Chapter 15 Everlasting flowers.
The popularity of both dried and artificial flowers, or everlasting flowers, is widespread. Today artificial flowers, usually called silk flowers, are made with realistic-looking fabrics, formed in natural shapes, and given colors and textures that create believable facsimiles of the real thing (see Figure 15-2).
Design possibilities are unlimited with everlasting flowers. Requiring little maintenance, everlasting designs are ideal for home and commercial interiors where fresh designs are not practical, especially from day to day, such as in a dark corner, in a warm or sunny spot, on the wall, high on top of a china hutch, or on a piano (where water in fresh designs could cause disaster).
Advantages of everlasting designs over fresh include the following:
* Designs may be made prior to their sale or use, eliminating the usual rush associated with fresh flower arrangements.
* Seasonal, holiday, and special occasion designs may be easily fashioned in advance and stored.
* The worry of water in designs is eliminated.
* A wide assortment of containers may be used, or a design may be constructed without a container.
* Great versatility exists when designing with everlasting flowers because more time may be taken to construct designs.
* Stems may be easily lengthened and manipulated.
* Flowers and foliage will not wilt.
* Designs may be dismantled and designed again.
* Exact or unusual colors may be found in everlasting flowers to match a theme or interior color scheme (see Figure 15-3).
* Artificial flowers do not irritate allergies (although some preserved flower and foliage fragrances might).
* When compared with fresh designs and the amount of time they are usable and enjoyed, everlasting designs are relatively inexpensive.
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While a few disadvantages do exist with everlasting designs, these problems may be easily overcome. Following are some disadvantages:
* Designs enjoyed day to day may begin to collect dust, fade, or look tired or outdated.
* Storage of seasonal and holiday designs may present a problem at home and commercially.
* Artificial flowers lack the fragrance of their fresh counterparts (although this is an advantage for some people).
* Although preserved and artificial designs are long lasting, they are not permanent. They must be cleaned, maintained, refurbished, and updated.
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Permanent Flowers and Foliage
Permanent flowers and foliage (also called artificial and silks) have evolved into sophisticated and realistic-looking materials (see Figure 15-4). Many flowers are botanically correct replicas of their fresh counterparts (appropriately named botanicals).
There are literally thousands of different types of permanent flowers, foliage, berries, and fruit available at various prices. Their popularity is greater than ever because of the development of fine, realistic fabrics. Although many are initially expensive, over time they are extremely cost-effective. Whether silks are used in combination with fresh flowers, dried flowers, or used exclusively, it is important for you to gain knowledge of the various types of permanent flowers and how to design with them.
The most common permanent flowers are made from polyester by machine. Generally, they are not botanically correct but resemble certain flowers. Quality varies greatly with these basic silk flowers.
Some artificial flowers are described as being "handmade," which usually means the flower parts are manufactured individually and then assembled by hand. These generally are more expensive and look more realistic than other types of artificial flowers. Many imitate natural flowers in some ways, such as color or shape, but do not pass for the real thing like many of the new botanicals. Other flowers, often called art or fantasy flowers, give the illusion of specific flowers. Product designers will often pattern these flowers after several real flowers, using the shape of one, the color of another, and the texture of another.
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Another variation of silk flowers is paper or parchment flowers. These often are made to look like dried material. They hold up well and do not attract dust like other types of permanent flowers.
Botanicals are patterned after real flowers, and product designers spend much effort to produce fabric flowers that simulate all the real characteristics--color, texture, shape, pattern, and size--as they exist in nature.
Like fresh flowers, permanent flowers may be classified according to their shape, which is useful in design work. Line flowers are called spike flowers and are tall, long, and narrow. Form flowers are referred to as focal flowers. These have large, interesting heads and are central to the design. Mass flowers may also be referred to as focal flowers. These flowers have medium-to large-size heads and may be single flowers on a stem or in sprays of flower heads. Filler flowers are those with tiny, delicate blossoms in sprays. They function within a design to complete and give accent to a composition. Having a variety of permanent flowers on hand will allow a wide selection and provide you with increased inspiration to help you work more creatively.
Dried Plant Material
The abundance of natural dried plant materials available is increasing in both selection and popularity. Dried flowers are used to provide warmth, color, and accent to interiors (see Figure 15-5). Age-old methods of drying, such as air-drying, drying with a desiccant, and pressing, as well as the modern advances in preservation with glycerin and freeze-drying methods have greatly increased the selection of flowers, foliage, seed pods, grasses, berries, and other plant materials.
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While preserved flowers and foliage are available in stores, you may wish to experiment with drying plant material for use in your floral designs. A variety of unusual flowers, foliage, seed pods, and grasses that may not be available commercially may be successfully preserved. A retail florist should be familiar with basic preservation techniques.
Often, floral shops sell products and chemicals used for drying and preserving flowers. Retail florists are often asked how to dry and preserve individual flowers or whole designs. A basic knowledge of the various drying techniques and how products (see Figure 15-6) are used will generally lead to increased sales at the floral shop. Often flowers are dried for their sentimental value. They may hold a certain memory or provide special meaning.
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It is somewhat rewarding to experiment with flowers and other plant materials and be able to dry and preserve them successfully. Drying your own flowers, foliage, grasses, and seed pods gives you a large selection of materials from which to choose for your designs. Learning various drying techniques and finding success with them will also save you from buying commercially preserved plant materials, which are often expensive.
Gathering Plant Material
Gather flowers and other plant materials for preservation on a dry day in the afternoon when the dew has evaporated. Excess moisture in and on plant material encourages mold and delays proper drying.
When gathering fresh flowers, whether from the florist, garden, or the wilds, choose the very best specimens, those without imperfections. Once dried, any blemishes--bruises, holes, and spots--become magnified. In order to achieve the best results for most drying techniques, cut flowers with sharp pruning shears. Immediately after cutting flowers, place the bases of their stems in a bucket of tepid water to prevent them from wilting.
Many flowers may be harvested at various stages of development, to provide a more natural variety for your designs. However, avoid gathering flowers and other plant materials that are overmature and past their prime. Generally, older flowers may lose their colors, shatter, and deteriorate quickly in the drying process. For drying success, most flowers, pods, and grasses should be harvested before they shed their pollen or release their seeds. It is important when harvesting flowers and other materials from the wilds that you research which flowers may be protected, endangered, or toxic.
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Overview of Preservation Techniques
There are several methods of drying flowers and other plant materials. The method you choose will depend on the type of flower or foliage you want to preserve and how it will be used in a composition. A variety of techniques may be used on the same material to achieve different effects. It will be helpful for you to set aside an area for drying and storing the plant materials you collect. The various methods of preservation include air-drying, drying with desiccants, treating with glycerin, pressing, and freeze-drying.
Air-drying is the simplest of all drying techniques. This method takes a minimum of time without requiring special equipment or supplies to achieve excellent results. With this drying method, the moisture is removed from the plant materials simply by the circulation of air, without using any drying agent.
Many flower varieties will dry more successfully if thorns and lower or all foliage is removed from their stems (see Figure 15-7). Gather similar flowers into small bunches with flower heads fanned apart and at different levels to allow for better circulation. Fasten the bunches together with a rubberband, which will continue to grip stems as they shrink during the drying process. Hang the bunches upside-down with wire or string. Hanging flowers this way will keep stems straight.
You may want to dry some plant materials standing upright, rather than upside-down. Many flowers, seedheads, and grasses that are naturally pendulous or droopy will take a curving shape as they dry. These arching or twisting stems will add interesting lines to your designs.
Ideally, the room conditions in which flowers are air-dried should be dry, cool, dark, and well-ventilated. Damp conditions will produce dismal results, with flowers often becoming infected with mold or mildew. Although materials can dry in warmer temperatures, cool conditions help flowers maintain truer colors and prevent them from drying too quickly and becoming extremely brittle. Sunlight or constant indoor lighting will cause colors to fade.
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Variations of air-drying for some flowers, grasses, and other plant material, are to dry them standing upright in 1 or 2 inches of warm water or to lay them flat on newspaper, as shown in Figure 15-8. Room conditions should be the same as when drying flowers that hang upside-down.
Standing flowers such as hydrangea, heather, bells of Ireland, thistle-type flowers, and grasses in water will take slightly longer to dry, but the flowers and grasses dry better and retain more of their natural shape this way. It is important to recut stems in order for the material to take up some water. Do not replenish the water; simply let it evaporate. Another method is to lay material flat in a single layer on top of newspaper. Some plant material such as heavy grasses and deciduous and evergreen plant stems will dry more successfully when allowed to dry flat in this way allowing for natural curves.
With ideal conditions, air-drying plant materials will take one to three weeks. Delicate flowers will dry in about a week, while heavy or thick-stemmed materials may take two or three weeks to fully dry.
Once dried, many flowers, grasses, and seed pods will benefit from a light coating of commercial sealer or hair spray, as shown in Figure 15-9. The sealer will help keep the dried material intact, keeping seeds and plumes from shedding.
Drying with Desiccants
Flowers may be dried using a desiccant, which is a substance that absorbs moisture. Silica gel, fine sand, borax powder, alum, detergent powder, and finely ground kitty litter are some examples of desiccants that may be used to draw moisture from plant tissues.
Most flowers dried in a desiccant retain superior color as well as their original shapes (see Figure 15-10). For best results, remove stems from flowers. Flower heads may be wired for added support before being buried in desiccant. Fill a container with at least 1 inch of desiccant. As shown in Figure 15-11, place flowers onto the desiccant, either upside-down, upright, or on their sides, depending on their shape. Ideally, the same flower types should be dried together rather than mixing flowers, to ensure similar drying time. Be careful that flowers do not overlap or touch one another. Gently sprinkle them with desiccant until they are completely covered, then cover the container.
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Depending on the desiccant, drying time will vary from several days to several weeks. To determine if the flowers are dry, gently tilt the container to reveal a flower; if the petals are soft, they need more time to fully dry; if they are papery or crisp, the flowers have dried and need to be removed before they become overly brittle. Slowly tilt the container until the desiccant slides away and gently remove the flowers.
Silica Gel. Similar in appearance to granulated sugar, silica gel is by far the most effective desiccant because it dries many flowers in two to four days and retains more of the natural colors. Silica gel may be purchased for drying flowers at hobby and craft shops, chemical supply companies, and some florist supply shops. There are several types of silica gel with various trade names. Silica gel is available as white crystals or as color-indicator crystals. When the color-indicator crystals dry they are blue; while still absorbing moisture they are pink. Although silica gel is initially expensive, it may be used over and over again.
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To speed the drying process, flowers may be dried with silica gel and warmed in a microwave oven. For best results, preheat the silica gel in the microwave on high for about 1 minute. Then pour about an inch of silica gel into a glass or other microwaveable dish. Place fresh flower heads (without any wires) on the warm layer and gently cover with more prewarmed silica gel. Place a small dish of water in the oven to prevent flowers from becoming overly dry and brittle (see Figure 15-12). Set the microwave on medium for 1-3 minutes. Because drying is so rapid, experiment with various types of flowers and with different microwave settings in order to dry successfully. After removing the container from the microwave, let the silica gel cool for 15-30 minutes before tilting the container to reveal the flowers.
Fine Sand. The oldest desiccant used for drying flowers, fine sand is still useful as a drying agent. Use only the finest grades of white beach sand, which may be purchased at hardware and building suppliers. Sift the sand to remove organic materials, then wash it. To dry, bake the sand in shallow pans in an oven set at 250[degrees]F for 30-60 minutes. Some silica gel with color-indicators may be added to the sand, which will turn blue when the sand is dry.
Sand is heavy and therefore not suited for drying delicate flowers. Flowers buried in sand take 1-2 weeks, and often up to 4 weeks, to dry.
Borax. Borax may be used alone to dry flowers or may be mixed with cornmeal, alum, or fine sand. A borax and cornmeal mixture is lightweight and suited for dainty and delicate flowers. Drying time will vary usually taking between 3 and 10 days. Once dry, remove all desiccant from flowers to prevent blotches.
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Treating with Glycerin
Glycerin (GLIS-er-ihn) is the nontechnical term for glycerol. It is an odorless, colorless, syrupy liquid that may be purchased at chemical supply companies. When used to preserve evergreen and deciduous foliage and some flowers and berried branches, glycerin draws water from its surroundings. Rather than removing water from the plant, it replaces the water in the plant's tissues with glycerin, keeping the material supple and smooth. Glycerin often alters foliage and flower colors, turning them to deep shades of the original plant color or dramatically changing colors to deep browns, reds, greens, tans, and yellows (see Figure 15-13).
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Use only mature foliage and firmly attached berried branches and keep them fresh in water until ready to treat with glycerin. Young, immature leaves, tender branches, or wilted material do not preserve well and collapse when treated with glycerin.
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For best results, mix one part glycerin to two parts boiling water in a nonmetal container. Allow the diluted glycerin to cool. Recut stem ends at an angle and place in several inches of the glycerin solution. Commercial automobile antifreeze (undiluted) preserves some plant material and in some cases, may be substituted for the glycerin mixture. For tall, heavy branches, mix the solution and put in a smaller jar, then stand the smaller jar in a taller bucket to give the heavy material support. (See Figure 15-14.)
The mixture is taken up more quickly in a warm room than in a cool one. Leaves at the top of tall stems are the last to be preserved and have a tendency to wilt. To speed the glycerin infusion process to the tops of stems, brush on or wipe the upper leaves of tall branches generously with the glycerin solution. Taking this action will help prevent curling and wilting. Replenish the glycerin solution as needed. The preservation process generally takes 3 or 4 days to several weeks, with woody branches taking longer.
Remove the stems from the liquid mixture when beads of glycerin form on the leaf surfaces and the entire stem changes color out to the leaf tips. Wipe off excess glycerin with a warm, damp sponge. Hang stems upside-down to dry.
Individual leaves may also be preserved in a glycerin solution (see Figure 15-15). Submerge them into a nonmetal dish. Leaves absorb the solution in 2-6 days. Remove leaves after they have turned color and wash them in warm water with mild soap and rinse. Lay them flat on top of newspaper or another type of absorbent paper.
A time-honored method of preserving leaves and flowers is by pressing (see Figure 15-16). This method is used mostly for green and autumn-colored leaves and dainty flowers. Although pressed material is flat, naturally flat foliage such as gladiolus and iris leaves, ferns, and juniper press well. They may be used in a variety of ways in both arrangements and with pressed flowers in glass-covered frames.
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Flowers and leaves may be flattened in a traditional flower press, as shown in Figure 15-17. Allow adequate space between materials and never overlap them. Layers of wood and absorbent blotting paper are alternated, and pressure is applied by tightening the nuts or clamps. As materials dry, they shrink; and the press must be tightened. A simpler method of pressing is to lay flowers between absorbent papers that are placed between heavy books or within the pages of old telephone books, as shown in Figure 15-18. The pressing process requires 2-3 weeks to accomplish complete drying. To design with pressed flowers, handle them carefully with tweezers. Place them in the desired pattern (see Figure 15-19). Next, remove flowers and leaves with tweezers and brush the underside with diluted glue (purchased from a hobby or craft store). Return the flower or leaf to the desired position. Simple projects include cards and bookmarks (see Figure 15-20). With experience and persistence, more elaborate compositions may be designed with your pressed flowers (see Figure 15-21).
The process of freeze-drying,which is generally done commercially, differs from other drying methods because flowers are frozen before being dried. Flowers are placed in a refrigerated vacuum chamber. While in the chamber, any water in the flowers changes from ice to water vapor. Most freeze-dried flowers, herbs, foliage, vegetables, and fruits retain their original characteristics of color, shape, and texture (see figures 15-22 and 15-23).
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Storing Preserved Plant Material
Preserved plant material does not have to be used in designs right after the drying process. It can be stored for several weeks or months without deteriorating. Flowers that are hung dry in bunches can stay where they are for their decorative value as long as there is plenty of space. Air-dried material may be layered between tissue paper. Take special care to support delicate or large flower heads. Place layers of flowers in a cardboard box. Plant material that has been treated with glycerin must be stored alone (not in the same box with dried materials) in a well-ventilated box, between layers of newspaper.
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While an enormous range of plant material can be dried, Table 15-1 lists some of the more common flowers that may be easily dried and preserved. The botanical and common name, the part of the plant that dries well, and the most appropriate drying method are listed.
Designing with Everlastings
With everlasting flowers, there is large diversity in design. Stems may be easily manipulated and lengthened and designs may be placed in a greater variety of places in a greater variety of containers than can fresh designs. There is no wilting, limited mess in design, no worry of water or changing water, and no dead flowers to constantly pick out of a design. There is greater freedom in design with both dried and permanent materials than with fresh. Once a design is created, it will last for a long time without much maintenance.
Having a variety of supplies and tools on hand helps make the design process more efficient (see Figure 15-24).
To ease design work with dried materials, a pick machine (see Figure 15-25) may be used. Pick machines add a metal pick to single or grouped stem ends, allowing for easier insertion into floral foam.
As shown in Figure 15-26, other possibilities exist for lengthening, strengthening, or creating new stems for dried materials. Depending on the flower shape and stem thickness, wires, floral tape, glue, and sticks may be used for this purpose.
To secure some silk flowers, their heads and leaves can be removed and glued to the main stem (see Figure 15-27). When you work with silk flowers, because most types have wire inside the stem and many have wires within the leaves and petals, as shown in Figure 15-28, manipulate the flower parts (stem, leaves, and petals) into more realistic and exciting shapes.
Use the type of dry foam that is specially designed for use with fragile drieds or heavier, thick stems of dried or silk material. For overall sturdiness, it may be necessary to glue the foam into the container and for even greater security, to add a drop of glue to stems as they are inserted into the foam. The mechanics of foam and the base of the stems should be camouflaged with some type of moss (see Figure 15-29).
When making everlasting designs, you will generally find it simplier to achieve a successful floral arrangement by starting with a definite design shape in mind, especially in regard to where it will be placed. Imagine the silhouette of your design before you begin construction. This will help you choose a proper container, as well as the type and quantity of everlasting flowers and other materials appropriate for a particular shape and style.
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Once the floral foam in your container is camouflaged with some type of moss, the flower stems may be added, just like they would be for a fresh bouquet. Consider the order of arrangement as you begin: Remember that because tall, linear flowers and foliage help set the framework of your design, they are generally inserted first. Next, place any form flowers to establish the focal area of your design. Next, add mass, rounded flowers that will help to add bulk and weight to your arrangement quickly. Remember to vary the flower color, size, spacing, or depth to avoid monotony. Before adding the final filler flowers, it may be necessary in these designs to add some everlasting foliage stems or individual leaves, in the foundation of the design. Camouflaging the foam, moss, and where the stems are inserted, or the mechanics, will enhance the overall visual success of the design. Remember, you can add a more realistic look to flowers and leaves by bending and curving the wired parts of stems, leaves, and petals. Accessories--for example--ribbon, candles, berries, and sticks may be added to everlasting designs to add detail, enhance the design, and unify the parts.
To secure a foam foundation onto a wreath or other wall piece, a block of foam may be cut and glued onto the frame (see Figure 15-30). The foam must be further secured with wire or tape. To prevent the wire from cutting through the foam, however, glue wooden sticks or stem ends to the edges of the foam. Then, as you add wire to secure the foam in place, the wire will not sever through the foam. Once the foundation is secure, add moss with green pins to camouflage the mechanics of construction. Flowers and foliage may then be inserted into the foam to produce a three-dimensional look (see Figure 15-31).
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Maintenance and Cleaning
Although somewhat maintenance free, everlasting flowers and designs must be maintained, dusted, and often cleaned with water and soap. If designs are maintained on a regular basis, perhaps once a week, every other week, or even once a month, dust will not become a big problem. A variety of silk flower and foliage cleaners and conditioners are available in both aerosol and pump sprays that dissolve dust. (Test first to make sure fabric will not stain.)
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Another way to clean some flowers is to pour 1/2 cup of table salt into a small paper sack. Insert the flower head into the sack. Hold the sack tightly around the stem and shake for several minutes. This method removes dust and grease.
Depending on the fabric of the silk or the drying technique that was used to preserve fresh material, the cleaning technique will vary from flower to flower (see Figure 15-32). Often a hair blow-dryer will do the job to clean away dust and debris from everlastings. In other cases, the commercial sprays are needed to spruce up tired and dusty-looking materials. Feather dusters, soft paintbrushes, or cloths may work for larger flower petals and leaves. Some silk flowers may be swished in warm, mild, soapy water and then rinsed, allowed to dry, and reshaped. (This method will not work for many hand-wrapped and parchment or paper flowers.) Storing unused everlasting flowers in boxes or bags will help keep flowers from fading, so they will look clean and be unharmed until they are ready to be used.
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Because the popularity of both dried and artificial flowers is widespread, it will be helpful for you to become knowledgeable of the various types of materials available and vitally important that you become proficient and comfortable in designing with dried and permanent materials. Their versatility and long-lasting qualities are unmatched by fresh materials.
Terms to Increase Your Understanding
Test Your Knowledge
1. Name five advantages of everlasting designs over fresh designs.
2. Describe the basic methods used for drying and preserving plant material. What are the characteristics of flowers and foliage after being dried and preserved with each drying technique?
3. Why take the extra time and effort to preserve and dry flowers and foliage when they are available commercially?
4. For best drying results, when should flowers be gathered and at what stage of bud development?
5. Name the ideal surrounding room requirements for air-drying plant material.
6. What is a suitable substitute for the glycerin solution when preserving foliage?
7. Name various types of permanent flowers.
1. Individually or as a group, experiment with the various drying techniques for several types of flowers and foliage. Keep a data sheet for this activity.
2. Create a floral design from flowers and foliage that you have preserved.
3. Visit a florist, craft shop, or wholesale florist where artificial flowers are sold and notice the wide array of colors, types, and quality. Report on your visit.
4. Press a variety of fresh flowers and make a flat composition.
5. Construct an everlasting design by combining artificial and dried materials.
TABLE 15-1 FLOWERS SUITABLE FOR DRYING Botanical Name Common Name Air-Drying Desiccant Acacia mimosa, wattle flowers and leaves Achillea yarrow flowers Aconitum monkshood flowers Alchemilla lady's mantle flowers and leaves Allium onion flower flowers and seedheads Amaranthus love lies bleeding flowers and seedheads Ammi Queen Anne's lace flowers Ananas ornamental flowerhead pineapple Anemone anemone flowers Anethum dill flowers Anigozanthos kangaroo paw flowers Antirrhinum snapdragon flowers Astilbe astilbe flowers Banksia banksia-protea flowers and leaves Calendula pot marigold flowers Callistephus aster flowers Campanula bellflower flowers Carthamus safflower flowers Celosia cockscomb flowers Centaurea cornflower flowers flowers Chrysanthemum chrysanthemum (small heads) flowers flowers Consolida larkspur flowers flowers Convallaria lily of the valley flowers Cosmos cosmos flowers Cynara globe artichoke flowers and seedheads Dahlia dahlia flowers Delphinium delphinium flowers flowers Dianthus carnation flowers flowers Digitalis foxglove flowers Dryandra dryandra-protea flowers Echinops globe thistle flowers Erica heather flowers Eryngium sea holly flowers and seedheads flowers Freesia freesia flowers Gaillardia blanket flower flowers Gerbera gerbera flowers Gladiolus gladiolus flowers Gomphrena globe amaranth flowers Gypsophila baby's breath flowers Helianthus sunflower flowers flowers Helichysum strawflower flowers Hydrangea hydrangea flowers Iberis candytuft flowers Iris iris Kniphofia red hot poker flowers Leptospermum lepto flowers Leucodendron leucodendron flowers and leaves Liatris gayfeather flowers Limonium statice flowers Lupinus lupine flowers Matthiola stock flowers Moluccella bells of Ireland flower spray Muscari grape hyacinth flowers Narcissus daffodil flowers Nigella love in a mist flowers and seedheads Ornithogalum star of Bethlehem flowers Paeonia peony flowers Papaver poppy flowers and seedheads Protea protea flowers Ranunculus buttercup flowers flowers Rosa rose flowers flowers Rudbeckia gloriosa daisy flowers Sarracenia pitcher plant leaves Scabiosa pincushion flower flowers Solidago goldenrod flower spray Tagetes marigold flowers Trachelium throatwort flowers Tulipa tulip flowers Zinnia zinna flowers Botanical Name Pressing Glycerin Acacia Achillea Aconitum Alchemilla flowers and leaves Allium Amaranthus Ammi flowers Ananas Anemone flowers Anethum flowers Anigozanthos Antirrhinum Astilbe flowers Banksia Calendula flowers Callistephus Campanula flowers Carthamus Celosia flowers Centaurea Chrysanthemum Consolida flowers Convallaria flowers and leaves Cosmos flowers Cynara Dahlia Delphinium flowers Dianthus Digitalis Dryandra Echinops Erica Eryngium and seedheads Freesia flowers Gaillardia Gerbera Gladiolus Gomphrena Gypsophila Helianthus Helichysum Hydrangea flowers Iberis flowers Iris flowers and leaves Kniphofia Leptospermum Leucodendron Liatris Limonium flowers Lupinus Matthiola Moluccella flower spray Muscari Narcissus flowers Nigella Ornithogalum Paeonia flowers Papaver Protea Ranunculus Rosa Rudbeckia Sarracenia Scabiosa flowers Solidago flower spray Tagetes Trachelium Tulipa flower petals Zinnia
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|Title Annotation:||Section 3 Basic Techniques and Styles|
|Author:||Hunter, Norah T.|
|Publication:||The Art of Floral Design, 2nd ed.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2000|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 14 Flowers to wear.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 16 Oriental style of design.|