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Chapter 16: International air travel basics.

SUMMARY

There are many differences between domestic and international air travel. Airport areas, agency appointing bodies, baggage allowance, check-in time, and pet acceptance are just a few. International airfares are established through collaboration between the airline, origin and destination countries, and the IATA. International air travelers appreciate a travel professional who is well versed in and willing to explain the various differences the client will encounter while traveling. It is also very important that travel professionals understand international fare construction and various pricing techniques. A client who feels that his travel counselor is using all of the applicable tools at his disposal to obtain the best airfare will return to this counselor again and again.

OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this chapter, you should be able to:

* explain the differences between domestic and international air travel.

* identify the IATA Traffic Conference Areas.

* convert 12-hour time to 24-hour time and vice versa.

* explain the effect the IDL has on travel.

* calculate time comparison.

* calculate elapsed flying time.

* identify many of the major international city, airport and airline codes.

KEY TERMS

24-hour clock

Traffic Conference Areas

TRAVEL DIFFERENCES

There are many similarities between international air travel and what you have already learned about domestic air travel. Unfortunately, there are just as many differences. Perhaps the easiest way to learn about the differences is to compare each feature individually.

1. Airports. Although each domestic airport is different in design and layout, they seem somewhat familiar to most travelers. U.S. airports in international gateway and hub cities may be formidable, especially to inexperienced travelers. Each international airport bears little resemblance to others, even in the same country. Within the airport, security may be more visible; it is not uncommon to see armed security guards patrolling the area. Customs, immigration, passport control, and duty-free shops are found only in international airports. The national airline in many foreign countries is given the preferred gates and check-in areas, unlike U.S. airports.

2. Agency appointing body. As you learned in Chapter 5, most U.S. travel agencies obtain ARC appointment, which is in essence, approval to sell ARC-member airlines. ARC's appointment includes both domestic and international airlines. Many travel agencies also obtain International Airlines Travel Agency Network (IATAN) appointments as well. For travel agencies located outside of the United States, all appointments are handled by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).

3. Baggage allowance. Most domestic airlines allow two checked suitcases per passenger. The allowable weight of each suitcase varies among airlines, but generally each suitcase must weigh under 70 pounds. On domestic airlines, suitcases must also comply with a size limitation, usually 70 inches (length plus width plus height). Internationally, each suitcase is generally limited to less than 70 pounds (some carriers use kilos), but this can vary widely depending on airline. The length plus width plus height cannot usually exceed 107 inches.

4. Check-in time. Domestically, most airlines recommend that passengers check in no less than one hour prior to flight time. On international flights, check-in may be required at least two hours before the flight.

5. Commission. Almost all U.S. airlines currently pay travel agencies a 5 percent commission on both domestic and international air travel. Most of these airlines also cap agency commission as follows: $50 maximum on one-way trips, $100 maximum on round-, circle, and open-jaw trips. International airlines typically pay a 5 or 8 percent commission, with or without caps; however, a few international airlines pay a 10 percent commission.

6. Connection time. On domestic connection service, a change of planes must be scheduled in under four hours. A domestic connection that exceeds four hours becomes a stopover, and the fare is usually higher. An international connection must take place in less than 24 hours; more than 24 hours is considered a stopover and the airfare may be increased.

7. Equipment. To remain cost effective, most domestic flights use narrow-body equipment and offer first-class and coach-class service. Wide-body aircraft are used on transcontinental flights and heavily traveled routes. Internationally, many narrow-body aircraft offer only one class of service. During high season, wide-body equipment is used more frequently for international travel, and coach class, business class, and first class are offered.

8. Fares. For domestic travel, fares are set by each airline, with little or no government interference. Travel counselors obtain most domestic fares from their airline computer systems, but sometimes they use the assistance of an airline rate desk. International fares must be negotiated between each foreign government and the IATA. International fares are also found in the airline computer systems; however, travel counselors may use an international airline rate desk more frequently.

9. Infants. Domestically, lap-held infants under two years of age travel free when accompanied by an adult. Internationally, the same infant under the same circumstances is charged 10 percent of the adult fare. Many domestic and international fares allow for an infant (under two years of age) to be in a carrier secured in the seat next to the adult for 50 percent of the adult fare.

10. Pet acceptance. Travel with pets is quite common on domestic flights, although the cost of pet travel varies among airlines. Because of many countries' laws against the importation of animals, travel with pets on international flights is seldom done. Consider the import law in the United Kingdom: the incoming pet must be held in quarantine at the owner's expense for six months!

11. Reconfirmation. Although reconfirming a domestic flight number and departure time (24 hours prior) is not required, reconfirming might prevent the client from missing his flight. Internationally, some airlines require reconfirmation 72 hours prior to flight time. These international airlines cancel any reservations that have not been reconfirmed by that time.

12. Schedules. Domestic flight schedules are available to travel counselors through their CRSs, in the OAG Flight Guide--North American Edition, and the OAG Flight Guide-Worldwide Edition. Flight schedules involving city pairs outside of North America can be obtained in the CRS and the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition only.

13. Ticketing. Domestic airline tickets are almost always priced automatically and issued by computer; only about 1 percent of domestic airline tickets issued in the United States are handwritten. Internationally, a greater number of tickets are issued by hand. International tickets generally involve complicated fare ladders, may use the baggage allowance box, and may require pricing in foreign currency. Many times computer-generated international tickets must be priced manually by the travel counselor.

As you can see, some of the differences are subtle and others are major. One of the biggest differences between domestic and international air travel is the involvement of the IATA.

IATA AND TRAFFIC CONFERENCE AREAS

Founded in 1919, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) is jointly owned by approximately 77 international airlines. Prior to May of 1985, IATA was responsible for, among other things, appointing U.S. travel agencies for the sale of international airline tickets. Now, IATA appoints travel agencies that are located outside of the United States.

IATA still plays a very important role in international air travel. One of IATA's responsibilities is the negotiation of airfares between its member airlines and the foreign governments for each route. Because many foreign airlines are owned in whole or in part by the country's government, IATA's role becomes one of foreign policy. To make the tasks of administration and setting airfares, routes, airports used, and stopover points easier to manage, IATA has created three distinct Traffic Conference Areas (see Figure 16-1).

Each IATA Traffic Conference Area is identified as TC-1, TC-2, or TC-3. Traffic Conference Area 1 (TC-1) is the entire Western Hemisphere and includes the Bermuda Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Hawaiian, Johnston, and Easter Islands in the Pacific Ocean.

Traffic Conference Area 2 (TC-2) includes the islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, except Bermuda, all of Europe (including the western part of Russia), Africa, and the Middle Eastern countries out to and inclusive of Iran.

Traffic Conference Area 3 (TC-3) includes the remaining countries in Asia, New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti, and all major islands of the Pacific Ocean except the Hawaiian, Johnston, and Easter Islands.

[FIGURE 16-1 OMITTED]
Traffic Conference Areas

Divisions of the world that
have been established by
IATA.


TWENTY-FOUR-HOUR CLOCK

Before you can begin to plan international itineraries and obtain flight schedules from the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition, you must first learn about the 24-hour clock. Flight schedules in the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition and almost all airline tickets written outside the United States indicate the flight departure time using the 24-hour clock. If you have lived abroad or been in the military, the 24-hour clock is not new to you. In Figure 16-2, you can easily see how time is expressed using this method.

Using the 24-hour clock avoids confusion and reduces errors in identifying a.m. and p.m. The 24-hour clock is always portrayed by four digits, to include both hours and minutes. The cycle begins at one minute past midnight (0001), progressing through the day and ending at midnight (2400). You never have a number higher than 2400.

Morning hours are fairly obvious. For p.m. times, the simplest thing to do is add 1200 to any of the morning hours, so they become the corresponding p.m. time.

0100 (1:00 a.m.) + 1200/1300 (1:00 p.m.)

To convert the 24-hour clock back to the 12-hour clock, just subtract 1200 from the p.m. time.

2130 (19:30 p.m.) - 1200/930 (becomes 9:30 a.m.)

INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE (IDL)

You will remember that time around the world is figured in relation to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). For international travel, the International Date Line (IDL) must also be considered. On the opposite side of the world from the GMT line is the imaginary vertical line known as the International Date Line (see Figure 16-3).

It is at the IDL that the calendar date changes from one day to the next. When a passenger is traveling from Los Angeles to Sydney, for example, the calendar changes from Sunday to Monday during the flight as the IDL is crossed. This means that a day is lost. The calendar has advanced one day, even though the passenger has not lived those 24 hours; therefore, the passenger has "lost" that day.

On the other hand, as the passenger crosses the IDL in an eastbound direction, a day is gained. The calendar regresses one day, but the passenger has already lived that day once; therefore, a day is "gained."

[FIGURE 16-3 OMITTED]

TIME COMPARISON

Time comparison for international cities is accomplished by following the same steps you learned for domestic time comparison. There are, however, two differences in the calculations that may arise when dealing with international cities.

1. Domestically, the IDL was not a factor; internationally, it may be.

2. Domestically, all cities were expressed as minus numbers in relationship to GMT. Internationally, both cities may be expressed as a negative number or a positive number, or one city might be a positive and the other city a negative number.

The OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition contains a time chart that lists each country alphabetically. This chart shows how each location is expressed in relationship to GMT, and if Daylight Savings Time is observed, the effective and discontinue dates are also shown. Please note that this text always indicates the expression for all cities.
Steps to Calculate International Time Comparison

Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relationship to
GMT.

Step 2: If both numbers are positive or both numbers are negative,
subtract the smaller from the larger to obtain the number of hours
difference between the two cities. If one city is a positive and
the other a negative, add the two numbers together to obtain the
number of hours difference in time.

Step 3: Put yourself in the city where you know the time. If you
flew to the other city using the shortest route, do you cross the
IDL? If yes, use "IDL Region"; if no, use "Basic Region" in Table
16-1. Which direction did you fly?

Step 4: Find the region and direction in Table 16-1. Go to the Time
Comparison column to find the correct math step. Based on this math
step, either add or subtract the number of hours difference between
the two cities to the known time. Steps to Calculate International
Time Comparison


ELAPSED FLYING TIME

Calculating international elapsed flying time follows the same steps you learned for the domestic calculation. Because international flights often take much longer, some of the calculations may seem more difficult, especially when a flight arrives on a different day from when it departed.
Steps to Calculate Elapsed Flying Time

Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relation to GMT.

Step 2: If both numbers are positive or both numbers are negative,
subtract the smaller from the larger to obtain the number of hours
difference between the two cities. If one city is a positive and
the other a negative, add the two numbers together to obtain the
number of hours difference in time.

Step 3: Subtract the departure time from the arrival time to
determine the apparent flying time.

Step 4: Using the shortest route, does the flight cross the IDL? Is
the flight going east or west? Use your answers to these questions
and the math chart in Table 16-1 to learn whether to add or
subtract the number of hours difference between the two cities to
the apparent flying time. Steps to Calculate Elapsed Flying Time


When subtracting the departure time from the arrival time, it may be necessary to borrow an hour, convert to a 24-hour clock, or even manipulate time. Consider the following:
Arrival Time                                11:25 p.m.
--Departure Time                             9:43 p.m.

You must borrow 1 hour:
Arrival Time                                10:85 p.m.
--Departure Time                             9:43 p.m.
=                                   1 hour 42 minutes
Arrival Time                                 2:15 p.m.
--Departure Time                            10:15 a.m.
You must convert to 24-hour clock:
Arrival Time                                     14 15
--Departure Time                                 10 15
=                                              4 hours
Arrival Time                            8:00 a.m. Wed.
--Departure Time                        2:00 p.m. Tue.

You must convert to a 24-hour clock and
manipulate time by adding 24 hours to
the arrival time:

Arrival Time                                     32 00
--Departure Time                                 14 00
=                                             18 hours

24-hour clock

A method of keeping time
that utilizes 24 numbers
instead of using 12 hours in
conjunction with a.m. and
p.m.


INTERNATIONAL CITY, AIRPORT, AND AIRLINE CODES

Much as you might wish otherwise, there are still more codes that you have to become familiar with. Table 16-2 represents many of the major city, airport, and airline codes that you will come in contact with throughout your career. You can find a complete list of city/airport codes in the front of the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition. International airlines are a separate listing, also found in the front of the Worldwide edition.

As with U.S. cities, many international cities have a "generic" city code, as well as a specific code for each airport. In many cases, both types of codes are shown in Table 16-2. The table presented here is shown alphabetically, first by country name, then by city name (a great way to practice your knowledge of world geography). You will also notice listings for airlines beside some countries. This is because many international airlines are associated with their respective governments. Many, in fact, are owned by the governments of their home countries. The airlines included here represent only the major carriers you will use on a routine basis.
? What Would You Do?

Your client is flying to Sydney and you have told him that his
flight arrives at 2:35 p.m., two days after he departs. He says
that this simply cannot be correct.

1. Do you tell him that he is probably correct and that there is a
mistake in the CRS flight schedule?

2. Do you explain that the flight simply takes more than 48 hours?

3. Do you show him how the International Date Line plus the actual
flying time explains the arrival two days after departure?

TABLE 16-2 International Code List

Afghanistan
Ariana Afghan--FG
Kabul--KBL

Algeria
Air Algerie--AH
Algiers--ALG

Antigua
Liat--LI
Antigua (St. John's)--ANU

Argentina
Aerolineas Argentinas--AR
Buenos Aires--BUE
Ministro Pistarini Airport--EZE
San Carlos de Bariloche--BRC

Aruba
Air Aruba--FQ
ALM (Curacao)--LM
Aruba (Oranjestad)--AUA

Australia
Ansett Australia--AN
Qantas--QF
Adelaide--ADL
Brisbane--BNE
Darwin--DRW
Hobart--HBA
Melbourne--MEL
Perth--PER
Sydney--SYD

Austria
Austrian Airlines--OS
Lauda Air--NG
Vienna--VIE

Bahamas
Bahamasair--UP
Freeport--FPO
Nassau--NAS

Bahrain
Gulf Air--GF
Bahrain (Manama)--BAH

Bangladesh
Biman Bangladesh--BG
GMG Airlines--Z5
Dhaka--DAC

Barbados
Barbados (Bridgetown)--BGI

Belgium
City Bird--H2
Sabena--SN
Brussels--BRU

Belize
Maya Airways--MW
Belize City--BZE

Bermuda
Bermuda (Hamilton)--BDA

Bhutan
Druk Airlines--KB
Thimphu (Paro)--PBH

Bolivia
Lloyd Aereo Boliviano--LB
La Paz--LPB

Bosnia Herzegovina
Air Bosna--JA
Sarajevo--SJJ

Brazil
Varig--RG
Vasp--VP
Brasilia--BSB
Rio de Janeiro--RIO
Rio International--GIG
Sao Paulo--SAO
Congonhas Airport--CGH
Guarulhos Airport--GRU
Viracopos Airport--VCP

British Virgin Islands
Tortola (Road Town)--TOV
Virgin Gorda (Spanish Town)--VIJ

Brunei Darussalam
Royal Brunei--BI
Bandar Seri Begawan--BWN

Bulgaria
Balkan-Bulgarian Airlines--LZ
Sofia--SOF

Cambodia
Kampuchea Airlines--KT
Phnom Penh--PNH

Canada
Air Canada--AC
Canada 3000--2T
Canadian Airlines--CP
Pem-Air--PD
Royal Aviation--QN
Calgary--YYC
Montreal--YMQ
Dorval Airport--YUL
Mirabel Airport--YMX
Ottawa--YOW
Quebec City--YQB
Toronto--YTO
Pearson International--YYZ
Winnipeg--YWG
Vancouver--YVR

Cayman Islands
Cayman Airways--KX
Grand Cayman (George Town)--GCM

Chile
Ladeco Airlines--UC
Lan Chile--LA
Santiago--SCL

Colombia
Aces--VX
Avianca--AV
Bogota--BOG
Cartagena--CTG

Cote d'Ivoire
Air Afrique--RK
Abidjan--ABJ

Congo, Democratic Republic of
Congo Airlines--EO
Kinshasa--FIH

Costa Rica
Lacsa--LR
San Jose--SJO

Croatia
Croatia Airlines--OU
Dubrovnik--DBV
Zagreb--ZAG

Cuba
Cubana--CU
Havana--HAV

Cyprus
Cyprus Airways--CY
Larnaca--LCA

Czech Republic
Czech Airlines CSA--OK
Prague--PRG

Denmark
Cimber Air--QI
Maersk Air--DM
Muk Air--ZR
Copenhagen--CPH

Dominican Republic
Queen Air--5G
Santo Domingo--SDQ

Ecuador
Ecuatoriana--EU
Guayaquil--GYE
Quito--UIO

Egypt
Egyptair--MS
Cairo--CAI

El Salvador
Taca International Airlines--TA
San Salvador--SAL

Estonia
Estonian Air--OV
Tallinn--TLL

Fiji
Air Fiji--PC
Air Pacific--FJ
Nadi--NAN
Suva--SUV

Finland
Finnair--AY
Helsinki--HEL

France
Air France--AF
Air Liberte--IJ
AOM French Airlines--IW
Marseille--MRS
Paris--PAR
Charles de Gaulle Airport--CDG
Orly Airport--ORY
Nice--NCE

Ghana
Ghana Airways--GH
Accra--ACC

Georgia
Air Georgia--DA
Tbilisi--TBS

Germany
Condor--DE
Eurowings--EW
Lufthansa--LH
Berlin--BER
Schoenfeld Airport--SXF
Tegel Airport--TXL
Dusseldorf--DUS
Frankfurt--FRA
Munich--MUC

Greece
Olympic Airways--OA
Athens--ATH

Guam
Guam--GUM

Guatemala
Aviateca--GU
Guatemala City--GUA

Haiti
Tropical Airways d'Haiti--M7
Cap Haitien--CAP
Port-au-Prince--PAP

Honduras
Aero Lineas Sosa--P4
La Ceiba--LCE
Tegucigalpa--TGU

Hungary
Malev Hungarian Airlines--MA
Budapest--BUD

Iceland
Icelandair--FI
Reykjavik--REK
Keflavik Airport--KEF

India
Air India--AI
Indian Airlines--IC
Jet Airways India--9W
Sahara Airlines--S2
Calcutta--CCU
Chennai (formerly Madras)--MAA
Delhi/New Delhi--DEL
Mumbai (formerly Bombay)--BOM

Indonesia
Garuda Indonesia--GA
Merpati Nusantara Airlines--MZ
Denpasar--DPS
Jakarta--JKT
Soekarno-Hatta Airport--CGK

Ireland, Republic of
Aer Lingus--EI
Cityjet--WX
Ryanair--FR
Dublin--DUB
Shannon--SNN

Israel
El Al Israel--LY
Jerusalem--JRS
Tel Aviv--TLV

Italy
Alitalia--AZ
Florence--FLR
Milan--MIL
Linate Airport--LIN
Malpensa Airport--MXP
Rome--ROM
Ciampino Airport--CIA
Fiumincino (da Vinci) Airport--FCO
Venice--VCE
Marco Polo Airport--VCE
Treviso Airport--TSF

Jamaica
Air Jamaica--JM
Kingston--KIN
Montego Bay--MBJ
Ocho Rios--OCJ

Japan
All Nippon--NH
Japan Air--JL
Japan Asia--EG
Nagoya--NGO
Naha (Okinawa)--OKA
Osaka--ITM
Sapporo--OKD
Tokyo--TYO
Haneda Airport--HND
Narita Airport--NRT

Jordan
Royal Jordanian Airlines--RJ
Amman--AMM

Kenya
Kenya Airways--KQ
Mombasa--MBA
Nairobi--NBO

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North)
Air Koryo--JS
Pyongyang--FNJ

Korea, Republic of (South)
Asiana Airlines--OZ
Korean Air--KE
Seoul--SEL

Kuwait
Kuwait Airways--KU
Kuwait--KWI

Laos
Lao Aviation--QV
Vientiane--VTE

Lebanon
MEA (Middle East Airlines)--ME
Beirut--BEY

Libya
Libyan Arab Airlines--LN
Tripoli--TIP

Luxembourg
Luxair--LG
Luxembourg--LUX

Malaysia
Malaysia Airlines--MH
Kuala Lumpur--KUL
Kuala Lumpur International--KUL
Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport--SZB
Penang--PEN

Maldives
Air Maldives--L6
Male--MLE

Martinique
Fort de France--FDF

Mexico
Aeromexico--AM
Mexicana--MX
Taesa--GD
Acapulco--ACA
Cancun--CUN
Cozumel--CZM
Guadalajara--GDL
Ixtapa/Zihuatenjo--ZIH
Mazatlan--MZT
Mexico City--MEX
Puerto Vallarta--PVR

Morocco
Royal Air Moroc--AT
Casablanca--CAS
Marrakech--RAK
Rabat--RBA
Tangier--TNG

Myanmar
Air Mandalay--6T
Myanmar Airways--UB
Yangon--RGN

Nepal
Royal Nepal Airlines--RA
Kathmandu--KTM

Netherlands
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines--KL
Amsterdam--AMS

New Zealand
Air New Zealand--NZ
Ansett New Zealand--ZQ
Auckland--AKL
Christchurch--CHC
Rotorua--ROT
Wellington--WLG

Nicaragua
Nica--6Y
Managua--MGA

Nigeria
Nigerian Airways--WT
Lagos--LOS

Norway
Bergen--BGO
Oslo--OSL

Oman
Oman Air--WY
Muscat--MCT

Pakistan
Pakistan International Airlines--PK
Islamabad--ISB
Karachi--KHI

Panama
Copa--CM
Panama City--PTY

Papua New Guinea
Air Niugini--PX
Port Moresby--POM

Paraguay
Asuncion--ASU

People's Republic of China
Air China--CA
Air Macau--NX
Cathay Pacific--CX
Hong Kong Dragon Airlines--KA
Beijing--PEK
Guangzhou--CAN
Hong Kong--HKG
Shanghai--SHA

Peru
Aero Continente--N6
Aviandina--SJ
Transportes Aereos Nacionales de Selva--TJ
Cuzco--CUZ
Lima--LIM

Philippines
Philippine Air--PR
Manila--MNL

Poland
LOT Polish Airlines--LO
Warsaw--WAW

Portugal
TAP Air Portugal--TP
Lisbon--LIS

Puerto Rico
Dominair--YU
San Juan--SJU

Qatar
Qatar Airways--QR
Doha--DOH

Romania
Tarom--RO
Bucharest--BUH
Baneasa Airport--BBU
Otopeni Airport--OTP

Russian Federation
Aeroflot--SU
Moscow--MOW
Bykovo Airport--BKA
Domodedovo Airport--DME
Sheremetyevo Airport--SVO
Vnukovo Airport--VKO
St. Petersburg--LED

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabian Airlines--SV
Jeddah--JED
Riyadh--RUH

Senegal
Dakar--DKR

Seychelles
Air Seychelles--HM
Mahe Island--SEZ

Singapore
Silk Air--MI
Singapore Airlines--SQ
Singapore--SIN

Slovakia
Air Slovakia--GM
Slovak Airlines--6Q
Bratislava--BTS

South Africa
South African Airways--SA
Cape Town--CPT
Johannesburg--JNB

Spain
Iberia Airways--IB
Spannair--JK
Barcelona--BCN
Madrid--MAD
Seville--SVQ

Sri Lanka
SriLankan Airlines--UL
Colombo--CMB

St. Lucia
Helenair--2Y
St. Lucia (Castries)--SLU

St. Maarten / Sint Martin
Windward Islands Airways--WM
St. Maarten (Philipsburg)--SXM

Sweden
SAS Scandinavian Airlines--SK
Stockholm--STO
Arlanda Airport--ARN
Bromma Airport--BMA
Skavsta Airport--NYO

Switzerland
Swissair--SR
Basel--BSL
Geneva--GVA
Zurich--ZRH

Syria
Syrian Arab Airlines--RB
Damascus--DAM

Tahiti and French Polynesia
Air Tahiti--VT
Air Tahiti Nui--TN
Bora Bora--BOB
Moorea--MOZ
Papeete--PPT

Taiwan (Republic of China)
China Airlines--CI
Eva Airlines--BR
Mandarin Airlines--AE
Taipei--TPE

Tanzania
Air Tanzania--TC
Dar es Salaam--DAR

Trinidad and Tobago
BWIA West Indies Airways--BW
Port of Spain--POS

Thailand
Thai Airways--TG
Bangkok--BKK
Phuket--HKT

Tunisia
Tunis Air--TU
Tunis--TUN

Turkey
Turkish Airlines--TK
Ankara--ANK
Esenboga Airport--ESB
Istanbul--IST

Ukraine
Air Ukraine--6U
Ukraine International Airlines--PS
Kiev--IEV
Odessa--ODS

United Arab Emirates
Emirates--EK
Abu Dhabi--AUH
Dubai--DXB

United Kingdom
British Airways--BA
British Midland--BD
Virgin Atlantic--VS
Belfast, Northern Ireland--BFS
Birmingham, England--BHX
Cardiff, Wales--CWL
Edinburgh, Scotland--EDI
Glasgow, Scotland--GLA
Glasgow International Airport--GLA
Prestwick Airport--PIK
Manchester, England--MAN
London, England--LON
Gatwick Airport--LGW
Heathrow Airport--LHR
London City Airport--LCY
Luton Airport--LTN
Stansted Airport--STN

Uruguay
Pluna--PU
Montevideo--MVD

U.S. Virgin Islands
St. Croix (Christiansted)--STX
St. Thomas (Charlotte Amalie)--STT

Venezuela
Air Venezuela--7Q
Avensa--VE
Vensecar International--V4
Caracas--CCS

Vietnam
Vietnam Airlines--VN
Hanoi--HAN
Ho Chi Minh City--SGN

Yugoslavia
Belgrade--BEG

FIGURE 16-2 Time in 24-hour and 12-hour clocks

         AM HOURS                        PM HOURS

24-hour clock   12-hour clock   24-hour clock   12-hour dock

0003            12:03 a.m.      1203            12:03 p.m.
0100             1:00 a.m.      1300             1:00 p.m.
0200             2:00 a.m.      1400             2:00 p.m.
0315             3:15 a.m.      1515             3:15 p.m.
0430             4:30 a.m.      1630             4:30 p.m.
0545             5:45 a.m.      1745             5:45 p.m.
0600             6:00 a.m.      1800             6:00 p.m.
0700             7:00 a.m.      1900             7:00 p.m.
0800             8:00 a.m.      2000             8:00 p.m.
0930             9:30 a.m.      2130             9:30 p.m.
1020            10:20 a.m.      2220            10:20 p.m.
1150            11:50 a.m.      2350            11:50 p.m.
1200            12:00 p.m.      2400            12:00 a.m.
                (noon)                          (midnight)

TABLE 16-1 Math steps for time calculation

Basic: Used when the shortest distance between
the cities in question does not cross the IDL.

IDL: Used when the shortest distance between
the cities in question does cross the IDL.

Area                              Elapsed
and                  Time         flying
direction            comparison   time

Basic east to west   Subtract     Add
Basic west to east   Add          Subtract
IDL east to west     Add          Subtract
IDL west to east     Subtract     Add
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Title Annotation:SECTION V: International Air Travel Basics
Publication:A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional
Article Type:Table
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Words:3823
Previous Article:Chapter 15: Practical advice for international travelers.
Next Article:Chapter 17: International airfares and taxes.
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