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Chapter 14 Cake mixing and baking.

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OBJECTIVES

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

* demonstrate knowledge of the ingredient requirements and functions of cake mixing.

* mix a variety of cake bases using the processes outlined in this chapter.

* determine doneness for all types of cake presented in this chapter and implement proper storing techniques.

* troubleshoot cake mixing through an examination of the process, including conducting tests to measure temperature, pH, and specific gravity of cake batters.

INTRODUCTION TO CAKE MIXING AND BAKING

A solid understanding of cake mixing and baking is important for pastry chefs because it finds its way into many of the sweets they create. They must also have a thorough knowledge of cake characteristics and how to pair cake with other dessert components.

This chapter explores three important considerations in cake mixing for different types of cakes: ingredients, formulas, and processes. In addition, baking processes and quality monitoring by tracking specific gravity, batter pH, and batter temperature are examined.

CAKE CHARACTERISTICS

The two major categories of cake are fat-based and egg foam-based. Within these categories, several mixing types may be applicable to only one cake, or to one style of cake. For example, the angel food method is solely used for angel food cake, while the creaming method is used for many types of cake.

FAT-BASED CAKES

Fat-based cakes are typically firmer and denser than foam cakes. The high presence of fat and sugar in these cakes also makes them moister, with a finer crumb structure. Although fat-based cakes are often leavened by chemical agents, some varieties also get leavening power from air that is incorporated into the batter during creaming. Fat-based cakes tend to be more of an American-style cake because they are denser, richer, and moister than foam-based cakes and are well paired with butter-cream and other rich icings.

The scope of fats used for this style of cake ranges from butter to shortening to liquid shortening. Depending on the type of fat used, the technique can differ from one method to another. For example, not all methods for high-fat cakes are based on creamed fat and sugar; they are instead based more on the thorough mixing of all ingredients in a specific order. The batter can be quite thick or rather liquid.

The most commonly used methods for fat-based cakes are creaming, modified creaming, high-ratio, and liquid shortening sponge.

FOAM-BASED CAKES

Foam-based cakes are always based on the foam of whipped whole eggs, yolks, whites, or a combination. Depending on the type of cake, the egg-based ingredient may need to be heated before being whipped in order to help increase volume. After the foam is achieved, the sifted dry ingredients are folded in gently, and the cake is baked immediately. Foam cakes are typically lighter and more fragile than fat-based cakes, with a drier and more open crumb. Examples of foam-based cakes include genoise, biscuit jaconde, chiffon, and angel food cake.

The methods used to prepare foam cakes are often particular to the products they are named after. They include sponge, separated egg sponge, chiffon, and angel food.

INGREDIENT SELECTION AND FUNCTIONALITY

Cake ingredients play essential roles in the mixing and baking process. The specific characteristics and functions described in this chapter apply to cakes only. More information on cake ingredients is available in the online companion, To download information on cake ingredients, go to http://wwwdelmarlearning.com/companions/.

FLOUR

Cake flour is usually milled from soft white wheat or soft red winter wheat. The relatively low extraction rate of 45 to 65 percent yields flour with low bran and protein content; on average, the protein content for cake flours is 7 to 9 percent. Even though a certain amount of protein is required to help maintain structure, too much can lead to a tough, dry crumb. Cake flour is milled to a small particle size that is beneficial for absorption, crumb uniformity, and cake symmetry (Pyler, 1988, p. 912).

After the flour is milled, it is bleached with chlorine gas to improve its baking qualities. This process lowers the pH, better enables liquid absorption, and improves volume and overall texture (Pyler, 1988, p. 914). The absorption of the flour is improved because the starch of the flour is transformed from the chlorine treatment. The texture is enhanced because the gluten is weakened by the chlorine treatment. Other flours such as pastry flour and all-purpose flour for cakes such as chiffon and genoise may also be used for cake mixing. However, for high-ratio cake formulations, cake flour is the only flour that can absorb all of the liquid used in those formulas. In addition, chlorinated flour reacts with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and produces carbon dioxide.

STARCH

In addition to flour, starch can be added to cake formulations. It is preferable to use a modified starch or pregelatinized starch. These starches swell in the presence of cold water and hydrate quickly, retaining moisture and allowing a more viscous batter than is available using only flour. The increased viscosity helps retain the air cells within the emulsion created during the mixing. Regular starch is not used because the baking temperature of the cake is not high enough to set the starch, and resulting cakes will have a coarser grain. The use of modified starch can replace shortening or emulsifier in some applications like fat-free cakes or muffins.

FAT

Fat has three primary roles in cake mixing. It helps trap air from the mixing action into batter to aid in leavening, it creates a soft, light, tender texture by coating all the starch and protein of the flour and helps maintain the smooth emulsions required for smooth-textured cakes. It should also be realized that fat supplies flavor if butter is used.

The selection of fats for cake mixing includes liquid vegetable oil, butter, emulsified solid shortening, and liquid shortening. The choice of fat will require a change in the formulation, procedure, mixing time, and tools for the mixer. For example, liquid oil easily disperses, hard fat does not, and liquid shortening, which also disperses easily, has added emulsifiers and stabilizers. Less mixing is needed to create an emulsion with cakes using emulsified shortenings. The mixing time and mixing speed should be monitored closely, especially when emulsified shortening is used.

SUGAR

Sugar can be classified as a tenderizing agent. The presence of sugar in cake batters has an effect on taste, texture, physical properties, and keeping qualities because it helps to retain moisture. Superfine sugar is preferable when a granulated sugar is needed, but powdered sugar can sometimes be used, especially in some sponge cakes. Inverted sugar is also used in a few formulas. It helps to keep the crumb soft and tender, especially in chocolate and coffee-flavored cake.

EGGS

In cake mixing and baking, the combination of water content, protein, fat, and lecithin in eggs provides unique functions. Eggs are used to hydrate, tenderize, leaven, emulsify, color, and flavor cake batter. Eggs should always be of high quality.

The egg is the one ingredient that contributes the most to the emulsion by using the whole egg, the yolk, or the white. The emulsion is the most important part to establish the final texture of the crumb of the cake. The air bubbles created by the emulsion yield to the expansion of the cake batter. The air bubbles act as leavening agents and increase in size from the evaporation of the water in the batter as well as the carbon dioxide gas created by the baking powder (leavening acid + baking soda).

The formation of so many air bubbles in an emulsified state is unique to cake mixing. The stability of the egg foam emulsion is based on the introduction of air into the water-protein matrix of the egg. The mixing process and speed of mixing are important for the creation of a stable emulsion, with evenly sized air bubbles. To see how this works, let's look at a straw in water. Blowing air with a straw in water is similar to the action of whipping in slow speed. If you blow too fast with a lot of force, a few large bubbles will come very quickly to the surface. If you blow gently, the many small bubbles will slowly rise to the surface because they are small and the weight of the water slows them down.

The same phenomena can be seen inside a batter even more clearly because the sugar and fat are thicker and more viscous than water. In the mixing of egg whites or whole eggs, they should be whipped on a slower speed to start to achieve a uniform foam that is made up of small air bubbles. When this texture is achieved, mixing can take place on a higher speed to introduce air faster. The structure of the small air bubbles will help trap the air coming in on the higher speed. When the proper volume is achieved, the speed should be reduced to medium to reinforce the emulsion. This breaks any large air bubbles and makes the overall emulsion more uniform. Over-whipping the egg foam will break the emulsion, especially if lower quantities of sugar have been added to it. If the egg foam becomes "dry," it will be difficult to incorporate into the base batter, causing the emulsion to break. It is very important to monitor the development of the egg foam. For some cakes, such as angel food and genoise, the emulsion is produced only by the eggs. The stability and quality of that emulsion are critical because this is the only leavening system for the cake.

LIQUIDS

Liquids are essential components to cake mixing because they moisten the crumb and make the cake palatable. Liquids that contribute to a soft cake texture include water, sour cream, and egg and milk products. When using liquids, the appropriate hydrating properties of each ingredient must be considered.

LEAVENING AGENTS

Leavening agents create light textures in cakes. The primary leavening systems used in cake are mechanical and chemical. While whipping and creaming are very efficient ways to introduce air bubbles into batter systems, further leavening is often required (except for true sponge cakes). The most common chemical leavening agents used in smaller bakeries are baking soda and baking powder. Double-acting baking powder is available and is designed for multiple uses. Special blends with specific rates of reaction are used for large volume production for specific cake batters or dough to give the best result.

Baking powder is a mixture of a leavening acid, baking soda, and a nonreactive buffer such as cornstarch. The combination of these ingredients is balanced by what is called the neutralizing value (NV). Neutralizing value is the measurement of available acidity coming from leavening acids. The NV is utilized to determine the amount of leavening acid or acids needed to provide a neutral pH when combined with baking soda. The NV represents the number of parts of baking soda that can be neutralized by 100 parts of the leavening acid. The leavening acid and soda are balanced to make sure little to none remains after baking. The balance for some products such as chocolate devil's food cake is toward a higher pH, which gives the product its signature color and flavor characteristics. The purpose of having both baking powder and baking soda for this type of cake is to create these characteristics. Most cakes have a neutral pH; however, some such as angel food cake do have a low pH. To achieve this, extra leavening acid (cream of tartar) is added to make the cake whiter and to give it a tighter crumb.

Large-scale manufacturers of cake and cookies use special blends of baking soda and leavening acids, rather than baking powder, to thoroughly control the leavening of the products being produced. To assist in this task, manufacturers who produce leavening acids have predetermined the level of acid required to reach the neutral value of sodium bicarbonate. Sophisticated processes at the manufacturing level obtain this neutral value for the food manufactures. These neutral values are representative of the acidity level determined by the process known as the titration method.

Figure 14-1 shows the most common leavening acids used in the baking industry with their abbreviations, their neutralizing values, and their reaction traits. The neutralizing value is used to calculate the quantity of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) needed to neutralize the leavening acid.
Figure 14-1
Most Common Leavening Acids
Used in the Baking Industry

Leavening Acid           Formula

Monocalcium phosphate    CA([H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4])2[H.sub.2]O
  monohydrate

Anhydrous monocalcium    Ca[([H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4]).sub.2]
  phosphate

Dicalcium phosphate      CaHP[O.sub.4] x 2[H.sub.2]O
  hydrate

Sodium acid              [Na.sub.2][H.sub.2][P.sub.2][O.sub.7]
  pyrophosphate

Sodium aluminium         [Na.sub.3][Al.sub.2][H.sub.15]
  phosphate anhydrous      [(P[O.sub.4]).sub.8]

Sodium aluminum          Na[Al.sub.3][H.sub.14][(P[O.sub.4]).sub.8] x
  phosphate hydrous        4[H.sub.2]O

Sodium aluminum          NaAl(S[O.sub.4).sub.2]
  sulfate

Adipic acid              HOOC[(C[H.sub.2]).sub.4]COOH

Citric acid              HOOCC[H.sub.2]C(OH)(COOH)C[H.sub.2]COOH


Fumaric acid             HOOCHC:CHCOOH

Glucono delta            [C.sub.6][H.sub.10][O.sub.6]
  lactone

Potassium acid           COOC[(HCOH).sub.2]COOH
  tartrate

Tartaric acid            HOOC[(HCOH).sub.2]COOH

                                         Neutralizing

Leavening Acid           Abbreviation        Value         Reaction

Monocalcium phosphate         MCP             80         Intermediate
  monohydrate

Anhydrous monocalcium        AMCP             83             Slow
  phosphate                                              intermediate

Dicalcium phosphate           DCP             33           Very slow
  hydrate

Sodium acid                  SAPP             74             Slow
  pyrophosphate

Sodium aluminium             SALP             100          Very slow
  phosphate anhydrous

Sodium aluminum              SALP             100          Very slow
  phosphate hydrous

Sodium aluminum               SAS             104          Very slow
  sulfate

Adipic acid                 Adipic            115            Quick

Citric acid                 Citric            87             Quick

Fumaric acid                Fumaric           145            Quick

Glucono delta                 GDL             45             Slow
  lactone

Potassium acid             Cream of           45          Very rapid
  tartrate                  Tartar

Tartaric acid              Tartaric           112         Very rapid


To calculate the leavening acid quantity,

* Determine the flour weight for the formula

* Calculate the soda weight: the average percentage of soda is 1.2 to 2 percent based on the weight of the flour (cake flour).

* Divide the soda weight by the neutralizing value of the acid selected; for example,

Soda x 100 / NV

If two leavening acids are selected, the leavening acid quantity is calculated separately for each one. To neutralize the product, the leavening acid is selected according to the final product and usage. Depending on whether the product will be baked right away or stored in cold storage, in a freezer, or as a dry mix, different leavening acids may be used. Figure 14-2 presents a few recommendations.

Here is a common mix for double-acting baking powder in a cake:

* MCP + SAPP + SALP

* SAS + MCP

* SAPP + MCP

Corn starch is often added as a carrier to minimize the damage of the acid from the moisture.

MISE EN PLACE FOR CAKE MIXING AND BAKING

Specific cake-mixing processes dictate the use of particular equipment for everything from scaling to panning and baking. Depending on the size of the operation, different configurations can be used. For example, a small bakery may mix its cake batter in a planetary mixer, whereas a larger bakery may mix the same style of batter in a continuous mixer. In the small bakery, the cake will most likely be baked in a rack oven, revolving oven, convection oven, or small deck oven, but a tunnel or traveling oven will most likely be used at a larger commercial bakery.

SMALL WARES

Efficient cake mixing relies on various small wares, including spatulas, whisks, bowl scrapers, parchment paper, palette knives, sheet pans, cake pans, and bains-marie.
Figure 14-2
Some Neutralizing Options

Leavening
Acid               Abbreviation    Usage             Reaction

Monocalcium        MCP             Double acting     Increases
  phosphate                        first reaction    aeration
                                                     during mixing
  monohydrate                      Angel food        Releases gas
                                   cake              during mixing

Anhydrous          AMCP            Cake in           Releases during
  monocalcium                      general           the entire
  phosphate                                          process

Sodium aluminum    SALP            Cake              Helps retain
  phosphate                                          moisture

Sodium acid        SAPP            Cake in           Releases in
  pyrophosphate                    general and       the oven
                                   other

Dicalcium          DCP             Cake              Releases in
  phosphate                                          the oven


SPECIALTY MIXERS

Two styles of mixers are typically used for cake mixing. Planetary mixers are commonly used with good results for small and mid-size bakeries. When volume increases, a continuous mixing system is beneficial for creating more consistent and productive results.

Large planetary mixers can be equipped with a vacuum or a pressurized bowl to control the emulsion as well as the temperature. The continuous mixer processes the emulsion as the ingredients are fed into the machine. It can be done in one or two stages.

For the one-stage mixer, all the ingredients are mixed together and held in a tank to be pumped to the emulsion head. The quantity is monitored. As the slurry mixture is pumped inside the emulsion head, air is introduced at the same time, and the slurry gets mixed. The quantity of slurry and air, as well as the speed of the emulsion mixer head, is controlled to achieve the proper emulsion.

For the two-stage method, the ingredients are divided according to the formula. The most common cake produced using this method is the chiffon cake. A slurry is made from the egg yolks, sugar, oil, flour, leavening agent, and water if needed, as well as any flavoring such as cocoa powder or vanilla. This slurry is held in one tank. In a separate tank, the egg whites, sugar, and some cream of tartar are mixed just to dissolve the sugar. No emulsion occurs. Then, the egg white slurry is pumped into the emulsion head to create the egg foam. The rotation is controlled to monitor the mixing and air is introduced to assist in the formation of the emulsion. After the egg whites are mixed, they are folded into the slurry batter inside the static mixer. The static mixer is a pipe with a spiral blade inside (imagine a DNA strand) that spins, folding together the two mediums as they are pumped. As the cake batter comes out of the static mixer, it can be deposited in a cake pan, a depositor, a hopper, or a tunnel oven, directly on the specially designed baking surface (especially for jelly rolls).

OVENS

A wide range of ovens can be used for cake baking, including revolving ovens, convection ovens, rack ovens, deck ovens, and tunnel ovens. Special considerations must be given for each oven type. Baking times and temperatures will vary for each.

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR CAKE MIXING AND BAKING

There are guidelines for cake mixing and baking that, if followed, can help ensure a successful finished product. Both cake mixing and cake baking require a great deal of attention to detail, as well as a controlled approach to preparing ingredients and equipment.

SCALING

All ingredients should be scaled before any mixing or whipping begins. Any necessary preparation of ingredients, including sifting and warming, should also be complete. This preparation will allow the mixing process to be closely monitored.

PAN PREPARATION, MIXING, AND MAKEUP

Before mixing begins, all sheet pans and cake pans should be ready to be filled and placed on the appropriate baking rack. High-fat cake pans should be sprayed with nonstick spray and the bottoms should be lined with parchment paper. Foam cake pans must not be sprayed, but a parchment circle should be placed at the bottom of the pan.

Even though mixing guidelines will vary considerably according to formulas, there are some important considerations for both fat-based cakes and foam cakes. For fat-based cakes, it is especially important to scrape down the bowl as the mix progresses to ensure even incorporation of ingredients. For foam cakes, it is essential to whip the egg product to the proper stage and to fold in dry ingredients gently, efficiently, and thoroughly.

Portioning by weight is best for maintaining consistency when filling pans. A semiautomated filling system is helpful for portioning batter, especially in shops that process a lot of cake. In this case, the portioning is done by volume. Once batter is scaled, it should be spread out so that it is evenly dispersed. To get the cake into the oven as quickly and efficiently as possible, this should occur after all batter has been portioned.

BAKING

One of the first steps in making a cake is preheating the oven. It is also essential to bake at the correct temperature for the type and size of cake. As a rule, smaller cakes require higher baking temperatures and shorter baking times. The larger the cake is, the lower the baking temperature will be and the longer the product will spend in the oven.

The temperature and the bake time will affect the rate of reaction of the leavening acids. Double-acting baking powder works in two stages. The first stage releases a fast-acting leavening acid, usually the monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and carbon dioxide during mixing. The second stage releases a slow-acting leavening acid like sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) or sodium aluminium phosphate (SALP). These need a temperature of at least 105[degrees]F (41[degrees]C) to 110[degrees]F (43[degrees]C) to react. If the batter does not reach this temperature fast enough, the cake will form a crust and prevent the proper expansion of the cake. The same effect can occur if the oven is too hot, creating a crust with a dark color at the bottom and top of the cake. The rate of reaction is the time it takes for a leavening acid to release 60 percent of its gas in relation to the temperature.

Sufficient space is required in the oven between cake pans to promote an even circulation of air and even baking. Steam, which can be used for high-ratio and creamed cakes to allow for better expansion by keeping the surface soft, is never used for foam cake.

Once a cake is baking, it is critical that doneness not be checked too soon. Opening the oven door or moving the pan prematurely can cause it to fall if the protein and starches have not yet gelatinized. It is impossible to provide a specific timeframe for doneness, as cakes like biscuit jaconde bake in 7 minutes, whereas others, like genoise, can take 25 minutes.

It is important to test for doneness before cakes are removed from the oven. Moving them too much before they have finished baking can result in a lack of volume and damage to the crumb. When testing, it is important to check for the following:

* A slight contraction from the sides of the pan for high-fat cakes.

* A somewhat springy texture when pressed lightly with the finger, due to the stabilized, open crumb.

* Proper coloration of the surface.

* A clean cake tester after insertion into the middle of the cake.

HIGH-ALTITUDE BAKING

High altitude creates problems for baking because the atmospheric pressure is lower than at sea level. This makes it harder for product to rise during baking. As such, fermented yeast products can be easily controlled by reducing the yeast. Cakes need a little bit more attention. The structure of cake is more fragile than the structure of yeasted dough. For yeasted products with eggs, an increase in the quantity of the egg can help to maintain the structure with additional protein. For sponge cake and genoise, which contain a lot of eggs, high-altitude baking does not create a challenge as it does in the creaming, high-ratio, and blending methods.

At elevations greater than 2,000 feet, all baking powder, baking soda, and cream of tartar should be reduced by 15 percent and by an additional 5 to 8 percent every 1,000 feet in elevation thereafter.

Any cakes with liquid shortening or cake shortening containing emulsifiers should have the mixing time reduced by 40 percent. The eggs should be reduced 4 to 10 percent of their existing weight. Water is also reduced in comparison. The baking temperature should be increased to help establish color and set up the proteins faster.

COOLING AND STORAGE

Proper cooling and storage techniques are critical for cake quality. If the cake is allowed to cool in the pan, it can sweat, and the cake can absorb the excess water. Also, a hot sheet pan can significantly dry out thinner cakes like biscuit jaconde after baking. After cakes have totally cooled, they can be wrapped in plastic wrap. If they are wrapped when warm, the moisture trapped in the cake and a warm environment will make them susceptible to mold and bacterial growth. The crust will be sticky and hard to ice.

Creamed cakes and high-ratio cakes should be turned out of their pan 10 to 15 minutes after coming out of the oven and should be left to cool to room temperature before being wrapped. Large sheet cakes should be transferred to racks to cool quickly and evenly.

Thin sheets of jaconde or genoise should be transferred to room temperature sheet pans to prevent excessive drying. Angel food cake and chiffon cake should cool in the pan, upside-down with sufficient airflow. Whenever a cake is turned out of a pan, it should be inverted onto a clean, flat, cool surface or a wire rack.

Cakes should always be wrapped airtight for storage. Undecorated cakes, which can be stored for up to 1 month in the freezer if properly wrapped, should be labeled and dated. To assure the best product, inventory should be rotated regularly.

HIGH-FAT CAKES

High-fat cakes are characterized by high levels of shortening agents, like butter, or emulsified shortenings in hard or liquid form. The typical process of mixing for butter cakes is the creaming method, which incorporates air into the batter. For liquid shortening cakes, a whipping process incorporates air into a more fluid batter. When mixing high-fat cakes, the most important step is scraping down the bowl three to four times to ensure thorough incorporation of ingredients and a well-emulsified batter.
FIGURE 14-3
CREAMING
METHOD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] After the butter and sugar
are creamed to a light and
fluffy stage, gradually
add the beaten eggs in
stages. Scrape the bowl
after each incorporation.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Add the sifted ingredients
in four stages.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Add the west ingredients in
three stages, alternately
with the dry ingredients;
scrape down the bowl and
paddle occasionally.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Deposit the finished batter
into prepared pans.


CAKE MIXING: CREAMING METHOD

Cakes made by the creaming method are based on the primary action of creaming butter and sugar together, a process similar to the creaming method for cookies. This method can also be the most challenging, especially if it is an all-butter cake. Alternative hard fats, such as emulsified (high-ratio) shortening, are commonly added to these cakes. Emulsifiers are also used to add stability to the emulsion of ingredients. If an all-butter cake is the goal, it requires attention to detail, including the temperature of ingredients and the speed and rate of incorporation.

Creaming Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients and have them at room temperature.

* Mix the fat until smooth and softened, and then add the sugar. Mix until light and fluffy. Scrape down the bowl.

* If melted chocolate is required, add it during the creaming stage.

* Add the eggs gradually. (See Creaming Method 14-3, Step 1.) Whip to light and fluffy. Scrape down the bowl.

* Add the sifted dry ingredients and additional liquids in the proper stages.

* Add the dry ingredients in four parts. (See Creaming Method Figure 14-3, Step 2.)

* Add the wet ingredients in three parts.

* Always start by adding the dry ingredients first, followed by the wet ingredients. (See Creaming Method Figure 14-3, Step 3.)

* Always end the mixing with the last portion of the dry ingredients. Scrape down the bowl and paddle and deposit as needed. (See Creaming Method Figure 14-3, Step 4.)

Pan Preparation and Makeup for Creaming Method

Cake pans for cakes prepared using the creaming method should be sprayed with nonstick spray or prepared with a butter-flour mixture. Next, a parchment circle should be placed on the bottom of pan to ensure easy release after baking. For cake production, some bakeries use pan liners, similar to those used for cupcakes. They cover the bottom and sides of the cake pan. By doing this, they avoid greasing and cleaning the pans. Additionally, the cakes are covered on the bottom and sides so that they can be frozen without further wrapping. Cake batter should be deposited by weight for this method. After depositing, the surface should be leveled. The batter for these cakes is typically at least halfway up the side of the pan for a 2 inch (5 cm) cake.

CAKE MIXING: MODIFIED CREAMING METHOD

The modified creaming method relies on the basic creaming method processes, followed by folding in a meringue that has been whipped to medium soft peaks. The addition of meringue adds extra leavening capabilities and creates a lighter final product. Once the meringue has been folded in, the batter must be deposited into prepared pans and baked without delay.

CAKE MIXING: HIGH-RATIO METHOD

High-ratio cakes are characterized by their high ratio of sugar and liquid ingredients to flour. These cakes use specialty shortenings that have added emulsifiers to help emulsify the larger quantity of liquid ingredients and fat. The process for high-ratio cake mixing begins by coating all the dry ingredients with the fat and then slowly mixing in the hydrating components. Checking mixing time and scraping down the bowl are critical concerns for mixing high-ratio cakes. Mixing occurs at different speeds and must be monitored by time for quality control and consistency.
FIGURE 14-4
HIGH-RATIO
METHOD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Sift the dry ingredients,
excluding the sugar. Place
in a mixing bowl with the
emulsified shortening.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Mix as instructed; scrape
the bowl and paddle
occasionally. Place the
sugar and milk in the
bowl; continue mixing.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Combine the remaining
liquid and eggs, and add
into the bowl in three stages
as it is mixing. Scrape down
after each addition.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Deposit the finished batter
into prepared molds.


High-Ratio Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients, and have them at room temperature.

* Add the sifted dry ingredients (excluding the sugar) to the mixing bowl and then add the emulsified shortening. (See High-Ratio Method Figure 14-4, Step 1.)

* Mix for 2 minutes on low speed, scrape down the bowl, and continue to mix for 2 more minutes on low speed. Scrape down the bowl.

* Add the sugar and part of the milk or water. Mix for 4 minutes on low speed. Scrape down the bowl several times. (See High-Ratio Method Figure 14-4, Step 2.)

* Combine the remaining liquids with the eggs, and add to the batter in three stages. (See High-Ratio Method Figure 14-4, Step 3.)

* Scrape down the bowl between each addition.

* The final mixing stage should last approximately 5 minutes.

* Deposit by weight into greased, papered pans halfway up the side of the pan, and bake without delay. (See High-Ratio Method Figure 14-4, Step 4.)

CAKE MIXING: LIQUID SHORTENING METHOD

The development of liquid shortening (partially hydrogenated shortening) with added emulsifiers has benefited cake makers who rely on shortenings for their fat bases. These shortenings disperse quickly and easily throughout the batter, but they require special attention to mixing time and rate. As the batter whips, air is incorporated and acts as additional leavening.

Liquid Shortening Method Process

* Place all the liquid ingredients in a mixing bowl fitted with the paddle attachment.

* Add the sifted dry ingredients on top of the wet ingredients.

* Blend on low speed for 11/z minutes, or until all the ingredients are incorporated.

* Whip on high speed for 4 minutes.

* Scrape down the bowl well.

* Whip on medium speed for 3 minutes.

* Fill greased and papered pans halfway up the side of the pan and bake without delay.

Note: It is recommended that you get technical documentation with the shortening you select regarding the mixing time. The mixing time is related to the emulsifiers included in the shortening.

FOAM-BASED CAKES

Foam-based cakes rely on whipped egg products to act as leaveners that create a light cake. Whole eggs, yolks, and whites may be used separately or in combination. For specific information about handling eggs and successfully whipping foams, please refer to the discussion of egg foams in Chapter 15. When making foam-based cakes, the mise en place must be ready because there can be no interruptions to the process. Planning ahead will ensure that egg foams are processed swiftly, and that cake quality will not suffer from time lapses during the various stages of mixing, makeup, and baking.
FIGURE 14-5
BASIC SPONGE
METHOD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Warm the egg and sugar
over a bain-marie, and
whip to a ribbon stage.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Gently fold the sifted
dry ingredients into
the whipped eggs.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Deposit into ungreased,
papered pans.


EGG FOAM CAKES: BASIC SPONGE METHOD

The basic sponge method is used to make sponge cake, which is commonly referred to as genoise. Variations include butter sponge or milk and butter sponge. Egg foam cakes made with sponges are characteristically dryer than high-fat cakes, and some consumers consider them "eggy" tasting. They are often used for more European-style cakes, and the dry texture is typically addressed by soaking the cake with a light cake syrup during assembly.

Basic Sponge Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients, and sift the dry ingredients.

* Combine the whole eggs with the sugar, and warm over a bain-marie while mixing.

* Whip on medium-high speed to a ribbon stage. Add any flavoring at the end of this stage. (See Basic Sponge Method Figure 14-5, Step 1.)

* Gently fold in the sifted dry ingredients. (See Basic Sponge Method Figure 14-5, Step 2.)

* Deposit into an ungreased, papered pan three-fourths of the way up a 2 inch (5 cm) pan. Bake without delay. (See Basic Sponge Method Figure 14-5, Step 3.)

* Cool upside-down if the cake has a tendency to deflate. This will vary, depending on the quality of the flour used.

* Remove from the pan, and use or store in the freezer for later use.

EGG FOAM CAKES: SPONGE VARIATIONS

The two main sponge cake variations add additional liquid and moisture, softening the crumb and enriching the flavor. Care must be taken to incorporate these ingredients carefully and to avoid overmixing the batter.

Butter Sponge Method

Follow the same procedure for the basic sponge method, through the addition of the dry ingredients. Then, fold in melted butter thoroughly, taking care not to overmix the batter. Process the batter as quickly as possible and in the same way as for basic sponge.

Hot Milk and Butter Sponge Method

Melt together the milk and butter. Fold the milk-butter mixture into the basic sponge base in three stages after incorporation of flour. Do not overmix.

EGG FOAM CAKES: SEPARATED EGG SPONGE METHOD

The separated egg sponge method combines the extreme lightening power of the egg white with the richness and lesser volume created by the whole egg and yolk. Whole eggs and yolks are used in the base foam and provide a high level of fats, which gives a rich flavor to this type of cake. It is important to not over-or underwhip the whites because this will greatly affect volume. The high sugar and fat content of these cakes ensures a soft texture that makes them useful for roulade, or cakes that need to be rolled.
FIGURE 14-6 SEPARATED EGG SPONGE METHOD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Whip the whole eggs and
sugar to a ribbon stage, and
prepare a meringue with
medium-stiff peaks. Add the
meringue to the whole egg
mixture in stages.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Gently combine the two.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Gently fold in the sifted
dry ingredients, taking caution
not to overmix.


When panning separated egg sponge cakes for roulade, it is critical to not work the batter too much or it will lose volume. The batter should be worked the length of the sheet pan first, and then the width.

Separated Egg Sponge Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients, and have them at room temperature. Sift the dry ingredients.

* Whip the whole eggs, yolks, and sugar to ribbon stage.

* Whip the whites and sugar to medium-stiff peaks.

* Temper the whites into the whole egg mixture. (See Separated Egg Sponge Method Figure 14-6, Steps 1-2.)

* Gently fold in the sifted dry ingredients. Do not overmix. (See Separated Egg Sponge Method Figure 14-6, Step 3.)

* Deposit onto silicone mat-lined pans and bake without delay.

* After they are baked, transfer to a cool surface to prevent excessive drying of the cake.

* Use as needed, or store in the freezer, covered, for later use.

EGG FOAM CAKES: BISCUIT JACONDE METHOD

The biscuit jaconde method is a variation on the separated egg sponge method. It is characterized by the addition of nut flour into the cake batter, as well as by a design that is applied through a thicker batter. Biscuit jaconde is typically baked in thin sheets on sheet pans. The nut flour can be from any nut, but almond is favored for its taste and texture.

The almond flour is typically called for in tant pour tant (TPT), which is one part almond flour to one part powdered sugar or granulated sugar (though in this book, all the preparations of TPT require powdered sugar). The design portion of the cake is created with a template, using a dense cake-like batter (pate a decor) on a silicone baking mat. Parchment paper may be used but it tends to distort the cake and create wrinkles as the cake contacts during baking and pulls the paper with it into the cake. Next, the imprint of batter is frozen to firm it up and then the cake batter is portioned over it and spread with an offset spatula. The highlights adhere to the cake during baking and form one surface with a pattern.
FIGURE 14-7 BISCUIT JACONDE DESIGN OPTIONS

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Option 1: Brush a small
portion of softened pate a
decor onto a silicone mat.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] option 2: Thinly spread a
portion of pate a decor onto a
silicone mat.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Using a comb, create a
decorative pattern.


The TPT is then whipped with the whole eggs, and the egg whites are whipped separately with additional sugar to soft to medium peaks. After both foams have reached full volume, the whites are folded into the whole egg-almond base, and then the flour is folded in. Softened butter is sometimes added to the whole egg base.

Biscuit Jaconde Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients, and have them at room temperature.

* Prepare the base mixture to texture silicone baking mats with decoration. (See Biscuit Jaconde Design Options Figure 14-7.)

* Combine the TPT, whole eggs, and yolks.

* Whip the egg mixture on high speed until triple in volume.

* Make a medium-stiff meringue with the egg whites and granulated sugar.

* Fold the egg whites into the whole egg mixture and fold the flour into this mixture.

* Portion evenly between sheet pans with the design and bake. (See Biscuit Jaconde Method Figure 14-8.)

EGG FOAM CAKES: CHIFFON METHOD

Cakes made using the chiffon method are leavened with air from whipped egg whites, as well as from baking powder. Chiffon always contains neutrally flavored oil, which leads to a soft-textured cake. The two-step mixing process is used first to create a slurry of the wet and dry ingredients; then the egg whites are whipped and folded into the slurry base. The liquid oil in this formula makes a very tender crumb.

Because the crumb of the chiffon is so tender, it cannot be removed from the pan too soon after baking. It is important that the pans are not greased so the cake can stick to it to avoid collapse during the cooling time. For that same reason, it is cooled upside-down in the pan. To remove from the pan, slide a spatula around the perimeter of the pan, invert the pan, and tap it a little to help release the cake.

Chiffon Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients, have them at room temperature, and sift the dry ingredients together.

* Place the dry ingredients in a mixing bowl and mix on medium speed with paddle attachment. Add the oil and egg yolks; then add the water and flavoring agents. Scrape down the bowl several times to ensure a smooth batter. Do not overmix. (See Chiffon Method Figure 14-9, Steps 1-2.)

* Whip the egg whites and remaining sugar to medium-stiff peaks. Fold the meringue into the cake base (see Chiffon Method, Figure 14-9, Steps 3-4) and deposit into ungreased, papered pans. Bake without delay. (See Chiffon Method Figure 14-9, Step 5.)

* Cool upside-down. Remove from the pan and use or freeze, well wrapped, until needed.
FIGURE 14-8 BISCUIT JACONDE METHOD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] After the biscuit jaconde
batter is made, deposit it onto
the prepared silicone mats.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Spread the batter into an
even thickness.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Once baked, the biscuit
should be turned onto a
parchment paper immediately
after cooling slightly.


EGG FOAM CAKES: ANGEL FOOD METHOD

Made using the angel food method, angel food cakes are named for their pure white crumb and light texture. The three basic ingredients are sugar, egg white, and flour; other ingredients like salt, flavoring, and tartaric acid are also commonlyused. The flavoring can vary from chocolate to citrus to spice. An acidic ingredient like tartaric acid is required to add strength to the egg foam, to prevent the foam from shrinking during and after baking, and to whiten and soften the crumb (Pyler, 1988, pp. 1003-1004). Egg whites must be free from contaminants, especially those that contain fat, and all equipment should be clean. Because angel food cake contains such a large ratio of sugar to flour, the egg foam is made with half of the quantity of sugar, and the remaining sugar is folded into the egg foam with the sifted flour. Time is of the essence when making angel food cake, and it is critical to get the cake into the oven as soon as possible.

Angel Food Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients, have them at room temperature, and sift the flour with half of the sugar.

* Whip the egg whites until they are frothy. Add the cream of tartar and salt. At soft peak, slowly add the remaining sugar until soft-medium peaks develop. Do not overwhip.

* Gently fold in the sifted sugar and flour mixture. (See Angel Food Method Figure 14-10, Step 1.)

* Deposit into ungreased tube pans and bake without delay. (See Angel Food Method Figure 14-10, Steps 2-3.)

* Once baked, invert the pans and allow them to cool upside-down.

* Remove from the pan when cool.

ADVANCED CAKE MIXING

Many bakers and pastry chefs mix and bake cake every day without a problem. However, if the location and ingredients change, the end results will possibly change as well. Variables that can affect cake quality include the type of oven used, the quality of ingredients, and the temperature of the workroom. The established guidelines for monitoring cake mixing include measuring the temperature, pH, and specific gravity of the batter. Recording this data can help improve cake quality, because the baker or pastry chef can track results in comparison to the data recorded during mixing.
FIGURE 14-9 CHIFFON METHOD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Add the sifted ingredients to the
combined wet ingredients.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Mix until smooth batter is formed.
Be careful to not overmix.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Prepare a medium-stiff meringue, and
fold it into the egg mixture in stages.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Gently fold the meringue in by hand

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[5] Deposit into ungreased, papered
pans. Bake immediately.

FIGURE 14-10 ANGEL FOOD METHOD

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Gently fold in the sifted ingredients
into a soft-medium peak meringue.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Deposit into an ungreased tube pan.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Smooth out the top and bake
immediately.


TROUBLESHOOTING CAKE FORMULATION

Use Figure 14-11 as a troubleshooting aid.

BATTER TEMPERATURE

Batter temperature affects viscosity, which, in turn, affects both aeration and stability. To achieve the best volume, batter must be the proper temperature. For example, the temperature of the fat in fat-based cakes affects how much air can be incorporated into the batter. Lower temperatures inhibit incorporation of air and produce a stiffer batter. Conversely, higher temperatures melt the fat and make the batter too fluid, inhibiting its ability to hold an emulsion of the liquid ingredients, air, and fat. The temperature will also affect the baking powder and the gas released during the first stage of mixing, especially if double-acting baking powder is used.
Figure 14-11
Cake Properties and Causes

Fault               Causes

Volume and Shape

Cake does not       *  Too little leavening was added or chemical
                       leavening was too old.
rise properly.      *  Too much liquid or not enough flour was used.
                    *  Oven was not hot enough.
                    *  Oven was too hot and set the cake before the
                       cake rose.
                    *  Fat and sugar were not creamed long enough.

Cake has an         *  Batter was not spread out evenly.
uneven shape.       *  Heat of the oven was not even.
                    *  Oven racks were not leveled.
                    *  Cake pan was warped.

Cake has            *  Chemical leavening was not evenly distributed
large holes.           in batter, creating pockets of gas.
                    *  Batter was overmixed.

Egg foam            *  Too much or too little air was incorporated
cake collapsed.        into the egg foam.

Crust Color

Crust is            *  Oven temperature was too hot.
too dark.           *  Baking time was too long.
                    *  Too much sugar was added to the batter.

Crust is            *  Oven temperature was too low.
too light.          *  Baking time was not enough.
                    *  Too little sugar was added to the batter.

Crust is soggy.     *  Baking time was not enough.
                    *  Cake was cooled in the pan with not enough
                       ventilation.
                    *  Cake was wrapped before cooled.

Crust is burst      *  Too much flour or too little liquid was used.
or cracked.         *  Flour was too strong.
                    *  Batter was improperly mixed.
                    *  Oven temperature was too hot.

Texture

Cake is heavy       *  Not enough leavening was used.
and dense.          *  Too much liquid or too little flour was used.
                    *  Too much sugar or fat was used.
                    *  Oven temperature was not hot enough.

Cake falls          *  Flour was too weak.
apart and is        *  Too much sugar or fat was used.
crumbly.            *  Batter was improperly mixed.
                    *  Cake was removed from the pan while still warm.

Cake is tough.      *  Flour was too strong.
                    *  Too much flour was used.
                    *  Batter was overmixed.
                    *  Too little fat and sugar were used.

Flavor

Cake has a          *  Ingredients had a poor quality.
poor flavor.        *  Formula was unbalanced.


Controlling Batter Temperature

To control batter temperature, the pastry chef should know the temperatures of all major ingredients in the batter and the friction factor from mixing, and should adjust the temperature of the liquid ingredients to compensate. Unless cake mixing is carried out in a climate-controlled facility, the temperature of the major liquid ingredient and temperature of preparation may need to vary throughout the year. Ingredient temperatures in the batter system can vary over time.

The equation in the next section can serve as a rough guide to determine final batter temperature because all formulas have varying quantities of ingredients and mixing times. Another approach is to record all the data on a cake-mixing sheet in order to understand the relationship between mixing time, ingredient temperatures, and final qualities.

Batter Temperature Factors and Calculation

Major factors affecting the calculation of batter temperature include

* FT (flour temperature)

* RT (room temperature)

* WT (water temperature)

* ST (shortening temperature)

* ET (egg temperature)

* SuT (sugar temperature)

* DesT (desired batter temperature)

* ActT (actual batter temperature)

* FF (friction factor)

To determine the temperature of the liquid ingredients to be added, we need to know the friction factor in order to understand how much heat will be generated during mixing.

FF = (6 X ActT)--(RT + FT + WT + ST + ET + SuT)

Next, the desired water temperature needs to be calculated:

WT = (6 X DesT)--(RT + FT + FF + ST + ET + SuT)

The adjusted temperature of the water or other major liquid ingredient will bring the batter temperature to the desired level. If the water level is too low, combine it with the egg temperature (ET) and then multiply by only five factors.

PH OF CAKE BATTER

For proper physical development and flavor, cakes need a well-balanced pH. This measure of acid and base compounds is measured on a scale of 0 to 14, with 0 indicating extreme acidity and 14 indicating extreme alkalinity. Pure water is a neutral 7.

The pH of a cake batter may be the hardest to monitor without specific tools designed for the process. However, if problems persist in producing cakes, it is important to monitor pH because too much or too little can affect the crumb structure, crumb color, flavor, and volume. Low pH in cake leads to acidic flavors and a finer texture and reduction of crumb size and cake volume. If the pH is too high, the cake will have a soapy or chemical taste, the crumb will be larger and coarser, the volume will be larger, and the cell walls will be thicker (Pyler, 1988, pp. 998-999).

Major ingredients and chemical leavening agents determine the pH of a batter.

Ingredients that have a neutral affect include white sugar, shortenings, and balanced chemical leavening agents like baking powder. Ingredients that have a lowering (more acidic) effect include and fruit juices, sour cream, milk, and buttermilk. Ingredients that have a raising effect (more alkaline) effect include baking soda, cocoa powders (natural and Dutched), and egg products (Pyler, 1988, p. 999).

Controlling pH

pH is controlled in cake batter by adjusting the chemical leavening agents. If the pH is too acidic, it is necessary to lower the level of leavening acids; if the pH is too alkaline, the quantity of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) must be lowered. Maintaining a balance of chemical leavening agents within the cake is critical; otherwise, they may not all react during the baking process and off flavors will result.

The desired pH of the crumb should be at neutral or slightly acidic. Exceptions include angel food cake, which is more acidic from leavening acid (1.75 percent based on egg whites) and devil's food cake, which is more alkaline (8.8 to 9.2 pH) to enhance flavor and sometimes color (Pyler, 1988, p. 999). To measure the pH, equal parts of cake and distilled water (say, 0.4 oz (10 g) cake and 0.4 oz (10 g) distilled water) are mixed together to form a paste. The pH is then measured with a pH meter three times in order to obtain an average of the results (the results can vary because of changes in the temperature of the paste).

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Specific gravity (SG) is the measure of multiple items and the comparison of their densities in relation to weight by volume. In cake mixing, specific gravity is a measurement of the incorporation of air into the batter system, which is compared by volume and weight to the same volume and weight of water divided by the water's weight. In Europe, specific gravity is realized by a different method known as "batter density." It is measured from the number of grams per milliliter of batter.

The quantity of air incorporated into a batter has a significant effect on cake characteristics such as tenderness, grain, texture, and volume. For example, overmixed cake layers are fragile, break easily, or have fissures and can excessively dome (Pyler, 1988, p. 998). Measuring specific gravity per cake formula can help determine optimum mixing time. The specific gravity is frequently taken during the mixing process for the creaming method, just before adding the remaining liquids such as eggs or water. In doing so, you can increase the mixing time before adding the liquid or reduce the mixing time after adding the liquids. The more air incorporated into the batter, the lower the specific gravity number will be.

Specific gravity is measured by dividing the weight of a given volume of batter by the weight of the same volume of water.

Specific gravity will affect the crumb texture and moisture level of the final product if it is not respected properly. When using formulas containing emulsified cake shortening, paying attention to the specific gravity is even more important.

Specific Gravity Measuring Process

* Weigh a cup and tare the scale.

* Weigh the cup filled with water to the top (but dry on the outside).

* Using the same measuring cup, weigh the cup filled with batter to the top (without dripping on the edge).

* Divide the batter weight (BW) by the water weight (WW) to find the SG:

BW/WW = SG

Example: The recommended specific gravity for selected cake types follows:
Yellow cake *:    0.725 to 0.750
Chocolate cake *:         0.750 to 0.780
Sponge cake:      0.420 to 0.480
Chiffon cake:     0.600 to 0.680

* Based on the usage of liquid shortening.


See the guidelines in Figure 14-12.
Figure 14-12
Guidelines for Temperature,
Specific Gravity, and pH for
Common Cakes Types

                                             Specific
Batter Type     [degrees]F    [degrees]C     Gravity        pH

Sponge             92-94         33-34      0.46-0.48     7.3-7.6
Yellow layer       70-72         21-22      0.94-0.97     7.2-7.8
White layer        70-72         21-22      0.95-0.97     7.2-7.8
Devil's food       72-74         22-23      0.95-0.97     8.8-9.2
Pound              58-60         15-16      0.83-0.85     6.6-7.1

FORMULA

MARBLE BUTTER CAKE

Seductive swirls of chocolate and yellow cake batters create the
pattern that gives marble cake its name. To create the perfect marble
appearance, it is important not to overmix when blending the batters
together; otherwise, each element will lose its definition. Marble
cakes are sometimes finished with a simple dusting of powdered
sugar or drizzles of chocolate icing, but they are also quite lovely
served plain.

Ingredients          Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Butter                 60.00        0.358        0.788
Sugar                  83.00        0.495        1.091
Trimoline              17.00        0.101        0.223
Eggs                   72.00        0.429        0.946
Vanilla extract         2.00        0.012        0.026
Pastry flour           70.00        0.417        0.920
Potato starch          30.00        0.179        0.394
Baking powder           3.00        0.018        0.039
Baking soda             1.20        0.007        0.016
Salt                    1.20        0.007        0.016
Milk                   30.00        0.179        0.394
Sour cream             31.00        0.185        0.407
Dark cocoa powder       9.00        0.054        1.118
Sour cream             10.00        0.060        0.131
Total                 419.40        2.500        5.512

Ingredients           Lb & Oz        Test

Butter                 12 5/8          2 1/2 oz
Sugar                   1 1/2          3 1/2 oz
Trimoline               3 5/8            3/4 oz
Eggs                   15 1/8              3 oz
Vanilla extract           3/8            1/4 oz
Pastry flour           14 1/4              3 oz
Potato starch           6 1/4          1 1/4 oz
Baking powder             5/8            1/8 oz
Baking soda               1/4           1/8 tsp
Salt                      1/4           1/8 tsp
Milk                    6 1/4          1 1/4 oz
Sour cream              6 1/2          1 1/4 oz
Dark cocoa powder       1 7/8            3/8 oz
Sour cream              2 1/8            3/8 oz
Total                 5 8 1/8     1 lb 1 5/8 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cake

Process

1. Sift together the pastry flour, potato starch, and baking powder;
set aside.

2. Cream the butter and sugar until lightened. Add the Trimoline and
then the eggs and vanilla.

3. Add the sifted dry ingredients alternately with the milk blended
with the first sour cream.

4. Divide the batter in two and fold into one portion the cocoa powder
and the second sour cream.

5. Deposit evenly into buttered 8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm) pans at
17.5 oz (500 g) per pan.

6. Swirl the batter with a knife or spatula to create a marbled effect.

7. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) for about 40 to 45 minutes or
until a cake tester inserted in the center comes out clean.

FORMULA

SOUR CREAM POUND CAKE

The pound cake, generally agreed to have originated in northern
Europe, was named after its ingredients, as the first recipes for
pound cake called for a pound each of flour, sugar, butter, and eggs.
The resulting cake was very dense, with a rich and buttery flavor,
but it was also difficult to mix in the days when beating by hand
was the only option. Pound cakes have been a staple of American
kitchens for several generations, slowly changing into lighter versions
of the original, but they still retain their rewarding richness
of flavor and characteristic density.

Ingredients          Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Unsalted butter        94.25        0.463        1.020
Sugar                 106.19        0.521        1.149
Eggs                   50.88        0.250        0.551
Vanilla extract         3.10        0.015        0.034
Cake flour            100.00        0.491        1.082
Baking powder           2.65        0.013        0.029
Sour cream            100.00        0.491        1.082
Salt                    1.33        0.007        0.014
Total                 458.37        2.250        4.960

Ingredients           Lb & Oz        Test

Unsalted butter         1 3/8       3 1/4 oz
Sugar                 1 2 3/8       3 5/8 oz
Eggs                    8 3/4       1 3/4 oz
Vanilla extract           1/2          1 tsp
Cake flour            1 1 1/4       3 1/2 oz
Baking powder             1/2        1/2 tsp
Sour cream            1 1 1/4       3 1/2 oz
Salt                      1/4        1/8 tsp
Total                4 15 3/8      15 7/8 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cake

Process

1. Sift together the cake flour and baking powder; set aside.

2. Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy.

3. Slowly add the eggs and vanilla extract.

4. Add the dry ingredients alternately with the sour cream on low
speed, starting and ending with the dry ingredients.

5. Deposit into buttered pans at 1 lb (450 g).

6. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about
35 minutes or until a cake tester inserted in the center comes out
clean.

Chocolate Pound Cake Variation

Adjustments               Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Reduce flour to               75         0.368        0.812
Add cocoa powder              25         0.123        0.271
Add baking soda               2          0.010        0.022

Adjustments                Lb & Oz        Test

Reduce flour to            13             2 5/8 oz
Add cocoa powder            4 3/8           7/8 oz
Add baking soda               3/8          1/2 tsp

Note

New flour and cocoa powder weight is now equal to 100 percent to
maintain the above percentages.

Vanilla Pound Cake Variation

Adjustments               Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Add vanilla bean             Each          2            2

Adjustments                Lb & Oz        Test

Add vanilla bean              2         0.5 each

Lemon Pound Cake Variation

Adjustments               Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Omit vanilla extract          --           --           --
Add lemon zest                2          0.010        0.022
Add lemon juice               6          0.029        0.065
Add baking soda               2          0.010        0.022

Adjustments                Lb & Oz        Test

Omit vanilla extract          --           --
Add lemon zest               3/8         1/2 tsp
Add lemon juice            1           1 1/2 tsp
Add baking soda              3/8         1/2 tsp

Coffee Pound Cake Variation

Adjustments               Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Add coffee paste             13 *        0.063        0.141

Adjustments                Lb & Oz        Test

Add coffee paste            2 1/4        1 tbsp

* Coffee paste is 3 percent of total batter weight.

Pistachio Pound Cake Variation

Adjustments               Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Reduce sugar to               88         0.432        0.952
Add pistachio paste *         14         0.069        0.151

Adjustments                Lb & Oz        Test

Reduce sugar to             15 1/4          3 oz
Add pistachio paste *        2 3/8        1 tbsp

* The quality of and type of pistachio paste will affect the
quantity needed.

Green Tea Pound Cake Variation

Adjustments               Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Add green tea powder          3          0.015        0.032

Adjustments                Lb & Oz        Test

Add green tea powder         1/2         1 tsp

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE BREAKFAST CAKE

The almond paste in this intensely flavored chocolate cake creates
exceptional depth and smoothness of texture. The addition of candied
fruit and almonds to this already luscious breakfast dessert
further adds to the overall tone of indulgence.

Ingredients           Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Almond paste            50.00        0.169        0.372
Eggs                   125.00        0.422        0.931
Butter                 100.00        0.338        0.745
Sugar                  125.00        0.422        0.931
Milk                   100.00        0.338        0.745
Bread flour            100.00        0.338        0.745
Baking powder            2.50        0.008        0.019
Cocoa powder            25.00        0.084        0.186
Almond meal             25.00        0.084        0.186
Candied orange peel     25.00        0.084        0.186
Hazelnuts, toasted      25.00        0.084        0.186
Chocolate chips         37.50        0.127        0.279
Total                  740.00        2.500        5.512

Ingredients            Lb & Oz        Test

Almond paste              6              1 1/4 oz
Eggs                     14 7/8              3 oz
Butter                   11 7/8          2 3/8 oz
Sugar                    14 7/8              3 oz
Milk                     11 7/8          2 3/8 oz
Bread flour              11 7/8          2 3/8 oz
Baking powder               1/4           1/2 tsp
Cocoa powder              3                5/8 oz
Almond meal               3                5/8 oz
Candied orange peel       3                5/8 oz
Hazelnuts, toasted        3                5/8 oz
Chocolate chips           4 1/2            7/8 oz
Total                  5  8 1/4     1 lb 1 5/8 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cake

Process

1. Sift the flour, baking powder, and cocoa powder; set aside.

2. Warm the almond paste and then cream it using the paddle.

3. Gradually add a small amount of egg to soften the paste.

4. Add the butter and sugar slowly, mixing after each addition.

5. Add the remainder of the eggs slowly and mix until smooth.

6. Mix in the milk, then the sifted ingredients and almond meal to 50
percent incorporation.

7. Add the orange peel, hazelnuts, and chocolate chips, and mix until
incorporated.

8. Deposit 17.5 oz (500 g) batter per buttered 8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch
(10 cm) loaf pan.

9. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 35 to
40 minutes or until a cake tester inserted in the center comes out
clean.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

CAKE AUX FRUITS

The foundation of this complex, richly textured dessert is a
butter-based cake, created using the modified creaming method. Dried
apricots, currants, candied citrus peels, and almonds, along with a
generous application of rum, bring robust flavor to each slice.

Ingredients               Baker's      Kilogram    US decimal

Butter                     72.30        0.385        0.849
Sugar #1                   38.20        0.203        0.448
Trimoline                  12.70        0.068        0.149
Egg yolks                  25.50        0.136        0.299
Pastry flour              100.00        0.533        1.174
Baking powder               2.50        0.013        0.029
Egg whites                 63.80        0.340        0.749
Sugar #2                   19.10        0.102        0.224
Candied orange peel        14.80        0.079        0.174
Currants                   21.00        0.112        0.247
Golden raisins             36.00        0.192        0.423
Dried apricots, diced      27.60        0.147        0.324
Almonds, roasted,          19.00        0.101        0.223
chopped
Dark rum                   17.00        0.091        0.200
Total                     469.50        2.500        5.512

Ingredients               Lb & Oz        Test

Butter                       13 5/8         2 3/4 oz
Sugar #1                      7 1/8         1 3/8 oz
Trimoline                     2 3/8           1 tbsp
Egg yolks                     4 1/4             1 oz
Pastry flour               1  2 3/4         3 3/4 oz
Baking powder                   1/2          1/2 tsp
Egg whites                   12             2 3/8 oz
Sugar #2                      3 5/8           3/4 oz
Candied orange peel           2 3/4           3/4 oz
Currants                      4               3/4 oz
Golden raisins                6 3/4         1 1/2 oz
Dried apricots, diced         5 1/8         1 1/2 oz
Almonds, roasted,             3 5/8           3/4 oz
chopped
Dark rum                      3 1/4           3/4 oz
Total                      5  8 1/4      1 lb 1 % oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf cake

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Process

1. Macerate the fruit and roasted almonds in rum for 24 hours.

2. Sift together the pastry flour and baking powder and reserve.

3. Cream the butter and first sugar until lightened. Add the Trimoline
and then the egg yolks.

4. Add the sifted dry ingredients and mix until incorporated.

5. Make a medium-stiff meringue with the egg whites and second
sugar and fold it into the base batter in three stages.

6. Fold in the macerated fruit and deposit into buttered 8 inch (20 cm)
x 4 inch (10 cm) pans at 17.5 oz (500 g) per pan.

7. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) for about 35 to 40 minutes, or
until a cake tester inserted in the center comes out clean.

FORMULA HIGH-RATIO CHOCOLATE CAKE

After tasting this tender cake, it may be hard to believe that it is
actually the "from-scratch" version of boxed cake mix. To achieve
the ideal results with this recipe, it is essential to follow the
measurement and time guidelines closely because they will affect how
much air is allowed into the batter and how well the cake will rise.
The final outcome is what many consider the classic American
layer cake, the centerpiece of countless birthday parties and special
occasions.

Ingredients               Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Cake flour                 100.00        0.551        1.214
Cocoa powder                15.79        0.087        0.192
Salt                         2.11        0.012        0.026
Baking powder                3.16        0.017        0.038
Baking soda                  2.11        0.012        0.026
Emulsified shortening       57.89        0.319        0.703
Sugar                      131.58        0.724        1.597
Milk #1                     65.79        0.362        0.798
Vanilla extract              5.26        0.029        0.064
Milk #2                     50.00        0.275        0.607
Eggs                        65.79        0.362        0.798
Total                      499.48        2.750        6.062

Ingredients                Lb & Oz        Test

Cake flour                 1  3 3/8          3 7/8 oz
Cocoa powder                  3 1/8            5/8 oz
Salt                            3/8           1/2 tsp
Baking powder                   5/8             1 tsp
Baking soda                     3/8           1/2 tsp
Emulsified shortening        11 1/4          2 1/8 oz
Sugar                      1  9 1/2          5 1/8 oz
Milk #1                      12 3/4          2 1/2 oz
Vanilla extract               1             1 1/2 tsp
Milk #2                       9 3/4              2 oz
Eggs                         12 3/4          2 1/2 oz
Total                         6  1      1 lb 3 3/e oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake

Process

1. Sift together the cake flour, cocoa powder, salt, baking powder, and
baking soda and add to the mixing bowl.

2. Add the emulsified shortening to the dry ingredients and cream with
the paddle for 2 minutes on low speed.

3. Scrape down the bowl and the paddle.

4. Mix for another 2 minutes on low speed.

5. Gradually add the first quantity of milk alternately with the sugar
and mix on low speed for 3 minutes.

6. Scrape down the bowl.

7. Combine the second quantity of milk and the eggs and add in three
stages, mixing for a total of 5 minutes on low speed.

8. Deposit 1 lb 3 oz (550 g) of batter per 8 inch (20 cm) cake pan,
which has been sprayed and papered.

9. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about
30 to 35 minutes.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE LIQUID SHORTENING
SPONGE CAKE

This style of cake gained popularity and largely replaced the
high-ratio cake mixing method because of its simplicity in mixing,
ingredient handling, and "quality." This cake has a characteristic
moist crumb, a good light volume, and good keeping qualities.

Ingredients          Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Eggs                  203.84        1.037        2.286
Liquid shortening      76.92        0.391        0.863
Milk                   76.92        0.391        0.863
Vanilla extract         3.85        0.020        0.043
Sugar                 169.23        0.861        1.898
Cake flour            100.00        0.509        1.122
Baking powder           7.69        0.039        0.086
Salt                    3.85        0.020        0.043
Baking soda             3.30        0.017        0.037
Cocoa powder           23.08        0.117        0.259
Total                 668.68        3.402        7.500

Ingredients           Lb & Oz        Test

Eggs                  2  4 5/8       7 3/8 oz
Liquid shortening       13 3/4       2 3/4 oz
Milk                    13 3/4       2 3/4 oz
Vanilla extract            3/4          1 tsp
Sugar                 1 14 3/8       6 1/8 oz
Cake flour            1  2           3 5/8 oz
Baking powder            1 3/8          2 tsp
Salt                       3/4        2/3 tsp
Baking soda                5/8          1 tsp
Cocoa powder             4 1/8         7/8 oz
Total                 7  8          1 lb 8 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm)1 cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake

Process

1. Combine the liquid ingredients in the bowl of a mixer fitted with
the whip attachment.

2. Sift all of the dry ingredients together (including cocoa powder)
and add them to the bowl.

3. Blend on low speed for 1 1/2 minutes, or until incorporated.

4. Mix on medium/high speed for 3 minutes.

5. Scrape down the bowl well.

6. Whip on medium speed for 3 minutes.

7. Deposit 1 lb 8 oz (680 g) of batter per 8 inch (20 cm) cake pan,
which has been sprayed and papered.

8. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven or
350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a deck oven for 30 to 35 minutes, or
just until the center is firm to the touch.

FORMULA

EMMANUEL SPONGE

This buttery cake is similar to the traditional madeleine in its
preparation. The rich batter is spread thinly over a sheet pan, and
then garnished with frozen raspberries and candied pistachios,
or other berry and nut combinations. The inverted sugar used in
the Emmanuel sponge helps this cake stay moist, while the use of
melted butter produces a very tender crumb.

Ingredients           Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Eggs                   100.00        1.191        2.625
Trimoline               52.70        0.628        1.383
Cake flour             100.00        1.191        2.625
Powdered sugar          48.65        0.579        1.277
Salt                     1.08        0.013        0.028
Baking powder            4.05        0.048        0.106
Milk                    31.08        0.370        0.816
Butter, melted          81.08        0.965        2.128
Raspberry pieces        21.62        0.257        0.568
Candied pistachios      21.62        0.257        0.568
Total                  461.88        5.500       12.125

Ingredients            Lb & Oz        Test

Eggs                    2 10             8 3/8 oz
Trimoline               1  6 1/8         4 3/8 oz
Cake flour              2 10             8 3/8 oz
Powdered sugar          1  4 3/8         4 1/8 oz
Salt                         1/2          1/2 tsp
Baking powder              1 3/4        1 1/2 tsp
Milk                      13             2 5/8 oz
Butter, melted          2  2             6 3/4 oz
Raspberry pieces           9 1/8         1 7/8 oz
Candied pistachios         9 1/8         1 7/8 oz
Total                  12  2        2 lb 6 3/4 oz

Yield: 5 full sheets

Test: 1 full sheet

Process

1. Sift together the cake flour, powdered sugar, salt, and baking
powder.

2. Mix the eggs and Trimoline with the paddle.

3. Add the sifted dry ingredients to the eggs and Trimoline and mix
until incorporated.

4. Add the milk and then the melted butter, and mix until incorporated.

5. Refrigerate the mix for 18 to 24 hours.

6. Deposit onto silicone mats and garnish with frozen raspberry pieces
and pistachios and bake at 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C) in a
convection oven for about 8 to 10 minutes.

7. Once baked, transfer to a cool surface to prevent excessive drying.

FORMULA
ANGEL FOOD CAKE

Angel food cake is an American creation, possibly from the Pennsylvania
Dutch, where the production of the cake mold, essential
to a proper angel food, was a booming industry during the 1800s.
Named for a texture and appearance light and airy enough to
"appeal to the angels," this cake is distinguished by its use of beaten
egg whites, which give it a light volume in the absence of egg yolks,
fat, or baking powder.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Egg whites              281.25        1.393        3.072
Granulated sugar #1      69.79        0.346        0.762
Cream of tartar           4.17        0.021        0.046
Vanilla extract           2.08        0.010        0.023
Salt                      0.42        0.002        0.005
Granulated sugar #2     208.33        1.032        2.276
Cake flour              100.00        0.495        1.092
Total                   666.04        3.300        7.275

Ingredients             Lb & Oz        Test

Egg whites              3  1 1/8          9 7/8 oz
Granulated sugar #1       12 1/4          2 1/2 oz
Cream of tartar              3/4           1/3 tsp
Vanilla extract              3/8           1/2 tsp
Salt                         1/8           1/8 tsp
Granulated sugar #2     2  4 3/8          7 1/4 oz
Cake flour              1  1 1/2          3 1/2 oz
Total                   7  4 3/8     1 lb 7 1/4 oz

Yield: 4 [10 inch (26 cm)] tube cakes

Test: 1 [10 inch (26 cm)] tube cake

Process

1. Sift the salt, second sugar, and flour together.

2. In a mixer, whip the egg whites until volume is achieved. Combine
the first sugar and cream of tartar; add the sugar mixture slowly and
whip to medium peaks.

3. Fold the flour mixture into the egg white foam.

4. Scale at 1 lb 12 oz (800 g) for a 10 inch (26 cm) tube pan.

5. Bake at 310[degrees]F (155[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 30 to
35 minutes, or until golden brown. Remove from the oven and invert the
pans to cool upside-down.

6. Remove the cakes from the pan when completely cooled.

Chocolate Angel Food Cake Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Egg whites              281.25        1.393        3.072
Granulated sugar #1      69.79        0.346        0.762
Cream of tartar           4.17        0.021        0.046
Vanilla extract           2.08        0.010        0.023
Salt                      0.42        0.002        0.005
Granulated sugar #2     208.33        1.032        2.276
Cake flour               75.00        0.372        0.819
Cocoa powder             25.00        0.124        0.273
Total                   666.04        3.300        7.275

Ingredients             Lb & Oz        Test

Egg whites              3  1 1/8          9 1/8 oz
Granulated sugar #1       12 1/4          2 1/2 oz
Cream of tartar              3/4             1 tsp
Vanilla extract              3/8           1/2 tsp
Salt                         1/8           1/8 tsp
Granulated sugar #2     2  4 3/8          7 1/4 oz
Cake flour                13 1/8          2 5/8 oz
Cocoa powder               4 3/8            7/8 oz
Total                   7  4 3/8     1 lb 7 1/4 oz

Note

Combined flour and cocoa powder weights
equal 100 percent.

Yield: 4 [10 inch (26 cm)] tube cakes

Test: 1 [10 inch (26 cm)] tube cake

Process, Chocolate Angel Food Cake

1. Sift the salt, second sugar, flour, and
cocoa powder together.

2. In a mixer, whip the egg whites until
volume is achieved. Combine the
first sugar and cream of tartar.

3. Add the sugar mixture slowly and
whip to medium peak.

4. Fold the flour mixture into the egg
white foam.

5. Scale at 1 lb 12 oz (800 g) for a
10 inch (26 cm) tube pan.

6. Bake at 310[degrees]F (155[degrees]C) in a convection
oven for 30 to 35 minutes, or until
golden brown. Remove from the
oven and invert the pans to cool
upside-down.

7. Remove the cakes from the pan
when completely cooled.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FORMULA

BASIC GENOISE

Genoise, named after its place of origin, Genoa, Italy, is a member
of the sponge cake family. Light and airy, this versatile cake is used
as the base of many desserts. Genoise differs from other sponge
cakes in that the whole eggs and sugar are beaten, flour is folded in,
and a small amount of melted butter is added at the end of mixing,
creating a tender and flavorful cake that has a nice buttery, slightly
sweet flavor.

Ingredients        Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Eggs                162.00        1.388        3.060
Granulated sugar     90.50        0.775        1.709
Trimoline            11.00        0.094        0.208
Pastry flour         81.00        0.694        1.530
Potato starch        19.00        0.163        0.359
Melted butter        10.00        0.086        0.189
Total               373.50        3.200        7.055

Ingredients         Lb & Oz        Test

Eggs                3  1           7 1/8 oz
Granulated sugar    1 11 3/8           4 oz
Trimoline              3 3/8         1/2 oz
Pastry flour        1  8 1/2       3 1/2 oz
Potato starch          5 3/4         7/8 oz
Melted butter          3             3/8 oz
Total                  7 7/8      15 7/8 oz

Yield: 7 [8 inch (20 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake

Process

1. Sift together the potato starch and pastry flour, and reserve.

2. Whip the eggs, sugar, and Trimoline to the ribbon stage.

3. Fold in the sifted pastry flour and potato starch.

4. Fold in the melted butter.

5. Deposit into ungreased, papered pans at 14 oz (400 g) to 16 oz
(450 g) per 8 inch (20 cm) pan.

6. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 25
minutes.

7. Once baked, invert onto a wire rack. Remove from the pans when
completely cooled.

FORMULA

GOLDEN CHIFFON AND CHOCOLATE
CHIFFON CAKE

Los Angeles insurance agent Harry Baker invented the chiffon
cake in 1927 and then closely guarded his secret recipe for over two
decades, making his cakes only for Hollywood stars and the famous
Brown Derby Restaurant. In 1947, Baker finally sold the recipe to
General Mills, which released the "secret recipe" in the May 1948
Better Homes and Gardens magazine, creating a nationwide sensation.
The secret ingredient, vegetable oil, was revealed and Better
Homes and Gardens advertised the cake as "the first really new cake
in 100 years." Chiffon cake is moist and tender, light and airy, with
the richness of a butter cake, but the springy texture of a sponge
cake, relying on egg whites and baking powder for leavening. Using
vegetable oil, instead of having to cream fat and sugar, makes this
a quick and easy batter to create. Because of their high oil content,
chiffon cakes are very moist and tend to resist dryness, even with
refrigeration.

Golden Chiffon Cake Formula

Ingredients         Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Cake flour           100.00        0.561        1.236
Baking powder          3.03        0.017        0.037
Sugar #1              86.36        0.484        1.068
Lemon zest             Each        1.5          1.5
Vegetable oil         50.25        0.282        0.621
Egg yolks             50.00        0.280        0.618
Water                 57.32        0.321        0.709
Vanilla extract        2.53        0.014        0.031
Egg whites           100.51        0.564        1.243
Sugar #2              42.93        0.241        0.531
Cream of tartar        0.51        0.003        0.006
Total                493.44        2.767        6.100

Ingredients          Lb & Oz        Test

Cake flour           1  3 3/4              4 oz
Baking powder             5/8            1/8 oz
Sugar #1             1  1 1/8          3 3/8 oz
Lemon zest              1.5            1/3 each
Vegetable oil          10                  2 oz
Egg yolks               9 7/8              2 oz
Water                  11 3/8          2 1/4 oz
Vanilla extract           1/2            1/8 oz
Egg whites            1 3 7/8              4 oz
Sugar #2                8 1/2          1 3/4 oz
Cream of tartar           1/8           1/8 tsp
Total                 6 1 5/8     1 lb 3 1/2 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake

Process, Golden Chiffon Cake

1. Sift together the flour, baking powder, and first sugar; add the
lemon zest.

2. In a separate bowl, whisk the liquid ingredients; add the dry
ingredients slowly to make a smooth batter.

3. Whip the egg whites, second sugar, and cream of tartar to medium
peaks.

4. Fold the meringue into the batter in three stages until there are no
streaks.

5. Deposit at 19.5 oz (550 g) into ungreased, papered pans.

6. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about
30 minutes or until done.

7. Invert the cakes when cooling and remove from the pans when
completely cooled.

Chocolate Chiffon Cake Formula

Ingredients              Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Water                      60.00        0.259        0.571
Semi-sweet chocolate       74.67        0.322        0.710
Egg yolks                  60.00        0.259        0.571
Canola oil                 53.33        0.230        0.507
Vanilla extract             1.33        0.006        0.013
Cake flour, sifted        100.00        0.431        0.951
Baking powder               4.67        0.020        0.044
Baking soda                 1.33        0.006        0.013
Granulated sugar #1       120.00        0.518        1.141
Egg whites                105.33        0.454        1.002
Granulated sugar #2        56.00        0.242        0.533
Cream of tartar             0.93        0.004        0.009
Total                     637.59        2.750        6.063

Ingredients               Lb & Oz        Test

Water                        9 1/8          1 7/8 oz
Semi-sweet chocolate        11 3/8          2 1/2 oz
Egg yolks                    9 1/8          1 7/8 oz
Canola oil                   8 1/8          1 5/8 oz
Vanilla extract              8 1/8           1/2 tsp
Cake flour, sifted          15 1/4              3 oz
Baking powder                  3/4            1/8 oz
Baking soda                    1/4           1/8 tsp
Granulated sugar #1       1  2 1/4          3 5/8 oz
Egg whites                1  0              3 1/4 oz
Granulated sugar #2          8 1/2          1 3/4 oz
Cream of tartar                1/8           1/3 tsp
Total                     6  1         1 lb 3 3/8 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake

Process, Chocolate Chiffon Cake

1. Pour boiling water over the chopped chocolate and allow to stand for
1 minute; form an emulsion using a whisk.

2. Combine and sift together the flour, baking powder, baking soda, and
first sugar.

3. In a separate bowl, whisk the liquid ingredients into the chocolate
emulsion; add the dry ingredients slowly to make a smooth batter.

4. Whip the egg whites, second sugar, and cream of tartar to medium
peaks.

5. Fold the meringue into the batter in three stages until there are no
streaks.

6. Deposit into ungreased, papered pans at 19.5 oz (550 g) and bake at
335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 30 to 35
minutes.

7. Invert when cooling and remove the cakes when cool.

FORMULA

ROULADE

Roulade, which is also called jelly roll by Americans and Swiss roll
by the English, is a light and delicate sponge cake used for rolled
desserts such as the traditional Buche de Noel.

Ingredients        Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Egg yolks            80.00        0.414        0.914
Eggs                222.22        1.151        2.538
Sugar #1             86.67        0.449        0.990
Egg whites          133.33        0.691        1.523
Sugar #2            150.00        0.777        1.713
Pastry flour        100.00        0.518        1.142
Total               772.22        4.000        8.819

Ingredients         Lb & Oz        Test

Egg yolks             14 5/8          2 7/8 oz
Eggs                2  8 5/8          8 1/8 oz
Sugar #1              15 7/8          3 1/8 oz
Egg whites          1  8 3/8          4 7/8 oz
Sugar #2            1 11 3/8          5 1/2 oz
Pastry flour        1  2 1/4          3 5/8 oz
Total               8 13 1/8    1 lb 12 1/2 oz

Yield: 5 full sheets

Test: 1 full sheet

Process

1. Sift the flour; set aside.

2. Warm the egg yolks, whole eggs, and first sugar to 110[degrees]F
(43[degrees]C) over a bain-marie.

3. Whip the egg yolks, whole eggs, and first sugar with the whip
attachment until the ribbon stage.

4. Whip the egg whites with the second sugar until medium peaks are
formed.

5. Fold the egg whites into the whole egg mixture in three stages.

6. Fold the flour into the egg foam.

7. Deposit onto silicone mat-lined sheet pans at 27 oz (800 g) and bake
at 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C) for about 8 to 10 minutes.

8. Once out of the oven, transfer to another sheet pan to prevent
carryover baking.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE BISCUIT

This versatile separated egg sponge cake has a deep and rich
chocolate flavor. It is used as a base cake layer in some of the mousse
cake preparations; however, it may also be used for roulade style
cakes.

Ingredients      Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Egg yolks          91.60        0.359        0.792
Eggs              208.00        0.815        1.798
Sugar #1          166.00        0.651        1.435
Egg whites        133.00        0.521        1.150
Sugar #2           66.60        0.261        0.576
Pastry flour       50.00        0.196        0.432
Cocoa powder       50.00        0.196        0.432
Total             765.20        3.000        6.614

Ingredients       Lb & Oz        Test

Egg yolks           12 5/8       2 1/2 oz
Eggs              1 12 3/4       5 3/4 oz
Sugar #1          1  7           4 5/8 oz
Egg whites        1  2 3/8       3 5/8 oz
Sugar #2             9 1/4       1 7/8 oz
Pastry flour         6 7/8       1 3/8 oz
Cocoa powder         6 7/8       1 3/8 oz
Total             6  9 7/8      1 lb 5 oz

Yield: S sheets

Test: 1 sheet

Process

1. Sift together the pastry flour and cocoa powder and reserve.

2. Whip the egg yolks, whole eggs, and first sugar to the ribbon stage.

3. Whip the egg whites and second sugar to medium-soft peaks.

4. Add the meringue to the whole egg and yolk foam in three stages and
then fold in the sifted dry ingredients.

5. Deposit 21.5 oz (600 g) of batter per silicone mat-lined baking tray
and spread evenly.

6. Bake at 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C) for about 7 to 9 minutes.

7. Once out of the oven, transfer to another sheet pan to prevent
carryover baking.

FORMULA

PATE A DECOR AND PATE
A DECOR NOIR

Pate a decor is most commonly used for making the colored cake
walls applied for decoration. The batter is spread decoratively in
a thin layer and then frozen. Next, the cake batter is applied over
the frozen pate a decor, and the cake is baked. Once baked, the two
batters form one cake, which then contains the decorative element.

Pate a Decor Formula

Ingredients        Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal   Lb & Oz

Butter, melted       100.00       0.227       0.500          8
Powdered sugar       100.00       0.227       0.500          8
Flour                100.00       0.227       0.500          8
Egg whites           100.00       0.227       0.500          8
Colorant               SQ          SQ           SQ
Total                400.00       0.907       2.000        2 0

Process, Pate a Decor

1. Combine the melted butter and powdered sugar, and then add the
sifted flour.

2. Mix well and slowly add the egg whites until the batter is
homogenous.

3. Color as desired.

4. Reserve in a cooler for up to 1 week or in the freezer for up to 1
month.

Pate a Decor Noir Formula

Ingredients        Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal   Lb & Oz

Butter, melted       142.86       0.227       0.500          8
Powdered sugar       142.86       0.227       0.500          8
Pastry flour         100.00       0.159       0.350          5 5/8
Cocoa powder          42.86       0.068       0.150          2 3/8
Egg whites           142.86       0.227       0.500          8
Total                571.44       0.907       2.000       2  0

Process, Pate a Decor Noir

1. Combine the melted butter and powdered sugar, and then add the
sifted flour and cocoa powder.

2. Mix well and slowly add the egg whites until the batter is
homogenous.

3. Reserve in a cooler for up to 1 week or in the freezer for up to
1 month.

FORMULA

BISCUIT VIENNOIS

Used as a base layer in many entremets, and as the layers in the
classic opera cake, biscuit viennois is enhanced with almond meal,
which gives the cake a very desirable texture.

Ingredients         Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

TPT almond            250          0.887        1.955
Egg yolks              59          0.209        0.461
Eggs                  105          0.373        0.821
Egg whites            225          0.798        1.760
Granulated sugar       22          0.078        0.172
Cake flour             50          0.177        0.391
Pastry flour           50          0.177        0.391
Total                 761.00       2.700        5,952

Ingredients          Lb & Oz        Test

TPT almond           1 15 1/4         7 7/8 oz
Egg yolks               7 3/8         1 7/8 oz
Eggs                   13 1/8         3 1/4 oz
Egg whites           1 12 1/8             7 oz
Granulated sugar        2 3/4           3/4 oz
Cake flour              6 1/4         1 5/8 oz
Pastry flour            6 1/4         1 5/8 oz
Total                5 15 1/4    1 lb 7 3/4 oz

Yield: 4 sheets

Test: 1 sheet

Process

1. Sift together the cake flour and pastry flour; reserve.

2. Sift the TPT.

2. Combine the TPT, egg yolks, and whole eggs; whip on high speed until
tripled in volume.

3. Make a medium-stiff meringue with the egg whites and granulated
sugar.

4. Fold the meringue into the whole egg mixture and fold the flour into
this mixture.

5. Deposit at 23 oz (650 g) on silicone baking mat-lined sheet pans and
spread out evenly.

6. Bake at 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about
7 minutes.

7. Once baked, transfer to another sheet pan to prevent carryover
baking.

Biscuit Viennois Jaconde (Decorated Cake Walls)

Components

Pate a Decor and/or Pate a Decor Noir
Biscuit Viennois

Process

1. Prepare silicone mats with a pate a decor as desired. Freeze until
set.

2. Make the biscuit viennois and portion over prepared silicone sheets
while the pate a decor is frozen.

3. Bake as normal for biscuit viennois.

FORMULA

APPLE BREAKFAST CAKE

This country-style cake is tasty, moist, and dense with apples.
A pleasure to wake up to, apple breakfast cake is also a
tempting treat throughout the day.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Ingredients              Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Eggs                       65.38        0.404          0.891
Sugar                      57.69        0.357          0.786
Raisins                    57.69        0.357          0.786
Walnut pieces              38.46        0.238          0.524
Butter, melted             57.69        0.357          0.786
Apples, peeled, diced     384.62        2.378          5.243
Vanilla extract             1.54        0.010          0.021
Bread flour               100.00        0.618          1.363
Baking powder               3.46        0.021          0.047
Salt                        1.54        0.010          0.021
Total                     768.07        4.750         10.471

Ingredients                       Lb & Oz              Test

Eggs                                    14 1/4           2 7/8 oz
Sugar                                   12 5/8           2 1/2 oz
Raisins                                 12 5/8           2 1/2 oz
Walnut pieces                            8 3/8           1 5/8 oz
Butter, melted                          12 5/8           2 1/z oz
Apples, peeled, diced        5           3 7/8        1 lb 3/4 oz
Vanilla extract                            3/8            1/2 tsp
Bread flour                  1           5 7/8           4 3/8 oz
Baking powder                              3/4              1 tsp
Salt                                       3/8            1/4 tsp
Total                        10          7 1/2      2 lb 1 1/2 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 (cm)] cake

Process

1. Spray the pans with nonstick spray and reserve.

2. Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt and reserve.

3. Whip the eggs and sugar to the ribbon stage.

4. Add the raisins, walnuts, and melted butter; mix to incorporate.

5. Fold in the diced apples and vanilla extract.

6. Fold the sifted ingredients into the mixture until well
incorporated.

7. Portion the batter at 2 Ib 2 oz (950 g) per 8 inch (20 cm) pan.

8. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) for about 45 minutes.

9. Allow to cool in the pan for 15 minutes before removing the cake.

10. Turn the cake out onto a cardboard circle.

11. Glaze with a flat icing made with powdered sugar, orange juice, and
orange zest.

FORMULA

HAZELNUT JAPONAISE

This meringue features hazelnut meal, baked into a light, crispy
disc that can be used as a base for cakes and many other desserts.
The quality of the Japonaise relies upon whipping the meringue
into very stiff peaks. If this is not done, the end result may be
crumbly and brittle.

Ingredients            Baker's %     Kilogram    US decimal

Hazelnut meal            100.00       0.900        1.984
Powdered sugar           100.00       0.900        1.984
Egg whites               100.00       0.900        1.984
Granulated sugar         100.00       0.900        1.984
Total                    400.00       3.600        7.936

Ingredients                     Lb & Oz             Test

Hazelnut meal              1          15 3/4        8 oz
Powdered sugar             1          15 3/4        8 oz
Egg whites                 1          15 3/4        8 oz
Granulated sugar           1          15 3/4        8 oz
Total                      7            15          2 lb

Process

1. Sift together the hazelnut meal and powdered sugar.

2. Whip the egg whites and granulated sugar to stiff peaks.

3. Fold in the sifted ingredients, taking care to not deflate the
meringue.

4. Pipe into discs of the desired diameter.

5. Bake at 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C) in a convection oven with the
vent open for about 2 hours or until dry.


CHAPTER SUMMARY

Mixing and baking a successful cake is the result of high-quality ingredients, sound processes, and proper baking techniques. There are many types of cakes, each of which has a specific mixing method that is important to follow. Tracking quality by minding batter temperature, pH, and specific gravity is certainly not required; however, those tools allow the baker or pastry chef to know if key roles in the process have been observed.

KEY TERMS

* Angel food method

* Biscuit jaconde method

* Chiffon method

* Creaming method

* Fat-based cakes

* Foam-based cakes

* High-ratio cakes

* Liquid shortening

* Modified creaming method

* Neutralizing value (NV)

* Separated egg sponge method

* Specific gravity (SG)

* Sponge cake

* Tant pour tant (TPT)

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What are the two main categories of cake? What distinguishes them?

2. What function do the following major ingredients have in a cake: flour, sugar, butter, and eggs?

3. How is the creaming method carried out?

4. How does batter temperature influence batter viscosity?

5. What is specific gravity? How is it found? What does it determine?
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:15884
Previous Article:Chapter 13 Pies and tarts.
Next Article:Chapter 15 Syrups, creams, custards, egg foams, and icings.
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