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Chapter 15 Syrups, creams, custards, egg foams, and icings.

FORMULA

SIMPLE SYRUP

This essential ingredient is a staple in every pastry shop, where a
large container of simple syrup can usually be found in the
refrigerator, waiting to serve its duty in multiple preparations.
The general proportions of simple syrup are a 1:1 ratio of water and
sugar.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Water                   100.00        1.000           2.205
Sugar                   100.00        1.000           2.205
Total                   200.00        2.000           4.410

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Water                      2          3 1/4           1 lb
Sugar                      2          3 1/4           1 lb
Total                      4          6 1/2           2 lb

Process

1. Combine the water and sugar and wash down the sides of the pot.

2. Bring to a boil, remove from the heat, cover, and reserve.

FORMULA

30 BAUME SYRUP

Like simple syrup, 30 baume syrup is an essential ingredient for
the pastry chef. The difference between simple syrup and 30 baume
syrup is in the ratio between sugar and water. 30 baume syrup calls
for 137 percent sugar to 100 percent water.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Water                   100.00        0.844           1.861
Sugar                   137.00        1.156           2.549
Total                   237.00        2.000           4.410

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Water                      1          13 3/4           13 5/8 oz
Sugar                      2           8 3/4       1 lb 2 3/8 oz
Total                      4           6 1/2                2 lb

Process

1. Combine the water and sugar and wash down the sides of the pot.

2. Bring to a boil, remove from the heat, cover, and reserve.

FORMULA

CREME CHANTILLY

This delicate and airy concoction first appears in history during
the Age of Enlightenment. Creme Chantilly was served in the village
of Hameau, with its famous dairy and dairy farm adjoining
the Prince of Conde's Chantilly domain. The famous cream was
served during the banquets that took place in the grand Hameau
reception hall, where the most privileged of Chantilly's many
guests were invited. Vanilla is optional and can be added to taste.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Heavy cream             100.00        2.666           5.878
Powdered sugar           12.50        0.333           0.735
Total                   112.50        3.000           6.613

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Heavy cream                5            14       1 lb 12 1/2 oz
Powdered sugar                       11 3/4            3 1/2 oz
Total                      6          9 3/4                2 lb

Process

Using a mixer with a whip attachment, whip the cream and sugar until
desired stage.

FORMULA

CREME ANGLAISE

Creme Anglaise (English cream) is the French phrase for custard
sauce. This is a rich and smooth textured sauce that can be served,
warm or cold, with cakes, pies, puddings, or fruit and is ideal for
plated desserts. Additionally, it is the base for numerous creams in
the pastry kitchen.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Whole milk               50.00        1.071           2.362
Heavy cream              50.00        1.071           2.362
Vanilla bean              Each        2               2
Sugar                    20.00        0.429           0.945
Egg yolks                20.00        0.429           0.945
Total                   140.00        3.000           6.613

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Whole milk                 2          5 3/4           11 3/4 oz
Heavy cream                2          5 3/4           11 3/4 oz
Vanilla bean               2                           1/2 each
Sugar                                15 1/8            4 5/8 oz
Egg yolks                            15 1/8            4 5/8 oz
Total                      6          9 3/4                2 lb

Process

1. Scale the milk, cream, and scraped vanilla beans into a stainless
steel pot and bring to a boil.

2. Meanwhile, scale the sugar and egg yolks into a bowl and mix just
to  combine.

3. When the liquid comes to a boil, pour one-third of it onto the
egg yolk mixture, and stir to incorporate evenly.

4. Return this mixture back to the pot, constantly stirring with a
heat-resistant rubber spatula.

5. Continue to cook the custard while stirring until it has reached
180[degrees]F (82[degrees]C).

6. Strain the creme Anglaise through a fine mesh chinois into a
clean container.

7. Cool immediately in an ice bath to prevent any carryover cooking.

8. Cover to the surface with plastic film, and refrigerate until
needed.

FORMULA

PASTRY CREAM

Pastry cream is a staple in pastry kitchens, used to fill cakes,
cream puffs, eclairs, napoleons, tarts, and other pastries. It is
cooked on the stove into a rich, thick custard made from a mixture
of milk, eggs, sugar, and cornstarch. Vanilla beans, liqueurs,
chocolate, and coffee are sometimes added to pastry creams as
additional flavor.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Whole milk              100.00        1.829           4.032
Sugar #1                  5.00        0.091           0.202
Cornstarch                7.00        0.128           0.282
Sugar #2                 20.00        0.366           0.806
Egg yolks                20.00        0.366           0.806
Butter                   12.00        0.219           0.484
Total                   164.00        3.000           6.613

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Whole milk                 4            1/2       1 lb 3 1/2 oz
Sugar #1                              3 1/4                1 oz
Cornstarch                            4 1/2            1 3/8 oz
Sugar #2                             12 7/8            3 7/8 oz
Egg yolks                            12 7/8            3 7/8 oz
Butter                                7 3/4            2 3/8 oz
Total                      6          9 3/4                2 lb

Process

1. Scale the whole milk and first sugar into a stainless steel pot,
and bring to a boil.

2. Meanwhile, scale the cornstarch and second sugar into a bowl,
and mix to combine.

3. Scale the egg yolks into the sugar-cornstarch mixture, and whisk
until just combined. Do not incorporate air.

4. When the milk comes to a boil, pour one-third of it onto the egg
yolk mixture, and stir to incorporate evenly.

5. Return this mixture back to the pot, constantly stirring.

6. Continue to cook the custard while stirring until it has boiled
for 2 minutes.

7. Turn off the heat, add the butter and stir until mixed in
completely.

8. Pour the pastry cream into a clean, shallow pan, and cover the
surface with plastic wrap.

9. Refrigerate immediately until needed.

Flavor Variations

Add any of the following ingredients to pastry cream for different
flavor variations. Pastry cream should be at the temperature
specified below for best results. Percentages are based on the total
weight of the pastry cream.

Chocolate liquor           12%   Hot
Coffee extract              3%   Hot or cold
Alcohol                     5%   Warm or cold
Bittersweet chocolate      20%   Hot
Praline paste          15%-20%   Hot or cold
Vanilla beans           1 bean per 1 kg of milk, split and scraped; add
                        to milk at the beginning of the cooking process

FORMULA

ALMOND CREAM

One of the essential ingredients in any pastry chefs kitchen,
almond cream is exceptionally versatile, used in morning pastries,
cakes, and many other desserts.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Butter                  324.62        1.319          2.907
Sugar                   324.62        1.319          2.907
Eggs                    147.69        0.600          1.323
Almond meal             324.62        1.319          2.907
Bread flour             100.00        0.406          0.896
Rum                       9.23        0.037          0.083
Total                  1230.78        5.000          11.023

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Butter                     2          14 1/2          8 1/2 oz
Sugar                      2          14 1/2          8 1/2 oz
Eggs                       1           5 1/8          3 7/8 oz
Almond meal                2          14 1/2          8 1/2 oz
Bread flour                           14 3/8          2 5/8 oz
Rum                                    1 3/8            1/4 oz
Total                     11             3/8              2 lb

Process

1. In a mixer with the paddle attachment, cream the butter and sugar
until light.

2. Add the eggs gradually.

3. Add the almond meal and bread flour, and mix until incorporated
and then add rum.

4. Store covered in the refrigerator.

FORMULA

FRANGIPANE

Frangipane is the subject of one of the culinary world's more
bizarre stories. It all began, legend has it, when a 16th-century
Italian nobleman, Marquis Muzio Frangipani, invented almond
perfume-scented gloves and created a Parisian fashion trend. Pastry
chefs looking to capitalize on the latest craze experimented with
different ways to capture the popular scent in desserts, and
frangipane was born. Flavored with ground almonds, this rich cream,
now based on two parts almond cream to one part pastry cream, is used
for cakes, morning pastries, and other confections.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Almond cream            100.00        3.333          7.349
Pastry cream             50.00        1.667          3.674
Total                   150.00        5.000         11.023

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Almond cream               7          5 5/8      1 lb 5 3/8 oz
Pastry cream               3         10 3/4          10 5/8 oz
Total                      11           3/8               2 lb

Process

1. In a mixing bowl, combine the almond cream and the pastry cream.

2. Blend using the paddle attachment until well combined.

FORMULA

CREME BRULEE

The origin of creme brulee ("burnt cream" in French) is hotly
debated, with the English, Spanish, and French all staking claim
to this classic dish of smooth custard with a caramelized sugar
topping. Creme brulee is a staple on the menu of many of today's
restaurants and is available in a wealth of diverse flavorings.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Heavy cream             100.00        1.709          3.767
Vanilla bean              each        2              2
Egg yolks                16.53        0.282          0.623
Eggs                      3.85        0.066          0.145
Sugar                    25.77        0.440          0.971
Salt                      0.20        0.003          0.008
Total                   146.35        2.500          5.513

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Heavy cream                3          12 1/4         1 lb 6 oz
Vanilla bean                           2              1/2 each
Egg yolks                             10                3.5 oz
Eggs                                   2 3/4              1 oz
Sugar                                 15 1/2            5.5 oz
Salt                                     1/8             pinch
Total                      5           8 1/4              2 lb

Process

1. Scald the cream and scraped vanilla bean.

2. Combine and gently whisk the egg yolks, eggs, sugar, and salt.

3. Temper the cream into the egg-sugar mixture.

4. Next, strain it through a fine chinois.

5. Portion into creme brulee dishes and then bake in a water bath
at 300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) in a convection oven.

6. Bake until just barely set in the middle.

7. Remove from the oven and transfer to the refrigerator, uncovered.

Finishing

To serve, apply a thin layer of sugar over the custard and brulee
with a torch or under a broiler.

FORMULA

CREME CARAMEL

Also referred to as flan, creme caramel is a rich custard dessert with
a layer of soft caramel on top. Though the name is French, the dish
has spread across Europe and the world.

Caramel Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Sugar                   100.00        0.690          1.521
Water                    30.00        0.207          0.456
Glucose                  15.00        0.103          0.228
Total                   145.00        1.000          2.205

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Sugar                      1          8 3/4              11 oz
Water                                 7 1/4           3 1/4 oz
Glucose                               3 5/8           1 5/8 oz
Total                      2          3 1/4               1 lb

Process, Caramel

1. Combine the sugar, water, and glucose in a saucepan.

2. Stir and bring to a boil.

3. Wash down the sides and continue cooking until the sugar turns to
an amber color.

4. Remove from the heat and pour the caramel sugar into the cups;
let set.

Custard Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Whole milk              100.00        1.552          3.422
Sugar                    18.92        0.294          0.647
Vanilla bean              Each        2              2
Salt                      0.50        0.008          0.017
Eggs                     41.67        0.647          1.426
Total                   161.09        2.500          5.512

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Whole milk                 3          6 3/4      1 lb 3 7/e oz
Sugar                                10 3/8           3 3/4 oz
Vanilla bean                          2               2/3 each
Salt                                    1/4            2/3 tsp
Eggs                       1          6 7/8           8 1/4 oz
Total                      5          8 1/4               2 lb

Process, Custard

1. Bring the milk to a boil with the sugar, vanilla bean, and salt.

2. In another bowl whisk the eggs gently.

3. When the milk comes to a boil, remove from the heat and slowly
pour the hot milk into the eggs. Strain through a mesh sieve.

4. Fill the cups with the mixture and bake in a water bath at
300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about 1 hour,
or until set.

5. Refrigerate overnight.

Serving

Once set, turn out of the cups onto the serving plate.

FORMULA

POT DE CREME

Pot de creme, also called petit pot de creme, is a rich, creamy
custard that is named for the container it is normally served in.
Pot de creme is an impressive-looking dessert that is convenient to
serve for special occasions because it can be made a day ahead.

Chocolate Pot de Creme Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Heavy cream             100.00        1.471          3.243
Eggs                     20.00        0.294          0.649
Granulated sugar         20.00        0.294          0.649
Cocoa liquor              6.00        0.088          0.195
60% chocolate            24.00        0.353          0.778
Total                   170.00        2.500          5.513

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Heavy cream                3          3 7/8           9 3/8 oz
Eggs                                 10 3/8           1 7/8 oz
Granulated sugar                     10 3/8           1 7/8 oz
Cocoa liquor                          3 1/8             5/8 oz
60% chocolate                        12 1/2           2 1/4 oz
Total                      5          8 1/4               1 lb

Process

1. Bring the heavy cream to a boil.

2. Whisk together the eggs and granulated sugar.

3. Temper the egg mixture with the warm cream.

4. Add the hot mixture to the cocoa liquor and chocolate and emulsify
with an immersion blender.

5. Pour into molds.

6. Bake at 300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) in a bain-marie for about
30 minutes.

7. Cool at room temperature, and refrigerate until needed.

8. Serve with creme Chantilly and fresh fruit or a crisp cookie.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

LEMON CURD

Lemon curd, also known as lemon cheese, is a traditional British
dessert topping. In late 19th- and early 20th-century England,
homemade lemon curd was served with bread or scones at afternoon tea,
and was used as a filling for cakes, small pastries, and tarts. Lemon
curd is distinct from lemon filling or custard, in that it contains a
higher proportion of lemon juice and zest, which gives it a much
more intense lemon flavor.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Sugar                   100.00        1.238         2.730
Egg yolks                48.89        0.605         1.335
Lemon juice              50.00        0.619         1.365
Lemon zest                3.33        0.041         0.091
Butter                   40.00        0.495         1.092
Total                   242.22        3.000         6.613

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz              Test

Sugar                      2         11 5/8        13 1/4 oz
Egg yolks                  1          5 3/8         6 1/2 oz
Lemon juice                1          5 7/8         6 5/8 oz
Lemon zest                            1 1/2           1/2 oz
Butter                     1          1 1/2         5 1/4 oz
Total                      6          9 3/4             2 lb

Process

1. Combine the sugar, yolks, lemon juice, and lemon zest in a
stainless steel bowl and place over a double boiler. Stir occasionally.

2. Once done, the mixture will be thick like ketchup.

3. Remove from the heat, strain into a clean container, and add the
butter at 90[degrees]F (25[degrees]C) to 95[degrees]F (32[degrees]C)
with an immersion blender.

4. Cover to the surface and reserve in the refrigerator.

FORMULA CHEESECAKE

Cheesecake is believed to have originated in ancient Greece, where
it was served to athletes during the first Olympic Games held in
776 BCE. The Romans spread cheesecake from Greece across Europe,
whose immigrants eventually brought it to the United States. Cream
cheese, the most popular cheese used for making cheesecake today,
was invented by American dairymen, who were trying to recreate
the French cheese, Neufchatel. When James L. Kraft invented
pasteurized cheese in 1912, with pasteurized Philadelphia cream cheese
following close on its heels, the making of cheesecakes in America
accelerated significantly. Cheesecakes are esteemed for their
incredible richness and endless variations.

Graham Cracker Crust Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Graham cracker          100.00        0.827         1.822
crumbs
Granulated sugar         33.00        0.273         0.601
Butter                   48.40        0.400         0.882
Total                   181.40        1.500         3.306

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz              Test

Graham cracker             1         13 1/8             6 oz
crumbs
Granulated sugar                      9 5/8             2 oz
Butter                               14 1/8             3 oz
Total                      3          4 7/8            12 oz

Yield: 5 crusts at 10.75 oz (0.300 kg) each

Test: 1 crust at 10.75 oz (0300 kg) each

Process, Graham Cracker Crust

1. Mix the cracker crumbs and sugar together.

2. Stir in the melted butter and mix until the crumbs are well coated.

3. Press the mixture into the bottom of the cake pans.

Cheesecake Batter Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Cream cheese            100.00        2.580         5.688
Sugar                    30.00        0.774         1.706
Butter, softened          4.80        0.124         0.273
Lemon juice               1.90        0.049         0.108
Vanilla extract           0.90        0.023         0.051
Eggs                     26.20        0.676         1.490
Heavy cream               8.70        0.224         0.495
Sour cream                8.70        0.224         0.495
Total                   181.20        4.675        10.306

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz              Test

Cream cheese               5          11         1 lb 2 1/4 oz
Sugar                      1          11 1/4          5 1/2 oz
Butter, softened                       4 3/8            7/8 oz
Lemon juice                            1 3/4            3/8 oz
Vanilla extract                          7/8            1/8 oz
Eggs                       1           7 7/8          4 3/4 oz
Heavy cream                            7 7/8          1 5/8 oz
Sour cream                             7 7/8          1 5/8 oz
Total                      10          4 7/8         2 lb 1 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake at 2 lb (0.935 kg)

Process, Cheesecake Batter

1. Prepare 8 inch (20 cm) pans with pan spray and the graham cracker
crust and reserve. The crust should be'/4 inch (0.6 cm) thick on
bottom of pan.

2. Using the paddle, cream the cream cheese until smooth. Then add the
butter and sugar on medium speed, and mix until smooth. Scrape down
the bowl.

3. Add the lemon juice and vanilla and mix on low speed until smooth.

4. Add the eggs in three stages, scraping the bowl between each
addition.

5. When the batter is smooth, blend in the heavy cream and sour cream.

6. Place the batter in the pans, 2 lb (0.935 kg) per cake.

7. Place the pans on a sheet pan filled with water.

8. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a deck oven for 1 hour 15
minutes or until just barely set in the middle. Or, bake at
285[degrees]F (140[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about 50
minutes.

9. Allow to cool thoroughly before removing from the pan.

Finishing

1. To remove the cake from the pan, place in a bain-marie or warm
with a torch.

2. Place the cake on a 9 inch (23 cm) gold board.

3. Apply a thin layer of sour cream to the top (optional) and
decorate with fresh fruit.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FORMULA

BREAD PUDDING

Once known as a poor man's pudding, bread pudding
originated in 13th-century England, where it was a popular
dessert of its day. It was originally designed as an
imaginative use for stale bread, to which sugar, spices,
and other ingredients were added. Today's bread puddings
are made with either fresh or stale bread soaked
in a rich mixture of milk or cream, eggs, sugar, vanilla,
and spices, along with a wide array of optional ingredients,
including some liquors. Sweet or savory, bread
puddings can be steamed or baked and are eaten both
hot and cold.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Savory Bread Pudding Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram      US decimal

Olive oil                 2.00        0.016           0.034
Onion, 1/4 inch          15.00        0.117           0.259
  (0.6 cm) dice
Garlic, minced            3.00        0.023           0.052
Salt                      0.50        0.004           0.009
Black pepper              0.10        0.001           0.002
Eggs                    100.00        0.782           1.724
Cream                    70.00        0.547           1.207
Milk                     75.00        0.586           1.293
Bread, 1 inch (3 cm)     77.00        0.602           1.327
  cubes
Mozzarella cheese,       32.00        0.250           0.552
  shredded
Parmesan, shredded        9.00        0.070           0.155
Total                   383.60        3.000           6.613

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz               Test

Olive oil                               1/2              1/8 oz
Onion, 1/4 inch                       4 1/8            1 1/8 oz
  (0.6 cm) dice
Garlic, minced                          7/8              1/4 oz
Salt                                    1/8               Pinch
Black pepper                           <1/8               Pinch
Eggs                       1         11 5/8            7 3/8 oz
Cream                      1          3 1/4            5 1/8 oz
Milk                       1          4 5/8            5 1/2 oz
Bread, 1 inch (3 cm)       1          5 1/4            5 5/8 oz
  cubes
Mozzarella cheese,                    8 7/8            2 3/8 oz
  shredded
Parmesan, shredded                    2 1/2              5/8 oz
Total                      6          9 3/4      1 lb 12 1/4 oz

Yield: approximately 15 at 7 oz (200 g) each

Test: approximately 4 at 7 oz (200 g) each

Note

Yields are calculated on the base mixture. The yield will
increase if variations are followed.

Process, Savory Bread Pudding

1. Saute the onions in the oil for 2 minutes, and then add the garlic,
salt, and pepper. Set aside to cool.

2. Whisk together the eggs, cream, and milk.

3. Mix in the bread, cheeses, and then the onions.

4. Cover and let stand for at least 1 hour.

5. Deposit into molds and bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a
convection oven for 30 minutes or until golden brown.

Variations

Prepare and then fold in the following ingredients to make variations
on the base. Weights are given based on a full formula or a test batch.

Red Pepper and Artichoke Variation

Ingredients           Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Roasted red pepper,      100.00       0.375        0.827
diced
Artichokes, chopped      100.00       0.375        0.827
Total                    200.00       0.750        1.653

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Roasted red pepper,      13 1/4   3 1/z oz
diced
Artichokes, chopped      13 1/4   3 1/z oz
Total                  1 10 1/4       7 oz

Mushroom and Swiss Variation

Ingredients           Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Roasted mushrooms        100.00       0.294        0.648
Black olives              75.00       0.221        0.486
Swiss cheese              80.00       0.235        0.519
Total                    255.00       0.750        1.653

Ingredients            Lb & Oz        Test

Roasted mushrooms       10 3/8    2 7/8 oz
Black olives             7 3/4    2 1/8 oz
Swiss cheese             8 1/4    2 1/4 oz
Total                 1 10 1/2    7 1/8 oz

Bacon Cheddar Variation

Ingredients           Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Bacon                    100.00       0.225        0.496
Cheddar cheese           100.00       0.225        0.496
Total                    200.00       0.450        0.992

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Bacon                     7 7/8   3 1/2 oz
Cheddar cheese            7 7/8   3 1/2 oz
Total                    15 7/8       7 oz

FORMULA

FRENCH MERINGUE

French meringue, also referred to as a common meringue, is a
versatile preparation. Made with more sugar than egg whites, French
meringue is usually baked for meringue cookies or toppings.

Ingredients      Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Egg whites          100.00      0.900        1.984
Sugar               100.00      0.900        1.984
Powdered sugar       50.00      0.450        0.992
Total               250.00      2.250        4.960

Ingredients      Lb & Oz             Test

Egg whites       1 15 3/4       12 3/4 oz
Sugar            1 15 3/4       12 3/4 oz
Powdered sugar     15 7/8        6 3/8 oz
Total            4 15 3/8            2 lb

Process

1. Sift the powdered sugar and reserve.

2. Warm the egg whites to 60[degrees]F (16[degrees]C) to 65[degrees]F
(18[degrees]C).

3. Add about one-third of the sugar to the egg whites and whip until
stiff peaks.

4. Add the remaining sugar quickly and turn off the machine.

5. Gently fold in the sifted powdered sugar and pipe as needed.

6. To reserve a meringue that is not being actively used, hold by
continuously whipping on low speed.

7. Bake the meringue at 200[degrees]F (93[degrees]C) for about 2 hours
or until dry.

FORMULA

ITALIAN MERINGUE

Based on a cooked sugar syrup and egg whites, Italian meringue
can be used for a multitude of applications from decoration to
components of mousse cakes.

Ingredients      Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar               200.00      1.803        3.972
Water                60.00      0.540        1.192
Egg whites          100.00      0.900        1.986
Total               360.00      3.243        7.150

Ingredients       Lb & Oz             Test

Sugar            3 15 1/2    1 lb 1 3/4 oz
Water            1  3 1/8         5 3/8 oz
Egg whites       1 15 3/4         8 7/8 oz
Total            7  2 3/8             2 lb

Process

1. Heat the sugar and water on the stove until it reaches the
boiling point.

2. Wash down the sides of the pan with plain water.

3. When the sugar reaches 240[degrees]F (116[degrees]C), whip
the egg whites on second speed.

4. When the sugar reaches 246[degrees]F (119[degrees]C) to 250
[degrees]F (121[degrees]C), slowly pour it down the side of the
mixing bowl, into the whipping egg whites.

5. Whip until room temperature, or desired temperature.

6. To reserve a meringue that is not being actively used, hold
by continuously whipping on low speed.

FORMULA

SWISS MERINGUE

Swiss meringue has a firmer texture than French meringue and is
often used for making decorations or as the base for desserts.

Ingredients      Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar               200.00      1.800        3.967
Egg whites          100.00      0.900        1.983
Total               300.00      2.700        5.950

Ingredients     Lb & Oz            Test

Sugar          3 15 1/2   1 lb 5 3/8 oz
Egg whites     1 15 3/4       10 5/8 oz
Total          5 15 1/4            2 lb

Process

1. Combine the egg whites and sugar in a mixing bowl.

2. Place the bowl over a bain-marie until it reaches at least
120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C), whipping constantly to avoid cooking
the egg whites.

3. Transfer to a mixer and whip on medium-high speed until the
meringue has reached full volume and cooled to room temperature.

4. Pipe as desired and bake in a low oven [200[degrees]F
(93[degrees]C)] until dry and crisp (2 hours minimum).


[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]
FORMULA

CLASSIC CHOCOLATE BUTTERCREAM

Classic buttercream is the icing most Americans expect to find
on a cake. Simple in preparation, classic buttercream has a dense,
slightly grainy texture. This version is flavored with dark chocolate.

Ingredients               Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Butter                       100.00      2.223        4.901
Powdered sugar                75.00      1.667        3.676
Egg whites, pasteurized       11.60      0.258        0.569
Vanilla extract                0.80      0.018        0.039
Semi-sweet chocolate          37.50      0.834        1.838
Total                        224.90      5.000       11.023

Ingredients               Lb & Oz            Test

Butter                    4 14 3/8      14 1/4 oz
Powdered sugar            3 10 1/8      10 5/8 oz
Egg whites, pasteurized      9 1/8       1 5/8 oz
Vanilla extract                5/8         1/8 oz
Semi-sweet chocolate      1 13 3/8       5 3/8 oz
Total                       11 3/8           2 lb

Process

1. Add the egg whites and vanilla and incorporate well.

2. Mix at high speed until light.

3. Melt the chocolate in the microwave or over a bain-marie to
120[degrees]F (49[degrees]C).

4. Temper one-fourth of the icing into the chocolate and whisk to
combine.

5. Mix the chocolate icing mixture back into the remaining icing
and mix until smooth.

Note

Plain buttercream can be made by eliminating the chocolate.

FORMULA

FRENCH BUTTERCREAM

The French version of buttercream is based on the pate a bombe
and achieves exceptional richness with the use of egg yolks. It has
a shorter shelf life than the classic buttercream and is customarily
used as a filling for cakes.

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar             45.00      1.220        2.689
Water             12.50      0.339        0.747
Egg yolks         27.00      0.732        1.613
Butter           100.00      2.710        5.975
Total            184.50      5.000       11.023

Ingredients     Lb & Oz            Test

Sugar          2 11            7 3/4 oz
Water         12               2 1/8 oz
Egg yolks      1  9 3/4        4 5/8 oz
Butter         5 15 5/8   1 lb 1 3/8 oz
Total            11 3/8            2 lb

Process

1. In a saucepan, heat the sugar and water as for pate a bombe.

2. Ina mixing bowl with the whip attachment, mix the egg yolks to
lighten the texture.

3. When the sugar reaches the soft ball stage [244[degrees]F
(118[degrees]C)], slowly pour the sugar into the whipping egg yolks,
and whip until cool.

4. Add the softened butter, and mix enough to ensure good emulsion
of the buttercream.

FORMULA

ITALIAN BUTTERCREAM

This buttercream is very light, based on an Italian meringue. It has
a smooth, light, and airy texture and is more stable than the French
buttercream.

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal

Egg whites        50.00      0.926        2.041
Sugar             90.00      1.667        3.674
Water             30.00      0.556        1.225
Butter           100.00      1.852        4.083
Total            270.00      5.000       11.023

Ingredients    Lb & Oz           Test

Egg whites       2 5/8       5 7/8 oz
Sugar         3 10 3/4      10 5/8 oz
Water          1 3 5/8       3 1/2 oz
Butter         4 1 3/8      11 7/8 oz
Total           11 3/8           2 lb

Process

1. Prepare to make an Italian meringue with the egg whites, sugar, and
water.

2. Combine the sugar and water and cook to 250[degrees]F (121'C)
(firm ball stage).

3. Wash down the sides of the pot with water to prevent
crystallization.

4. When the sugar reaches 240[degrees]F (116[degrees]C), begin
whipping the egg whites on medium-high speed.

5. Once the sugar is at the proper temperature, pour slowly onto
the whipping egg whites.

6. Let the mixture mix until it is room temperature, and then add
the soft butter.

7. Mix until butter is fully incorporated and mixture is light and
fluffy.

8. Store in the refrigerator until ready to use.

Flavor Variation Guidelines

The following flavor variations are based on the total percentage of
the buttercream.

Flavor Variations

64% chocolate   20
Praline paste   10-15
Chocolate liquor        12
Coffee extract  3-4

FORMULA

CREME ANGLAISE-STYLE
BUTTERCREAM

Some believe this is the best buttercream of them all when it comes
to flavor. The balance of the thickness of butter and the lightness of
meringue gives this buttercream its outstanding texture.

Custard Base Formula

Ingredients    Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Whole milk        100.00       0.562        1.239
Egg yolks          77.00       0.433        0.954
Sugar             100.00       0.562        1.239
Total             277.00       1.557        3.432

Ingredients    Lb & Oz          Test

Whole milk     1 3 7/8      3 5/8 oz
Egg yolks       15 1/4      2 3/4 oz
Sugar          1 3 7/8      3 5/8 oz
Total          3 6 7/8         10 oz

Process, Custard Base

1. Ina saucepan, heat the milk.

2. In a mixing bowl, combine the egg yolks and sugar.

3. When the milk boils, temper it into the egg yolk-sugar mixture.

4. Return this to the stove and cook until 180[degrees]F
(82[degrees]C), as for a creme Anglaise.

5. Strain through a chinois into a mixer fitted with the whip. Whip
on medium speed until cool.

6. See Final Buttercream Formula for the finishing of the cream.

Italian Meringue Formula

Ingredients   Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Water             60.00       0.077        0.171
Sugar #1         200.00       0.258        0.569
Egg whites       100.00       0.129        0.284
Sugar #2          12.00       0.015        0.034
Total            372.00       0.480        1.058

Ingredients   Lb & Oz             Test

Water           2 3/4         1 1/8 oz
Sugar #1        9 1/8         3 3/4 oz
Egg whites      4 1/2         1 7/8 oz
Sugar #2          1/2           1/4 oz
Total           1 7/8             7 oz

Process, Italian Meringue

1. In a saucepan, prepare the first sugar and the water as for
Italian meringue.

2. In a mixing bowl with the whip attachment, begin to whip the egg
whites with the second sugar when the sugar is cooked to the thread
stage 241[degrees]F (116[degrees]C).

3. When the sugar reaches firm ball stage 250[degrees]F (121
[degrees]C), slowly pour the sugar down the side of the mixing bowl.

4. Whip until cool. See Final Buttercream Formula for the finishing
of the cream.

Final Buttercream Formula

Ingredients        Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Custard base           66.00       1.557        3.432
Butter                100.00       2.358        5.200
Italian meringue       46.00       1.085        2.392
Total                 212.00       5.000       11.023

Ingredients        Lb & Oz         Test

Custard base       3 6 7/8        10 oz
Butter             5 3 1/4    15 1/8 oz
Italian meringue   2 6 1/4         7 oz
Total               11 3/8         2 lb

Process, Final Buttercream

1. Add the soft butter a small amount at a time to the cool, whipping
custard base.

2. Continue to whip until the mixture is smooth and well emulsified.

3. Add the Italian meringue and mix to incorporate.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE GLAZE

This glaze can be used in a variety of applications in the kitchen,
even as the chocolate for mocha espresso drinks. To achieve the
desired results for this glaze, it is vitally important to choose the
proper chocolate, using the specified cocoa content.

Ingredients          Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Simple syrup             50.00       1.174        2.588
35% cream                50.50       1.185        2.613
Glucose                  12.50       0.293        0.647
Coating chocolate        37.50       0.880        1.941
64% chocolate            62.50       1.467        3.234
Total                   213.00       5.000       11.023

Ingredients           Lb & Oz         Test

Simple syrup          2 9 3/8     7 1/2 oz
35% cream             2 9 7/8     7 5/8 oz
Glucose                10 3/8     1 7/8 oz
Coating chocolate        1 15     5 5/8 oz
64% chocolate         3 3 3/4     9 3/8 oz
Total                  11 3/8         2 lb

Note

The combined weight for the two chocolates equals 100 percent.

Process

1. Prepare the simple syrup and reserve.

2. Bring the cream and the glucose to a boil.

3. Chop (if in block form) the chocolates and place in a bowl.

4. Pour the boiling liquids (cream-glucose and simple syrup) over the
chocolates, and let stand for 2 minutes.

5. With an immersion blender or rubber spatula, form an emulsion. Do
not use a whisk, as it will incorporate air bubbles.

6. Cover to the surface with plastic wrap and store in the
refrigerator.

7. When needed, reheat in microwave or over a bain-marie to pouring
consistency.

Simple Syrup Formula

Ingredients   Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Sugar            100.00       0.587        1.294
Water            100.00       0.587        1.294
Total            200.00       1.174        2.588

Ingredients   Lb & Oz       Test

Sugar         1 4 3/4   3 3/4 oz
Water         1 4 3/4   3 3/4 oz
Total         2 9 3/8   7 1/2 oz

Process

1. Combine the water and sugar, and wash down the sides of the pot.

2. Bring to a boil, cover, and reserve.

FORMULA

BLACK GLAZE

Similar to chocolate glaze, but made with a small portion of black
cocoa powder, black glaze achieves a compellingly dark color.

Ingredients          Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

35% cream                54.00       1.204        2.654
Glucose                  12.75       0.284        0.627
Black cocoa powder        5.00       0.111        0.246
Simple syrup             52.50       1.171        2.581
64% chocolate            67.00       1.494        3.293
Coating chocolate        33.00       0.736        1.622
Total                   224.25       5.000       11.023

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

35% cream              2 10 1/2   7 3/4 oz
Glucose                  10       1 7/8 oz
Black cocoa powder        3 7/8     3/4 oz
Simple syrup           2  9 1/4   7 1/2 oz
64% chocolate          3  4 3/4   9 1/2 oz
Coating chocolate      1 10       4 3/4 oz
Total                 11    3/8       2 lb

Note

The combined weight for the two chocolates equals 100 percent.

Simple Syrup for Black Glaze Formula

Process

1. Prepare the simple syrup for black glaze. Add the black cocoa
powder and emulsify well; reserve.

2. Bring the cream and the glucose to a boil.

3. Chop the chocolates and place in a bowl.

4. Pour the boiling liquids (cream-glucose and simple syrup) over the
chocolates, and let stand for 2 minutes.

5. With an immersion blender or rubber spatula, form an emulsion. Do
not use a whisk, as it will incorporate air bubbles.

6. Cover to the surface with plastic wrap and store in the
refrigerator.

7. When needed, reheat in microwave or over a bain-marie to pouring
consistency.

Ingredients   Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Water            100.00       0.478        1.053
Sugar            115.00       0.549        1.211
Glucose           30.00       0.143        0.316
Total            245.00       1.171        2.581

Ingredients   Lb & Oz        Test

Water           1 7/8        3 oz
Sugar         1 3 3/8    3 1/2 oz
Glucose         5          7/8 oz
Total         2 9 1/4    7 1/2 oz

Process, Simple Syrup for Black Glaze

1. Combine the water, sugar, and glucose, and wash down the sides of
the pot.

2. Bring to a boil, cover, and reserve.

FORMULA

NAPPAGE

This glaze creates the nice shine necessary for fruit tarts and
similar desserts. This glaze is made with pectin NH, which is
critical to its success, as the pectin is thermoreversible.
This glaze also freezes well.

Ingredients         Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Water                  100.00       3.378        7.448
Used vanilla pods        Each      10           10
Sugar                   40.00       1.351        2.979
Pectin NH                4.00       0.135        0.298
Lemon juice              4.00       0.135        0.298
Total                  148.00       5.000       11.023

Ingredients           Lb & Oz             Test

Water                7  7 1/8    1 lb 5 5/8 oz
Used vanilla pods      10               2 each
Sugar                2 15 5/8         8 5/8 oz
Pectin NH               4 3/4           7/8 oz
Lemon juice             4 3/4           7/8 oz
Total               11    3/8             2 lb

Process

1. Combine the water with the used vanilla pods in a stainless
steel pot and bring to a boil.

2. Combine one-fourth of the sugar with the pectin NH and add
to the water once it is 150[degrees]F (65[degrees]C), while stirring
constantly with a whisk.

3. Add the remaining sugar over several minutes while whisking the
mixture.

4. Once the mixture has boiled, remove from the heat, add the lemon
juice, and cover with plastic film for 30 minutes.

5. Reboil the nappage, strain through a fine mesh chinois, and
reserve in the refrigerator until needed.

6. To use, warm on the stove top or in a microwave until fluid.

FORMULA

ROYAL ICING

Royal icing is a hard white icing that is generally used for
decoration only. Its taste is not comparable to other icings, but
it serves its purpose well in decoration, where it hardens to a
smooth and beautiful shine. Royal icing has been classically
employed in decorating wedding cakes.

Ingredients       Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Powdered sugar       100.00       2.542        5.604
Egg whites            17.00       0.432        0.953
Lemon juice            1.00       0.025        0.056
Total                118.00       3.000        6.613

Ingredients       Lb & Oz              Test

Powdered sugar    5 9 5/8    1 lb 11 1/8 oz
Egg whites         15 1/4          4 5/8 oz
Lemon juice           7/8            1/4 oz
Total             6 9 3/4              2 lb

Process

1. Sift the powdered sugar and place it in a mixing bowl fitted with
the paddle.

2. While mixing, slowly add the egg whites and then the lemon juice.
For a stiffer consistency, add less egg white; for a thinner
consistency, add more.

3. For storage, cover to the surface with a moist paper towel, and
cover the container with plastic wrap.

FORMULA

FLAT ICING

Flat icing is one of the simplest icings in concept and preparation.
The basic ingredients of flat icing are powdered sugar and water.
Flat icing can be used as the glaze on rolls, Danish, and other
pastries in place of fondant. Flavorings such as citrus juices or
zest can make interesting variations.

Ingredients       Baker's %    Kilogram   US decimal

Powdered sugar       100.00       2.564        5.652
Lemon juice            3.00       0.077        0.170
Water, hot            14.00       0.359        0.791
Total                117.00       3.000        6.613

Ingredients        Lb & Oz              Test

Powdered sugar    5 10 3/8    1 lb 11 3/8 oz
Lemon juice          2 3/4            7/8 oz
Water, hot          12 5/8          3 7/8 oz
Total              6 9 3/4              2 lb

Process

1. Sift the powdered sugar and add the water and lemon juice to it.

2. Blend carefully with a rubber spatula (by hand) or paddle
attachment (by machine) so as not to incorporate air. Reserve until
needed.

3. The icing can be thicker or thinner by adjusting the quantity of
water.

4. Milk or juice, such as lemon or orange, maybe substituted for the
water.


CHAPTER SUMMARY

The preparations presented in this chapter cover a broad range of products, all bound together in that they are building blocks on one another, as well as for other work with pastry. Understanding the processes for making these sugar syrups, creams, egg foams, and icings is critical in order to work with pastry on more advanced levels. Because many of these preparations are ready to eat, it is essential that proper sanitation, hygiene, and storage procedures are practiced at all times. When one knows how to easily make and troubleshoot these base creams, icings, and egg foams, one has the tools to make an unlimited number of preparations.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

KEY TERMS

* Almond cream

* Baked custard

* Basic buttercream

* Baume

* Bread pudding

* Cake syrup

* Chocolate glaze

* Common meringue

* Cooked-stirred custard

* Creme Anglaise

* Creme Anglaise-style buttercream

* Creme brulee

* Creme caramel

* Creme Chantilly

* Creme Chiboust

* Creme St. Honore

* Crystallization

* Custard base

* Diplomat cream

* Egg foam

* Flat icing

* Fondant

* Frangipane

* French buttercream

* French meringue

* Fruit glaze

* Ganache

* Icing

* Italian buttercream

* Italian meringue

* Meringue

* Pastry cream

* Pate a bombe

* Pot de creme

* Royal icing

* Simple syrup

* Sugar syrup

* Swiss buttercream

* Swiss meringue

* Syneresis

* 30 baume syrup

* Whipped cream

* Whipped topping

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What is baume? How is it controlled?

2. How is pastry cream prepared? What precautions must be taken?

3. What is the process for making creme Anglaise? What special precautions should betaken?

4. What are the baking guidelines for baked custards?

5. What effect does sugar have on egg whites in a French meringue at a

1:1 ratio and at a 2:1 ratio (egg white to sugar)?

6. What is the process for making an Italian buttercream?
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Part 2: PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:7274
Previous Article:Chapter 15 Syrups, creams, custards, egg foams, and icings.
Next Article:Chapter 16 Mousse.
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