Chapter 14 Cake mixing methods.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
* Define the two categories of cakes.
* Describe the three cake mixing methods for cakes high in fat.
* Describe the three cake mixing methods for cakes low in fat.
* Understand the three ways to tell whether a cake is done.
* Prepare recipes using the various mixing methods in this chapter.
angel food method
cakes high in fat
cakes low in fat
high ratio cake
Cakes are a major part of almost every celebration there is. Cake varieties are endless and run the gamut from light and airy to the very heavy and rich.
Cakes are defined as a sweet, tender, moist baked pastry that is sometimes filled and frosted. Cake batters can be baked in an endless array of cake pans of various shapes and sizes. Using just a few basic cake recipes, bakers can create a wide range of cakes. By varying fillings and frostings, a basic cake can be transformed into a spectacular dessert.
Cake recipes are prepared using a few basic mixing methods. Once these mixing methods are mastered, their versatility to the baker has no bounds.
This chapter discusses the various cake mixing methods and their application in recipes. It is important to be aware that cake recipes are generally referred to as formulas. These formulas are just ingredients in the right proportions. Baking is a science in which exact measurements are crucial to success; following a formula exactly the way it is written will ensure that you prepare a cake to be proud of. The end of the chapter contains additional recipes using the cakes from each section and how they can be assembled with various fillings and frostings.
Two Categories of Cakes
There are really only two categories of cakes: cakes that are high in fat and cakes that are low in fat. (See Table 14-1, Cake Mixing Methods.)
Cakes High in Fat
Cakes high in fat rely on solid and liquid fats to keep gluten development low in order to produce a tender product. These types of cakes tend to have a longer shelf life because of their high fat content which slows the staling process. They tend to be moister, richer, and have a more tender crumb. There are three basic methods used to prepare these cakes:
* Creaming method
* Two-stage method
* One-stage method
Three Mixing Methods for Cakes High in Fats
* Creaming method
* Two-stage method
* One-stage method
Cakes Low in Fat
Cakes low in fat need some other ingredient to tenderize them. These types of cakes tend to be very high in sugar because sugar is a tenderizer. They include sponge cakes that use the air beaten into eggs to leaven them. Cakes of this type are referred to as egg-foam cakes. Egg-foam cakes tend to produce a drier, more flexible cake that does not crumble as easily as a cake high in fat. These can easily be cut crosswise into layers or rolled as for a jelly roll. Because these cakes are dry, many chefs brush them with a sugar syrup in which equal parts of sugar and water are brought to a boil and then flavored with such ingredients as liqueurs or extracts. There are three basic methods used to prepare these cakes:
* Sponge method (whole egg foam and separated egg foam)
* Chiffon method
* Angel food method
Three Mixing Methods for Cakes Low in Fats
* Sponge method
* Chiffon method
* Angel food method
Cake Batters as Emulsions
With the exception of an angel food cake, all cake batters are comprised of fat and water-based ingredients that would normally separate out much like a cup of oil and water. Even if they are stirred together, eventually they will separate into two layers. This is because fats and water-based ingredients are immiscible liquids, meaning they do not stay mixed together. The natural tendency is for the two substances to separate into two layers. The fat is lighter and rises to the top and the water stays on the bottom. This natural tendency for a fat and water to separate is due to a phenomenon known as surface tension.
To prepare a proper cake batter in which the ingredients will not separate, another ingredient needs to be added to act as a "go-between" to help the fat and water-based ingredients stay evenly dispersed, forming a smooth batter. This ingredient is called an emulsifying agent. Emulsifying agents accomplish two tasks that contribute to the finished cake's volume and texture. First, they reduce the surface tension between the two immiscible substances, allowing them to mix together more easily. Second, emulsifying agents help the air bubbles incorporated in the batter become more evenly distributed. This encourages more even rising of the cake, resulting in a finer crumb.
Eggs, which are typically used in cake batters, contain natural emulsifiers in the yolk and act as an emulsifying agent to bring the two immiscible ingredients, fat and water, together in an emulsion. The immiscible ingredients become evenly dispersed within the batter where they float around each other.
A properly prepared cake batter is smooth. So, when adding an emulsifying agent, it is important to gradually incorporate it into the fat mixture. If the batter appears to be curdled, it is a sign that the emulsion may not have been prepared properly. However, some cake batters look curdled until the dry ingredients are blended in.
During the creaming method, if the eggs are not added gradually into the creamed fat and sugar mixture, the batter will appear curdled. Gradually adding the eggs, little by little, allows the fat and sugar time to absorb them and form a proper emulsion.
Cake Batters Using/Not Using an Emulsifying Agent
Water and fat-based ingredients for a cake batter without an emulsifying agent
Water and fat-based ingredients remain separate. The batter appears curdled.
Water and fat-based ingredients for a cake batter with an emulsifying agent
Water and fat-based ingredients are evenly distributed forming an emulsion.
Mixing Methods for Cakes High in Fat
There are three methods for mixing cakes high in fat: the creaming method, the two-stage method, and the one-stage method.
The Creaming Method
The first method of mixing cakes high in fat is known as the creaming method. It is the method of choice when preparing butter cakes. The creaming method starts out with softened, solid fat (such as butter) at approximately 65[degrees]F (19[degrees]C). The fat is then mixed with granulated or brown sugar in an electric mixer using the paddle attachment. The creaming comes into play as the fat is mashed against the sides of the mixer with the sand-like sugar crystals working against it, softening it even more while forcing air into it. The process of creaming is most important and cannot be rushed. Creaming should be done at a low to medium speed for between 3 and 5 minutes. A high speed may melt the fat, causing a loss of air bubbles. Creaming for too long creates a coarse texture in the finished cake. Creaming for too short a time, produces a cake with poor volume. If butter is used to be creamed with the sugar, the mixture should turn from a yellowish color (from the butter) to a lighter, whiter color (from the aerated butter). This color change is due to all the air that is mixing in with the butter and sugar. These air bubbles are held within the fat. Ultimately, these air bubbles will expand even more when mixed with the leavening ingredients (like baking powder or baking soda).
The Creaming Method
1. Cream the fat and sugar on low to medium speed until light and fluffy in the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment.
2. Blend in the eggs one at a time, thoroughly blending in one before adding the next.
3. Blend the liquids and dry ingredients alternately beginning and ending with the dry ingredients. The dry ingredients are added last to ensure the liquids will be absorbed. Another advantage of adding some of the flour mixture last is that less gluten will develop.
How Chemical Leavening Agents Work with Air to Leaven Cakes
Chemical leavening agents such as baking powder and baking soda work with the air incorporated from the creaming step to leaven cakes. As chemical leavening agents produce carbon dioxide gas during the baking process, those gases are attracted to the small air bubbles formed during the creaming step and enlarge them. Although gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) are formed, no new air bubbles are created by the chemical leavening agents. The existing air bubbles created during creaming just get larger. That is why the creaming step is so important to the volume and texture of a cake. These trapped air bubbles within the batter expand, pushing it upward, causing the batter to rise.
Creaming is also important to the mixing of ingredients because it is much easier to blend other ingredients into a "fluffy" fat than it would be if the fat was hard. The next step in the creaming method is for beaten eggs to be added to the creamed fat and sugar mixture. The eggs must be added slowly to allow for their absorption. If the eggs are colder than the creamed fat, the mixture may appear curdled. Next, the dry ingredients are added alternately with the remaining liquid ingredients ending with the final addition of the remaining dry ingredients. Alternating dry and liquid ingredients maintains the emulsion while minimizing gluten development. Some recipes add all of the liquid after the eggs and then add all the dry ingredients at once. Adding the dry ingredients all at once shortens the mixing process and still minimizes gluten development. Caution must be taken to prevent overmixing. Cakes that use the creaming method tend to be very tender and, if creamed properly, will attain good volume.
Fudge Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake (This chapter, page 317)
The Two-Stage Method
The two-stage method is used primarily for cakes in which a tender, light, moist texture is desired. The liquids are added in two stages, and the batters are usually thin. Typically, all the dry ingredients are mixed together in the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment. The fat is then added, coating the flour particles and preventing them from absorbing water and forming gluten. A portion of the liquid ingredients are then blended in at a low speed to obtain a smooth, thin batter. Once the fat and part of the liquid ingredients have been added, the remaining liquid is added. Water-based ingredients when added to flour contribute to gluten formation, but because the fat was added first, coating each particle of flour, the gluten that forms is minimal, producing a tender cake. A cake batter should never be overmixed, because this encourages gluten to form.
Traditionally, the fat used in a two-stage cake is an emulsified shortening. (See Knowing Which Fat to Use in High-Fat Cakes). This type of shortening holds a great deal of liquid and is the fat of choice for a high ratio cake because of its ability to keep fat and water-based ingredients from separating. Typically, a two-stage method cake has more sugar by weight than flour. This is known as a high ratio cake. Cakes that use the two-stage method of mixing tend to be more tender than cakes using the creaming method. These types of cakes are used most often in high volume bakeries.
Two-Stage Golden Yellow Cake (This chapter, page 321)
The Two-Stage Method
1. Mix dry ingredients with emulsified fat. The fat coats the particles of flour, preventing gluten from forming once the liquid ingredients are added.
2. Add liquids in two stages.
The One-Stage Method
The one-stage method is the easiest method in that all the dry ingredients are placed in a bowl of an electric mixer and the liquid ingredients are added in one step. It is important to add the liquid gradually and scrape down the bowl frequently or else lumps of dry ingredients can form. The fat for this method is usually a liquid (either oil or melted butter). Because this method can cause a great deal of gluten formation, if overbeaten, the liquid fat may be added with the dry ingredients first to coat the flour.
Cakes using the one-stage method are known for their speed in preparation and for their fine, tender crumb.
Fudgy Chocolate Cake (This chapter, page 323)
The One-Stage Method
1. Place the dry ingredients into the bowl of an electric mixer and, using the paddle attachment, mix until blended together.
2. Blend liquids together in another bowl.
3. Add the liquids slowly on low speed until a smooth batter is made, scraping the sides of the bowl often.
Knowing Which Fat to Use in High-Fat Cakes
It is important to know the differences between fats such as oils, butter, and shortening and which one to use when preparing cakes that are high in fat.
Liquid fats such as oils, do not make very good creaming agents because oils are incapable of holding air when beaten. In one-stage method cakes, oils are the ideal fat to prevent gluten from forming.
Solid fats, such as butter and hydrogenated vegetable shortening, are capable of holding air and therefore make better creaming agents. Some types of fat hold more air than others. Butter, known for its rich flavor and appealing mouth feel, melts at a lower temperature than shortening. It is the ideal fat for butter cakes using the creaming method. However, in a cake using the two-stage method, butter would not be a good choice because it is not capable of holding the larger quantities of sugar and liquids to create an emulsion. When creaming, butter should be soft enough to be mashed and trap air bubbles, ideally between 65[degrees] and 70[degrees]F (19[degrees] and 21[degrees]C). However, it should not be melted. Because butter contains some water (up to 20 percent), it cannot hold as much air as shortening. Shortening, however, is almost 100 percent fat and contains little water.
Shortening has one advantage over butter in that it already contains small air bubbles that are evenly dispersed throughout (approximately 10 percent). This makes shortening the ideal fat for creaming in cakes other than butter cakes. A significant drawback of using shortening is its greasy feel on the tongue, which is due to its higher than body temperature melting point.
Shortening with added emulsifiers is typically used in the two-stage method because it is better able to hold immiscible ingredients like fats and water-based liquids together in a suspension where they are evenly dispersed within the batter without separating out and appearing curdled.
Hydrogenated vegetable shortenings start out as liquid oils that have undergone a chemical process known as hydrogenation, which changes them to a solid. This solid is less likely to go rancid than the liquid oil.
Mixing Methods for Cakes Low in Fat
There are three mixing methods for cakes that are low in fat: (1) the sponge method with two variations, (2) the chiffon method, (3) and the angel food method.
Cakes low in fat tend to incorporate some form of an egg foam using whole eggs or just the whites. Chapter 7 discussed the ability of eggs to hold air. Egg foams are made by beating eggs with sugar into a foam. Cream of tartar may be added to increase the egg foam's stability. The foam is then folded into a batter in which the air bubbles expand in the oven, leavening the cake. Egg-foam type cakes include angel food cakes, sponge cakes, chiffon cakes, and genoise. For more on the leavening qualities of egg whites, see Chapter 7.
Some cakes using the foaming method contain very little fat. The sponge and the chiffon methods use egg yolks, which add some fat to the cake. The angel food method is the only method in which only the whites are used, making this type of cake basically fat free!
Many recipes for egg-foam cakes use superfine sugar. Superfine sugar is granulated sugar that has been pulverized to a finer texture. This finer sugar dissolves instantly, creating a smoother, less gritty egg foam.
The Whole Egg-Foam Method
1. Whole eggs and sugar are warmed and beaten until thick. They are then beaten until cold and they form a ribbon when dropped from the beater that slowly disappears as it hits the batter.
2. Sifted dry ingredients and sometimes melted butter are folded in alternately.
(Note: To allow the egg foams to attain the greatest volume, the egg yolks or whites are beaten using the whip attachment. Notice that chiffon cakes use the paddle to prepare the main batter and the whip to beat the whites.)
The Separated Egg-Foam Method
1. Egg yolks and part of the sugar are beaten until thick and lighter in color.
2. Egg whites are beaten with the remaining sugar to form stiff peaks.
3. Beaten egg whites are folded into the egg yolks and sugar alternately with sifted, dry ingredients.
The Sponge Method
The sponge method uses both the yolk and the white of the egg. There are two main types of sponge cake: whole egg foams (genoise) and separated egg foams. In whole egg foam cakes, warm whole eggs and sugar are beaten into a foam using the whip attachment. The eggs are warmed to attain a greater volume and then beaten. Sifted dry ingredients are then folded into the foam. This is known as a genoise or French sponge cake. Some recipes call for melted butter to be blended in at the end. These cakes tend to be drier and tougher than a high fat cake, but the butter helps tenderize them. Because of their strong structure, genoise sponge cakes are easily split into layers. Soaking the cake layers in a flavored sugar syrup adds moistness.
The second type of sponge cake is known as a separated egg-foam cake. In this type of cake, the yolks are beaten with part of the sugar to form a foam, then the egg whites are beaten with the remaining sugar to form stiff peaks. The beaten whites are folded into the yolk and sugar mixture alternating with the sifted dry ingredients. Separated egg-foam cakes tend to be moister than whole egg-foam cakes.
Chocolate Sponge Cake Roll (This chapter, page 329)
Hazelnut Genoise (This chapter, page 325)
The Chiffon Method
The chiffon method differs from the other two methods in that it contains a liquid fat, usually oil, and a chemical leavener like baking powder. Therefore, chiffon cakes get their leavening from two sources--air and baking powder. They are not as fragile as the other types of egg foam cakes in that if some air bubbles are lost in mixing, the baking powder can act as a backup leavener. Chiffon cakes tend to be moister because of the oil and typically are baked in a tube pan.
Citrus Chiffon Cake (This chapter, page 332)
The Chiffon Method
1. The dry ingredients, with part of the sugar, are sifted into the mixing bowl.
2. The oil, egg yolks, water, and flavorings are mixed in using the paddle attachment.
3. Egg whites are beaten with cream of tartar and the remaining sugar until stiff.
4. The beaten egg whites are folded into the batter.
The Angel Food Method
The angel food method uses only the egg whites, which are low in fat. Angel food cakes tend to be light and airy, and need no frosting or other adornments. They are often served with a fresh fruit compote or a sauce.
Coconut Angel Food Cake (This Chapter, page 335)
The Angel Food Method
1. Start with egg whites at room temperature.
2. In a mixing bowl, sift flour and cornstarch with half the sugar and set aside.
3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the whip attachment, beat the egg whites with cream of tartar and salt until soft peaks form.
4. Slowly beat in the remaining sugar that was not mixed with the flour. Beat until stiff peaks form.
5. Using a rubber spatula, fold in the flour and sugar mixture into the beaten egg whites.
How to Tell When a Cake Is Done
There are three ways to tell when a cake is done. First, the cake should spring back when you gently press it with your finger. Second, the sides of the cake should pull away from the pan. Third, a cake tester, when inserted into the center of the cake, should come out clean and free of crumbs or batter.
There are a few tools that can be used as cake testers. One type of cake tester consists of a long metal wire with a ring or handle at one end. Alternatively, a thin wooden skewer or a small knife can be used.
Testing Cake Doneness
Three ways to tell when a cake is done:
* The cake springs back when you gently press it with your finger.
* The cake pulls away from the sides of the pan.
* A cake tester, wooden skewer, or thin knife inserted gently into the center of the cake comes out free of crumbs and looks clean.
FUDGE SWIRL SOUR CREAM POUND CAKE Makes one 10-inch (25-cm) tube cake Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a cake using the creaming method of mixing. * Blending the sugar, butter, and cream cheese until fluffy and lighter in color incorporates air into the fat; aids the chemical leavening agents; and results in a lighter cake with great height. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 4 ounces 115 g 28% unsalted butter, softened 4 ounces 115 g 28% cream cheese, softened 14 1/2 ounces 2 cups 410 g 102% granulated sugar 14 1/4 ounces 3 cups 404 g 100% all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon 4 g 1% baking powder 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 0.5% baking soda 1/2 teaspoon 2 g 0.7% salt 4 each 188 g 47% large eggs 2 teaspoons 10 mL 3% vanilla extract 8 ounces 1 cup 225 g 56% sour cream 3 1/2 ounces 7 tablespoons 100 g 25% warm ganache * 390.7% Total Fudge Swirl Sour Cream Pound Cake percentage * See Ganache, Chapter 15. 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Spray a 10-inch (25 cm) false-bottom tube pan with nonstick cooking spray and set aside. 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the paddle attachment, cream the butter, cream cheese, and sugar on medium speed until light in color and fluffy (Figure 14-1). This can take up to 3 to 5 minutes. Stop the mixer occasionally and scrape the bowl with a rubber spatula. 3. In a small bowl, whisk together the flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt. Set aside. [FIGURE 14-1 OMITTED] 4. In a small bowl, whisk together the eggs and the vanilla extract. 5. On low speed, add the egg mixture into the creamed butter in thirds, waiting for the mixture to blend together uniformly before adding more egg (Figure 14-2). 6. On low speed, add one third of the flour mixture into the eggs and butter. Blend until combined and add one half of the sour cream. 7. Add another one third of the flour mixture, blending well, followed by the remaining sour cream (Figure 14-3). Stop the machine and scrape down the sides of the bowl. 8. Add the remaining one third flour mixture and mix until well combined. Remove the bowl from the mixer. 9. Using a rubber spatula, scrape around the bottom and sides of the bowl to make sure the mixture is smooth and well combined (Figure 14-4). 10. Pour half of the batter into the prepared pan and smooth it with a rubber spatula (Figure 14-5). [FIGURE 14-2 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-3 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-4 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-5 OMITTED] 11. With a spoon, drizzle half of the ganache on top of the batter in a circle, forming a thick chocolate line (Figure 14-6). 12. With a spatula, drop remaining batter over the ganache. Lightly smooth the top of the batter with a spatula, trying not to mix the ganache into the batter (Figure 14-7). Drizzle the remaining ganache over the batter in a circle. 13. Using a small palette knife, make a cut through the center of the pan near the tube to the outside rim of the pan and pull the knife out (Figure 14-8). Rotate pan and repeat cutting into the batter every two inches all around the pan. Do not mix the ganache into the batter. The batter will look marbled. 14. Bake for 1 hour and 10 minutes, or until a cake tester inserted into the center of the cake comes out clean. 15. Cool thoroughly and remove from the pan. TIP To prepare a plain sour cream pound cake, omit the ganache and pour all of the batter into the prepared pan and bake as directed. [FIGURE 14-6 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-7 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-8 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] TWO-STAGE GOLDEN YELLOW CAKE Makes two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake layers Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a cake using the two-stage method of mixing. * A high ratio cake has more sugar than flour by weight. * Using an emulsified shortening helps high ratio cake batters form an emulsion by holding large amounts of sugar and liquids. * The fat is added directly to the dry ingredients to coat the protein strands in the flour and prevent gluten from forming. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 9 ounces 2 1/4 cups 255 g 100% cake flour, sifted if lumpy 10 3/4 ounces 1 1/2 cups 305 g 119% granulated sugar 1 tablespoon 12 g 4.7% baking powder 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 1.2% salt 4 ounces 1/2 cup 115 g 45% emulsified shortening, room temperature 8 fluid ounces 1 cup 240 mL 94% milk 1 teaspoon 5 mL 2% vanilla extract 2 each 94 g 37% large eggs 402.9% Total Two-Stage Golden Yellow Cake percentage 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Grease, parchment, and flour two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans. 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt. Blend on low speed until well combined. 3. Add the vegetable shortening to the dry ingredients and blend on low speed for 2 to 3 minutes, or until the dry ingredients are well coated with the shortening (Figure 14-9). [FIGURE 14-9 OMITTED] 4. Place the milk, vanilla, and eggs into a mixing bowl. Whisk to blend. 5. Slowly add one half of the liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients and blend well, scraping down the sides of the bowl. 6. Slowly add the rest of the liquid ingredients, blending and scraping down the sides each time an addition is made (Figure 14-10). 7. Turn the speed up to medium and blend for 30 seconds, or until a smooth batter is made. Divide the batter between the two prepared pans (Figure 14-11). 8. Bake 30 to 35 minutes or until a cake tester inserted into the centers of the cakes comes out clean. Cool until lukewarm and remove layers onto wire rack to cool completely. [FIGURE 14-10 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-11 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] FUDGY CHOCOLATE CAKE Makes two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake layers Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a cake using the one-stage method, the simplest cake mixing method. * This method produces a cake with a tender, fine crumb. * It is important to add liquid ingredients gradually, taking time to scrape the bowl often to keep the batter smooth. * Buttermilk and cocoa powder are acids that will react with the baking soda, resulting in a neutralization reaction and the creation of carbon dioxide gas which will help leaven the cake. * Extra baking soda gives a darker, richer color to the cake. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 7 1/4 ounces 1 cup 206 g 88% granulated sugar 7 1/2 ounces 1 cup 212 g 91% light brown sugar (packed, if measuring by volume) 8 1/4 ounces 1 3/4 cups 234 g 100% all-purpose flour 2 1/2 ounces 3/4 cup 70 g 30% unsweetened cocoa powder 1 1/2 teaspoons 6 g 2.6% baking powder 2 teaspoons 8 g 3.4% baking soda 1 teaspoon 6 g 2.6% salt 4 fluid 1/2 cup 120 mL 51% canola oil ounces 2 each 94 g 40% large eggs 8 fluid 1 cup 240 mL 103% buttermilk, ounces well shaken 2 teaspoons 10 mL 4.3% vanilla extract 1 tablespoon 15 mL 2.6% instant espresso powder 1 cup 103.0% boiling water 621.5% Total Fudgy Chocolate Cake Percentage 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). Grease, parchment, and flour two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans. 2. Combine the sugar, brown sugar, flour, cocoa powder, baking powder, baking soda, and salt in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment. Mix at low speed until blended. 3. In a separate mixing bowl, whisk together the oil, eggs, buttermilk, and vanilla. Slowly add the liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients on low speed until just blended (Figure 14-12). Stop the machine and scrape around the bowl with a rubber spatula. Scrape the bottom and around the sides of the bowl to make sure that all the ingredients are blended thoroughly and there are no lumps. 4. Mix the espresso powder into the boiling water to make coffee and pour coffee into the batter (Figure 14-13). Blend well on low speed for 10 to 20 seconds. 5. The batter will be thin. Divide the batter between the two prepared cake pans. 6. Bake for 30 to 35 minutes or until a cake tester placed into the center of the cakes comes out clean. Cool until lukewarm and remove the two round layers from the pans onto wire racks to cool completely. [FIGURE 14-12 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-13 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] HAZELNUT GENOISE Makes two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake layers Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a whole egg-foam cake using the sponge method of mixing. * The air beaten into whole eggs leavens the cake. * Heating the eggs and sugar produces a more stable foam. * To reduce gluten and toughness, a low-protein flour is used in combination with cornstarch. * Genoise cakes often use ground nuts to flavor the cake while the fat in the nuts creates tenderness. * A small quantity of melted butter is added to create some tenderness. * The butter is mixed in quickly to a small amount of batter to lighten it, then it is folded into the remaining batter. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 3 ounces 3/4 cup 85 g 155% confectioners' sugar 3 1/2 ounces 3/4 cup 100 g 182% toasted hazelnuts 8 each 376 g 684% large eggs, room temperature 4 3/4 ounces 2/3 cup 130 g 236% granulated sugar 2 ounces 1/2 cup 55 g 100% cake flour 2 1/2 ounces 1/2 cup 70 g 127% cornstarch 1 ounce 2 table- 30 g 55% melted butter, kept spoons warm 1539% Total Hazelnut Genoise percentage 1. Preheat oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). 2. Spray two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans with nonstick cooking spray. Line with parchment circles. Spray again and flour. Tap out excess flour. 3. In the bowl of a food processor, pulverize confectioners' sugar and toasted hazelnuts until nuts are ground to a fine powder (Figure 14-14). Pour into a medium bowl and set aside. 4. Place a large saucepan filled with 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water over medium-high heat and bring it to a simmer. [FIGURE 14-14 OMITTED] 5. In the bowl of an electric mixer using a handheld whisk, whisk eggs and granulated sugar constantly over the pan of simmering water until the eggs are very warm and foamy, and a thermometer placed in the bowl of eggs (not touching the bottom of the bowl) registers 110[degrees]F (43[degrees]C) (Figure 14-15). 6. Remove the bowl from the water and place it on the base of the electric mixer. Using the whip attachment on high speed, whip the egg mixture until it has tripled in volume and is cool to the touch (Figure 14-16). This will take several minutes. It should look like marshmallow fluff. As the batter falls from the whip, it should form a ribbon as it drops into the bowl before it dissolves into the rest of the batter (Figure 14-17). 7. Place the melted butter into a small bowl and place it over the simmering water to keep it warm. 8. Place a sieve over a small mixing bowl and sift cake flour and cornstarch into it. Add the flour mixture to the hazelnut and sugar powder. 9. Pour the batter into a very large mixing bowl. 10. Sprinkle one third of the dry ingredients over the egg mixture and gently fold it in using a rubber spatula. [FIGURE 14-15 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-16 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-17 OMITTED] 11. Repeat sprinkling another one third of the dry ingredients into the egg mixture, gently folding it in. Sprinkle in the remaining one third of the dry ingredients and fold in gently (Figure 14-18). Do not overmix! 12. Remove the butter from the water bath. Take a dollop of batter and mix it into the butter to lighten it (Figure 14-19). 13. Pour the lightened butter mixture over the batter and fold it in quickly but gently with a rubber spatula. 14. Pour the batter into the prepared cake pans, filling each more than half full. 15. Place the cake pans on a sheet pan so that they are not touching each other, and bake for approximately 18 to 22 minutes, or until the cake is lightly browned and cake tester inserted in the center comes out clean. Remove the cakes from the oven. 16. Using a thin, sharp paring knife, gently cut around the edge of each pan to separate the cake from the sides of the pan while it is still hot. 17. Cool cakes in the pan until the pans feel lukewarm. Remove the cakes from the pans and place on cake racks to cool completely. [FIGURE 14-18 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-19 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] CHOCOLATE SPONGE CAKE ROLL Makes 1 cake roll Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a separated egg-foam cake using the sponge method of mixing. * Egg-foam cakes tend to be less tender than cakes high in fat and are flexible enough to be rolled when hot without breaking. * The air beaten into the egg whites leavens the cake. * An acid such as cream of tartar helps stabilize the meringue by partially denaturing the egg proteins. * Superfine sugar dissolves more quickly, preventing any grittiness. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 1 2/3 ounces 1/2 cup 50 g 333% Dutch processed cocoa powder 1 teaspoon 2 g 13% instant coffee powder 1 teaspoon 5 mL 33% vanilla extract 3 2/3 fluid 1/3 cup + 110 mL 733% boiling water ounces 2 table- spoons 6 each 114 g 760% large egg yolks, room temperature 3 3/4 ounces 1/2 cup 110 g 733% superfine sugar 2 table- 15 g 100% cornstarch, sifted spoons 2 table- 15 g 100% cake flour, sifted spoons 6 each 168 g 1120% large egg whites, room temperature 3/4 1.5 g 10% cream of tartar teaspoon 3 3/4 ounces 1/2 cup 110 g 733% superfine sugar 1 to 8 to 16 g 80% cocoa powder 2 table- spoons 4748% Total Chocolate Sponge Cake Roll Percentage 1. Preheat oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C). 2. In a small bowl, whisk together the cocoa, coffee, vanilla, and boiling water until smooth. Allow mixture to cool. 3. Grease a jelly roll pan (17 by 12 inches; 42.5 by 30 cm) and line the bottom with parchment paper. Grease the parchment paper and flour the bottom and sides of the pan, knocking out the excess. 4. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment, beat the yolks and 3 3/4 ounces (1/2 cup; 110 g) of sugar on high speed until light and fluffy (Figure 14-20). This will take about 5 minutes. 5. On low speed, gradually add the cocoa mixture and blend well (Figure 14-21). Pour the batter into a large mixing bowl and set aside. 6. Slowly add the sifted cornstarch and cake flour. Blend well. 7. In a clean, dry bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment, beat the egg whites until foamy (Figure 14-22). 8. Add the cream of tartar and beat until soft peaks form (Figure 14-23). 9. On high speed, gradually add the remaining 3 3/4 ounces (1/2 cup; 110 g) superfine sugar and beat until stiff peaks form (Figure 14-24 A and B). [FIGURE 14-20 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-21 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-22 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-23 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-24A OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-24B OMITTED] 10. Using a whisk, mix one fourth of the beaten egg whites into the reserved chocolate batter to lighten up the batter (Figure 14-25). 11. Scoop the remaining egg whites on top of the lightened chocolate batter and fold them in gently using a rubber spatula until well combined (Figure 14-26). Do not overmix. 12. Quickly pour the batter into the prepared pan. 13. Bake for approximately 18 minutes or until the cake is puffy and springs back when touched lightly with a finger. 14. While the cake is baking, place a clean kitchen towel on a work surface. Place the cocoa powder in a sieve and dust the kitchen towel evenly with it (Figure 14-27). 15. When the cake is done, immediately flip it onto the prepared kitchen towel. Remove the pan and gently peel off the parchment paper and discard it (Figure 14-28). 16. With the help of the cocoa-dusted kitchen towel, begin to roll the cake from the long end into a tight spiral, then allow it to remain this way until it is completely cooled (Figure 14-29). 17. The cake roll can be unrolled and filled with a variety of fillings. [FIGURE 14-25 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-26 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-27 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-28 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-29 OMITTED] CITRUS CHIFFON CAKE Makes one 10-inch (25-cm) tube cake Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare an egg foam cake using the chiffon method of mixing. * A liquid fat is added to create tenderness. * A chemical leavening agent is used to create additional height. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 9 ounces 2 1/4 cups 255 g 100% sifted cake flour 9 ounces 1 1/4 cups 255 g 100% granulated sugar 1 tablespoon 12 g 4.7% baking powder 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 1.2% salt 4 fluid 1/2 cup 120 mL 47% canola oil ounces 5 each 95 g 37% large egg yolks, room temperature 4 fluid 1/2 cup 120 mL 47% cold, freshly ounces squeezed orange juice 1 fluid 2 tablespoons 30 mL 12% freshly squeezed ounce lemon juice 1 fluid 2 tablespoons 30 mL 12% freshly squeezed ounce lime juice 2 teaspoons 12 g 5% orange zest 2 teaspoons 12 g 5% lemon zest 2 teaspoons 12 g 4.7% lime zest 1 teaspoon 5 mL 2.0% lemon extract 8 each 224 g 88.0% large egg whites, room temperature 1/2 teaspoon 1 g 0.4% cream of tartar 3 1/2 1/4 cup 50 g 20.0% granulated sugar ounces 485.4% Total Citrus Chiffon Cake Percentage 1. Preheat oven to 325[degrees]F (160[degrees]C). 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with a paddle attachment, blend the flour, 8 3/4 ounces (1 1/4 cups; 250 g) sugar, baking powder, and salt on low speed. 3. Continue at low speed and blend in the oil, egg yolks, orange juice, lemon juice, lime juice, orange zest, lemon zest, lime zest, and lemon extract into the dry ingredients. Blend until smooth (Figure 14-30). Pour batter into a large bowl. Set aside. 4. Place the egg whites into the clean, dry bowl of an electric mixer and, using the whip attachment, beat them only until foamy. Add the cream of tartar and beat until soft peaks form. 5. Slowly add the 3 1/2 ounces (1/4 cup; 100 g) sugar and beat until stiff peaks form. 6. Using a whisk, gently mix one fourth of the egg whites into the reserved batter to lighten it up (Figure 14-31). 7. Place the remaining egg whites on top of the lightened batter and fold them in gently with a rubber spatula (Figure 14-32). 8. Pour the batter into an ungreased, false-bottom 10-inch (25-cm) tube pan with metal tabs. 9. Bake for 50 to 60 minutes or until a cake tester inserted into the center comes out clean. 10. When the cake is done, remove it from the oven and invert it so it rests upside down on metal tabs. If the pan has no metal tabs, balance the upside down cake on an overturned ramekin placed under the tube and allow it to cool completely (Figure 14-33). [FIGURE 14-30 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-31 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-32 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-33 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] COCONUT ANGEL FOOD CAKE Makes one 10-inch (25-cm) tube cake Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare an egg foam cake using the angel food mixing method. * Only egg whites are used, creating a cake very low in fat. * Air beaten into the egg whites is the only leavening agent. * An acid such as cream of tartar provides stability by partially denaturing the egg protein. * Cooling the cake upside down prevents gravity from causing it to collapse. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 1 ounce 1/2 cup 30 g 35% sweetened shredded coconut (packed, if measuring by volume) 5 1/2 ounces 3/4 cup 155 g 182% superfine sugar 3 ounces 3/4 cup 85 g 100% cake flour 2 tablespoons 16 g 19% cornstarch 1/4 teaspoon 1 g 1.2% salt 12 each 336 g 395% large egg whites, room temperature 1 1/2 teaspoons 3 g 3.5% cream of tartar 3 3/4 ounces 1/2 cup 106 g 125% superfine sugar 1 tablespoon 15 mL 18% coconut extract 1/4 ounce 2 tablespoons 7.5 g 9% sweetened, shredded coconut 887.7% Total Coconut Angel Food Cake Percentage 1. Preheat oven to 325[degrees]F (160[degrees]C). 2. In the bowl of a food processor, place the 1 ounce (1/2 cup; 30 g) coconut, the 2 3/4 ounces (3/4 cup; 80 g) sugar, cake flour, cornstarch, and salt. Pulse until the coconut is ground into very fine particles. Transfer the coconut mixture into a medium bowl and set aside. 3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, using the whip attachment, beat the egg whites at high speed until foamy. 4. Add the cream of tartar and continue beating at high speed until soft peaks form. 5. Gradually add the remaining 3 1/4 ounces (1/2 cup; 110 g) sugar, tablespoon by tablespoon, followed by the coconut extract, beating until stiff, unwavering peaks form (Figure 14-34). 6. Using a rubber spatula, carefully pour the beaten egg whites into a large mixing bowl, trying to avoid overhandling them. 7. Gradually sprinkle the reserved coconut sugar mixture on top of the beaten whites and fold in gently until all the dry ingredients are blended in (Figure 14-35). Do not overmix. 8. Pour the batter into an ungreased 10-inch (25-cm) tube pan, preferably with metal tabs sticking up from the top of the pan, and smooth with a spatula. Sprinkle the 1/4 ounce (2 tablespoons; 7.5 g) coconut evenly over the top (Figure 14-36). 9. Bake for 1 hour or until a cake tester inserted in the center of the cake comes out clean and the coconut is brown on top. 10. Turn the pan upside down and allow it to cool, balancing on the metal tabs. If there are no metal tabs on the pan, balance the upside down cake on an overturned ramekin placed under the tube. Cooling upside down prevents gravity from pulling the cake down and falling. 11. When the cake is cold, using a long, sharp knife, carefully cut all around edges and inner tube portion of the pan, and remove the cake. [FIGURE 14-34 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-35 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-36 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] TWO-STAGE GOLDEN YELLOW CAKE FROSTED WITH BOILED COCONUT FROSTING Makes one 9-inch (22.5-cm) round double layer cake Additional Ideas That Use the Recipes in This Chapter STEP A Make one recipe of Two-Stage Golden Yellow Cake baked in two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans. Level each layer using a serrated knife if necessary. STEP B Make one recipe of Boiled Coconut Frosting (Chapter 15), and toast 5 ounces, (2 cups; 140 g) shredded coconut. STEP C: ASSEMBLY 1. Place one cake layer on a cardboard cake circle upside down. This creates a flat surface for the most level cake. 2. Spread one third of the filling onto the cake and sprinkle 1 1/4 ounces (1/2 cup; 35 g) toasted coconut over the filling and place the second cake layer on top, right side up (Figure 14-37). 3. Spread the top and sides of the cake with the remaining frosting (Figure 14-38). Sprinkle the remaining toasted coconut all over the top and sides (Figure-14-39). Chill the cake in the refrigerator until ready to serve. [FIGURE 14-37 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-38 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-39 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] FUDGY CHOCOLATE CAKE FROSTED WITH VANILLA BUTTERCREAM Makes one 9-inch (22.5-cm) round double layer cake STEP A Make one recipe of Fudgy Chocolate Cake (Chapter 15) baked in two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans and level each layer using a serrated knife if necessary. STEP B Make one recipe of Vanilla Buttercream (Chapter 15) to frost the cake. Make an additional recipe if you wish to decorate. STEP C: ASSEMBLY 1. Place one cake layer upside down on a cardboard cake circle. Spread one third of the buttercream evenly on the cake (Figure 14-40). 2. Place the second cake layer on top of the buttercream, right side up. Frost the top and sides of the cake with the remaining buttercream (Figure 14-41). Chill the cake until the buttercream is firm. [FIGURE 14-40 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-41 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] CHOCOLATE HAZELNUT MOUSSE TORTE Makes one 9-inch (22.5 cm) torte STEP A Make one recipe of Hazelnut Genoise baked in two 9-inch (22.5-cm) round cake pans. STEP B Make one recipe of Hazelnut Praline (recipe follows). Makes 6 1/2 ounces (1 1/2 cups; 170 g) MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 3 1/2 ounces 1/2 cup 100 g granulated sugar 1 tablespoon 15 mL light com syrup 2 1/2 ounces 1/2 cup 70 g whole, skinned hazelnuts, toasted in a 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) oven for 10 to 15 minutes 1. Combine the sugar and corn syrup in a small heavy saucepan. 2. Bring the mixture to a boil, stirring only until the sugar is dissolved. Using a pastry brush dipped in cold water, wash down any sugar crystals that may have formed on the sides of the pan. If the liquid boils up, remove the pan from the heat temporarily and then return it to a boil. 3. Continue to boil the mixture without stirring until the melted sugar syrup turns a light caramel color (Figure 14-42). This takes approximately 5 to 6 minutes. Watch the caramel carefully or it can burn. 4. Remove the mixture from the heat and add the hazelnuts. 5. Using a spatula, quickly pour out the caramel and hazelnut mixture onto a parchment-lined baking sheet or onto a silicone baking mat that has been placed inside a sheet pan (Figure 14-43). Allow mixture to cool completely. It will harden as it cools. [FIGURE 14-42 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-43 OMITTED] 6. Break up the praline and place it in the bowl of a food processor. Process until it is finely ground (Figure 14-44). Store in an airtight container in the freezer until ready to use. STEP C Make one recipe of Hazelnut Syrup (recipe follows). Makes 1 1/8 cups (33 mL). MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 4 fluid ounces 1/2 cup 120 mL water 3 1/2 ounces 1/2 cup 100 g granulated sugar 3 fluid ounces 6 tablespoons 90 mL hazelnut liqueur 1. Combine the water and sugar in a small saucepan. Bring the mixture to a boil and stir until the sugar dissolves (Figure 14-45). Remove syrup from the heat and add the hazelnut liqueur. Cool and set aside. (Note: When equal parts of water and sugar are brought to a boil until the sugar dissolves, it is referred to as a simple syrup. Simple syrups are often flavored.) STEP D Make one recipe of Chocolate Hazelnut Mousse Filling (recipe follows). Makes approximately 4 cups (946 mL). MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 8 fluid ounces 1 cup 240 mL heavy cream 12 ounces 2 cups 340 g semisweet chocolate, coarsely chopped 1/2 ounce 1 tablespoon 15 mL hazelnut liqueur 7 fluid ounces 3/4 cup 210 mL heavy cream 2 tablespoons 5 tablespoons 75 g superfine sugar 3 3/4 ounces 3/4 cup 105 g hazelnut praline, finely ground (Step B) 1. Place the heavy cream into a medium saucepan and bring it to a boil. [FIGURE 14-44 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-45 OMITTED] 2. Remove it from the heat and whisk in the chopped chocolate and liqueur until the mixture is melted and smooth. Set aside to cool for 1 hour at room temperature (Figure 14-46 A and B). 3. In the bowl of an electric mixer, beat the 3/4 cup * 2 tablespoons (7 fluid ounces; 210 mL) heavy cream using the whip attachment until soft peaks form. 4. Gradually add the sugar and continue beating until stiff peaks form. 5. On low speed, gradually add the cooled chocolate and cream mixture and blend for 10 seconds only. Remove the bowl from the base of the mixer, and, using a rubber spatula, gently fold in the chocolate until completely incorporated (Figure 14-47A and B). Blend in the praline (Figure 14-48). STEP E Make one recipe of Ganache (Chapter 15), cooled to room temperature. STEP F: ASSEMBLY 1. Split each genoise cake layer in half horizontally for a total of four layers (Figure 14-49). Place one layer in the bottom of a 9-inch round false-bottom pan such as a spring form pan or in a 9-inch (22.5-cm) round 3-inch (7.5-cm) high metal cake ring. If using the metal cake ring, set it on a 9-inch (22.5-cm) cardboard cake circle that has been placed onto a sheet pan. [FIGURE 14-46A OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-46B OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-47A OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-47B OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-48 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-49 OMITTED] 2. Using a pastry brush, brush some hazelnut syrup evenly over the cake layer to moisten it (Figure 14-50). Spread one third of the mousse evenly over the moistened layer (14-51). Place another genoise layer on top. Repeat two times, moistening with syrup and spreading with another one third of the mousse each time. 3. Place the last genoise layer on top and moisten with the remaining syrup (Figure 14-52). Cover with plastic wrap and chill for 3 to 4 hours. 4. Remove the sides of the pan and place the cake on a cake rack placed over a sheet pan (Figure 14-53). Spread room temperature Ganache over the top and sides of the torte (Figure 14-54). Garnish the torte with any remaining crushed praline. Chill. [FIGURE 14-50 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-51 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-52 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-53 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-54 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] CHOCOLATE SPONGE CAKE ROLL FILLED WITH SWEET RASPBERRY CREAM Makes approximately 2 cups (473 mL) STEP A Make one recipe of the Chocolate Sponge Cake Roll. STEP B Make one recipe of the Raspberry Cream Filling (recipe follows). MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 1/2 teaspoon 1.5 g unflavored gelatin 1 tablespoon 15 mL freshly squeezed cold orange juice 3 ounces 1/3 cup 85 g seedless raspberry preserves 2 teaspoons 10 mL raspberry liqueur like Chambord (or orange juice or water) 8 fluid ounces 1 cup 240 mL cold heavy cream 1 ounce 1/4 cup 30 g confectioners' sugar, sifted 1. In a small heat proof bowl, sprinkle the gelatin over the cold orange juice (Figure 14-55). Let the mixture sit for 5 minutes to soften. 2. Set a small saute pan filled with one half inch of water on the stove on medium-high heat and bring it to a simmer. Shut off the heat and place the bowl with the gelatin into the pan to melt it (Figure 14-56). Remove the gelatin from the water and allow it to cool but not to solidify again. The cream will not whip if the melted gelatin is too warm. 3. In another small bowl, mix the preserves and the liqueur until well blended. 4. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the whip attachment, beat the heavy cream on high speed and gradually add the sugar only until it becomes slightly thicker and the whip begins to leave marks in the cream (Figure 14-57). [FIGURE 14-55 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-56 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-57 OMITTED] 5. Slowly add the melted and cooled gelatin into the cream and beat on high speed until soft peaks form (Figure 14-58). Gradually add the preserves (Figure 14-59). STEP C: ASSEMBLY Use immediately to fill the cooled chocolate cake roll by gently unrolling the cake roll and spreading the cream filling over the entire inside of the roll using an offset spatula (Figure 14-60 A and B). Re-roll the cake and dust it with confectioners' sugar (Figure 14-61). [FIGURE 14-58 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-59 OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-60A OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-60B OMITTED] [FIGURE 14-61 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
1. Describe the two-stage method. How does it prevent gluten from forming?
2. What role does cream of tartar play in egg foam cakes?
3. Compare the angel food method with the chiffon method. What are their similarities? How do they differ?
4. Why do cakes that are high in fat, such as pound cake, have a longer shelf life than cakes that are low in fat, such as sponge cake?
5. What are the three ways to tell when a cake is done?
6. Which egg foam cake typically contains a chemical leavening agent?
7. What is the main leavening agent in all egg foam cakes?
8. Why is the creaming step so important to the leavening of a cake? How does creaming work with chemical leavening agents to leaven a cake?
9. What type of fat is typically used in the one-stage method?
10. Describe an emulsion.
11. Which can hold more air--butter or shortening? Why?
Hudson County Community College
Jersey City, NJ
1. Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?
Answer: I was at the University of Wisconsin, not in any culinary related field, and realized that what I wanted to do was go into baking and pastry.
2. Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?
Answer: My mother was from Europe and she was just an amazing baker. We always had fresh baked bread at home. Everything was from scratch; nothing
we ate was canned. She really inspired me.
3. Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?
Answer: I went to school at the Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park and I took to the program from the start. The only real challenge was learning the discipline that is necessary. It takes much more discipline to bake on a commercial level than baking at home or even for a caterer.
4. Question: When and where was your first practical experience in a professional baking setting?
Answer: My first position was with The Manor in New Jersey. I worked under a phenomenal chef, Freddy Mayer. As a new graduate I was the "low man on the totem pole" but the chef allowed me to try everything. He taught me about working with chocolate and sugar and to do some sophisticated pieces. He gave me the opportunity to learn so much.
5. Question: How did this experience affect your later professional development?
Answer: I learned early on that being a woman in this environment meant I had to push a little harder, try a little more.
6. Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?
Answer: Certainly Chef Mayer at The Manor and my mother were both important to shaping my career. But, people like Joe Amendola who really stressed that the basics and the science behind baking were also important. Amendola really knew his stuff. He was great.
7. Question: What would you list as your greatest rewards in your professional life?
Answer: It has to be teaching. To be with students who are so eager and excited to learn is very fulfilling.
8. Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field?
Answer: Anyone wanting to make this a career must have patience. You just
can't give up. You have to keep trying until you get it perfect. You also have to be a stickler for details.
9. Question: If there was one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?
Answer: Don't rush. Take it slow. Start with the basics and then work up to the more difficult skills. Don't try doing sugar work if you can't bake a cake. Once you gain one skill, though, keep going. Try different media and styles. Continue to create.
Table 14.1 Cake Mixing Methods CAKE METHODS HIGH IN FAT CREAMING METHOD TWO-STAGE METHOD ONE-STAGE METHOD 1. Cream fat and 1. Blend dry 1. Blend dry sugar on low to ingredients and ingredients on medium speed fat on low speed. low speed. until light and fluffy. 2. Add eggs, 1 at 2. Then add liquid 2. Blend liquid a time. in two stages, ingredients in scraping down the another bowl. bowl after each addition. 3. Alternate dry and 3. Mix until just 3. Gradually add wet wet ingredients blended. ingredients to (beginning and dry ingredients. ending with dry ingredients). 4. Mix until just 4. Mix until just blended. blended. CAKE METHODS LOW IN FAT SPONGE METHOD-- WHOLE EGG FOAM SPONGE METHOD-- (GENOISE) SEPARATED EGG FOAM 1. Whole eggs and sugar 1. Egg yolks and a portion of warmed and beaten to the sugar are beaten until a foam. thick and light. 2. Sifted dry ingredients are 2. Egg whites are beaten with folded in gently. rest of sugar to form stiff peaks. 3. Melted butter, sometimes 3. Beaten egg whites are added. folded into yolks and sugar alternately with sifted dry ingredients. CHIFFON METHOD ANGEL FOOD METHOD 1. Dry ingredients with a 1. Sift flour with half of portion of the sugar are sugar. sifted into mixing bowl. 2. Oil, yolks, water, and 2. Beat room temperature flavorings are mixed in. egg whites until foamy. 3. Egg whites are beaten with 3. Add cream of tartar and cream of tartar and salt. remaining sugar until stiff. 4. Beaten egg whites are folded 4. Beat until soft peaks form. into batter. 5. Gradually add remaining sugar, beat until stiff. 6. Fold in flour and sugar mixture.
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|Publication:||About Professional Baking|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2006|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 13 Quick bread mixing methods.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 15 Frostings.|