Chapter 16: International air travel basics.
There are many differences between domestic and international air travel. Airport areas, agency appointing bodies, baggage allowance, check-in time, and pet acceptance are just a few. International airfares are established through collaboration between the airline, origin and destination countries, and the IATA. International air travelers appreciate a travel professional who is well versed in and willing to explain the various differences the client will encounter while traveling. It is also very important that travel professionals understand international fare construction and various pricing techniques. A client who feels that his travel counselor is using all of the applicable tools at his disposal to obtain the best airfare will return to this counselor again and again.
At the conclusion of this chapter, you should be able to:
* explain the differences between domestic and international air travel.
* identify the IATA Traffic Conference Areas.
* convert 12-hour time to 24-hour time and vice versa.
* explain the effect the IDL has on travel.
* calculate time comparison.
* calculate elapsed flying time.
* identify many of the major international city, airport and airline codes.
Traffic Conference Areas
There are many similarities between international air travel and what you have already learned about domestic air travel. Unfortunately, there are just as many differences. Perhaps the easiest way to learn about the differences is to compare each feature individually.
1. Airports. Although each domestic airport is different in design and layout, they seem somewhat familiar to most travelers. U.S. airports in international gateway and hub cities may be formidable, especially to inexperienced travelers. Each international airport bears little resemblance to others, even in the same country. Within the airport, security may be more visible; it is not uncommon to see armed security guards patrolling the area. Customs, immigration, passport control, and duty-free shops are found only in international airports. The national airline in many foreign countries is given the preferred gates and check-in areas, unlike U.S. airports.
2. Agency appointing body. As you learned in Chapter 5, most U.S. travel agencies obtain ARC appointment, which is in essence, approval to sell ARC-member airlines. ARC's appointment includes both domestic and international airlines. Many travel agencies also obtain International Airlines Travel Agency Network (IATAN) appointments as well. For travel agencies located outside of the United States, all appointments are handled by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
3. Baggage allowance. Most domestic airlines allow two checked suitcases per passenger. The allowable weight of each suitcase varies among airlines, but generally each suitcase must weigh under 70 pounds. On domestic airlines, suitcases must also comply with a size limitation, usually 70 inches (length plus width plus height). Internationally, each suitcase is generally limited to less than 70 pounds (some carriers use kilos), but this can vary widely depending on airline. The length plus width plus height cannot usually exceed 107 inches.
4. Check-in time. Domestically, most airlines recommend that passengers check in no less than one hour prior to flight time. On international flights, check-in may be required at least two hours before the flight.
5. Commission. Almost all U.S. airlines currently pay travel agencies a 5 percent commission on both domestic and international air travel. Most of these airlines also cap agency commission as follows: $50 maximum on one-way trips, $100 maximum on round-, circle, and open-jaw trips. International airlines typically pay a 5 or 8 percent commission, with or without caps; however, a few international airlines pay a 10 percent commission.
6. Connection time. On domestic connection service, a change of planes must be scheduled in under four hours. A domestic connection that exceeds four hours becomes a stopover, and the fare is usually higher. An international connection must take place in less than 24 hours; more than 24 hours is considered a stopover and the airfare may be increased.
7. Equipment. To remain cost effective, most domestic flights use narrow-body equipment and offer first-class and coach-class service. Wide-body aircraft are used on transcontinental flights and heavily traveled routes. Internationally, many narrow-body aircraft offer only one class of service. During high season, wide-body equipment is used more frequently for international travel, and coach class, business class, and first class are offered.
8. Fares. For domestic travel, fares are set by each airline, with little or no government interference. Travel counselors obtain most domestic fares from their airline computer systems, but sometimes they use the assistance of an airline rate desk. International fares must be negotiated between each foreign government and the IATA. International fares are also found in the airline computer systems; however, travel counselors may use an international airline rate desk more frequently.
9. Infants. Domestically, lap-held infants under two years of age travel free when accompanied by an adult. Internationally, the same infant under the same circumstances is charged 10 percent of the adult fare. Many domestic and international fares allow for an infant (under two years of age) to be in a carrier secured in the seat next to the adult for 50 percent of the adult fare.
10. Pet acceptance. Travel with pets is quite common on domestic flights, although the cost of pet travel varies among airlines. Because of many countries' laws against the importation of animals, travel with pets on international flights is seldom done. Consider the import law in the United Kingdom: the incoming pet must be held in quarantine at the owner's expense for six months!
11. Reconfirmation. Although reconfirming a domestic flight number and departure time (24 hours prior) is not required, reconfirming might prevent the client from missing his flight. Internationally, some airlines require reconfirmation 72 hours prior to flight time. These international airlines cancel any reservations that have not been reconfirmed by that time.
12. Schedules. Domestic flight schedules are available to travel counselors through their CRSs, in the OAG Flight Guide--North American Edition, and the OAG Flight Guide-Worldwide Edition. Flight schedules involving city pairs outside of North America can be obtained in the CRS and the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition only.
13. Ticketing. Domestic airline tickets are almost always priced automatically and issued by computer; only about 1 percent of domestic airline tickets issued in the United States are handwritten. Internationally, a greater number of tickets are issued by hand. International tickets generally involve complicated fare ladders, may use the baggage allowance box, and may require pricing in foreign currency. Many times computer-generated international tickets must be priced manually by the travel counselor.
As you can see, some of the differences are subtle and others are major. One of the biggest differences between domestic and international air travel is the involvement of the IATA.
IATA AND TRAFFIC CONFERENCE AREAS
Founded in 1919, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) is jointly owned by approximately 77 international airlines. Prior to May of 1985, IATA was responsible for, among other things, appointing U.S. travel agencies for the sale of international airline tickets. Now, IATA appoints travel agencies that are located outside of the United States.
IATA still plays a very important role in international air travel. One of IATA's responsibilities is the negotiation of airfares between its member airlines and the foreign governments for each route. Because many foreign airlines are owned in whole or in part by the country's government, IATA's role becomes one of foreign policy. To make the tasks of administration and setting airfares, routes, airports used, and stopover points easier to manage, IATA has created three distinct Traffic Conference Areas (see Figure 16-1).
Each IATA Traffic Conference Area is identified as TC-1, TC-2, or TC-3. Traffic Conference Area 1 (TC-1) is the entire Western Hemisphere and includes the Bermuda Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Hawaiian, Johnston, and Easter Islands in the Pacific Ocean.
Traffic Conference Area 2 (TC-2) includes the islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, except Bermuda, all of Europe (including the western part of Russia), Africa, and the Middle Eastern countries out to and inclusive of Iran.
Traffic Conference Area 3 (TC-3) includes the remaining countries in Asia, New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti, and all major islands of the Pacific Ocean except the Hawaiian, Johnston, and Easter Islands.
[FIGURE 16-1 OMITTED]
Traffic Conference Areas Divisions of the world that have been established by IATA.
Before you can begin to plan international itineraries and obtain flight schedules from the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition, you must first learn about the 24-hour clock. Flight schedules in the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition and almost all airline tickets written outside the United States indicate the flight departure time using the 24-hour clock. If you have lived abroad or been in the military, the 24-hour clock is not new to you. In Figure 16-2, you can easily see how time is expressed using this method.
Using the 24-hour clock avoids confusion and reduces errors in identifying a.m. and p.m. The 24-hour clock is always portrayed by four digits, to include both hours and minutes. The cycle begins at one minute past midnight (0001), progressing through the day and ending at midnight (2400). You never have a number higher than 2400.
Morning hours are fairly obvious. For p.m. times, the simplest thing to do is add 1200 to any of the morning hours, so they become the corresponding p.m. time.
0100 (1:00 a.m.) + 1200/1300 (1:00 p.m.)
To convert the 24-hour clock back to the 12-hour clock, just subtract 1200 from the p.m. time.
2130 (19:30 p.m.) - 1200/930 (becomes 9:30 a.m.)
INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE (IDL)
You will remember that time around the world is figured in relation to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). For international travel, the International Date Line (IDL) must also be considered. On the opposite side of the world from the GMT line is the imaginary vertical line known as the International Date Line (see Figure 16-3).
It is at the IDL that the calendar date changes from one day to the next. When a passenger is traveling from Los Angeles to Sydney, for example, the calendar changes from Sunday to Monday during the flight as the IDL is crossed. This means that a day is lost. The calendar has advanced one day, even though the passenger has not lived those 24 hours; therefore, the passenger has "lost" that day.
On the other hand, as the passenger crosses the IDL in an eastbound direction, a day is gained. The calendar regresses one day, but the passenger has already lived that day once; therefore, a day is "gained."
[FIGURE 16-3 OMITTED]
Time comparison for international cities is accomplished by following the same steps you learned for domestic time comparison. There are, however, two differences in the calculations that may arise when dealing with international cities.
1. Domestically, the IDL was not a factor; internationally, it may be.
2. Domestically, all cities were expressed as minus numbers in relationship to GMT. Internationally, both cities may be expressed as a negative number or a positive number, or one city might be a positive and the other city a negative number.
The OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition contains a time chart that lists each country alphabetically. This chart shows how each location is expressed in relationship to GMT, and if Daylight Savings Time is observed, the effective and discontinue dates are also shown. Please note that this text always indicates the expression for all cities.
Steps to Calculate International Time Comparison Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relationship to GMT. Step 2: If both numbers are positive or both numbers are negative, subtract the smaller from the larger to obtain the number of hours difference between the two cities. If one city is a positive and the other a negative, add the two numbers together to obtain the number of hours difference in time. Step 3: Put yourself in the city where you know the time. If you flew to the other city using the shortest route, do you cross the IDL? If yes, use "IDL Region"; if no, use "Basic Region" in Table 16-1. Which direction did you fly? Step 4: Find the region and direction in Table 16-1. Go to the Time Comparison column to find the correct math step. Based on this math step, either add or subtract the number of hours difference between the two cities to the known time. Steps to Calculate International Time Comparison
ELAPSED FLYING TIME
Calculating international elapsed flying time follows the same steps you learned for the domestic calculation. Because international flights often take much longer, some of the calculations may seem more difficult, especially when a flight arrives on a different day from when it departed.
Steps to Calculate Elapsed Flying Time Step 1: Determine how each city is expressed in relation to GMT. Step 2: If both numbers are positive or both numbers are negative, subtract the smaller from the larger to obtain the number of hours difference between the two cities. If one city is a positive and the other a negative, add the two numbers together to obtain the number of hours difference in time. Step 3: Subtract the departure time from the arrival time to determine the apparent flying time. Step 4: Using the shortest route, does the flight cross the IDL? Is the flight going east or west? Use your answers to these questions and the math chart in Table 16-1 to learn whether to add or subtract the number of hours difference between the two cities to the apparent flying time. Steps to Calculate Elapsed Flying Time
When subtracting the departure time from the arrival time, it may be necessary to borrow an hour, convert to a 24-hour clock, or even manipulate time. Consider the following:
Arrival Time 11:25 p.m. --Departure Time 9:43 p.m. You must borrow 1 hour: Arrival Time 10:85 p.m. --Departure Time 9:43 p.m. = 1 hour 42 minutes Arrival Time 2:15 p.m. --Departure Time 10:15 a.m. You must convert to 24-hour clock: Arrival Time 14 15 --Departure Time 10 15 = 4 hours Arrival Time 8:00 a.m. Wed. --Departure Time 2:00 p.m. Tue. You must convert to a 24-hour clock and manipulate time by adding 24 hours to the arrival time: Arrival Time 32 00 --Departure Time 14 00 = 18 hours 24-hour clock A method of keeping time that utilizes 24 numbers instead of using 12 hours in conjunction with a.m. and p.m.
INTERNATIONAL CITY, AIRPORT, AND AIRLINE CODES
Much as you might wish otherwise, there are still more codes that you have to become familiar with. Table 16-2 represents many of the major city, airport, and airline codes that you will come in contact with throughout your career. You can find a complete list of city/airport codes in the front of the OAG Flight Guide--Worldwide Edition. International airlines are a separate listing, also found in the front of the Worldwide edition.
As with U.S. cities, many international cities have a "generic" city code, as well as a specific code for each airport. In many cases, both types of codes are shown in Table 16-2. The table presented here is shown alphabetically, first by country name, then by city name (a great way to practice your knowledge of world geography). You will also notice listings for airlines beside some countries. This is because many international airlines are associated with their respective governments. Many, in fact, are owned by the governments of their home countries. The airlines included here represent only the major carriers you will use on a routine basis.
? What Would You Do? Your client is flying to Sydney and you have told him that his flight arrives at 2:35 p.m., two days after he departs. He says that this simply cannot be correct. 1. Do you tell him that he is probably correct and that there is a mistake in the CRS flight schedule? 2. Do you explain that the flight simply takes more than 48 hours? 3. Do you show him how the International Date Line plus the actual flying time explains the arrival two days after departure? TABLE 16-2 International Code List Afghanistan Ariana Afghan--FG Kabul--KBL Algeria Air Algerie--AH Algiers--ALG Antigua Liat--LI Antigua (St. John's)--ANU Argentina Aerolineas Argentinas--AR Buenos Aires--BUE Ministro Pistarini Airport--EZE San Carlos de Bariloche--BRC Aruba Air Aruba--FQ ALM (Curacao)--LM Aruba (Oranjestad)--AUA Australia Ansett Australia--AN Qantas--QF Adelaide--ADL Brisbane--BNE Darwin--DRW Hobart--HBA Melbourne--MEL Perth--PER Sydney--SYD Austria Austrian Airlines--OS Lauda Air--NG Vienna--VIE Bahamas Bahamasair--UP Freeport--FPO Nassau--NAS Bahrain Gulf Air--GF Bahrain (Manama)--BAH Bangladesh Biman Bangladesh--BG GMG Airlines--Z5 Dhaka--DAC Barbados Barbados (Bridgetown)--BGI Belgium City Bird--H2 Sabena--SN Brussels--BRU Belize Maya Airways--MW Belize City--BZE Bermuda Bermuda (Hamilton)--BDA Bhutan Druk Airlines--KB Thimphu (Paro)--PBH Bolivia Lloyd Aereo Boliviano--LB La Paz--LPB Bosnia Herzegovina Air Bosna--JA Sarajevo--SJJ Brazil Varig--RG Vasp--VP Brasilia--BSB Rio de Janeiro--RIO Rio International--GIG Sao Paulo--SAO Congonhas Airport--CGH Guarulhos Airport--GRU Viracopos Airport--VCP British Virgin Islands Tortola (Road Town)--TOV Virgin Gorda (Spanish Town)--VIJ Brunei Darussalam Royal Brunei--BI Bandar Seri Begawan--BWN Bulgaria Balkan-Bulgarian Airlines--LZ Sofia--SOF Cambodia Kampuchea Airlines--KT Phnom Penh--PNH Canada Air Canada--AC Canada 3000--2T Canadian Airlines--CP Pem-Air--PD Royal Aviation--QN Calgary--YYC Montreal--YMQ Dorval Airport--YUL Mirabel Airport--YMX Ottawa--YOW Quebec City--YQB Toronto--YTO Pearson International--YYZ Winnipeg--YWG Vancouver--YVR Cayman Islands Cayman Airways--KX Grand Cayman (George Town)--GCM Chile Ladeco Airlines--UC Lan Chile--LA Santiago--SCL Colombia Aces--VX Avianca--AV Bogota--BOG Cartagena--CTG Cote d'Ivoire Air Afrique--RK Abidjan--ABJ Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo Airlines--EO Kinshasa--FIH Costa Rica Lacsa--LR San Jose--SJO Croatia Croatia Airlines--OU Dubrovnik--DBV Zagreb--ZAG Cuba Cubana--CU Havana--HAV Cyprus Cyprus Airways--CY Larnaca--LCA Czech Republic Czech Airlines CSA--OK Prague--PRG Denmark Cimber Air--QI Maersk Air--DM Muk Air--ZR Copenhagen--CPH Dominican Republic Queen Air--5G Santo Domingo--SDQ Ecuador Ecuatoriana--EU Guayaquil--GYE Quito--UIO Egypt Egyptair--MS Cairo--CAI El Salvador Taca International Airlines--TA San Salvador--SAL Estonia Estonian Air--OV Tallinn--TLL Fiji Air Fiji--PC Air Pacific--FJ Nadi--NAN Suva--SUV Finland Finnair--AY Helsinki--HEL France Air France--AF Air Liberte--IJ AOM French Airlines--IW Marseille--MRS Paris--PAR Charles de Gaulle Airport--CDG Orly Airport--ORY Nice--NCE Ghana Ghana Airways--GH Accra--ACC Georgia Air Georgia--DA Tbilisi--TBS Germany Condor--DE Eurowings--EW Lufthansa--LH Berlin--BER Schoenfeld Airport--SXF Tegel Airport--TXL Dusseldorf--DUS Frankfurt--FRA Munich--MUC Greece Olympic Airways--OA Athens--ATH Guam Guam--GUM Guatemala Aviateca--GU Guatemala City--GUA Haiti Tropical Airways d'Haiti--M7 Cap Haitien--CAP Port-au-Prince--PAP Honduras Aero Lineas Sosa--P4 La Ceiba--LCE Tegucigalpa--TGU Hungary Malev Hungarian Airlines--MA Budapest--BUD Iceland Icelandair--FI Reykjavik--REK Keflavik Airport--KEF India Air India--AI Indian Airlines--IC Jet Airways India--9W Sahara Airlines--S2 Calcutta--CCU Chennai (formerly Madras)--MAA Delhi/New Delhi--DEL Mumbai (formerly Bombay)--BOM Indonesia Garuda Indonesia--GA Merpati Nusantara Airlines--MZ Denpasar--DPS Jakarta--JKT Soekarno-Hatta Airport--CGK Ireland, Republic of Aer Lingus--EI Cityjet--WX Ryanair--FR Dublin--DUB Shannon--SNN Israel El Al Israel--LY Jerusalem--JRS Tel Aviv--TLV Italy Alitalia--AZ Florence--FLR Milan--MIL Linate Airport--LIN Malpensa Airport--MXP Rome--ROM Ciampino Airport--CIA Fiumincino (da Vinci) Airport--FCO Venice--VCE Marco Polo Airport--VCE Treviso Airport--TSF Jamaica Air Jamaica--JM Kingston--KIN Montego Bay--MBJ Ocho Rios--OCJ Japan All Nippon--NH Japan Air--JL Japan Asia--EG Nagoya--NGO Naha (Okinawa)--OKA Osaka--ITM Sapporo--OKD Tokyo--TYO Haneda Airport--HND Narita Airport--NRT Jordan Royal Jordanian Airlines--RJ Amman--AMM Kenya Kenya Airways--KQ Mombasa--MBA Nairobi--NBO Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North) Air Koryo--JS Pyongyang--FNJ Korea, Republic of (South) Asiana Airlines--OZ Korean Air--KE Seoul--SEL Kuwait Kuwait Airways--KU Kuwait--KWI Laos Lao Aviation--QV Vientiane--VTE Lebanon MEA (Middle East Airlines)--ME Beirut--BEY Libya Libyan Arab Airlines--LN Tripoli--TIP Luxembourg Luxair--LG Luxembourg--LUX Malaysia Malaysia Airlines--MH Kuala Lumpur--KUL Kuala Lumpur International--KUL Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport--SZB Penang--PEN Maldives Air Maldives--L6 Male--MLE Martinique Fort de France--FDF Mexico Aeromexico--AM Mexicana--MX Taesa--GD Acapulco--ACA Cancun--CUN Cozumel--CZM Guadalajara--GDL Ixtapa/Zihuatenjo--ZIH Mazatlan--MZT Mexico City--MEX Puerto Vallarta--PVR Morocco Royal Air Moroc--AT Casablanca--CAS Marrakech--RAK Rabat--RBA Tangier--TNG Myanmar Air Mandalay--6T Myanmar Airways--UB Yangon--RGN Nepal Royal Nepal Airlines--RA Kathmandu--KTM Netherlands KLM Royal Dutch Airlines--KL Amsterdam--AMS New Zealand Air New Zealand--NZ Ansett New Zealand--ZQ Auckland--AKL Christchurch--CHC Rotorua--ROT Wellington--WLG Nicaragua Nica--6Y Managua--MGA Nigeria Nigerian Airways--WT Lagos--LOS Norway Bergen--BGO Oslo--OSL Oman Oman Air--WY Muscat--MCT Pakistan Pakistan International Airlines--PK Islamabad--ISB Karachi--KHI Panama Copa--CM Panama City--PTY Papua New Guinea Air Niugini--PX Port Moresby--POM Paraguay Asuncion--ASU People's Republic of China Air China--CA Air Macau--NX Cathay Pacific--CX Hong Kong Dragon Airlines--KA Beijing--PEK Guangzhou--CAN Hong Kong--HKG Shanghai--SHA Peru Aero Continente--N6 Aviandina--SJ Transportes Aereos Nacionales de Selva--TJ Cuzco--CUZ Lima--LIM Philippines Philippine Air--PR Manila--MNL Poland LOT Polish Airlines--LO Warsaw--WAW Portugal TAP Air Portugal--TP Lisbon--LIS Puerto Rico Dominair--YU San Juan--SJU Qatar Qatar Airways--QR Doha--DOH Romania Tarom--RO Bucharest--BUH Baneasa Airport--BBU Otopeni Airport--OTP Russian Federation Aeroflot--SU Moscow--MOW Bykovo Airport--BKA Domodedovo Airport--DME Sheremetyevo Airport--SVO Vnukovo Airport--VKO St. Petersburg--LED Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Airlines--SV Jeddah--JED Riyadh--RUH Senegal Dakar--DKR Seychelles Air Seychelles--HM Mahe Island--SEZ Singapore Silk Air--MI Singapore Airlines--SQ Singapore--SIN Slovakia Air Slovakia--GM Slovak Airlines--6Q Bratislava--BTS South Africa South African Airways--SA Cape Town--CPT Johannesburg--JNB Spain Iberia Airways--IB Spannair--JK Barcelona--BCN Madrid--MAD Seville--SVQ Sri Lanka SriLankan Airlines--UL Colombo--CMB St. Lucia Helenair--2Y St. Lucia (Castries)--SLU St. Maarten / Sint Martin Windward Islands Airways--WM St. Maarten (Philipsburg)--SXM Sweden SAS Scandinavian Airlines--SK Stockholm--STO Arlanda Airport--ARN Bromma Airport--BMA Skavsta Airport--NYO Switzerland Swissair--SR Basel--BSL Geneva--GVA Zurich--ZRH Syria Syrian Arab Airlines--RB Damascus--DAM Tahiti and French Polynesia Air Tahiti--VT Air Tahiti Nui--TN Bora Bora--BOB Moorea--MOZ Papeete--PPT Taiwan (Republic of China) China Airlines--CI Eva Airlines--BR Mandarin Airlines--AE Taipei--TPE Tanzania Air Tanzania--TC Dar es Salaam--DAR Trinidad and Tobago BWIA West Indies Airways--BW Port of Spain--POS Thailand Thai Airways--TG Bangkok--BKK Phuket--HKT Tunisia Tunis Air--TU Tunis--TUN Turkey Turkish Airlines--TK Ankara--ANK Esenboga Airport--ESB Istanbul--IST Ukraine Air Ukraine--6U Ukraine International Airlines--PS Kiev--IEV Odessa--ODS United Arab Emirates Emirates--EK Abu Dhabi--AUH Dubai--DXB United Kingdom British Airways--BA British Midland--BD Virgin Atlantic--VS Belfast, Northern Ireland--BFS Birmingham, England--BHX Cardiff, Wales--CWL Edinburgh, Scotland--EDI Glasgow, Scotland--GLA Glasgow International Airport--GLA Prestwick Airport--PIK Manchester, England--MAN London, England--LON Gatwick Airport--LGW Heathrow Airport--LHR London City Airport--LCY Luton Airport--LTN Stansted Airport--STN Uruguay Pluna--PU Montevideo--MVD U.S. Virgin Islands St. Croix (Christiansted)--STX St. Thomas (Charlotte Amalie)--STT Venezuela Air Venezuela--7Q Avensa--VE Vensecar International--V4 Caracas--CCS Vietnam Vietnam Airlines--VN Hanoi--HAN Ho Chi Minh City--SGN Yugoslavia Belgrade--BEG FIGURE 16-2 Time in 24-hour and 12-hour clocks AM HOURS PM HOURS 24-hour clock 12-hour clock 24-hour clock 12-hour dock 0003 12:03 a.m. 1203 12:03 p.m. 0100 1:00 a.m. 1300 1:00 p.m. 0200 2:00 a.m. 1400 2:00 p.m. 0315 3:15 a.m. 1515 3:15 p.m. 0430 4:30 a.m. 1630 4:30 p.m. 0545 5:45 a.m. 1745 5:45 p.m. 0600 6:00 a.m. 1800 6:00 p.m. 0700 7:00 a.m. 1900 7:00 p.m. 0800 8:00 a.m. 2000 8:00 p.m. 0930 9:30 a.m. 2130 9:30 p.m. 1020 10:20 a.m. 2220 10:20 p.m. 1150 11:50 a.m. 2350 11:50 p.m. 1200 12:00 p.m. 2400 12:00 a.m. (noon) (midnight) TABLE 16-1 Math steps for time calculation Basic: Used when the shortest distance between the cities in question does not cross the IDL. IDL: Used when the shortest distance between the cities in question does cross the IDL. Area Elapsed and Time flying direction comparison time Basic east to west Subtract Add Basic west to east Add Subtract IDL east to west Add Subtract IDL west to east Subtract Add
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|Title Annotation:||SECTION V: International Air Travel Basics|
|Publication:||A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2005|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 15: Practical advice for international travelers.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 17: International airfares and taxes.|