Printer Friendly

Chapter 15 Canine.

Chapter Objectives

* Learn the groups of dogs as defined by the American Kennel Club

* Learn representative breeds of each group

* Understand the relationship between dogs and humans

* Learn the basic canine management terminology

Dogs were one of the early species that man domesticated. They have played many roles in human history. It is generally believed that dogs first lived in proximity to humans because they were attracted to the refuse of the human community as a food source. Dogs now serve in a wide variety of roles, and humans have developed a diversity of breeds unseen in other species.


The American Kennel Club (AKC) is the registering body for dog breeds in the United States. The AKC currently recognizes 150 breeds, and divides them into seven groups and a miscellaneous class. Most breeds were developed with a specific purpose in mind. The following is a sampling of breeds from each group; refer to the American Kennel Club ( for a complete list.

Hound Group

The hound group is comprised of dogs that were primarily developed for hunting. These dogs have characteristic drooping ears, and a wide range of sizes.

Scent hounds These hounds identify prey by scent, and then track their prey until caught. Scent hounds often have a distinctive "baying" sound they make when their prey is cornered.

Basset hound Dogs with short legs, long bodies, and very substantial bone structure, Basset hounds were originally bred in France. The dogs have a short hair coat that is a combination of white and brown (see Figure 15-1). Bassets are primarily used for hunting rabbits.

Beagle Originally bred in England for hunting rabbits, the beagle is brown and white with a short hair coat and sturdy legs (see Figure 15-2). The beagle is an active dog and an instinctive hunter. Beagles were recognized by the AKC in 1885.

Black-and-tan coonhound A moderate-sized dog that is black with tan markings (see Figure 15-3). Coonhounds were developed in the United States for hunting raccoons, and are active dogs with a short hair coat.




Bloodhound One of the largest of the hound breeds, the bloodhound was developed in England from primarily French breeds. This old breed is characterized by a brown to reddish-brown coat with black over the back. They have long ears and loose skin that hangs in folds around the face.

Dachshund (dox-hund) The Dachshund was developed as far back as the 1400s in Germany for hunting small animals such as badgers. The Dachshund is short-legged and long-bodied, and can be black, brown, or red. The breed has three coat-type varieties: short-haired, long-haired, and wire-haired, as well as a miniature variety. The Dachshund was recognized by the AKC in 1885.

Sight hounds These dogs visually spot prey and then chase it down. Sight hounds are generally very fast, light-framed dogs with deep bodies.

Afghan hound This fairly large dog is characterized by a long, silky coat that can be in any color, and a face with short hair (see Figure 15-4). The Afghan originated in Afghanistan where it was used for hunting.


Basenji An ancient breed that originated in Zaire, the basenji is unique in that it does not bark like other dogs. Basenjis are not silent, as they have a yodeling vocalization. They also have a short hair coat and erect ears.

Borzoi (bor-zoy) Originally called the Russian wolf hound, this elegant and graceful dog was the preferred dog of Russian aristocracy. They were developed for chasing and capturing wolves. These dogs can come in any color, have long hair that can be either flat or wavy, and a deep chest characteristic of many of the sight hounds.

Greyhound The greyhound is an ancient breed developed for hunting. These dogs have long, slender heads, bright dark eyes, and a short coat. Greyhounds are a variety of colors, from fawn to brindle and black. They have deep chests and tight flanks. Over a short distance, they are the fastest dogs in the world. Racing is a popular activity with greyhounds. They are great pets, and are relaxed and affectionate in the home.

Ibizan hound (ihb-ih-z hn) The Ibizan hound is an ancient hound that was originally bred for hunting rabbits. Ibizans have large, erect ears and two coat varieties: short-haired and wire-haired. These dogs can be up to 27 1/2 inches tall, and weigh around 50 pounds. They are white and red, either in combination, or solid. The red may range from a very light yellowish-red, through a deep red (see Figure 15-5).

Irish wolfhound A very large dog, one of the giant breeds, the Irish wolfhound is at least 32 inches tall at the shoulders. The breed was developed in Ireland before the Romans conquered Britain, and was introduced to Rome by returning soldiers. However, the breed nearly became extinct in the 1800s. The numbers are now strong, and these large dogs with a wiry gray, black, or brindle coat are once again seen fairly commonly.



Rhodesian ridgeback (ro-de-zhun) The Rhodesian ridgeback was developed in Africa in the 1500s, from crossing dogs that settlers brought from Europe with native dogs. Rhodesian ridgebacks were used to hunt lions, and are sometimes called African lion hounds. These dogs are fawn to red in color, with a short hair coat. The most distinctive characteristic is the swirl of hair that grows backward against the rest of the hair along the spine (see Figure 15-6).

Saluki (sa-loo-ke) The saluki is another ancient breed with a long head, long drooping ears, and long legs. Their coat is short, except on the ears and tail, which have long silky hair. Salukis range in color from white to tan, and black and tan.

Herding Group

The herding group is comprised of dogs that were bred to assist farmers in caring for their flocks and herds of animals. These animals were integral to moving and handling livestock, and many animals still serve that purpose. As a group, herding dogs tend to be high in energy, very trainable, and bond strongly to their human companions.

Australian shepherd The Australian shepherd is a medium-sized dog developed for working sheep. The dogs are extremely intelligent and are protective of their families, as well as of their sheep. They have long hair, and can be blue merle, red merle, or tricolored (see Figure 15-7). They are larger-bodied than border collies, but like border collies, they are very trainable and excel at events such as agility competitions.

Border collie The border collie is a medium-sized dog of exceptional intelligence, energy, and trainability. First bred on the southern border of Scotland, the border collie is primarily black and white, but can be a variety of colors. These dogs can either have a moderately long or a short coat (see Figure 15-8). The dogs are still used extensively for sheep herding, and are tremendously successful in sports such as agility. Border collies have very active minds and bodies, and must be kept active.

Collie The collie was developed in Scotland as a herding dog. Collies can be rough-coated with long hair, or smooth-coated with short hair. Regardless of the type of hair coat, collies are sable, tricolor, or blue merle, with white markings. They have long, relatively narrow heads and intelligent eyes. Collies should retain the movement and athleticism consistent with their heritage as herding dogs. The famous movie dog Lassie was a collie.



German shepherd The German shepherd is a very popular dog in the United States. Sometimes, popularity leads to inattentive breeding and the development of undesirable characteristics in the dog. The well-bred German shepherd is an excellent dog that is intelligent and possesses a sound and stable temperament. These dogs are black, or black and tan, and rarely white. They have a moderately wide head, erect ears, and a substantial body. However, some care should be taken to ensure that German shepherds are purchased from a reputable breeder. Poorly bred dogs have a higher incidence of hip dysplasia and less stable temperaments.

Old English sheepdog Developed in western England for moving sheep and cattle to market, the Old English sheepdog is a moderately large dog that is gray, blue, or blue merle, and may or may not have white markings. These dogs have an extremely long and thick coat that is shaggy and relatively straight. They have a relatively square head and are quite good-natured. Extensive grooming is required to keep their long hair from becoming matted.

Puli (poo-le) Pulis were developed in Hungary to herd sheep. They are medium-sized with a distinctive corded coat that resembles dreadlocks. They can be black, white, gray, or apricot (see Figure 15-9). Because of their distinctive coats, pulis require extensive grooming.

Welsh corgi (kohr-ghe) The Welsh corgi was developed as a cattle dog in the 1100s. These dogs are very active, intelligent dogs with short legs, relatively long and powerful bodies, and deep chests. There are two breeds of Welsh corgi: the Pembroke, which is a shade of brown from fawn through sable, or black, with white markings and a docked tail; and the Cardigan, which can be of any color and has a full-length tail. Both breeds have erect ears.


Nonsporting Group

The nonsporting group has a wide range of dogs that do not easily fit into the other groups. Nonsporting dogs have a tremendous range in size, hair coats, uses, and temperaments.

American Eskimo dog A white dog with erect ears, and a pointed face. The American Eskimo dog has a thick undercoat and a long straight outercoat. In this breed, the tail curls over its back. American Eskimos have three size categories: toy (9-12 inches), miniature (12-15 inches), and standard (more than 15 inches).

Boston terrier The Boston terrier was developed from crossing English bulldogs with native terriers in Boston. They are smooth-coated, with a short head and large round eyes. Their ears are erect, and they are deep-bodied with wide chests (see Figure 15-10). Boston terriers are small dogs, and are used primarily as companion dogs.

Chinese shar-pei (shar pay) The shar-pei originated in China over 2,000 years ago as a fighting dog. As recently as the 1980s, the dog was nearly extinct; however, focused breeding has increased the numbers of this breed. The dogs are black, red, fawn, or cream, with distinctive deep wrinkles in the skin around the face (see Figure 15-11). Because the modern shar-pei is descended from a small genetic pool, it is very important to ensure that the dog is not carrying genetic defects.



Dalmatian Believed to have been originally developed in the region of Dalmatia on the Adriatic Sea, the Dalmatian is a medium to large dog, with a white coat and black or liver spots. Their hair is short and smooth, and their ears droop. Dalmatians are well known as carriage dogs, and for being firehouse mascots. Dalmatians have a genetic predisposition for deafness in some lines, so the hearing of puppies should be tested.

Poodle The poodle was first developed in France where it was used as a hunting dog. The poodle has a long head, almond-shaped eyes, and drooping ears. They come in a wide range of colors. Poodles range in size from the standard poodle, which is more than 15 inches tall, to the toy poodle, which is in the toy group. Their hair coat is unique and curly, does not shed as much as other dogs, and is less likely to cause allergic reactions.

Schipperke (skihp-er-key) A small black dog developed in the Netherlands, the schipperke name means "little captain." The schipperke has relatively long hair that is thick and dense, and stands up around the neck (see Figure 15-12). These dogs worked as watchdogs on barges moving through the channels of the Netherlands. Their tails are often docked, but curl over the back when left natural.

Sporting Group

Dogs in the sporting group were developed for hunting. Retrievers, pointers, and spaniels are all in the sporting group. The Labrador retriever, the most popular breed in the United States according to the AKC, is a member of the sporting group. The following are members of this group:

Cocker spaniel The cocker spaniel originated in England. There are two varieties, the American cocker spaniel and the English cocker spaniel. Both varieties are relatively small, with long silky hair, and liberal feathering on both the front and hind legs. Cockers have long drooping ears that are also liberally feathered (see Figure 15-13). These dogs come in a wide range of colors.




English setter The English setter is a medium-sized dog with long wavy hair, which creates feathers on the front legs. English setters have a long head, and drooping ears that are covered with moderately long hair. They come in a variety of colors intermixed with white. The English setter identifies game by pointing.

German shorthaired pointer A medium-sized dog with a short hair coat that ranges from liver to black, and may be combined with white (see Figure 15-14). German shorthaired pointers are strong, good-natured dogs that are willing to work.

Golden retriever A moderately large dog with long hair that can be wavy or flat, the golden retriever ranges from cream through a deep gold color. Golden retrievers are substantial dogs and are known for their excellent temperaments. They are regularly one of the most popular breeds in the United States.

Labrador retriever An excellent breed of retriever that was originally developed in the Newfoundland province of Canada, not Labrador as the name would imply. The Labrador is black, yellow, or chocolate, with a short, thick hair coat. Labs are well muscled, strongly built dogs, with a deep, wide chest. Labradors have a distinctive "otter tail," which is wide at the base, and narrows to a point (see Figure 15-15). The Labrador has been the most popular registered breed in the United States for several years.


Vizsla (ve-sh-lah) The Vizsla is also called the Hungarian pointer, and was developed in Hungary. Artwork from the 1300s shows vizsla-like dogs involved in hunting. These dogs have a short, tight coat that is a golden red in color, a broad forehead, and long, thin, drooping ears. The tail of the vizsla is often docked.

Terrier Group

Terriers (tar-e-e-rs) are a group of relatively small dogs, with the exception of the Airedale terrier. These dogs were developed for chasing prey, primarily vermin, to ground. They often went into dens to retrieve animals. Terriers are typically very active, intelligent dogs, with independent personalities.

Airedale terrier The Airedale is the largest of the terriers, and can grow up to 24 inches tall. The Airedale is primarily tan, with a black saddle over the back. Their hair coat is wiry, and they have extensive whiskering around the muzzle (see Figure 15-16).

Cairn terrier (kar-n) The cairn terrier was first bred in Scotland near the Isle of Skye, and probably shares some ancestry with the Skye terrier. Cairn terriers can be any color except white. They have a thick outer coat and a dense undercoat. Cairns are small, and are generally less than 12 inches tall.

Parson Russell terrier A bright active dog that is also known as the Jack Russell terrier, the Parson Russell was first bred in England by a minister who was seeking a smaller version of the fox terrier. These dogs are white, with brown markings on their head and hindquarters. They come in either smooth-coated or wire-coated varieties (see Figure 15-17).

Miniature Schnauzer (shnow-zer) The Schnauzer is of German descent, and varies in color from black to salt and pepper, which is a blend of black and white. These dogs have short hair over the body, with longer hair on the legs, and generous whiskers on the face. The standard schnauzer is a larger version of the miniature schnauzer and is a member of the working group.



Scottish terrier An old breed of undetermined origin, the Scottish terrier or Scottie is a small dog (less than 12 inches), with a relatively large head, and a distinctive expression as a result of the prominent eyebrows and the generous whiskering of the muzzle (see Figure 15-18). These dogs have liberal feathering on the legs, and can be black, wheaten, or brindle.

Toy Group

Dogs in the toy group are small, and have always been bred as companions or "lap dogs." The dogs in this group originate from all parts of the world. The following are some of the dogs in the toy group:

Chihuahua (chih-wah-wah) The Chihuahua is known as the world's smallest dog, and weighs less than 6 pounds. They are named after the Chihuahua region of Mexico, although whether the breed was developed there or brought to that region is not clear. These dogs can be either smooth-coated, or long-haired, with a round head and round eyes (see Figure 15-19). Chihuahuas were developed as companion animals, and that is still their major role.



Papillon (pahp-e-yon) The papillon, which is French for butterfly, was so named because of the characteristic butterfly shape of the ears. Their head is rounded with round eyes, their hair is long and silky, and they have white fur with brown or black markings.

Pekingese (pek-eh-nes) The Pekingese is an ancient dog developed in China, and prized by Chinese royalty from at least the eighth century. The "Peke" is a small dog with a broad head and a short face. These dogs have long straight hair with considerable feathering on the legs and around the neck (see Figure 15-20).Almost any color is allowedfor registration.

Pomeranian (pohm-e-r-an-e-ahn) The Pomeranian was originally bred as a herding dog, but has been reduced in size over the last century to the 5-pound dog we know today. The "Pom" can be any color, with a long outercoat and a short dense undercoat. Their tail curls over their back, and "Poms" have sharp, erect ears and a sharp-featured face. They are happy, alert dogs, and are popular as companions.



Shih Tzu (she- tsoo) The Shih Tzu is an ancient Asian dog of unknown breed origin. The earliest records show the Shih Tzu as a member of the Chinese royal court. These bright and alert dogs have a long thick coat, large dark eyes, and a strong body. Their tail curls over their back and is covered in long hair (see Figure 15-21). These dogs can be any color.

Yorkshire terrier The "Yorkie" was originally bred in northern England for hunting rats. The Yorkie has long, steel-gray hair that is silky and smooth, with tan markings. Their ears are erect, their eyes are bright, and they have the typical terrier "large dog in a little body" temperament.

Working Group

The working group is made of a variety of dogs that are involved in some type of work. This may include dogs used for draft work, protecting herds of sheep or goats, or protecting people and property. The following are dogs classified in the working group:

Boxer The boxer is an active dog that was originally developed in Germany as a guard dog. These dogs are of good size, with a square head and short muzzle. They have loose lips, with wrinkles around the face. Boxers have naturally drooping ears, but some breeders choose to crop the ears. Dogs can be fawn or brindle, and may have white markings (see Figure 15-22).



Doberman pinscher (pin-cher) The Doberman is a moderately large dog that was developed in the 1860s by Louis Dobermann. These dogs are black or red, with a short, smooth coat. Their heads are long and lean with bright, dark eyes. This bright and active dog should not be aggressive. Great Dane Great Danes are very large dogs, and originated in Germany, where they were bred for hunting boars. These dogs have broad heads, drooping ears, and are very muscular. Their hair coat is short and thick, and can be brindle, fawn, blue, black, or harlequin.

Great Pyrenees (per-ah-nez) A large white dog with long hair and a thick undercoat (see Figure 15-23), the Great Pyrenees was developed in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain as a guard dog to protect sheep. Great Pyrenees still serve in that role in sheep herds in the United States. They live with the sheep full-time, and protect them from predators. These dogs are very docile toward people, and need extensive grooming to maintain their long hair when kept in close contact with people.

Newfoundland (new-fund-land) The Newfoundland is a massive dog that was developed in Canada as a draft dog, for pulling loads. These dogs have a broad head, drooping ears, and a long thick coat. They can be black, brown, or a combination of black and white. These intelligent dogs are excellent companions.


Rottweiler (rhot-wi-ler) The Rottweiler is a large black and tan dog developed in Germany as a herding and guard dog. These dogs have a broad head and broad chest, and are very muscular. Rottweilers may have a reputation for aggression, but dogs from good breeding programs are intelligent and have excellent temperaments.

Siberian husky The Siberian husky was developed as a sled dog by the native Chukchi people of northern Asia. This medium-sized dog has a long, furry coat that keeps it warm in the cold Arctic. These dogs are black or gray with white markings, or may be all white (see Figure 15-24).

Miscellaneous Group

The miscellaneous group is made of dog breeds that are on the "waiting list" to be accepted into the American Kennel Club. The breeds in this group vary depending on the year.After receiving full approval from the AKC, the breed will be assigned to the appropriate permanent group. For a list of the current breeds in the miscellaneous group, check the AKC Web Site.


The following are uses for dogs:

Companions Most dogs are companions or pets. In many families, the dog is a part of the family, and the emotional tie is very strong.

Service Service dogs assist people in conducting day-to-day tasks. Service dogs do tasks that range from leading people who are blind, to helping people in wheelchairs turn lights off and on. Service dogs require extensive training, and many organizations such as Canine Companions for Independence, the Delta Society, and Leader Dogs for the Blind train dogs and facilitate their placement with people with disabilities.


People participate with their dogs in a wide variety of competitive activities. Many of these sports are based in activities that the dogs were developed to accomplish. The following are different sports and activities in which people participate with their dogs:

Agility A competitive activity in which dogs race over an obstacle course.

Bench Describes dogs that are exhibited and judged based on their conformation and breed type. Field trial A competitive activity in which the ability and skills of hunting dogs and hounds are evaluated.

Fly ball A competitive event in which dogs run down a track, release and catch a ball, and run back to the start line.

Lure coursing A competition in which dogs, primarily sight hounds, chase a lure over a predetermined course. Dogs are scored on speed, endurance, agility, and how well they follow the lure.

Obedience trial A competition in which dogs and handlers are evaluated on the dog's ability to follow specific commands from the handler. To earn AKC certificates or points, the AKC must license the trial. The following are certificates awarded for obedience:

CD Companion Dog Certificate awarded by the AKC to qualifying dogs in the novice obedience class.

CDX Companion Dog Excellent Certificate awarded by the AKC to qualifying dogs in the open obedience class.

UD Utility Dog Certificate awarded by the AKC to qualifying dogs in obedience Utility class.

Tracking Tracking is a competition that has been developed around the skills and partnership of a dog and handler necessary for successful search and rescue work. The following certifications are available through the AKC for dog/human teams that are successful trackers:

TD Tracking Dog. A title for a dog that has successfully followed a track that a person has laid along a course 440-500 yards in length. The scent must be laid 30 minutes to 2 hours prior to the beginning of the exercise. Three to five changes of direction are required in a track that meets the requirements for the TD title.

TDX Tracking Dog Excellent. A dog must successfully follow a longer track (800-1,000 yards) that is also older (three to five hours) than the track required for the TD title. The course also has five to seven changes of direction, and will have additional human scent, besides the one the dog is supposed to be tracking, to increase the challenge for the dog.



Many dogs still work for their owners. They may also have a role as companions in the family. The following are working roles that dogs perform:

Contraband detection Dogs are trained to identify the scents of illegal drugs, food items, or other things that may be brought into the country or transported. Dogs are taught a behavior to indicate when they have found something suspicious. This marking behavior can be barking, sitting, or any other behavior that informs the handler that the dog has found something.

Herding Primarily sheep and cattle herding. Herding dogs assist in gathering and moving animals from one place to another, often into corrals or pens. For example, the border collie is used primarily to herd sheep, and the corgi is used for cattle.

Police dogs Police dogs are partners in law enforcement. They assist with detection and apprehension of suspects, and protect their human partners (see Figure 15-25).

Search and rescue Dogs are used extensively to find and rescue people who have become lost.


American Boarding Kennel Association An organization that certifies boarding kennels.

American Kennel Club (AKC) The AKC is the largest dog registering organization in the world, and was established in 1884. The AKC sponsors many of the most important dog shows in the United States.

Animal shelter A place for animals that do not have a home. Animals may be placed in shelters by their owners, or they are found as strays. Most animals in shelters are euthanized due to lack of space.

Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) An organization that oversees the animal feed industry, and ensures that regulations governing the industry are followed.

Bitch A female dog.

Blue merle (murl) The color of blue and gray intermixed with black (refer to Figure 15-7).

Boarding kennel A facility that cares for other people's animals on a short-term basis.

Body condition The amount of fat on an animal evaluated on a scale of 1-10. A score of 1 indicates an animal that is extremely emaciated (see Figure 15-26). A score of 5 is assigned to a dog that is in good body condition (see Figure 15-27). A score of 10 indicates a dog that is grossly obese (see Figure 15-28). Both weight extremes have health problems associated with them.

Breed type Characteristics that identify a breed as unique from other dogs.

Brindle A mixture of black and other colored hair. The black is uniformly mixed throughout the hair coat.

Champion A designation a dog earns by meeting AKC qualifying requirements. Champion (or the abbreviation "Ch.") permanently becomes part of the dog's name.

Choke chain A chain collar that operates like a noose. The tighter the leash is pulled, the tighter the collar becomes around the dog's neck. It is important to adjust the choke collar properly, or it will not loosen when pressure is released.

Collar A fabric, nylon, or leather strap that fits around a dog's neck to provide control.




Cynology (si-nohl-o-ge) The study of canines.

Digest A flavoring ingredient in pet foods made from digesting animal tissue with enzymes.

Dispostion Temperament.

Docking The cutting off of all or a portion of the tail. The amount of the tail left varies with breed.

Doggy day care A facility that provides care for a dog during the day, while the owner is at work. Many doggy day cares also offer boarding.

Ear cropping The surgical removal of some part of the outer portion of an ear. This practice is controversial, and has been banned in the United Kingdom. Some veterinarians in the United States refuse to crop ears for cosmetic purposes.

Euthanasia (yoo-thah-na-zha) The humane killing of an animal. Millions of dogs and cats are euthanized in animal shelters annually.

Fancier (fan-see-er) A person who is actively involved in breeding purebred dogs or cats.

Feather Long hair that may occur on the ears, body, or legs.

Field champion A dog that competes in field trials and has met the AKC qualifications for being a champion. Designated by Field Champion (or the abbreviation "Field Ch.").

Gait The movement of an animal.

Grooming (groom-ing) The brushing and otherwise cleaning and neatening the hair coat and nails of a dog.

Groomer A person who grooms dogs. Grooming often includes clipping toenails and cutting hair.

Guaranteed analysis On the bag of commercial dog food, the guaranteed analysis provides information on the nutrients in the food (see Figure 15-29).
100% Complete and Balanced

Holistic Select(R) Lamb Meal & Rice Formula provides complete and
balanced nutrition for maintenance and is comparable in nutritional
adequacy to a product which has been substantiated using AAFCO
feeding tests.

Ingredients: Lamb Meal, Ground Brown Rice, Oatmeal, Chicken Fat
(Preserved with Natural Mixed Tocopherols and Citric Acid), Dried
Beet Pulp, Flaxseed, Brewers Dried Yeast, Rice Bran, Dried Egg
Product, Salt, Potassium Chloride, Air Dried Peas, Ground Carrot
Cubes, Inulin, Glucosamine Hydrochloride, DL-Methionine, Vitamin A
Acetate, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Vitamin E Supplement, Riboflavin
Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, d-Pantothenic Acid, Niacin
Supplement, Choline Chloride, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine
Mononitrate, Folic Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Biolin, Rosemary Extract,
Inositol, Dehydrated Kelp, Polysaccharide Complexes of Zinc, Iron,
Manganese, Copper and Cobalt, Potassium lodate, Sodium Selenite,
Yucca Schidigera Extract, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus
casei, Enterococcus faecium, B. Subtillus, Bacillus lichenformis,
Bacillus coagulins, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger.

Ingredients: Farine d' agneau, riz brun moulu, flacon d' avoine,
gras de poulet (conservateurs: melange de tocopherols et acide
citrique), pulpe de betterave deshydrate, lin, levure de biere
deshydrate son de riz, oeuf entier deshydrate, sel, chlorure de
potassium, pois seche a l'air, cube de carottes broyees, inuline,
hydrochlorure de glucosamine, DL methionine, acelate de vitamine A,
supplement de vitamine D3, supplement de vitamine E, supplement de
riboflavine, supplement de vitamin B12, d-pantothenic acide,
supplement de niacine, chlorure de choline, chlohydrate de
pyridoxine, mononitrate de thiamine, acide folique, acide
ascorbique, biotine, extrait de romarin, inositol, varech
deshydrate, polysaccharide complexe de zinc, fer, manganese, cuivre
et cobalt, potassium iodate, sodium selenite, extrait de yucca
schidigera, lactobacilles acidophiles, lactobacilles casai, faecium
d'enterocoque, subtillus-b, bacilles de lichenformis, bacilles de
coagulins, d'oryzae et Niger d'aspergille.

Guaranteed Analysis / Analyse Garantie:

Crude Protein / Proteines brutes            Min.    22%
Crude Fat / Matieres grasses brutes         Min.    15%
Crude Fiber / Fibres brutes                 Mix.    4.0%
Moisture / Humidite                         Mix.    10%
Calcium / Calcium                           Min.    1.3%
Phosphorus / Phosphore                      Min.    0.85%
Vitamin A / Vitamine A                      Min.    22,000 IU/kg.
Vitamin E / Vitamine E                      Min.    125 IU/kg.
Omega 6 Fatty Acids * / Omega 6 *           Min.    1.6%
Omega 3 Fatty Acids * / Omega 3 *           Min.    0.17%
Glucosamine Hydrochloride *                 Min.    400 ppm

* Total Lactic Acid Producing Live
Microorganisms (Lactobacillus
acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei,
Enterococcus faecium)                               240 million CFU/LB.

* Total Bacillus Organisms
(Bacillus Subtillus, Bacillus                       7 million CFU/LB.
lichenformis, Bacillus coagulins)

* Protease (from Aspergillus oryzae and             280 HUT/LB.
Aspergillus niger) (1)

* Cellulase (from Aspergillus oryzae and            100 Cellulase
Aspergillus niger) (2)                              Units/LB.

* Amylase (from Aspergillus oryzae and              5 Dextrin Units/LB.
Aspergillus niger) (3)

* Not recognized as an essential nutrient
by the AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profiles.

* Not recognized as an essential nutrient by the AAFCO Dog Food
Nutrient Profiles.

* Ne figure pas a la liste des elements nutritifs essentiels
reconnus par I'AAFCO en matiere d'alimentation pour chiens. Enzyme
Functionality Statement: Product contains enzymes. Protease for
protein hydrolysis; Cellulase for cellulose hydrolysis; Amylase for
starch hydrolysis.

(1) One HUT unit of proteolytic (protease) activity is defined as
that amount of enzyme that produces, in one minute under the
specified conditions (40 deg Celsius, pH 4.7), a hydrolysate whose
absorbance at 275 nm is the same as a solution containing 1.10 ug
per ml of tyrosine in 0.006 N hydrochloric acid.

(2) One Cellulase Unit (CU) is that activity that will produce a
relative fluidity change of one in 5 minutes in a defined
carboxymethylcellulose substrate under the conditions of an assay
(40 deg Celsius, pH 4.5.).

(3) One Dextrinizing Unit (DU), or (SKB), unit of alpha-amylase
activity as defined as that amount of enzyme that will dextrinize
soluble starch ... at the rate of 1 g per hour at 30 deg Celsius.



Half-prick ear An ear that is mostly erect, but the tip falls forward. Also called drop ear.

Harlequin (har-leh-kin) A color pattern of black or blue with white patches in Great Danes.

Harness A series of straps that fit around the shoulders of a dog to provide control (see Figure 15-30).

Head halter A nylon piece of equipment that fits around the muzzle and behind the ears of a dog. The head halter gives control of the dog, and is an excellent piece of equipment, especially for large dogs that may be difficult to control (see Figure 15-31). The head halter does not apply pressure to the throat like a choke chain, and is considered more humane, especially for nonprofessional handlers.

Kennel A facility where dogs are housed.

Leash A strap connecting a dog's collar to the handler's hand.

Liver A deep reddish-brown color.

Mask A darker color in the face, especially around the eyes.

Milk teeth The first temporary teeth, which fall out when the permanent teeth come in.

Net quantity statement The amount of food present in a feed container. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that the net quantity statement is on the package.

Nutritional adequacy statement The statement on a feed package indicating whether the feed meets nutritional requirements from a feed trial using AAFCO nutrient profiles for the life stage indicated.



Obedience Trial Champion (OTCH) A dog that has met the AKC regulations for being an Obedience Trial Champion. OTCH becomes a permanent part of the dog's name.

Open class A class in which all dogs can compete.

Overshot jaw When the incisors of the top jaw are farther forward than the incisors of the lower jaw (see Figure 15-32).

Pack A group of dogs.

Pet sitter A person who comes to a dog owner's home to care for the dog in the owner's absence.

Pet quality An animal that shows the characteristics of a breed, but lacks the characteristics to be sold as a show or breeding animal. Some breeders require that purchasers of pet-quality animals have them spayed or neutered.

Prick ear An erect ear.

Point The pose of a hunting dog showing where game is present (see Figure 15-33).

Puppy A baby dog.

Puppy mill A facility that breeds and raises puppies in poor conditions and makes breeding decisions with little or no concern for breed improvement. Note: Not all large volume breeders are puppy mills. The term specifically refers to those who do so in poor conditions.


Red merle A combination of red patches on a lighter background. This is similar to blue merle, with red as the base color instead of black.

Ruff Hair around the neck that in some breeds is brushed up to frame the face.

Sable A coat color with black hairs over a lighter base color.

Spaying The surgical sterilization of a female.

Spitz A type of dog usually from the Arctic region characterized by a pointed face, erect ears, and curling tail (see Figure 15-34).

Stud A male dog used for breeding.

Tie When dogs mate, the penis enlarges and cannot be removed from the vagina until it returns to normal size.

Topknot A tuft of hair on top of the head.

Tricolor A coat color that has clearly defined black, tan, and white portions. Undercoat The fine hair that is closest to the skin.

Undershot jaw When the teeth of the lower jaw are in front of the teeth of the upper jaw.

United Kennel Club (UKC) The UKC was founded in 1898, and is the second largest dog registering organization in the world. The UKC is based in the United States, and emphasizes working and performance dogs.

Wire coat A hair coat that has stiff hairs.


Dogs have been a vital part of human life throughout history. Their original roles were focused around different types of work that dogs did to improve human lives. These vast numbers of activities and uses that dogs were involved in resulted in the formation of a wide variety of breeds. Many regions developed their own breeds for activities such as herding, draft work, and hunting. Most dogs now serve companion-type roles in our society. However, many dogs are still used as service dogs, working dogs, and in their traditional roles of hunting and herding. Competitive activities for dog enthusiasts have evolved based on many of the work roles dogs used to play.


Match the breed of dog with the group it belongs in.
1. -- Ibizan                a. Terrier
2. -- Great Pyrenees        b. Herding
3. -- Shih Tzu              c. Hound
4. -- Dalmatian             d. Working
5. -- English setter        e. Toy
6. -- Airedale terrier      f. Sporting
7. -- Australian shepherd   g. Nonsporting

8. What herding breed has long curly hair, similar to dreadlocks?

a. Puli

b. Vizsla

c. German shepherd

d. Greyhound

9. What sport involves dogs running over a course of jumps and obstacles?

a. Flyball

b. Lure coursing

c. Bench trial

d. Agility

10. What are the two breeds of corgis?

11. What is the difference between a sight hound and a scent hound?

12. List three organizations that train and place service dogs.

13. What organization certifies boarding kennels?

14. What is an undershot jaw?

15. What is the miscellaneous group of dogs? Go to the Internet and find what breeds are currently in the miscellaneous group.
COPYRIGHT 2008 Delmar Learning
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Brandy, Colleen
Publication:An Illustrated Guide to Animal Science Terminology
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Previous Article:Chapter 14 Horses and other equine.
Next Article:Chapter 16 Feline.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters