and sprinkle each one generously with granulated sugar. Bake for 30 minutes or until light brown. 6. Remove the logs from the oven and allow them to cool in the pan for 5 to 10 minutes. Using a serrated knife, cut each log crosswise, on the diagonal, into slices 1/4 inch (6 mm) thick and place the slices cut-side down back on the baking sheet. 7. Return the biscotti to the oven for 6 to 8 minutes. Turn the biscotti over and return them to the oven for another 6 to 8 minutes. Cool. TIP This particular recipe for biscotti keeps for several weeks in an airtight container. ESPRESSO ALMOND BISCOTTI II Makes approximately 40 biscotti Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a bar cookie that is twice baked using the one-bowl method. * Changing from bread flour to all-purpose flour decreases gluten formation, making a more crumbly cookie. * Adding some brown sugar along with granulated sugar attracts moisture to produce a softer cookie. * Beating the eggs and sugar until light creates air in the dough, producing a lighter, less dense cookie, which aids leavening. * An increased amount of baking powder provides leavening while decreasing spread and browning, producing a thicker cookie. * A small amount of baking soda is used to neutralize some acidity and provide some leavening. * Because the biscotti are so tender, using slivered almonds instead of whole prevents crumbling the biscotti as they are sliced. * A higher oven temperature causes the dough to set faster, thereby producing a thicker cookie. * Adding a large quantity of oil coats gluten strands and produces a tender biscotti. * Cutting the logs into thicker slices also produces a more tender biscotti. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 16 1/2 3 1/2 cups 470 g 78% all-purpose flour ounces 4 3/4 1 cup 135 g 22% whole wheat flour ounces 2 tablespoons 10 g 1.7% instant espresso powder 1/4 ounce 2 tablespoons 10 g 1.7% coffee beans, coarsely ground 1/4 ounce 2 teaspoons 8 g 1.3% baking powder 1/2 teaspoon 2 g 0.3% baking soda 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 0.5% salt 11 ounces 2 1/2 cups 310 g 51% slivered almonds 5 1/2 3/4 cup 155 g 26% light brown sugar ounces (packed, if measuring by volume) 3 1/2 1/2 cup 100 g 17% granulated sugar ounces 1 teaspoon 6 g 1% grated lemon zest 1 teaspoon 6 g 1% grated orange zest 4 each 188 g 31% large eggs 8 fluid 1 cup 240 mL 40% vegetable oil ounces 1/2 teaspoon 2.5 mL 0.4% vanilla extract 1 teaspoon 5 mL 0.8% almond extract 1 teaspoon 5 mL 0.8% egg wash, as needed 274.5% Total Espresso Almond Biscotti II percentage [FIGURE 16-15 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-16 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-17 OMITTED] 1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C). In a mixing bowl, whisk together the flours, espresso powder, coffee beans, baking powder, baking soda, salt, and almonds. Set the mixture aside. TIP If time is short, the slices can be placed upright (not on their sides) and baked once for 6 to 8 minutes. 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, blend the two sugars, the zests, and the eggs on medium speed until the mixture is slightly thickened. 3. On low speed, gradually add the oil, vanilla, and almond extracts. 4. On low speed, add the dry ingredients and blend until just combined. 5. Divide the dough in half and form each half into a log approximately 15 inches (37.5 cm) long by 3 1/2 inches (8.7 cm) wide. Place each log onto a sheet pan covered with parchment paper. The logs will rise and spread as they bake. 6. Brush each log with egg wash using a pastry brush and generously sprinkle each one with granulated sugar (Figure 16-15). 7. Bake the logs for approximately 30 to 32 minutes or until they are firm but have little color. The top of the logs should look crackled. 8. Allow the logs to cool for 5 to 10 minutes and then cut each log crosswise on the diagonal into 3/4-inch (2-cm) slices using a serrated knife (Figure 16-16). Place the slices cut side down on the same sheet pan. 9. Return the slices to the oven and bake for 6 to 8 minutes on each side (Figure 16-17). Cool completely. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] FUDGE BROWNIES Makes one 11-inch by 15-inch (27.5-cm by 37.5-cm) pan or two 8-inch (20-cm) square pans Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a sheet cookie. * Beating the eggs and sugar incorporates air into the batter, which works in tandem with the baking powder for leavening power. * Brown sugar increases moistness because of its hygroscopic qualities, producing a fudgy brownie. * Bread flour, a high-protein flour, increases chewiness. * Slightly underbaking brownies increases chewiness. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 12 ounces 340 g 166% unsalted butter 5 ounces 145 g 71% unsweetened chocolate, coarsely chopped 5 ounces 145 g 71% semisweet chocolate, coarsely chopped 2 tablespoons 10 g 4.9% instant coffee powder 3 1/2 3/4 cup 100 g 49% all-purpose flour ounces 3 3/4 3/4 cup 105 g 51% bread flour ounces 1/2 teaspoon 2 g 1% baking powder 1/2t easpoon 3 g 1.5% salt 15 ounces 2 cups 425 g 207% light brown sugar (packed, if measuring by volume) 14 1/2 2 cups 410 g 200% granulated sugar ounces 8 each 376 g 183% large eggs 1 1/2 7 1/2 mL 3.7% vanilla extract teaspoons 7 ounces 2 cups 200 g 98% walnuts, chopped 6 ounces 1 cup 170 g 83% semisweet chocolate, coarsely chopped 1190.1% Total Fudge Brownies percentage 1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Grease an 11-inch by 15-inch (27.5-cm by 37.5-cm) rectangular pan or two 8-inch (20-cm) square pans. Set aside. 2. In a bowl placed over a pot of simmering water, melt the butter, the two chocolates, and the coffee. Set the mixture aside to cool. 3. In a mixing bowl, whisk the two flours, the baking powder, and the salt. Set aside. 4. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, beat the sugars on low speed and gradually add the eggs and vanilla. Beat at medium speed until well blended and slightly thickened. 5. On low speed, slowly add the melted chocolate and butter mixture to the sugar and eggs. Blend the mixture until well combined (Figure 16-18). 6. Blend in the flour mixture on low speed and mix only until blended. Remove the bowl from the mixer. Blend in the chocolate and the walnuts by hand using a rubber spatula or spoon until just combined (Figure 16-19). 7. Pour the batter into the prepared pan and spread it evenly (Figure 16-20). 8. Bake for 32 to 35 minutes or until the brownies are set and firm on top but still slightly soft in the center. (Note: A cake tester inserted into a brownie will not come out clean.) 9. Cool completely and chill the brownies for 1 hour in a refrigerator to make cutting them into bars easier. [FIGURE 16-18 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-19 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-20 OMITTED] GOLDEN COCONUT CUTOUTS Makes approximately 3 1/2 dozen cookies Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a rolled cookie using the creaming method. * Using confectioners' sugar creates less spread. * Using some low-protein flour creates tenderness. * Rolling the dough thin produces a crisp cookie. * This dough resembles a pate sucree with coconut added. * Less liquid in the dough contributes to crispness as does a high sugar and fat content. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 7 ounces 1 1/2 cups 200 g 63% all-purpose flour 4 ounces 1 cup 115 g 37% cake flour 1/2 teaspoon 1 g 0.3% ground cinnamon 1/4 teaspoon 1 g 0.3% salt 3 ounces 1 cup 85 g 27% shredded, sweetened coconut, lightly toasted and then finely ground in a food processor 8 ounces 225 g 71% unsalted butter, softened 4 ounces 1 cup 115 g 37% confectioners' sugar, sifted 1 each 19 g 6% large egg yolk 1 teaspoon 5 mL 2% coconut extract extra confectioners' sugar, for dusting extra all-purpose flour, for dusting 1 each 28 g 9% large egg white 1 1/2 1/2cup 40 g 13% shredded, sweetened ounces coconut, coarsely chopped in a food processor, not toasted 265.2% Total Golden Coconut Cutouts percentage 1. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (163 [degrees]C). In a bowl, sift together the flours, cinnamon, and salt. Add the ground, toasted coconut and mix until well blended. Set aside. 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter and sugar on medium speed until light. Do not overcream. Add the egg yolk and the extract to the butter mixture (Figure 16-21). 3. On low speed, add the flour and coconut mixture, mixing until just incorporated. 4. Gather the dough into a ball. Wrap it in plastic wrap and chill for 2 to 3 hours or until it is firm enough to roll out (Figure 16-22). The dough can be placed in the freezer for a short period of time to speed up the chilling process. [FIGURE 16-21 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-22 OMITTED] 5. Cut the dough in half, placing one half back into the refrigerator. On a surface that has been lightly dusted with flour and confectioners' sugar, roll out the dough to a 1/4-inch (6-mm) thickness. Using a scalloped or fluted, round, 3-inch (7.5-cm) cookie cutter, cut out shapes (Figure 16-23). Cookie cutters in different shapes also work. Place the cookies on parchment-lined sheet pans. Repeat rolling and cutting the other half of the dough. 6. Using a pastry brush, glaze each cookie with the reserved egg white and sprinkle with some of the coarsely chopped untoasted coconut (Figure 16-24). Bake for 10 to 14 minutes or until lightly browned. [FIGURE 16-23 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-24 OMITTED] CITRUS BUTTER RINGS Makes 18 ring cookies, approximately 3 inches (7.5 cm) in diameter Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a piped cookie using the creaming method. * The creaming method of mixing produces a cookie that is light in texture while not overcreaming to ensure less spread. * A low-protein flour is used for tenderness and to prevent overbrowning. * An egg white dries out the dough, adding crispness and little color. * Confectioners' sugar and cornstarch both prevent spread. * No chemical leavener is used, so these cookies should look the same size going in the oven as they do coming out. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 7 ounces 200 g 118% unsalted butter, softened 2 ounces 1/2 cup 55 g 32% confectioners' sugar, sifted 6 ounces 1 1/2 cups 170 g 100% cake flour 1 1/4 1/4 cup 35 g 21% cornstarch ounces 1 each 28 g 16% large egg white 1/2 fluid 1 tablespoon 15 mL 9% orange juice, no pulp ounce 1 teaspoon 5 mL 3% lemon extract 1/2 teaspoon 2.5 mL 1.5% vanilla extract 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 2% lime zest 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 2% lemon zest confectioners' sugar for dusting 304% Total Citrus Butter Rings percentage [FIGURE 16-25 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-26 OMITTED] 1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter and sugar only until they form a smooth paste. 2. In another bowl, sift together the flour and cornstarch. Set aside. 3. On low speed, add the egg, orange juice, extracts, and zests to the butter and sugar mixture. Mix until well combined. 4. Slowly add the flour mixture. Mix only until a dough forms. 5. Place the dough into a large pastry bag fitted with a medium star tip. 6. Pipe the dough into 3-inch (7.5-cm) diameter ring shapes onto a parchment-lined sheet pan (Figure 16-25). 7. Bake the rings for 15 minutes or until the cookies are set and the bottoms are light brown. The cookies should be pale and have little color. 8. Cool and dust each cookie with confectioners' sugar (Figure 16-26). CHOCOLATE ALMOND LADY FINGERS Makes approximately 2 1/2 dozen lady fingers [FIGURE 16-27 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-28 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-29 OMITTED] Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a piped cookie using the egg-foam method. * Beating warm eggs gives better volume. * The egg-foam mixing method is used to produce a light, sponge cake-like cookie. * Lady fingers follow the mixing method similar to an egg foam cake. * Air beaten into the eggs leavens the cookie. * An acid like cream of tartar provides stability to the meringue. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 3 each 57 g 143% large egg yolks 1 3/4 1/4 cup 50 g 125% granulated sugar ounces 1 1/4 1/3 cup 40 g 100% cake flour ounces 1 g 1% pinch salt 2 tablespoons 16 g 40% Dutch processed cocoa powder 1 teaspoon 5 mL 13% vanilla extract 1/2 teaspoon 2.5 mL 6% almond extract 3 each 84 g 210% large egg whites, room temperature 1/4 teaspoon 0.5 g 1% cream of tartar 2 ounces 1/4 cup 55 g 138% granulated sugar sliced almonds for sprinkling confectioners' sugar for dusting 777.3% Total Chocolate Lady Fingers percentage 1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). On a sheet pan covered with parchment paper, using a pencil and ruler, draw 2 lines down the length of the sheet pan, spaced 3 inches (7.5 cm) apart (Figure 16-27). Directly below those, make two more lines 3 inches (7.5 cm) apart 1 inch away from the first lines. Turn the side with the pencil marks facing down so the marks are now on the underside but can still be seen through the paper (Figure 16-28). Set aside. 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, mix the egg yolks and sugar on medium-high speed until the eggs turn pale yellow and appear thickened (Figure 16-29). This takes about 5 minutes. 3. In another bowl, sift the cake flour, salt, and cocoa powder together. Whisk to blend. 4. On low speed, blend in the flour and cocoa into the egg yolks and then add the extracts until they are well combined. Transfer the batter to a large mixing bowl (Figure 16-30). The batter will be thick. 5. In a clean, dry bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment, beat the whites on high until foamy. Add the cream of tartar and continue beating until soft peaks form. 6. Slowly add the 2 ounces (1/4 cup; 55 g) granulated sugar and beat until stiff peaks form (Figure 16-31). Do not overbeat. [FIGURE 16-30 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-31 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-32 OMITTED] 7. Using a rubber spatula, scoop 1/3 of the whites on top of the chocolate batter and whisk in thoroughly to lighten (Figure 16-32). 8. Scoop the remaining whites onto the chocolate batter and, using a rubber spatula, gently fold the whites in until they are well combined (Figure 16-33). Do not overfold. 9. Take the prepared sheet pan and place it so that the long side is facing you. Working quickly, scoop half of the batter into a large pastry bag with 1/2-inch (1.25-cm) opening and squeeze out 3-inch (7.5-cm) long finger shapes from one line to the next, like the rungs of a ladder, spacing them approximately 1 inch apart using the pencil marks as a guide (Figure 16-34). Refill the bag and repeat forming lines of batter between the second set of lines. 10. Sprinkle each line of batter with sliced almonds and dust with confectioners' sugar (Figure 16-35). 11. Bake the lady fingers for 12 minutes or until they are puffed and cooked through. Remove them from the oven and cool on racks. Peel each lady finger off gently using an offset spatula. TIP If the lady fingers will not be used immediately they can be cooled and kept right on the parchment paper and stored in an airtight plastic container for 2 to 3 days at room temperature. Keeping them on the parchment paper in an airtight container prevents them from drying out and maintains their spongy texture. [FIGURE 16-33 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-34 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-35 OMITTED] POLKA-DOTTED PIROUETTES Makes about 3 dozen pirouette cookies Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a wafer cookie. * High sugar and high fat create a crisp cookie. * The cookies are quite malleable when hot and set as they cool, because sugar melts in the oven and recrystallizes upon cooling, forming a crisper cookie. * The use of egg whites, which act as drying agents, cause the cookies to be crisp. * Wafer cookies should be baked in small numbers to give the baker enough time to roll each cookie into a cylinder before they become too hard. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 4 each 112 g 149% large egg whites 6 3/4 1 cup 190 g 253% superfine sugar ounces 2 3/4 2/3 cup 75 g 100% cake flour, sifted ounces 2 ounces 4 tablespoons 57 g 76% unsalted butter, melted 1 teaspoon 5 mL 7% vanilla extract 2 teaspoons 5 g 7% unsweetened cocoa powder, sifted 592% Total Polka-Dotted Pirouettes percentage 1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, combine the egg whites and the sugar. Mix on medium speed until foamy. 2. On low speed, add the flour and mix until well combined. 3. Slowly add the melted butter and vanilla extract (Figure 16-36). 4. Remove 2 ounces (1/4 cup; 60 mL) of the batter to a small bowl and whisk in the cocoa powder until smooth and well combined (Figure 16-37). This cocoa batter will be used to make the polka dots. Set aside. [FIGURE 16-36 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-37 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-38 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-39 OMITTED] 5. On a parchment-lined or silicone mat-lined half sheet pan, drop 1 teaspoon (5 mL) of batter onto the prepared pan, keeping cookies at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) apart. Do not bake more than 4 to 6 cookies at a time or they will harden before they can be rolled. 6. Using a spoon or an offset spatula, spread the batter into a 3-inch (7.5-cm) circle (Figure 16-38). Repeat this procedure for each cookie. 7. Place the cocoa batter into a pastry bag with a small round tip. Pipe dots of cocoa batter randomly on each circle of batter (Figure 16-39). 8. Bake for 6 to 9 minutes or until the cookies are light brown around the edges. 9. Immediately, flip one cookie upside down using an offset spatula and roll it around the handle of a small wooden spoon, a small dowel rod, or a chopstick until it forms a tight cylinder (Figure 16-40). Gently slide the pirouette off the spoon handle and place it on a rack to cool completely (Figure 16-41). 10. If the cookies become cool and harden before they can be rolled, return the pan to the oven for a few seconds to soften them. TIP Alternatively, the batter can be thinly spread over a stencil that has been cut into various shapes and then baked as described. [FIGURE 16-40 OMITTED] [FIGURE 16-41 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
1. What are hygroscopic sugars?
2. Why do cookies containing brown sugar, molasses, corn syrup, or honey become soft after baking?
3. How does the protein content of a flour affect a cookie's texture?
4. What is the mixing method used when making lady fingers or meringue cookies?
5. Name the eight categories of cookies.
6. Why is baking soda used to help make cookies browner and crisper?
7. Name the three basic mixing methods used in cookie preparation.
8. Why does cake flour produce a paler cookie?
9. How are wafer cookies or tuiles able to be formed into different shapes without breaking?
Fox Valley Technical College
Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?
Answer: My grandmother was in the restaurant business in San Francisco so I've been around a professional kitchen since I was five. It wasn't until I went to City College of San Francisco that I was encouraged to go into baking and pastry.
Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?
Answer: My pastry chef instructor at City College of San Francisco, Chef Henri Cochennec, saw in me abilities and talents that I didn't realize I had. He supported me and helped me in so many ways.
Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?
Answer: From the very beginning I loved working in baking and pastry. Baking to me is eatable art. My biggest challenge has always been a lack of time. There are not enough hours in the day to do what I want to do.
Question: When and where was your first practical experience in a professional baking setting?
Answer: My first job after school was pastry chef at a Sheraton Hotel in Phoenix. The property had five dining venues. To take on this type of responsibility and work--just out of school--was a huge step.
Question: How did this experience affect your later professional development?
Answer: I learned some valuable lessons there, many through hard knocks. I made a coconut macaroon cookie, drizzled with chocolate, that was used for the turndown service. It was beautiful but a lot of work. I had to make about 1000 of them each night--every night. I learned that just because you can do something doesn't mean you should do it!
Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?
Answer: I had the opportunity to work with Bradley Ogden and learned a lot from him while doing my internship. I also had the privilege of working with Annie Somerville at Greens at Fort Mason in San Francisco. From her I learned so much about the benefit of using whole, natural foods while working in a peaceful kitchen environment. I have really been blessed to work with these people.
Question: What would you list as your greatest rewards in your professional life?
Answer: I waited a long time to become a full-time chef instructor. For eight years I was an adjunct, running my company and doing teaching on the side. The opportunity to give back and share my knowledge with the students is the greatest reward. The responsibility that has been placed on me to teach Culinary and Pastry Arts is truly a blessing.
Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field?
Answer: Stamina, creativity, passion, and compassion are the four most important traits anyone entering this field needs. Any student who plans to make a career in this area needs to learn compassion. It is only through compassion that a manager can attract and keep good staff. And it is only with a top notch staff that any business can be competitive. Without creativity and passion your work goes flat.
Question: If there were one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?
Answer: You can never think that you are done learning. You can take a break but you can't stop. If you stop then you become stagnant and obsolete. Education is the power that yields creativity.
Table 16-1 Comparison Between a Chewy and Crispy Chocolate Chip Cookie Recipe CHEWY CRISPY 4 ounces (115 g) unsalted butter, 9 ounces (255g) unsalted softened butter, softened 4 ounces (115 g) solid vegetable shortening 8 ounces (225 g) light brown sugar 3 ounces (85 g) light brown sugar 4 ounces (115 g) confectioners' 8 ounces (225 g) granulated sugar sugar 13 ounces (370 g) bread flour 13 ounces (370 g) bread flour 1 teaspoon (6 g) baking powder 1/4 teaspoon (1 g) baking soda 1 1/2 teaspoons (9 g) baking soda 1 teaspoon (6 g) salt 1 teaspoon (6 g) salt 2 large eggs 1 large egg 1 large egg white 1 1/2 teaspoons (7.5 mL) vanilla 1 1/2 teaspoons (7.5 mL) extract vanilla extract 12 ounces (340 g) semisweet 12 ounces (340 g) semisweet chocolate chips chocolate chips Bake at 375[degrees]F Bake at 350[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) for (175[degrees]C) for 12 to 10 to 12 minutes. 14 minutes. For a chewier cookie: For a crisper cookie: Some solid vegetable shortening will Using a fat with a low decrease spread, producing a melting point such as butter chewier cookie. will cause more spread. High granulated sugar content enhances crispness. The protein in the eggs will produce One less egg decreases a chewier cookie through the chewiness. coagulation of proteins. Baking powder will help the cookie to rise, producing a thicker cookie, while a small amount of baking soda neutralizes some of the acidity of the brown sugar, allowing some browning but not too much. Bread flour is used to absorb more Bread flour is used to absorb water, reducing spread and moisture for a drier, increasing chewiness. crisper cookie. Confectioners' sugar prevents Replacing the liquid from the spread resulting in a thicker additional egg with an egg cookie. white will produce a drier, crisper cookie. More brown sugar will keep the A large amount of baking cookie softer after baking. soda will neutralize any acidity from the brown sugar and allow the cookie to brown and crisp. Making the cookies thinner and smaller will increase crispness. Underbaking produces a chewier, Baking at a lower temperature softer cookie. for a longer time will allow more spread before the cookie sets, producing a crisper cookie. Table 16-2 Desired Characteristics of Cookies Using Various Ingredients USE CRISP SOFT CHEWY High-protein flour [check] [check] Low-protein flour [check] Eggs [check] Egg whites [check] Less liquid [check] More liquid [check] [check] Baking powder (does not [check] neutralize acidity) Baking soda (neutralizes [check] acidity) Less granulated sugar [check] and fat More granulated sugar, [check] less fat More granulated sugar [check] and fat Hygroscopic sugars [check] Confectioners' sugar Fats with high melting points Fats with low melting points USE BROWN PALE High-protein flour [check] Low-protein flour [check] Eggs Egg whites Less liquid More liquid Baking powder (does not [check] neutralize acidity) Baking soda (neutralizes [check] acidity) Less granulated sugar and fat More granulated sugar, less fat More granulated sugar and fat Hygroscopic sugars Confectioners' sugar Fats with high melting points Fats with low melting points INCREASED DECREASED USE SPREAD SPREAD High-protein flour [check] Low-protein flour [check] Eggs Egg whites Less liquid [check] More liquid [check] Baking powder (does not [check] neutralize acidity) Baking soda (neutralizes [check] acidity) Less granulated sugar and fat More granulated sugar, less fat More granulated sugar [check] and fat Hygroscopic sugars Confectioners' sugar [check] Fats with high melting [check] points Fats with low melting [check] points Note: The same ingredients may affect a cookie's characteristics in different ways depending on the other ingredients added to them.
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|Publication:||About Professional Baking|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2006|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 15 Frostings.|
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