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Chapter 14 Cake mixing methods.

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After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

* Define the two categories of cakes.

* Describe the three cake mixing methods for cakes high in fat.

* Describe the three cake mixing methods for cakes low in fat.

* Understand the three ways to tell whether a cake is done.

* Prepare recipes using the various mixing methods in this chapter.

KEY TERMS

angel food method

cakes high in fat

cakes low in fat

chiffon method

creaming method

egg-foam cakes

emulsion

emulsifying agent

high ratio cake

immiscible liquids

one-stage method

sponge method

two-stage method

Cakes are a major part of almost every celebration there is. Cake varieties are endless and run the gamut from light and airy to the very heavy and rich.

Cakes are defined as a sweet, tender, moist baked pastry that is sometimes filled and frosted. Cake batters can be baked in an endless array of cake pans of various shapes and sizes. Using just a few basic cake recipes, bakers can create a wide range of cakes. By varying fillings and frostings, a basic cake can be transformed into a spectacular dessert.

Cake recipes are prepared using a few basic mixing methods. Once these mixing methods are mastered, their versatility to the baker has no bounds.

This chapter discusses the various cake mixing methods and their application in recipes. It is important to be aware that cake recipes are generally referred to as formulas. These formulas are just ingredients in the right proportions. Baking is a science in which exact measurements are crucial to success; following a formula exactly the way it is written will ensure that you prepare a cake to be proud of. The end of the chapter contains additional recipes using the cakes from each section and how they can be assembled with various fillings and frostings.

Two Categories of Cakes

There are really only two categories of cakes: cakes that are high in fat and cakes that are low in fat. (See Table 14-1, Cake Mixing Methods.)

Cakes High in Fat

Cakes high in fat rely on solid and liquid fats to keep gluten development low in order to produce a tender product. These types of cakes tend to have a longer shelf life because of their high fat content which slows the staling process. They tend to be moister, richer, and have a more tender crumb. There are three basic methods used to prepare these cakes:

* Creaming method

* Two-stage method

* One-stage method

Three Mixing Methods for Cakes High in Fats

* Creaming method

* Two-stage method

* One-stage method

Cakes Low in Fat

Cakes low in fat need some other ingredient to tenderize them. These types of cakes tend to be very high in sugar because sugar is a tenderizer. They include sponge cakes that use the air beaten into eggs to leaven them. Cakes of this type are referred to as egg-foam cakes. Egg-foam cakes tend to produce a drier, more flexible cake that does not crumble as easily as a cake high in fat. These can easily be cut crosswise into layers or rolled as for a jelly roll. Because these cakes are dry, many chefs brush them with a sugar syrup in which equal parts of sugar and water are brought to a boil and then flavored with such ingredients as liqueurs or extracts. There are three basic methods used to prepare these cakes:

* Sponge method (whole egg foam and separated egg foam)

* Chiffon method

* Angel food method

Three Mixing Methods for Cakes Low in Fats

* Sponge method

* Chiffon method

* Angel food method

Cake Batters as Emulsions

With the exception of an angel food cake, all cake batters are comprised of fat and water-based ingredients that would normally separate out much like a cup of oil and water. Even if they are stirred together, eventually they will separate into two layers. This is because fats and water-based ingredients are immiscible liquids, meaning they do not stay mixed together. The natural tendency is for the two substances to separate into two layers. The fat is lighter and rises to the top and the water stays on the bottom. This natural tendency for a fat and water to separate is due to a phenomenon known as surface tension.

To prepare a proper cake batter in which the ingredients will not separate, another ingredient needs to be added to act as a "go-between" to help the fat and water-based ingredients stay evenly dispersed, forming a smooth batter. This ingredient is called an emulsifying agent. Emulsifying agents accomplish two tasks that contribute to the finished cake's volume and texture. First, they reduce the surface tension between the two immiscible substances, allowing them to mix together more easily. Second, emulsifying agents help the air bubbles incorporated in the batter become more evenly distributed. This encourages more even rising of the cake, resulting in a finer crumb.

Eggs, which are typically used in cake batters, contain natural emulsifiers in the yolk and act as an emulsifying agent to bring the two immiscible ingredients, fat and water, together in an emulsion. The immiscible ingredients become evenly dispersed within the batter where they float around each other.

A properly prepared cake batter is smooth. So, when adding an emulsifying agent, it is important to gradually incorporate it into the fat mixture. If the batter appears to be curdled, it is a sign that the emulsion may not have been prepared properly. However, some cake batters look curdled until the dry ingredients are blended in.

During the creaming method, if the eggs are not added gradually into the creamed fat and sugar mixture, the batter will appear curdled. Gradually adding the eggs, little by little, allows the fat and sugar time to absorb them and form a proper emulsion.

Cake Batters Using/Not Using an Emulsifying Agent

Water and fat-based ingredients for a cake batter without an emulsifying agent

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Water and fat-based ingredients remain separate. The batter appears curdled.

Water and fat-based ingredients for a cake batter with an emulsifying agent

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Water and fat-based ingredients are evenly distributed forming an emulsion.

Mixing Methods for Cakes High in Fat

There are three methods for mixing cakes high in fat: the creaming method, the two-stage method, and the one-stage method.

The Creaming Method

The first method of mixing cakes high in fat is known as the creaming method. It is the method of choice when preparing butter cakes. The creaming method starts out with softened, solid fat (such as butter) at approximately 65[degrees]F (19[degrees]C). The fat is then mixed with granulated or brown sugar in an electric mixer using the paddle attachment. The creaming comes into play as the fat is mashed against the sides of the mixer with the sand-like sugar crystals working against it, softening it even more while forcing air into it. The process of creaming is most important and cannot be rushed. Creaming should be done at a low to medium speed for between 3 and 5 minutes. A high speed may melt the fat, causing a loss of air bubbles. Creaming for too long creates a coarse texture in the finished cake. Creaming for too short a time, produces a cake with poor volume. If butter is used to be creamed with the sugar, the mixture should turn from a yellowish color (from the butter) to a lighter, whiter color (from the aerated butter). This color change is due to all the air that is mixing in with the butter and sugar. These air bubbles are held within the fat. Ultimately, these air bubbles will expand even more when mixed with the leavening ingredients (like baking powder or baking soda).

The Creaming Method

1. Cream the fat and sugar on low to medium speed until light and fluffy in the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment.

2. Blend in the eggs one at a time, thoroughly blending in one before adding the next.

3. Blend the liquids and dry ingredients alternately beginning and ending with the dry ingredients. The dry ingredients are added last to ensure the liquids will be absorbed. Another advantage of adding some of the flour mixture last is that less gluten will develop.

How Chemical Leavening Agents Work with Air to Leaven Cakes

Chemical leavening agents such as baking powder and baking soda work with the air incorporated from the creaming step to leaven cakes. As chemical leavening agents produce carbon dioxide gas during the baking process, those gases are attracted to the small air bubbles formed during the creaming step and enlarge them. Although gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) are formed, no new air bubbles are created by the chemical leavening agents. The existing air bubbles created during creaming just get larger. That is why the creaming step is so important to the volume and texture of a cake. These trapped air bubbles within the batter expand, pushing it upward, causing the batter to rise.

Creaming is also important to the mixing of ingredients because it is much easier to blend other ingredients into a "fluffy" fat than it would be if the fat was hard. The next step in the creaming method is for beaten eggs to be added to the creamed fat and sugar mixture. The eggs must be added slowly to allow for their absorption. If the eggs are colder than the creamed fat, the mixture may appear curdled. Next, the dry ingredients are added alternately with the remaining liquid ingredients ending with the final addition of the remaining dry ingredients. Alternating dry and liquid ingredients maintains the emulsion while minimizing gluten development. Some recipes add all of the liquid after the eggs and then add all the dry ingredients at once. Adding the dry ingredients all at once shortens the mixing process and still minimizes gluten development. Caution must be taken to prevent overmixing. Cakes that use the creaming method tend to be very tender and, if creamed properly, will attain good volume.

RECIPES

Fudge Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake (This chapter, page 317)

The Two-Stage Method

The two-stage method is used primarily for cakes in which a tender, light, moist texture is desired. The liquids are added in two stages, and the batters are usually thin. Typically, all the dry ingredients are mixed together in the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment. The fat is then added, coating the flour particles and preventing them from absorbing water and forming gluten. A portion of the liquid ingredients are then blended in at a low speed to obtain a smooth, thin batter. Once the fat and part of the liquid ingredients have been added, the remaining liquid is added. Water-based ingredients when added to flour contribute to gluten formation, but because the fat was added first, coating each particle of flour, the gluten that forms is minimal, producing a tender cake. A cake batter should never be overmixed, because this encourages gluten to form.

Traditionally, the fat used in a two-stage cake is an emulsified shortening. (See Knowing Which Fat to Use in High-Fat Cakes). This type of shortening holds a great deal of liquid and is the fat of choice for a high ratio cake because of its ability to keep fat and water-based ingredients from separating. Typically, a two-stage method cake has more sugar by weight than flour. This is known as a high ratio cake. Cakes that use the two-stage method of mixing tend to be more tender than cakes using the creaming method. These types of cakes are used most often in high volume bakeries.

RECIPE

Two-Stage Golden Yellow Cake (This chapter, page 321)

The Two-Stage Method

1. Mix dry ingredients with emulsified fat. The fat coats the particles of flour, preventing gluten from forming once the liquid ingredients are added.

2. Add liquids in two stages.

The One-Stage Method

The one-stage method is the easiest method in that all the dry ingredients are placed in a bowl of an electric mixer and the liquid ingredients are added in one step. It is important to add the liquid gradually and scrape down the bowl frequently or else lumps of dry ingredients can form. The fat for this method is usually a liquid (either oil or melted butter). Because this method can cause a great deal of gluten formation, if overbeaten, the liquid fat may be added with the dry ingredients first to coat the flour.

Cakes using the one-stage method are known for their speed in preparation and for their fine, tender crumb.

RECIPE

Fudgy Chocolate Cake (This chapter, page 323)

The One-Stage Method

1. Place the dry ingredients into the bowl of an electric mixer and, using the paddle attachment, mix until blended together.

2. Blend liquids together in another bowl.

3. Add the liquids slowly on low speed until a smooth batter is made, scraping the sides of the bowl often.

Knowing Which Fat to Use in High-Fat Cakes

It is important to know the differences between fats such as oils, butter, and shortening and which one to use when preparing cakes that are high in fat.

Liquid fats such as oils, do not make very good creaming agents because oils are incapable of holding air when beaten. In one-stage method cakes, oils are the ideal fat to prevent gluten from forming.

Solid fats, such as butter and hydrogenated vegetable shortening, are capable of holding air and therefore make better creaming agents. Some types of fat hold more air than others. Butter, known for its rich flavor and appealing mouth feel, melts at a lower temperature than shortening. It is the ideal fat for butter cakes using the creaming method. However, in a cake using the two-stage method, butter would not be a good choice because it is not capable of holding the larger quantities of sugar and liquids to create an emulsion. When creaming, butter should be soft enough to be mashed and trap air bubbles, ideally between 65[degrees] and 70[degrees]F (19[degrees] and 21[degrees]C). However, it should not be melted. Because butter contains some water (up to 20 percent), it cannot hold as much air as shortening. Shortening, however, is almost 100 percent fat and contains little water.

Shortening has one advantage over butter in that it already contains small air bubbles that are evenly dispersed throughout (approximately 10 percent). This makes shortening the ideal fat for creaming in cakes other than butter cakes. A significant drawback of using shortening is its greasy feel on the tongue, which is due to its higher than body temperature melting point.

Shortening with added emulsifiers is typically used in the two-stage method because it is better able to hold immiscible ingredients like fats and water-based liquids together in a suspension where they are evenly dispersed within the batter without separating out and appearing curdled.

Hydrogenated vegetable shortenings start out as liquid oils that have undergone a chemical process known as hydrogenation, which changes them to a solid. This solid is less likely to go rancid than the liquid oil.

Mixing Methods for Cakes Low in Fat

There are three mixing methods for cakes that are low in fat: (1) the sponge method with two variations, (2) the chiffon method, (3) and the angel food method.

Cakes low in fat tend to incorporate some form of an egg foam using whole eggs or just the whites. Chapter 7 discussed the ability of eggs to hold air. Egg foams are made by beating eggs with sugar into a foam. Cream of tartar may be added to increase the egg foam's stability. The foam is then folded into a batter in which the air bubbles expand in the oven, leavening the cake. Egg-foam type cakes include angel food cakes, sponge cakes, chiffon cakes, and genoise. For more on the leavening qualities of egg whites, see Chapter 7.

Some cakes using the foaming method contain very little fat. The sponge and the chiffon methods use egg yolks, which add some fat to the cake. The angel food method is the only method in which only the whites are used, making this type of cake basically fat free!

Many recipes for egg-foam cakes use superfine sugar. Superfine sugar is granulated sugar that has been pulverized to a finer texture. This finer sugar dissolves instantly, creating a smoother, less gritty egg foam.

The Whole Egg-Foam Method

1. Whole eggs and sugar are warmed and beaten until thick. They are then beaten until cold and they form a ribbon when dropped from the beater that slowly disappears as it hits the batter.

2. Sifted dry ingredients and sometimes melted butter are folded in alternately.

(Note: To allow the egg foams to attain the greatest volume, the egg yolks or whites are beaten using the whip attachment. Notice that chiffon cakes use the paddle to prepare the main batter and the whip to beat the whites.)

The Separated Egg-Foam Method

1. Egg yolks and part of the sugar are beaten until thick and lighter in color.

2. Egg whites are beaten with the remaining sugar to form stiff peaks.

3. Beaten egg whites are folded into the egg yolks and sugar alternately with sifted, dry ingredients.

The Sponge Method

The sponge method uses both the yolk and the white of the egg. There are two main types of sponge cake: whole egg foams (genoise) and separated egg foams. In whole egg foam cakes, warm whole eggs and sugar are beaten into a foam using the whip attachment. The eggs are warmed to attain a greater volume and then beaten. Sifted dry ingredients are then folded into the foam. This is known as a genoise or French sponge cake. Some recipes call for melted butter to be blended in at the end. These cakes tend to be drier and tougher than a high fat cake, but the butter helps tenderize them. Because of their strong structure, genoise sponge cakes are easily split into layers. Soaking the cake layers in a flavored sugar syrup adds moistness.

The second type of sponge cake is known as a separated egg-foam cake. In this type of cake, the yolks are beaten with part of the sugar to form a foam, then the egg whites are beaten with the remaining sugar to form stiff peaks. The beaten whites are folded into the yolk and sugar mixture alternating with the sifted dry ingredients. Separated egg-foam cakes tend to be moister than whole egg-foam cakes.

RECIPES

Chocolate Sponge Cake Roll (This chapter, page 329)

Hazelnut Genoise (This chapter, page 325)

The Chiffon Method

The chiffon method differs from the other two methods in that it contains a liquid fat, usually oil, and a chemical leavener like baking powder. Therefore, chiffon cakes get their leavening from two sources--air and baking powder. They are not as fragile as the other types of egg foam cakes in that if some air bubbles are lost in mixing, the baking powder can act as a backup leavener. Chiffon cakes tend to be moister because of the oil and typically are baked in a tube pan.

RECIPE

Citrus Chiffon Cake (This chapter, page 332)

The Chiffon Method

1. The dry ingredients, with part of the sugar, are sifted into the mixing bowl.

2. The oil, egg yolks, water, and flavorings are mixed in using the paddle attachment.

3. Egg whites are beaten with cream of tartar and the remaining sugar until stiff.

4. The beaten egg whites are folded into the batter.

The Angel Food Method

The angel food method uses only the egg whites, which are low in fat. Angel food cakes tend to be light and airy, and need no frosting or other adornments. They are often served with a fresh fruit compote or a sauce.

RECIPE

Coconut Angel Food Cake (This Chapter, page 335)

The Angel Food Method

1. Start with egg whites at room temperature.

2. In a mixing bowl, sift flour and cornstarch with half the sugar and set aside.

3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the whip attachment, beat the egg whites with cream of tartar and salt until soft peaks form.

4. Slowly beat in the remaining sugar that was not mixed with the flour. Beat until stiff peaks form.

5. Using a rubber spatula, fold in the flour and sugar mixture into the beaten egg whites.

How to Tell When a Cake Is Done

There are three ways to tell when a cake is done. First, the cake should spring back when you gently press it with your finger. Second, the sides of the cake should pull away from the pan. Third, a cake tester, when inserted into the center of the cake, should come out clean and free of crumbs or batter.

There are a few tools that can be used as cake testers. One type of cake tester consists of a long metal wire with a ring or handle at one end. Alternatively, a thin wooden skewer or a small knife can be used.

Testing Cake Doneness

Three ways to tell when a cake is done:

* The cake springs back when you gently press it with your finger.

* The cake pulls away from the sides of the pan.

* A cake tester, wooden skewer, or thin knife inserted gently into the center of the cake comes out free of crumbs and looks clean.
FUDGE SWIRL
SOUR CREAM
POUND CAKE

Makes one 10-inch (25-cm)
tube cake

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a cake using the creaming method of mixing.

* Blending the sugar, butter, and cream cheese until fluffy and
  lighter in color incorporates air into the fat; aids the chemical
  leavening agents; and results in a lighter cake with great height.

                    MEASUREMENTS                      INGREDIENTS

                U.S.            METRIC    BAKER'S %

4 ounces                        115 g       28%       unsalted butter,
                                                      softened

4 ounces                        115 g       28%       cream cheese,
                                                      softened

14 1/2 ounces   2 cups          410 g      102%       granulated sugar

14 1/4 ounces   3 cups          404 g      100%       all-purpose flour

                1 teaspoon        4 g        1%       baking powder

                1/2 teaspoon      3 g        0.5%     baking soda

                1/2 teaspoon      2 g        0.7%     salt

4 each                          188 g       47%       large eggs

                2 teaspoons     10 mL        3%       vanilla extract

8 ounces        1 cup           225 g       56%       sour cream

3 1/2 ounces    7 tablespoons   100 g       25%       warm ganache *

                                           390.7%     Total Fudge Swirl
                                                      Sour Cream Pound
                                                      Cake percentage

* See Ganache, Chapter 15.

 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Spray a 10-inch (25
    cm) false-bottom tube pan with nonstick cooking spray and set
    aside.

 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the paddle attachment,
    cream the butter, cream cheese, and sugar on medium speed until
    light in color and fluffy (Figure 14-1). This can take up to 3 to
    5 minutes. Stop the mixer occasionally and scrape the bowl with a
    rubber spatula.

 3. In a small bowl, whisk together the flour, baking powder, baking
    soda, and salt. Set aside.

[FIGURE 14-1 OMITTED]

 4. In a small bowl, whisk together the eggs and the vanilla extract.

 5. On low speed, add the egg mixture into the creamed butter in
    thirds, waiting for the mixture to blend together uniformly before
    adding more egg (Figure 14-2).

 6. On low speed, add one third of the flour mixture into the eggs and
    butter. Blend until combined and add one half of the sour cream.

 7. Add another one third of the flour mixture, blending well,
    followed by the remaining sour cream (Figure 14-3). Stop the
    machine and scrape down the sides of the bowl.

 8. Add the remaining one third flour mixture and mix until well
    combined. Remove the bowl from the mixer.

 9. Using a rubber spatula, scrape around the bottom and sides of the
    bowl to make sure the mixture is smooth and well combined (Figure
    14-4).

10. Pour half of the batter into the prepared pan and smooth it with a
    rubber spatula (Figure 14-5).

[FIGURE 14-2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-3 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-5 OMITTED]

11. With a spoon, drizzle half of the ganache on top of the batter in
    a circle, forming a thick chocolate line (Figure 14-6).

12. With a spatula, drop remaining batter over the ganache. Lightly
    smooth the top of the batter with a spatula, trying not to mix the
    ganache into the batter (Figure 14-7). Drizzle the remaining
    ganache over the batter in a circle.

13. Using a small palette knife, make a cut through the center of the
    pan near the tube to the outside rim of the pan and pull the knife
    out (Figure 14-8). Rotate pan and repeat cutting into the batter
    every two inches all around the pan. Do not mix the ganache into
    the batter. The batter will look marbled.

14. Bake for 1 hour and 10 minutes, or until a cake tester inserted
    into the center of the cake comes out clean.

15. Cool thoroughly and remove from the pan.

TIP

To prepare a plain sour
cream pound cake, omit
the ganache and pour all of
the batter into the prepared
pan and bake as directed.

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[FIGURE 14-7 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-8 OMITTED]

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TWO-STAGE
GOLDEN
YELLOW CAKE

Makes two 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake layers

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a cake using the two-stage method of mixing.

* A high ratio cake has more sugar than flour by weight.

* Using an emulsified shortening helps high ratio cake batters form
  an emulsion by holding large amounts of sugar and liquids.

* The fat is added directly to the dry ingredients to coat the
  protein strands in the flour and prevent gluten from forming.

                          MEASUREMENTS                  INGREDIENTS

                  U.S.            METRIC    BAKER'S %

9 ounces          2 1/4 cups      255 g      100%       cake flour,
                                                        sifted if lumpy

10 3/4 ounces     1 1/2 cups      305 g      119%       granulated
                                                        sugar

                  1 tablespoon     12 g        4.7%     baking powder

                  1/2 teaspoon      3 g        1.2%     salt

4 ounces          1/2 cup         115 g       45%       emulsified
                                                        shortening,
                                                        room
                                                        temperature

8 fluid ounces    1 cup           240 mL      94%       milk

                  1 teaspoon       5 mL        2%       vanilla extract

2 each                             94 g       37%       large eggs

                                             402.9%     Total Two-Stage
                                                        Golden Yellow
                                                        Cake percentage

1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Grease, parchment,
   and flour two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans.

2. In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment,
   combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt. Blend on low
   speed until well combined.

3. Add the vegetable shortening to the dry ingredients and blend on
   low speed for 2 to 3 minutes, or until the dry ingredients are well
   coated with the shortening (Figure 14-9).

[FIGURE 14-9 OMITTED]

4. Place the milk, vanilla, and eggs into a mixing bowl. Whisk to
   blend.

5. Slowly add one half of the liquid ingredients into the dry
   ingredients and blend well, scraping down the sides of the bowl.

6. Slowly add the rest of the liquid ingredients, blending and
   scraping down the sides each time an addition is made (Figure
   14-10).

7. Turn the speed up to medium and blend for 30 seconds, or until a
   smooth batter is made. Divide the batter between the two prepared
   pans (Figure 14-11).

8. Bake 30 to 35 minutes or until a cake tester inserted into the
   centers of the cakes comes out clean. Cool until lukewarm and
   remove layers onto wire rack to cool completely.

[FIGURE 14-10 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-11 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FUDGY
CHOCOLATE
CAKE

Makes two 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake layers

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a cake using the one-stage method, the simplest cake
  mixing method.

* This method produces a cake with a tender, fine crumb.

* It is important to add liquid ingredients gradually, taking time to
  scrape the bowl often to keep the batter smooth.

* Buttermilk and cocoa powder are acids that will react with the
  baking soda, resulting in a neutralization reaction and the creation
  of carbon dioxide gas which will help leaven the cake.

* Extra baking soda gives a darker, richer color to the cake.

                          MEASUREMENTS                   INGREDIENTS

                U.S.              METRIC     BAKER'S %

7 1/4 ounces    1 cup              206 g          88%    granulated
                                                         sugar

7 1/2 ounces    1 cup              212 g          91%    light brown
                                                         sugar (packed,
                                                         if measuring
                                                         by volume)

8 1/4 ounces    1 3/4 cups         234 g        100%     all-purpose
                                                         flour

2 1/2 ounces    3/4 cup             70 g          30%    unsweetened
                                                         cocoa powder

                1 1/2 teaspoons      6 g        2.6%     baking powder

                2 teaspoons          8 g        3.4%     baking soda

                1 teaspoon           6 g        2.6%     salt

4 fluid         1/2 cup            120 mL         51%    canola oil
ounces

2 each                              94 g          40%    large eggs

8 fluid         1 cup              240 mL        103%    buttermilk,
ounces                                                   well shaken

                2 teaspoons         10 mL        4.3%    vanilla
                                                         extract

                1 tablespoon        15 mL        2.6%    instant
                                                         espresso
                                                          powder

1 cup                                          103.0%    boiling water

                                               621.5%    Total Fudgy
                                                         Chocolate Cake
                                                         Percentage

1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Grease, parchment,
   and flour two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans.

2. Combine the sugar, brown sugar, flour, cocoa powder, baking powder,
   baking soda, and salt in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with
   the paddle attachment. Mix at low speed until blended.

3. In a separate mixing bowl, whisk together the oil, eggs,
   buttermilk, and vanilla. Slowly add the liquid ingredients into the
   dry ingredients on low speed until just blended (Figure 14-12).
   Stop the machine and scrape around the bowl with a rubber spatula.
   Scrape the bottom and around the sides of the bowl to make sure
   that all the ingredients are blended thoroughly and there are no
   lumps.

4. Mix the espresso powder into the boiling water to make coffee and
   pour coffee into the batter (Figure 14-13). Blend well on low speed
   for 10 to 20 seconds.

5. The batter will be thin. Divide the batter between the two prepared
   cake pans.

6. Bake for 30 to 35 minutes or until a cake tester placed into the
   center of the cakes comes out clean. Cool until lukewarm and remove
   the two round layers from the pans onto wire racks to cool
   completely.

[FIGURE 14-12 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-13 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HAZELNUT
GENOISE

Makes two 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake layers

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a whole egg-foam cake using the sponge method of
  mixing.

* The air beaten into whole eggs leavens the cake.

* Heating the eggs and sugar produces a more stable foam.

* To reduce gluten and toughness, a low-protein flour is used in
  combination with cornstarch.

* Genoise cakes often use ground nuts to flavor the cake while the
  fat in the nuts creates tenderness.

* A small quantity of melted butter is added to create some tenderness.

* The butter is mixed in quickly to a small amount of batter to
  lighten it, then it is folded into the remaining batter.

                     MEASUREMENTS                INGREDIENTS

            U.S.            METRIC   BAKER'S %

3 ounces        3/4 cup      85 g        155%    confectioners' sugar

3 1/2 ounces    3/4 cup     100 g        182%    toasted hazelnuts

8 each                      376 g        684%    large eggs, room
                                                 temperature

4 3/4 ounces    2/3 cup     130 g        236%    granulated sugar

2 ounces        1/2 cup      55 g        100%    cake flour

2 1/2 ounces    1/2 cup      70 g        127%    cornstarch

1 ounce         2 table-     30 g         55%    melted butter, kept
                spoons                           warm

                                        1539%    Total Hazelnut Genoise
                                                 percentage

 1. Preheat oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C).

 2. Spray two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans with nonstick cooking
    spray. Line with parchment circles. Spray again and flour. Tap out
    excess flour.

 3. In the bowl of a food processor, pulverize confectioners' sugar
    and toasted hazelnuts until nuts are ground to a fine powder
    (Figure 14-14). Pour into a medium bowl and set aside.

 4. Place a large saucepan filled with 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water over
    medium-high heat and bring it to a simmer.

[FIGURE 14-14 OMITTED]

 5. In the bowl of an electric mixer using a handheld whisk, whisk
    eggs and granulated  sugar constantly over the pan of simmering
    water until the eggs are very warm and foamy, and a thermometer
    placed in the bowl of eggs (not touching the bottom of the bowl)
    registers 110[degrees]F (43[degrees]C) (Figure 14-15).

 6. Remove the bowl from the water and place it on the base of the
    electric mixer. Using the whip attachment on high speed, whip the
    egg mixture until it has tripled in volume and is cool to the
    touch (Figure 14-16). This will take several minutes. It should
    look like marshmallow fluff. As the batter falls from the whip, it
    should form a ribbon as it drops into the bowl before it dissolves
    into the rest of the batter (Figure 14-17).

 7. Place the melted butter into a small bowl and place it over the
    simmering water to keep it warm.

 8. Place a sieve over a small mixing bowl and sift cake flour and
    cornstarch into it. Add the flour mixture to the hazelnut and
    sugar powder.

 9. Pour the batter into a very large mixing bowl.

10. Sprinkle one third of the dry ingredients over the egg mixture and
    gently fold it in using a rubber spatula.

[FIGURE 14-15 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-16 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-17 OMITTED]

11. Repeat sprinkling another one third of the dry ingredients into
    the egg mixture, gently folding it in. Sprinkle in the remaining
    one third of the dry ingredients and fold in gently (Figure
    14-18). Do not overmix!

12. Remove the butter from the water bath. Take a dollop of batter and
    mix it into the butter to lighten it (Figure 14-19).

13. Pour the lightened butter mixture over the batter and fold it in
    quickly but gently with a rubber spatula.

14. Pour the batter into the prepared cake pans, filling each more
    than half full.

15. Place the cake pans on a sheet pan so that they are not touching
    each other, and bake for approximately 18 to 22 minutes, or until
    the cake is lightly browned and cake tester inserted in the center
    comes out clean. Remove the cakes from the oven.

16. Using a thin, sharp paring knife, gently cut around the edge of
    each pan to separate the cake from the sides of the pan while it
    is still hot.

17. Cool cakes in the pan until the pans feel lukewarm. Remove the
    cakes from the pans and place on cake racks to cool completely.

[FIGURE 14-18 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-19 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CHOCOLATE
SPONGE CAKE
ROLL

Makes 1 cake roll

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare a separated egg-foam cake using the sponge method
  of mixing.

* Egg-foam cakes tend to be less tender than cakes high in fat and are
  flexible enough to be rolled when hot without breaking.

* The air beaten into the egg whites leavens the cake.

* An acid such as cream of tartar helps stabilize the meringue by
  partially denaturing the egg proteins.

* Superfine sugar dissolves more quickly, preventing any grittiness.

                         MEASUREMENTS               INGREDIENTS

                U.S.          METRIC   BAKER'S %

1 2/3 ounces    1/2 cup        50 g         333%    Dutch processed
                                                    cocoa powder

                1 teaspoon      2 g          13%    instant coffee
                                                    powder

                1 teaspoon      5 mL         33%    vanilla extract

3 2/3 fluid     1/3 cup +     110 mL        733%    boiling water
ounces          2 table-
                spoons

6 each                        114 g         760%    large egg yolks,
                                                    room temperature

3 3/4 ounces    1/2 cup       110 g         733%    superfine sugar

                2 table-       15 g         100%    cornstarch, sifted
                spoons

                2 table-       15 g         100%    cake flour, sifted
                spoons

6 each                        168 g        1120%    large egg whites,
                                                    room temperature

                3/4             1.5 g        10%    cream of tartar
                teaspoon

3 3/4 ounces    1/2 cup       110 g         733%    superfine sugar

                1 to          8 to 16 g      80%    cocoa powder
                2 table-
                 spoons
                                           4748%    Total Chocolate
                                                    Sponge Cake Roll
                                                    Percentage

 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C).

 2. In a small bowl, whisk together the cocoa, coffee, vanilla, and
    boiling water until smooth. Allow mixture to cool.

 3. Grease a jelly roll pan (17 by 12 inches; 42.5 by 30 cm) and line
    the bottom with parchment paper. Grease the parchment paper and
    flour the bottom and sides of the pan, knocking out the excess.

 4. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment, beat
    the yolks and 3 3/4 ounces (1/2 cup; 110 g) of sugar on high speed
    until light and fluffy (Figure 14-20). This will take about 5
    minutes.

 5. On low speed, gradually add the cocoa mixture and blend well
    (Figure 14-21). Pour the batter into a large mixing bowl and set
    aside.

 6. Slowly add the sifted cornstarch and cake flour. Blend well.

 7. In a clean, dry bowl of an electric mixer using the whip
    attachment, beat the egg whites until foamy (Figure 14-22).

 8. Add the cream of tartar and beat until soft peaks form (Figure
    14-23).

 9. On high speed, gradually add the remaining 3 3/4 ounces (1/2 cup;
    110 g) superfine sugar and beat until stiff peaks form (Figure
    14-24 A and B).

[FIGURE 14-20 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-21 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-22 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-23 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-24A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-24B OMITTED]

10. Using a whisk, mix one fourth of the beaten egg whites into the
    reserved chocolate batter to lighten up the batter (Figure 14-25).

11. Scoop the remaining egg whites on top of the lightened chocolate
    batter and fold them in gently using a rubber spatula until well
    combined (Figure 14-26). Do not overmix.

12. Quickly pour the batter into the prepared pan.

13. Bake for approximately 18 minutes or until the cake is puffy and
    springs back when touched lightly with a finger.

14. While the cake is baking, place a clean kitchen towel on a work
    surface. Place the cocoa powder in a sieve and dust the kitchen
    towel evenly with it (Figure 14-27).

15. When the cake is done, immediately flip it onto the prepared
    kitchen towel. Remove the pan and gently peel off the parchment
    paper and discard it (Figure 14-28).

16. With the help of the cocoa-dusted kitchen towel, begin to roll the
    cake from the long end into a tight spiral, then allow it to
    remain this way until it is completely cooled (Figure 14-29).

17. The cake roll can be unrolled and filled with a variety of
    fillings.

[FIGURE 14-25 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-26 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-27 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-28 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-29 OMITTED]

CITRUS
CHIFFON CAKE

Makes one 10-inch (25-cm)
tube cake

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare an egg foam cake using the chiffon method of mixing.

* A liquid fat is added to create tenderness.

* A chemical leavening agent is used to create additional height.

                      MEASUREMENTS                   INGREDIENTS

            U.S.            METRIC      BAKER'S %

9 ounces    2 1/4 cups        255 g          100%    sifted cake flour

9 ounces    1 1/4 cups        255 g          100%    granulated sugar

            1 tablespoon       12 g         4.7%     baking powder

            1/2 teaspoon        3 g         1.2%     salt

4 fluid     1/2 cup          120 mL           47%    canola oil
ounces

5 each                         95 g          37%     large egg yolks,
                                                     room temperature

4 fluid     1/2 cup          120 mL           47%    cold, freshly
ounces                                               squeezed orange
                                                     juice

1 fluid     2 tablespoons     30 mL          12%     freshly squeezed
ounce                                                lemon juice

1 fluid     2 tablespoons     30 mL           12%    freshly squeezed
ounce                                                lime juice

            2 teaspoons        12 g            5%    orange zest

            2 teaspoons        12 g            5%    lemon zest

            2 teaspoons        12 g          4.7%    lime zest

            1 teaspoon         5 mL          2.0%    lemon extract

8 each                        224 g         88.0%    large egg whites,
                                                     room temperature

            1/2 teaspoon        1 g          0.4%    cream of tartar

3 1/2       1/4 cup            50 g         20.0%    granulated sugar
ounces
                                           485.4%    Total Citrus
                                                     Chiffon Cake
                                                     Percentage

 1. Preheat oven to 325[degrees]F (160[degrees]C).

 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with a paddle attachment,
    blend the flour, 8 3/4 ounces (1 1/4 cups; 250 g) sugar, baking
    powder, and salt on low speed.

 3. Continue at low speed and blend in the oil, egg yolks, orange
    juice, lemon juice, lime juice, orange zest, lemon zest, lime zest,
    and lemon extract into the dry ingredients. Blend until smooth
    (Figure 14-30). Pour batter into a large bowl. Set aside.

 4. Place the egg whites into the clean, dry bowl of an electric mixer
    and, using the whip attachment, beat them only until foamy. Add
    the cream of tartar and beat until soft peaks form.

 5. Slowly add the 3 1/2 ounces (1/4 cup; 100 g) sugar and beat until
    stiff peaks form.

 6. Using a whisk, gently mix one fourth of the egg whites into the
    reserved batter to lighten it up (Figure 14-31).

 7. Place the remaining egg whites on top of the lightened batter and
    fold them in gently with a rubber spatula (Figure 14-32).

 8. Pour the batter into an ungreased, false-bottom 10-inch (25-cm)
    tube pan with metal tabs.

 9. Bake for 50 to 60 minutes or until a cake tester inserted into the
    center comes out clean.

10. When the cake is done, remove it from the oven and invert it so it
    rests upside down on metal tabs. If the pan has no metal tabs,
    balance the upside down cake on an overturned ramekin placed under
    the tube and allow it to cool completely (Figure 14-33).

[FIGURE 14-30 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-31 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-32 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-33 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

COCONUT
ANGEL FOOD
CAKE

Makes one 10-inch (25-cm)
tube cake

Lessons demonstrated in this recipe:

* How to prepare an egg foam cake using the angel food mixing method.

* Only egg whites are used, creating a cake very low in fat.

* Air beaten into the egg whites is the only leavening agent.

* An acid such as cream of tartar provides stability by partially
  denaturing the egg protein.

* Cooling the cake upside down prevents gravity from causing it to
  collapse.

                        MEASUREMENTS                   INGREDIENTS

               U.S.              METRIC    BAKER'S %

1 ounce        1/2 cup            30 g       35%       sweetened
                                                       shredded coconut
                                                       (packed, if
                                                       measuring by
                                                       volume)

5 1/2 ounces   3/4 cup           155 g      182%       superfine sugar

3 ounces       3/4 cup            85 g      100%       cake flour

               2 tablespoons      16 g       19%       cornstarch

               1/4 teaspoon        1 g        1.2%     salt

12 each                          336 g      395%       large egg
                                                       whites, room
                                                       temperature

               1 1/2 teaspoons     3 g        3.5%     cream of tartar

3 3/4 ounces   1/2 cup           106 g      125%       superfine sugar

               1 tablespoon       15 mL      18%       coconut extract

1/4 ounce      2 tablespoons      7.5 g       9%       sweetened,
                                                       shredded coconut

                                            887.7%     Total Coconut
                                                       Angel Food Cake
                                                       Percentage

 1. Preheat oven to 325[degrees]F (160[degrees]C).

 2. In the bowl of a food processor, place the 1 ounce (1/2 cup; 30 g)
    coconut, the 2 3/4 ounces (3/4 cup; 80 g) sugar, cake flour,
    cornstarch, and salt. Pulse until the coconut is ground into very
    fine particles. Transfer the coconut mixture into a medium bowl
    and set aside.

 3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the whip attachment, beat
    the egg whites at high speed until foamy.

 4. Add the cream of tartar and continue beating at high speed until
    soft peaks form.

 5. Gradually add the remaining 3 1/4 ounces (1/2 cup; 110 g) sugar,
    tablespoon by tablespoon, followed by the coconut extract, beating
    until stiff, unwavering peaks form (Figure 14-34).

 6. Using a rubber spatula, carefully pour the beaten egg whites into
    a large mixing bowl, trying to avoid overhandling them.

 7. Gradually sprinkle the reserved coconut sugar mixture on top of
    the beaten whites and fold in gently until all the dry ingredients
    are blended in (Figure 14-35). Do not overmix.

 8. Pour the batter into an ungreased 10-inch (25-cm) tube pan,
    preferably with metal tabs sticking up from the top of the pan,
    and smooth with a spatula. Sprinkle the 1/4 ounce (2 tablespoons;
    7.5 g) coconut evenly over the top (Figure 14-36).

 9. Bake for 1 hour or until a cake tester inserted in the center of
    the cake comes out clean and the coconut is brown on top.

10. Turn the pan upside down and allow it to cool, balancing on the
    metal tabs. If there are no metal tabs on the pan, balance the
    upside down cake on an overturned ramekin placed under the tube.
    Cooling upside down prevents gravity from pulling the cake down
    and falling.

11. When the cake is cold, using a long, sharp knife, carefully cut
    all around edges and inner tube portion of the pan, and remove
    the cake.

[FIGURE 14-34 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-35 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-36 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

TWO-STAGE
GOLDEN
YELLOW CAKE
FROSTED WITH
BOILED
COCONUT
FROSTING

Makes one 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round double layer cake

Additional Ideas That Use the Recipes in This Chapter

STEP A

Make one recipe of Two-Stage Golden Yellow Cake baked in two 9-inch
(22.5-cm) round cake pans. Level each layer using a serrated knife if
necessary.

STEP B

Make one recipe of Boiled Coconut Frosting (Chapter 15), and toast 5
ounces, (2 cups; 140 g) shredded coconut.

STEP C: ASSEMBLY

1. Place one cake layer on a cardboard cake circle upside down. This
   creates a flat surface for the most level cake.

2. Spread one third of the filling onto the cake and sprinkle 1 1/4
   ounces (1/2 cup; 35 g) toasted coconut over the filling and place
   the second cake layer on top, right side up (Figure 14-37).

3. Spread the top and sides of the cake with the remaining frosting
   (Figure 14-38). Sprinkle the remaining toasted coconut all over the
   top and sides (Figure-14-39). Chill the cake in the refrigerator
   until ready to serve.

[FIGURE 14-37 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-38 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-39 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FUDGY
CHOCOLATE
CAKE FROSTED
WITH VANILLA
BUTTERCREAM

Makes one 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round double layer cake

STEP A

Make one recipe of Fudgy Chocolate Cake (Chapter 15) baked in two
9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans and level each layer using a serrated
knife if necessary.

STEP B

Make one recipe of Vanilla Buttercream (Chapter 15) to frost the cake.
Make an additional recipe if you wish to decorate.

STEP C: ASSEMBLY

1. Place one cake layer upside down on a cardboard cake circle. Spread
   one third of the buttercream evenly on the cake (Figure 14-40).

2. Place the second cake layer on top of the buttercream, right side
   up. Frost the top and sides of the cake with the remaining
   buttercream (Figure 14-41). Chill the cake until the buttercream is
   firm.

[FIGURE 14-40 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-41 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CHOCOLATE
HAZELNUT
MOUSSE TORTE

Makes one 9-inch (22.5 cm)
torte

STEP A

Make one recipe of Hazelnut Genoise baked in two 9-inch (22.5-cm)
round cake pans.

STEP B

Make one recipe of Hazelnut Praline (recipe follows). Makes 6 1/2
ounces (1 1/2 cups; 170 g)

                    MEASUREMENTS            INGREDIENTS

                U.S.            METRIC

3 1/2 ounces    1/2 cup         100 g       granulated sugar

                1 tablespoon    15 mL       light com syrup

2 1/2 ounces    1/2 cup         70 g        whole, skinned hazelnuts,
                                            toasted in a 375[degrees]F
                                            (190[degrees]C) oven for
                                            10 to 15 minutes

1. Combine the sugar and corn syrup in a small heavy saucepan.

2. Bring the mixture to a boil, stirring only until the sugar is
   dissolved. Using a pastry brush dipped in cold water, wash down
   any sugar crystals that may have formed on the sides of the pan. If
   the liquid boils up, remove the pan from the heat temporarily and
   then return it to a boil.

3. Continue to boil the mixture without stirring until the melted
   sugar syrup turns a light caramel color (Figure 14-42). This takes
   approximately 5 to 6 minutes. Watch the caramel carefully or it can
   burn.

4. Remove the mixture from the heat and add the hazelnuts.

5. Using a spatula, quickly pour out the caramel and hazelnut mixture
   onto a parchment-lined baking sheet or onto a silicone baking mat
   that has been placed inside a sheet pan (Figure 14-43). Allow
   mixture to cool completely. It will harden as it cools.

[FIGURE 14-42 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-43 OMITTED]

6. Break up the praline and place it in the bowl of a food processor.
   Process until it is finely ground (Figure 14-44). Store in an
   airtight container in the freezer until ready to use.

STEP C

Make one recipe of Hazelnut Syrup (recipe follows). Makes 1 1/8 cups
(33 mL).

                    MEASUREMENTS                INGREDIENTS

             U.S.                  METRIC

4 fluid ounces     1/2 cup          120 mL      water

3 1/2 ounces       1/2 cup          100 g       granulated sugar

3 fluid ounces     6 tablespoons     90 mL      hazelnut liqueur

1. Combine the water and sugar in a small saucepan. Bring the mixture
   to a boil and stir until the sugar dissolves (Figure 14-45). Remove
   syrup from the heat and add the hazelnut liqueur. Cool and set
   aside.

(Note: When equal parts of
water and sugar are brought to a
boil until the sugar dissolves, it
is referred to as a simple syrup.
Simple syrups are often
flavored.)

STEP D

Make one recipe of Chocolate Hazelnut Mousse Filling (recipe follows).

Makes approximately 4 cups (946 mL).

               MEASUREMENTS                  INGREDIENTS

U.S.                               METRIC

8 fluid ounces    1 cup            240 mL    heavy cream

12 ounces         2 cups           340 g     semisweet chocolate,
                                             coarsely chopped

1/2 ounce         1 tablespoon      15 mL    hazelnut liqueur

7 fluid ounces    3/4 cup          210 mL    heavy cream
                  2 tablespoons

                  5 tablespoons     75 g     superfine sugar

3 3/4 ounces      3/4 cup          105 g     hazelnut praline, finely
                                             ground (Step B)

1. Place the heavy cream into a medium saucepan and bring it to a boil.

[FIGURE 14-44 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-45 OMITTED]

2. Remove it from the heat and whisk in the chopped chocolate and
   liqueur until the mixture is melted and smooth. Set aside to cool
   for 1 hour at room temperature (Figure 14-46 A and B).

3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, beat the 3/4 cup * 2 tablespoons
   (7 fluid ounces; 210 mL) heavy cream using the whip attachment
   until soft peaks form.

4. Gradually add the sugar and continue beating until stiff peaks form.

5. On low speed, gradually add the cooled chocolate and cream mixture
   and blend for 10 seconds only. Remove the bowl from the base of the
   mixer, and, using a rubber spatula, gently fold in the chocolate
   until completely incorporated (Figure 14-47A and B). Blend in the
   praline (Figure 14-48).

STEP E

Make one recipe of Ganache (Chapter 15), cooled to room temperature.

STEP F: ASSEMBLY

1. Split each genoise cake layer in half horizontally for a total of
   four layers (Figure 14-49). Place one layer in the bottom of a
   9-inch round false-bottom pan such as a spring form pan or in a
   9-inch (22.5-cm) round 3-inch (7.5-cm) high metal cake ring. If
   using the metal cake ring, set it on a 9-inch (22.5-cm) cardboard
   cake circle that has been placed onto a sheet pan.

[FIGURE 14-46A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-46B OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-47A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-47B OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-48 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-49 OMITTED]

2. Using a pastry brush, brush some hazelnut syrup evenly over the
   cake layer to moisten it (Figure 14-50). Spread one third of the
   mousse evenly over the moistened layer (14-51). Place another
   genoise layer on top. Repeat two times, moistening with syrup and
   spreading with another one third of the mousse each time.

3. Place the last genoise layer on top and moisten with the remaining
   syrup (Figure 14-52). Cover with plastic wrap and chill for 3 to 4
   hours.

4. Remove the sides of the pan and place the cake on a cake rack
   placed over a sheet pan (Figure 14-53). Spread room temperature
   Ganache over the top and sides of the torte (Figure 14-54). Garnish
   the torte with any remaining crushed praline. Chill.

[FIGURE 14-50 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-51 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-52 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-53 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-54 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CHOCOLATE
SPONGE CAKE
ROLL FILLED
WITH SWEET
RASPBERRY
CREAM

Makes approximately 2 cups
(473 mL)

STEP A

Make one recipe of the Chocolate Sponge Cake Roll.

STEP B

Make one recipe of the Raspberry Cream Filling (recipe follows).

                      MEASUREMENTS           INGREDIENTS

                 U.S.            METRIC

                 1/2 teaspoon      1.5 g     unflavored gelatin

                 1 tablespoon     15 mL      freshly squeezed cold
                                             orange juice

3 ounces         1/3 cup          85 g       seedless raspberry
                                             preserves

                 2 teaspoons      10 mL      raspberry liqueur like
                                             Chambord (or orange
                                             juice or water)

8 fluid ounces   1 cup           240 mL      cold heavy cream

1 ounce          1/4 cup          30 g       confectioners' sugar,
                                             sifted

1. In a small heat proof bowl, sprinkle the gelatin over the cold
   orange juice (Figure 14-55). Let the mixture sit for 5 minutes
   to soften.

2. Set a small saute pan filled with one half inch of water on the
   stove on medium-high heat and bring it to a simmer. Shut off the
   heat and place the bowl with the gelatin into the pan to melt it
   (Figure 14-56). Remove the gelatin from the water and allow it to
   cool but not to solidify again. The cream will not whip if the
   melted gelatin is too warm.

3. In another small bowl, mix the preserves and the liqueur until well
   blended.

4. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment, beat
   the heavy cream on high speed and gradually add the sugar only
   until it becomes slightly thicker and the whip begins to leave
   marks in the cream (Figure 14-57).

[FIGURE 14-55 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-56 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-57 OMITTED]

5. Slowly add the melted and cooled gelatin into the cream and beat on
   high speed until soft peaks form (Figure 14-58). Gradually add the
   preserves (Figure 14-59).

STEP C: ASSEMBLY

Use immediately to fill the cooled chocolate cake roll by gently
unrolling the cake roll and spreading the cream filling over the
entire inside of the roll using an offset spatula (Figure 14-60 A and
B). Re-roll the cake and dust it with confectioners' sugar (Figure
14-61).

[FIGURE 14-58 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-59 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-60A OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-60B OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14-61 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]


REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Describe the two-stage method. How does it prevent gluten from forming?

2. What role does cream of tartar play in egg foam cakes?

3. Compare the angel food method with the chiffon method. What are their similarities? How do they differ?

4. Why do cakes that are high in fat, such as pound cake, have a longer shelf life than cakes that are low in fat, such as sponge cake?

5. What are the three ways to tell when a cake is done?

6. Which egg foam cake typically contains a chemical leavening agent?

7. What is the main leavening agent in all egg foam cakes?

8. Why is the creaming step so important to the leavening of a cake? How does creaming work with chemical leavening agents to leaven a cake?

9. What type of fat is typically used in the one-stage method?

10. Describe an emulsion.

11. Which can hold more air--butter or shortening? Why?

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Professional Profile

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Wendy Schonberg

Chef Instructor

Hudson County Community College

Jersey City, NJ

1. Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?

Answer: I was at the University of Wisconsin, not in any culinary related field, and realized that what I wanted to do was go into baking and pastry.

2. Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?

Answer: My mother was from Europe and she was just an amazing baker. We always had fresh baked bread at home. Everything was from scratch; nothing

we ate was canned. She really inspired me.

3. Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?

Answer: I went to school at the Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park and I took to the program from the start. The only real challenge was learning the discipline that is necessary. It takes much more discipline to bake on a commercial level than baking at home or even for a caterer.

4. Question: When and where was your first practical experience in a professional baking setting?

Answer: My first position was with The Manor in New Jersey. I worked under a phenomenal chef, Freddy Mayer. As a new graduate I was the "low man on the totem pole" but the chef allowed me to try everything. He taught me about working with chocolate and sugar and to do some sophisticated pieces. He gave me the opportunity to learn so much.

5. Question: How did this experience affect your later professional development?

Answer: I learned early on that being a woman in this environment meant I had to push a little harder, try a little more.

6. Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?

Answer: Certainly Chef Mayer at The Manor and my mother were both important to shaping my career. But, people like Joe Amendola who really stressed that the basics and the science behind baking were also important. Amendola really knew his stuff. He was great.

7. Question: What would you list as your greatest rewards in your professional life?

Answer: It has to be teaching. To be with students who are so eager and excited to learn is very fulfilling.

8. Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field?

Answer: Anyone wanting to make this a career must have patience. You just

can't give up. You have to keep trying until you get it perfect. You also have to be a stickler for details.

9. Question: If there was one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?

Answer: Don't rush. Take it slow. Start with the basics and then work up to the more difficult skills. Don't try doing sugar work if you can't bake a cake. Once you gain one skill, though, keep going. Try different media and styles. Continue to create.
Table 14.1 Cake Mixing Methods

                       CAKE METHODS HIGH IN FAT

CREAMING METHOD         TWO-STAGE METHOD        ONE-STAGE METHOD

1. Cream fat and        1. Blend dry            1. Blend dry
   sugar on low to         ingredients and         ingredients on
   medium speed            fat on low speed.       low speed.
   until light and
   fluffy.

2. Add eggs, 1 at       2. Then add liquid      2. Blend liquid
   a time.                 in two stages,          ingredients in
                           scraping down the       another bowl.
                           bowl after each
                           addition.

3. Alternate dry and    3. Mix until just       3. Gradually add wet
   wet ingredients         blended.                ingredients to
   (beginning and                                  dry ingredients.
   ending with dry
   ingredients).

4. Mix until just                               4. Mix until just
   blended.                                        blended.

CAKE METHODS LOW IN FAT

SPONGE METHOD--
WHOLE EGG FOAM                     SPONGE METHOD--
(GENOISE)                          SEPARATED EGG FOAM

1. Whole eggs and sugar            1. Egg yolks and a portion of
   warmed and beaten to               the sugar are beaten until
   a foam.                            thick and light.

2. Sifted dry ingredients are      2. Egg whites are beaten with
   folded in gently.                  rest of sugar to form stiff
                                      peaks.

3. Melted butter, sometimes        3. Beaten egg whites are
   added.                             folded into yolks and
                                      sugar alternately with
                                      sifted dry ingredients.

CHIFFON METHOD                     ANGEL FOOD METHOD

1. Dry ingredients with a          1. Sift flour with half of
   portion of the sugar are           sugar.
   sifted into mixing bowl.

2. Oil, yolks, water, and          2. Beat room temperature
   flavorings are mixed in.           egg whites until foamy.

3. Egg whites are beaten with      3. Add cream of tartar and
   cream of tartar and                salt.
   remaining sugar until stiff.

4. Beaten egg whites are folded    4. Beat until soft peaks form.
   into batter.
                                   5. Gradually add remaining
                                      sugar, beat until stiff.

                                   6. Fold in flour and sugar
                                      mixture.
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Article Details
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Author:Sokol, Gail
Publication:About Professional Baking
Article Type:Recipe
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2006
Words:10032
Previous Article:Chapter 13 Quick bread mixing methods.
Next Article:Chapter 15 Frostings.
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