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Chapter 13 Pies and tarts.

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OBJECTIVES

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

* discuss the different types of pies and tarts and highlight what characterizes them.

* implement the various methods for producing fillings and assembling pies.

* demonstrate the ability to properly handle pie dough and properly bake pie.

* assemble various tarts using an assortment of base doughs and fillings.

* demonstrate the ability to properly handle tart dough and properly bake tart dough as well as tarts.

PIE: HISTORY AND DEFINITION

Most of what we know about pie today hasn't changed in hundreds of years. Although many consider this pastry to be as American as the flag and the Fourth of July, pie has its roots in Europe. The British, in particular, are well known for pie and are largely credited with its introduction to the New World. During the settling of America, pies of one kind or another were a staple at every meal.

Pie tends to be more popular around the winter holidays, and some bakeries offer it only during that time of year. Available in all shapes and sizes, pies are not limited to the standard image. They may be sweet or savory, highly sophisticated or extremely rustic. The variety reflects the many different tastes and memories associated with such a well-loved pastry.

The two major categories of pie, baked pie and unbaked pie, are somewhat misnomers. A baked pie begins with an unbaked pie shell that is filled with fruit or custard, and then baked. The crust may be on the bottom and/or the top. Examples of baked pies include apple, blueberry, and pumpkin.

In unbaked pies, the crust is blind baked, or baked alone, without filling. Then, the baked shell is filled with a prepared filling such as a flavored pastry cream. Examples of unbaked pies include choco late cream, strawberry chiffon, and lemon meringue. There are several blind baking techniques, all of which are covered later in this chapter.

Crust and filling are the two major components to pie. To perfect the craft of both, one needs to understand a range of ingredient functions, mixing processes, filling preparations, and decoration. He or she needs to balance flavor, texture, and baking temperatures to create a delicate pastry that can meet pie lovers' near-mythic standards for perfection.

Note: An understanding of the formulation of pie dough, presented in Chapter 12, is essential background for this chapter.

WORKING WITH PIE DOUGH

Pie production can be approached in several ways, depending primarily on the quantity of pie being produced and the equipment available. When working with pie dough, several factors should be taken into consideration.

* Portion control: Depending on how the pie is made up, different portion control techniques may be implemented. It is important to control portions, as trimmings and excess dough should only be reused once, ideally for the bottom crust only.

* Proper rolling and makeup techniques: A crust should be even in thickness and diameter to maintain consistency and reduce waste.

* Baking: Many factors such as resting time, egg wash, oven temperature, and time in the oven contribute to the successful baking of pie dough.

* Volume: Techniques for production should change as volume increases. Specific equipment is available to make production more efficient.

PORTION CONTROL

A common approach to portion control is to divide the dough into a known desired weight after it is mixed. For example, if a baker gets an order for ten 9 inch (23 cm) deep-dish, double-crust apple pies, they know that they will need ten pieces of dough at 9 oz (0.250 kg) for the top crust, and ten pieces at 9 oz (0.250 kg) for the bottom crust. After the dough is portioned, it is rounded off, wrapped in plastic wrap, labeled properly, and stored under refrigeration until needed. Pie dough can be stored under refrigeration without a change in its quality for up to 3 days. For longer storage, it should be stored in the freezer.

This technique reduces waste because each portion of dough is just enough for the application. (See Figure 13-1.) Any waste that is created can be worked into the next batch of dough. Trimmings should not exceed 10 percent of the new dough weight to ensure the dough remains tender and flaky. Some may also cool the scrap pieces of dough and roll them out incorporated into existing dough.
Figure 13-1
Pie Dough Weights and Sizes

                                        9 inch (23 cm)
                            8 inch       deep dish or        10 inch
                           (20 cm)          10 inch          (25 cm)
                           regular      (25 cm) regular     deep dish

Pie dough for bottom     5 oz (140 g)    9 oz (250 g)     11 oz (310 g)
lining (double-crust)

Pie dough for top        5 oz (140 g)    9 oz (250 g)     9 oz (250 g)
crust (double-crust)

Pie dough for            6 oz (170 g)    11 oz (310 g)    12 oz (340 g)
lining pan
(single-crust, fluted)


ROLLING OUT PIE DOUGH

To properly roll out pie dough by hand takes practice. The goal is to end up with a circle of pie dough that is slightly larger than the inverted pan it will bake in. For large pies, the dough should be about 1/s inch (3 mm) thick. For individual-sized pies, the dough should be about 1/16 inch (1 1/2 mm) thick.

To maintain a circular shape, it is important to start with a round shape. The dough should also be at the proper temperature. If it is too cold, the dough may resist rolling out and may crack. If it is too warm, the butter may absorb into the flour and come out of the dough. Depending on the temperature of the dough, it may be beneficial to work the dough by hand for a few moments to make it malleable.

After the dough is ready to roll, it is important to use a slightly floured surface. The top of the pie dough should be dusted with flour as well. (See Rolling Out Pie Dough Figure 13-2, Step 1.) Using a rolling pin, start in the center of the piece of dough. The key to rolling out the dough evenly is to roll it away from you with pressure, return to the middle without pressure, and roll it toward yourself with pressure. (See Rolling Out Pie Dough Figure 13-2, Step 2.) It is equally important to roll to the ends of the dough. If this doesn't happen, the pastry will become misshapen when the dough is rotated to roll again.

After each complete roll, rotate the dough one-eighth of a turn clockwise to ensure that it rolls out evenly and into a circle. (See Rolling Out Pie Dough Figure 13-2, Step 3.) When first learning, do not roll the dough out too quickly. Try to maintain the shape of the circle. (See Rolling Out Pie Dough, Figure 13-2, Step 4.) Continue to dust the dough with flour as needed, but be careful to not use too much. If this happens, the pie will take on a dull, matte finish during baking, and the excess flour may taste bitter.

Lining Pie Pans (by Hand)

After the dough is rolled out, the pie pan can be lined. This is easier to do with cool dough. If the dough warmed up during the rolling out process, cool it for 5 minutes for easier handling.

The goal is to get an even layer of pastry over the pan with enough dough remaining for a border. (See Lining Pie Pans Figure 13-3, Step 1.) First, the pastry must be secured on the bottom of the pan, next to the edges and then on the sides from the bottom up. (See Lining Pie Pans Figure 13-3, Step 2.) The most common mistake is not resting or relaxing the dough against the side of the pan. While lining the pie pan, it is important to gently press the dough into place without stretching it. (See Lining Pie Pans Figure 13-3, Step 3.)
FIGURE 13-2 ROLLING OUT PIE DOUGH

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[1] After mixing, the pie dough should
be portioned and shaped into flat
discs. For rolling, place the dough on
a floured surface.

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[2] Start rolling from the center, roll it
away from you with pressure, return
to the middle pressure, and
roll it toward yourself with pressure.

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[3] Rotate the dough 45 degrees after
each complete roll.

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[4] Keep the shape evenly round with
an even thickness.

FIGURE 13-3 LINING PIE PANS

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[1] Once rolled out, line the pie pan with
the dough.

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[2] Secure the dough to the bottom of the
pan first, next to the edges, and then
on the sides from the bottom up.

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[3] Gently press the dough into
place without stretching it. Dough
should extend about 1 inch (3 cm)
from the edge of the pan.

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[4] To make a raised border, roll the
dough under itself to create a ridge.

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[5] The dough is now ready to be crimped
or pressed to create a decorative
border.


Once the pie pan is lined, the border can be formed for a single-crust pie. Borders are not only decorative, but they also help the dough to remain high in the pan and they function as guards to prevent spilling wet fillings like quiche or pumpkin pie. To make a raised border, the dough must be rolled under itself to create a ridge that can be crimped, cut, or pressed to create a variety of designs. (See Lining Pie Pans Figure 13-3, Steps 4-5.) See Single-Crust Border Figure 13-4 for a step-by-step guide to making decorative borders on single-crust pies.

Double-Crust Pies

For a double-crust pie, the bottom dough should extend only 1/2 inch (1 cm) from the top of the pan after the pan is lined. The top crust should already be rolled out. When depositing the filling, it is important to make sure that it is cool and that none lands on the border of the dough. Warm filling will warm the dough and may cause the fat to soften or melt. Filling on the border will prevent a quality seal and may cause a weak spot where filling can leak. After the filling is in place, the lip of the bottom crust should be lightly brushed with water.

A vent must be placed on the top of the pie to allow moisture to escape during baking. If a pie is not vented, the steam will escape from the weakest part of the pastry, typically on the side of the pie where the top crust is formed with the bottom crust. If a pie is overvented, it can lead to excessive moisture loss in the filling. Vents can be as simple as cutting several slits in the dough, or as elaborate as making cutouts with a paring knife or specialty cutter. (See Double-Crust Pie Figure 13-5, Step 1.)

Next, the top crust is laid over the filling and secured to the bottom lip by gently pressing. (See Double-Crust Pie Figure 13-5, Step 2.) The next steps are to further seal the two pieces of dough and create a decorative border. As with the single-crust pie, the dough hanging over the edge of the pan is rolled under itself (See Double-Crust Pie Figure 13-5, Step 3.) Once this has been completed, a crimp, rope, or other decorative style may be applied. (See Double-Crust Pie Figure 13-5, Step 4.)

Lattice Crusts

A lattice crust is a great decorative element that also lets large quantities of steam escape and prevents fillings from boiling out the sides of the pie. This is especially useful for fruit fillings like blueberry and cherry. To create a lattice-top pie, follow the steps for a double-crusted pie through depositing the filling into the prepared pie shell. Then, from the reserved top dough, cut strips into the desired width, making sure they are of uniform width. Follow the step-by-step guide to making the lattice top in Lattice Crust Figure 13-6, Steps 1-2.

After the lattice has been assembled, roll the dough that extends off the edges of the tin under the bottom pie dough to create the border. (See Lattice Crust Figure 13-6, Step 3.) This is important for lattice pies, since they are generally quite liquid and the filling can boil over the edge.

BAKING PIE DOUGH AND PIE

A couple of approaches to baking pie are important to know. blind baking and baking the whole pie. For blind baking, just the crust is baked, either partially or fully, depending on the needs of the baker. The baking of the pie is just as important as mixing the dough, preparing the filling, and assembling the pie because the baking determines the final quality.
FIGURE 13-4 SINGLE-CRUST BORDER

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[1] The ridge is crimped with the fingers.
It is important to space evenly to
achieve a clean finish.

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[2] A crimped border on a finished single-crust
pie shell is both functional and
attractive.

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[3] The ridge can be pinched to create a
different pattern

FIGURE 13-5 DOUBLE-CRUST PIE

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[1] Cut out events on the top dough to allow
moisture to escape during baking.

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[2] Lay the top pie dough over the filling and
secure to the bottom lip by gently pressing.

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[3] Seal the two pieces of dough to create
a decorative border. As with the
single-crust pie, the dough hanging
over the edge of the pan is rolled
under itself.

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[4] The ridge is finished. Decorative styles
such as crimps and rope can be applied
on the border.

FIGURE 13-6 LATTICE CRUST

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[1] After the filling is deposited in the
bottom crust, place five strips of
dough running vertically on top. Lift
the second and fourth strips, and positive
one strip running horizontally.

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[2] Return the second and fourth strips
to their original position, and then lift
the first, third, and fifth vertical strips
in order to place the second horizontal
strip.

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[3] After the lattice is finished, the dough
hanging over the edge of the pan is
rolled under itself to create a border.


Preparing the pie for the oven with egg or cream wash, managing the temperature of the oven, and ensuring doneness are all required to guarantee success.

Egg and Cream Washes

Before putting the made-up pie into the oven, the exposed pie dough should be given a light coating of egg wash or cream wash to promote browning and improve general quality. Egg wash will give the piecrust a shinier, darker color, while cream wash will give a duller, matte finish. Whichever wash is used, it is important to apply only a light coat. At this point, granulated, sanding, or pearl sugar may also be added for enhanced visual appearance, texture, and taste.

Pie Dough Temperature

When baking a pie shell, bakers must take into account the temperature of both the dough and the oven. Specifically, it is essential that the oven be hot and the pie dough cool. If the oven is too cool, the butter can melt out of the pastry, and it can become excessively dry. If the temperature is too hot, the pastry can bake at an uneven rate and the outside will appear baked, but the inside will be doughy.

Blind Baking Pie Dough

Blind baking is the process of baking a pie shell that has no filling in it. Pie dough may be blind baked 100 percent to a crisp shell, or it may be blind baked part way. Pie dough is blind baked for two reasons: First, the pie will be used for an unbaked pie (full blind bake), such as chiffon or lemon meringue; and second, to jump-start the baking process (partial blind bake). The latter is done to achieve a crisp crust when using wet fillings such as pumpkin or quiche.

The two methods for blind baking pie shells are using pie weights and parchment or using a second tin. The process of blind baking is fairly simple, but taking some precautions will ensure a successful end result. Pie dough should always be cold when it enters the oven, and it is recommended that the dough rest for a minimum of 30 minutes after being worked with before baking to avoid shrinkage and toughening.

Blind Baking Using Pie Weights and Parchment For the first method, weight is used to prevent the dough from moving and becoming misshapen during the baking process. Parchment paper is cut to fit the pie pan, including the sides. It is placed into the pan, above the dough, and then filled with dried beans or pie weights that help keep the dough flat and in position during the baking process. If the crust is to be partially baked and then filled and finished later, it should be baked halfway using sufficient bottom heat to make sure that the base and edges are par-baked. Depending on the baking conditions, it may be advisable to remove the beans or pie weights and continue baking for several more minutes to ensure a crisp crust.

Blind Baking Using a Second Tin A common way to blind bake pie dough is to sandwich the dough between two tins and to bake them upside-down. This method eliminates the need to use paper and weights.
FIGURE 13-7 BLIND BAKING USING SECOND TIN

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[1] When using a second pan
for blind baking, the second
pan is placed on top of the
dough after it has been placed
on the first pan.

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[2] Press the second pan
lightly to make sure there is
no air gap.

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[3] Flip the pans upside-down,
and cut the excess
dough with a paring knife.


The process is to line the tin with dough as normal and then lay a second pie tin over the dough. (See Blind Baking Using Second Tin Figure 13-7.) Next, the tin sandwich is inverted, allowed to rest for at least 30 minutes, and then baked upside-down with a sheet pan over the tin to prevent it from rising. When properly executed, the result is a perfectly baked pie shell, golden brown from an even bake and no shrinkage. Additionally, after panning, the dough may be frozen in the tin and pulled for baking as needed.

STORING PIE SHELLS

Pie production may be scheduled to ease the workload of the baker. Prepared, unbaked pie shells may be stored in the refrigerator for up to 2 days, or in the freezer for up to several months if well wrapped. Frozen shells can be thawed in the refrigerator and should be baked as needed. To avoid staling, baked pie shells should not be stored in the refrigerator. If baked pie shells must be stored, they may be kept well wrapped in the freezer for up to a month.

PRODUCTION OF PIE

In small bakeries and restaurants, where pies represent a small portion of sales, an investment in a dough sheeter (or even a specialty pie press) is not merited. For bakeries that produce pies in large quantities, a pie press or a dough sheeter is a more time-and cost-efficient method of production. Dough sheeters and pie presses are useful for reducing waste and keeping production moving.

With dough sheeters, a common technique is to press the pie dough onto a sheet pan 2 inches (5 cm) thick and to cover it with plastic wrap. After the dough has chilled, a portion of dough is cut from the mass and sheeted out on the dough sheeter. Circles are cut out of the appropriate size, minimizing waste. The circles should be lightly dusted with flour to prevent sticking and then placed on a sheet pan, shingled, and reserved in the refrigerator or freezer until needed. The scrap dough can be added to the next sheeting of fresh dough but should be reused only once, as it will make the pie dough tougher and more prone to shrinkage.

Pie presses are also useful for the production of pies. The process is very simple, and a pie press can greatly reduce the amount of wasted dough if the portioning is carefully calculated. After the dough has been portioned, and rested, it is placed in the tin and the press descends, evenly spreading the dough over the tin. A heated top element prevents the dough from sticking to the unit. Some units are capable of trimming waste and for larger production there are automated pie lines that are capable of producing up to 140 large pies per minute.

PIE DOUGH PROPERTIES AND CAUSES

Many factors contribute to the success or failure of pie. Figure 13-8 contains a quick, handy reference to problems and their causes.

PIE FILLINGS

The filling of a pie is just as important as a successful crust because crust is often left on the plate, but the filling rarely remains. Numerous considerations should be made for the wide spectrum of pie fillings, with product formulation, processes, and ingredient selection playing key roles in achieving the desired results. In the fillings section, we will review the ingredients, formulas, and processes used for fruit, custard, cream, and chiffon pies.
Figure 13-8
Pie Dough Properties and Causes

Fault                       Causes

Dough is too elastic to     * Flour was too strong.
roll out.                   * Dough was overmixed.
                            * Dough was not rested long enough.
                            * Not enough fat was used.

Crust is too tough.         * Flour was too strong.
                            * Not enough fat was used.
                            * Dough was overworked.
                            * Too much scrap was used.

Crust is too crumbly.       * Flour was too weak.
                            * Too much fat was used.
                            * Not enough water was added.
                            * Dough was not mixed properly.

Crust is not flaky.         * Not enough fat was used.
                            * Fat was blended into the dough too much.
                            * Dough was overworked.
                            * Dough was not chilled before baking.

Bottom of crust is soggy.   * Oven temperature was too low.
                            * Baking time was not long enough.
                            * Filling was too warm when poured into
                              the shell.
                            * Wrong dough was used-mealy dough
                              prevents crust sogginess.

Crust shrunk from the       * Flour was too strong.
side of pan.                * Dough was overworked.
                            * Not enough fat was used.
                            * Dough did not rest enough before lining
                              the pan.
                            * Dough was stretched out to line the pan.


FRUIT PIE: INGREDIENT SELECTION

The selection of fruit to use for fruit pie can be divided into four main categories: fresh, frozen, canned, and dried, with each presenting its own distinct advantages and disadvantages. When choosing ingredients, the pastry chef must weigh a number of considerations, including clientele, product characteristics, flavor, food cost, labor cost, and product availability.

Fresh Fruit

Seasonal fresh fruit may be the most flavorful, yet expensive ingredient the pastry chef can use. Even so, the overall quality of the product will be high, and the chef will be able to charge more for it. The key is to choose fresh fruits that highlight local flavors. Fresh fruit may be cooked before being baked in the pie, or during the baking process.

When selecting fresh fruit to be used in baking and pastry, one needs to consider its color, taste, and texture, with an expectation of superior characteristics for fruit at its peak. For example, apple pie made in October with fresh apples will vary considerably in sweetness, tartness, and texture from apple pie made in May. Global commerce may be changing what it means for fruit to be in season, but it is important to note that some desirable characteristics may be sacrificed during the boat journey from Chile, New Zealand, or elsewhere.

When fruit is fresh, its natural textures and sugar levels can vary considerably. The chef needs to understand this and adjust formulas accordingly. In addition, in-house peeling, coring, pitting, slicing, and more add considerable time to the preparation process, which is typically reflected in a higher cost for the end product. For larger production, some fruit may be purchased fresh but already prepared into peeled and cored slices or wedges.

Canned Fruit

Canned fruit is less versatile than fresh fruit, but it has the attributes of consistent quality, year-round availability, convenience, and lower labor costs. Another benefit is that canned fruit can be stored on the shelf much longer than fresh. The selection is somewhat limited, however, with popular varieties including pears, peaches, pineapples, apricots, and cherries.

Generally, the canning process softens the fruit and standardizes its sugar content. Canned fruit is packed in syrups of various densities ranging from light pack to heavy pack, which should be taken into consideration when ordering and formulating pie fillings. Light or heavy pack refers to the syrup density that the fruit is packed in, and it affects the sweetness of the fruit.

Frozen Fruit

Frozen fruit is a very convenient, versatile ingredient in the bakery, especially for pie. The large selection includes apples, various berries, rhubarb, and pit fruits such as peaches, cherries, and plums. Some fruits, such as apples and peaches, may be processed as sliced, diced, pureed, or chopped. Whatever the variety, frozen fruit must be handled properly to ensure its integrity in the final preparation.

Many types of frozen fruit have added sugar, primarily to prevent the formation of ice crystals that can have a negative affect on the fruit's structure, color, and flavor. The quantity of added sugar averages between 10 and 15 percent by weight of the fruit.

The quality of frozen fruit varies by brand, but in general, all frozen fruit should be individually quick frozen (IQF). The IQF process ensures that the fruit retains as much flavor and color as possible and that it remains separate from the other fruit. It is difficult to portion berries that are frozen into a block. When receiving, it should be checked for quality and should remain frozen at all times. As long as enough freezer space is available, storage is easy, and shelf life is good.

Dried Fruit

Dried fruit is usually treated as an inclusion for other pies, such as apple or mincemeat. It adds a unique sweetness, flavor, and difference in texture from the main ingredient in the filling.

Starch Selection

A large selection of starch is available for use as a thickening agent in fruit pie fillings. Examples include cornstarch, arrowroot, tapioca, waxy maize, and wheat flour. The gelatinization that results from the heating and swelling of the starch granules gives the filling body, mouth feel, and texture, and the extent of these results will vary depending on the thickener used and the other ingredients used in the formula.

FRUIT PIE: METHODS OF PRODUCTION

Fruit pies are an excellent way to highlight local and seasonal flavors of the field and orchard. When selecting fruit, look for high quality with natural sweetness and proper texture. Both are critical factors for success.

Whether fresh, frozen, or canned, the fruit's natural or added sugar content needs to be balanced with the additional sugar in the formula. The texture of the fruit will determine the final quality of the pie, as well as the correct method of preparation. There are three main methods for fruit pie: uncooked fruit method, cooked fruit method, and cooked fruit juice method.

Uncooked Fruit Method

Considered to be the classic for making fruit pie, the uncooked fruit method is also the most common for home bakers. Fresh and some frozen fruit may be used. The most common ingredient is fresh apple; however, pears, frozen apples, and frozen berries may also be used.

The process involves combining the prepared fruit with sugar, a starch such as cornstarch, flavorings, and butter and then depositing the mixture into a pie tin. It is important to pile the uncooked fruit into a dome in the center of the tin, as it will significantly shrink in volume during baking. During the baking process, the fruit will relax and settle, filling in any empty space. When the pastry is golden brown, the filling is boiling, and the fruit is tender, the pie is done.

The primary precaution for the uncooked fruit method is to not prepare the fruit mixture too far in advance. As soon as the sugar comes into contact with the fruit, it begins to draw moisture out of the fruit, and portioning becomes more difficult. Consequently, when the sugar-starch-spice mixture is added to the fruit, it should be deposited in the tin immediately to ensure that the juice that does get pulled out of the fruit remains with the fruit in proper proportion.
FIGURE 13-9 UNCOOKED FRUIT METHOD

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[1] Combine the fruit, sugar,
starch, and spices.

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[2] Deposit the fruit filling
into a pie shell.

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[3] Dot with small chunks of
butter, if applicable, and lay
the top dough over it.


Uncooked Fruit Method Process

* Prepare the pie shells and reserve in the refrigerator.

* Scale all the ingredients, and prepare the fruit.

* Combine the starch, sugar, and spice.

* Combine the starch-sugar mixture with the fruit. (See Uncooked Fruit Method Figure 13-9, Step 1.)

* Deposit filling into the pie shells and finish the makeup process. (See Uncooked Fruit Method Figure 13-9, Steps 2-3.)

* Bake as soon as possible.

Cooked Fruit Method

The cooked fruit method is typically used for firmer fruits that can withstand being cooked before they are deposited into the pie. Fresh apples and crisp pears are the most common fruits used for this method.

The thickening action for cooked fruit pies happens before the pie goes into the oven. To begin, the starch is combined with the sugar and spices. The butter is melted in a pot and the apples or other fresh fruit are added to saute. After the fruit cooks slightly, the sugar-starch mixture is added, and the mixture is cooked until the starch thickens. It is important to control the degree to which the filling cooks because the fruit will soften further as it bakes in the pie. Transfer the cooked filling to a shallow pan and allow it to cool. After it has cooled, it can be deposited and baked as normal.

Because the filling has already been cooked, it does not need to be domed as in the uncooked fruit method. It also will not shrink much during the baking process.

Cooked Fruit Method Process

* Prepare the pie shells and reserve in the refrigerator or prepare while the filling is cooling.

* Scale all the ingredients, and prepare the fruit. Combine the starch, sugar, and spice.

* In a large pot, melt the butter; add the prepared fruit, and saute. (See Cooked Fruit Method Figure 13-10, Step 1.)

* Combine the starch-sugar mixture with the fruit, and stir to incorporate. (See Cooked Fruit Method Figure 13-10, Step 2.)

* Cook until the starch has swelled. Do not overwork or overcook the fruit during the cooking process. (See Cooked Fruit Method Figure 13-10, Step 3.)

* Transfer to a shallow pan, cover with plastic wrap, and allow to cool. (See Cooked Fruit Method Figure 13-10, Step 4.)

* Deposit into the pie shells, and finish the makeup process.

* Bake or freeze as soon as possible.
FIGURE 13-10
COOKED FRUIT
METHOD

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[1] Saute the prepared fruit
with melted butter.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Add the mixture of sugar,
starch, and spices into
the fruit, and mix to
incorporate.

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[3] Cook until the starch is
swelled and the mixture
starts to thicken.

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[4] After cooked, transfer the
mixture into a shallow
container, and allow to cool.


Cooked Fruit Juice Method

The cooked fruit juice method is used with certain, more delicate fruits, where thickening is not as consistent as it is with sturdier fruits like apples and pears. This method preserves the integrity and appearance of more fragile fruits, such as canned fruits and berries because only the juice is thickened before the pie is baked. The ingredients for this preparation include fruit juice, fruit, starch, and flavorings.

The method of preparation is to cook some of the juices from the fruit (or from another fruit) with the sugar-starch mixture and spices. The thickened juice-sugar-starch mixture is poured over the fruit, and the two are mixed just to combine. The filling should be refrigerated until cool and then deposited into the pie tin. Unlike the uncooked and cooked fruit methods, cooked fruit juice fillings are typically rather fluid and must not exceed in height the rim of the pan. Lattice crusts are generally used as the second crust for these pies because they allow a large portion of steam to escape.

Cooked Fruit Juice Method Process

* Prepare the pie shells and reserve in the refrigerator, or prepare while the filling is cooling.

* Scale all the ingredients.

* In a pot, bring the fruit juice to a boil.

* Combine the starch with the small quantity of fruit juice or water in the formula. (See Cooked Fruit Juice Method Figure 13-11, Step 1.) Add it to the boiling fruit juice, and stir to incorporate. (See Cooked Fruit Juice Method Figure 13-11, Step 2.)

* Add any sugar or spices.

* Boil for 1 minute until the starch has swelled.

* Pour over the reserved fruit and gently combine. Note: Be careful to not break down the fruit when folding it into the cooked fruit juice. For easiest production, defrost fruit for the pie overnight in a colander under refrigeration. (See Cooked Fruit Juice Method Figure 13-11, Step 3.)

* Transfer to a shallow pan, cover with plastic wrap, and allow to cool.

* Deposit into the pie shells and finish the makeup process. (See Cooked Fruit Juice Method Figure 13-11, Step 4.)

* Bake or freeze as soon as possible.
FIGURE 13-11
COOKED FRUIT
JUICE METHOD

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[1] While bring the fruit
juice to a boil, combine the
starch with a small quality
of fruit juice or water.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Add the starch mixture,
sugar, and spices into the
boiling liquid, and cook
until thickened.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Combine the cooked juice
and fruits gently. Transfer
into a shallow container,
cover with plastic on
contact, and allow to cool.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Deposit the filling into a
prepared pie shell.


Overview of Fruit Filling Methods

The baker or pastry chef has many options when making a fruit pie. Depending on the fruit, the uncooked method can work very well for more rustic-style, free form fruit pies known as galettes. This method is also favorable for holiday pie production because it is fast and requires no refrigeration of the filling. It is also much more efficient than the cooked fruit method, when cooking and cooling enough apples for 1,000 pies requires significantly more time and equipment.

The benefits of the cooked fruit method are that the thickening process is more controlled, and more fruit can be deposited into the pie tin. Only fruit that can withstand the cooking process should be used, and caution must be taken to prevent overcooking. For example, crisp pears will work, but very ripe pears will not. Canned and frozen fruits should never be used for this type of filling.

The cooked fruit juice method is ideal for canned fruits and fresh or frozen berries. Because only the juice of the fruit is thickened, fragile fruit remains whole. The drawback of the cooked fruit method is that the finished product requires refrigeration, which, for most bakeries, is at a premium.

CUSTARD PIE

Custard pie is characterized by the ingredient function of the egg acting as the main setting and thickening agent. Custard pies include varieties such as buttermilk, pumpkin, quiche, and pecan. To create a great custard pie, it is necessary to understand the baking properties of both the crust and the filling and to take appropriate measures to ensure that the crust is crisp and the filling is supple.

Custard Pie Method

The process for making custard pies is simple and straightforward. In general, all the ingredients are mixed to combine, with care taken to ensure that minimal air is mixed into the custard. After the custard filling is mixed, it may be used or reserved until needed. Some fillings can last for a couple of days under refrigeration, which is beneficial for operations that want to offer fresh pie every day but lack the time to prepare fillings on a daily basis.

Pie Dough Selection for Custard Pie When using pie dough for custard pie, it should always be mealy. Mealy pie dough will help prevent the crust from becoming soggy before and after the baking process. There are two approaches to preparing the crust for custard pies: Bake the filling in an unbaked shell or bake the filling in a blind-baked shell. Depending on the size of the pie, the type of oven, and/or the type of sheet pans being used (perforated or not), one method may be preferred over the other.

Baking Guidelines for Custard Pie For custard pies that begin the baking process with unbaked crusts, the baking process should begin at a high temperature and finish at a lower temperature. During the early stages of baking, the higher heat is essential for the pastry to bake within such a wet environment. After the crust has browned, the baking temperature should be lowered to finish baking the filling. For all custard pies, cooking the filling to the correct stage is a critical control point. If the filling is overcooked, it can curdle and lose its smoothness.

Getting a high heat to the crust of an unbaked, filled custard pie can be accomplished in a number of different ways. If a deck oven is available, baking the pie on a hearth is the easiest method of transferring heat to the dough. However, in this situation, dropping the heat rapidly enough to cook the custard evenly may be a challenge. An ideal option for the commercial baker is to bake pies in the convection oven on perforated sheet pans. This method will ensure sufficient heat transfer to bake the dough quickly. Convection ovens are also more efficient than deck ovens when temperatures must be staged in the baking process.

The other option for baking custard pies is to fill a partially blind-baked crust with the filling and bake at a low-to-medium temperature of 300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) to 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven. At this low temperature, the crust will not readily brown, yet the heat will be sufficient to cook the filling. This method works well for smaller operations or for those without ideal baking conditions because it guarantees a baked crust.

Custard Pie Process

* Prepare the pie shells, and reserve in the refrigerator or blind bake as needed.

* Scale all the ingredients for the filling.

* Combine all the ingredients and mix well. Note: Be careful not to incorporate air during the mixing process.

* Deposit the filling into the pie shells.

* Bake as soon as possible.

CREAM PIE

Cream pie is always unbaked. It consists of a blind-baked crust and a cooked-stirred custard topped with whipped cream and an applicable garnish. Additional ingredients can be added to the custard to make variations such as chocolate cream, coconut cream, and peanut butter cream. To better understand cream pies, please review cooked-stirred custards and whipped cream in Chapter 15.

Crust Selection for Cream Pie

The crust for a cream pie may be mealy, flaky, or a composite, depending on the baker's requirements. If using a mealy crust, no precautions need to be taken. If using a flaky or composite crust, a moisture barrier must be created between the filling and the crust to prevent the crust from becoming soggy. Some brush a very thin layer of white or dark chocolate over the crust, while others prefer cocoa butter because it provides a more neutral taste.

Fillings for Cream Pie

In cream pies, a pastry cream or variation of a pastry cream is the main component of the custard portion. The exact formulation is based on balancing the sugars, thickeners, and fats with those of the add-in ingredients, which can include chocolate, coconut, peanut butter, and more. One needs to taste and evaluate the product for texture and flavor accordingly.

For example, a chocolate cream pie formula that calls for a 72 percent dark chocolate will have a different taste and texture if the same weight of a 50 percent chocolate is used instead. The pie using the chocolate with a lower cocoa content will have less chocolate flavor, a sweeter taste, and a reduced setting property. To obtain a better result, the quantity of the chocolate with the lower cocoa percent should be increased, which will boost the cocoa content, flavor, and setting properties. At the same time, the amount of sugar in the custard base should be decreased because the additional chocolate will add sugar.
FIGURE 13-12
CREAM PIE

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Combine the warmed
custard base and melted
chocolate in a mixing bowl.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Mix to combine.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Deposit into a prebaked
pie shell.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Smooth the surface and
refrigerate.


Depositing the Filling Depositing the filling into the crust is an important step in making cream pies, especially if it is chocolate-based. All pie shells should be baked and at room temperature before they are filled. When the filling is slightly warm, at about 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C) to 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), it can be deposited into the shell. The best method for depositing depends on the formula quantity and the size of the pie. Larger pies can be poured, and smaller pies can be piped. At the desired amount, which is generally about three-fourths of the way up the crust, the filling should be smoothed out if necessary and cooled under refrigeration. After the filling has cooled, it can be topped with whipped cream and garnished as desired. It is critical to deposit the filling before it sets so that the pie will cut more easily and the slices will look cleaner.

Cream Pie Process

* Prepare the pie shells and blind bake.

* Scale all the ingredients for the filling.

* Cook the custard, and then transfer it to the bowl of a mixer fitted with the whip attachment.

* Whip on low speed and add any flavoring ingredients such as chocolate, nut pastes, and coconut. Whip until slightly warm, about 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C) to 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C). (See Cream Pie Figure 13-12, Steps 1-2.)

* Deposit into the pie shells, and smooth the surface. (See Cream Pie Figure 13-12, Steps 3-4.)

* Refrigerate until cool, ice with creme Chantilly, and garnish as desired.

General Considerations for Cream Pie

Precautions for cream pie composition and makeup include careful preparation of crust, filling and creme Chantilly, all of which will affect the visual and textural properties of the pie. Other precautions include sanitation and shelf life. The maximum amount of time a cream pie should be in the refrigerator or display case is two days, because the fresh cream and high ratio of liquid ingredients in the custard filling are susceptible to spoilage and microbial contamination. All equipment should be cleaned before preparations are begun and hands should never come into contact with ready-to-eat foods.

CHIFFON PIE

Chiffon pie is a classic American dessert, popular in restaurants and bakeries alike. This "light-as-air" pie relies on a base, egg foam, and sometimes whipped cream to attain its texture. Similar to a mousse in composition and preparation, chiffon requires several steps, with special attention to temperature and the degree to which the egg whites and cream are whipped.

Chiffon pies are composed of a blind-baked pie crust, the chiffon filling, whipped cream, and a garnish.

Chiffon Filling: The Base

The base gives chiffon filling its flavor and, in the case of chocolate, can potentially affect the texture as well. The base can consist of a ganache, a fruit puree, or even a flavored creme Anglaise. A portion of the sugar in the filling can be added to the base, which is typically ready to be elaborated once it cools to 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) to 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C).

Chiffon Filling: Egg Foam

The egg foam for a chiffon pie is a common meringue comprised of egg whites and sugar, and it should be whipped to a medium peak before being added to the base. If the foam is underwhipped, a loss of volume will occur; if it is overwhipped, the foam will be difficult to incorporate, and the texture may be rough. For chiffon preparations to be safe to consume, it is critical to use pasteurized egg whites. Please review Chapter 15 for important information about whipping egg whites, along with the various stages of development.

Chiffon Filling: Whipped Cream

Whipped cream is an optional ingredient in chiffon preparations. To ensure optimal whipping properties and strength, it should have a fat content of 35 to 40 percent. The cream can be whipped to very soft peaks and reserved in the refrigerator until needed, or it may be whipped just before it is needed. Whipped cream is always the last ingredient added to a chiffon filling; this prevents overdeveloping the cream during incorporation. Please review Chapter 15 for a complete review of whipping cream.

Chiffon Filling: Setting Agents

Setting agents are required to stabilize the delicate matrix of the base, egg foam, and whipped cream (if used). The most common setting agent is gelatin, which must first be bloomed, melted, added to the base, and then well incorporated. The temperature of the base must be warm enough to ensure that the gelatin does not set on contact with it.

Chiffon Method

Upon acquiring an understanding of chiffon's components and its special requirements, one can learn and master a general process for the elaboration of this filling.

The first step is to scale all ingredients and whip the cream to soft peaks, if applicable. Next, the base can be prepared and the gelatin can be bloomed, melted, and well-incorporated with the base. When the base is at about 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) to 104[degrees]F (40[degrees]C), the meringue can be prepared to medium peaks. Next, if cream is used, it can be finished to the desired soft-peak stage.

To begin the elaboration of the base, add one-third of the meringue and incorporate it with a whisk. Next, gently add the remaining meringue in two batches, gently folding in with a rubber spatula. Take care to mix only to incorporation. Lastly, add the whipped cream in two stages, folding just to incorporation with the rubber spatula.

After the filling has been prepared, deposit it into a fully blind-baked pie shell. The filling should be mounded slightly into the tin, rising only one-half to three-fourths of the way up the side of the pan. It may be higher toward the center. The pie should then be refrigerated to allow the filling to set up slightly. When it is firmer, it can be iced with some creme Chantilly and garnished as desired.
FIGURE 13-13 LINING TART PANS

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] After sheeting the tart
dough, dock it if necessary and
cut into the desired shapes
and sizes. Places the dough in
the refrigerator until cool.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Lay the dough onto a tart
mold, and start securing from
the bottom first.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Make sure that every part
of the dough is in contact with
the mold.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Cut off the excess dough
on the edge using a paring
knife.


Chiffon Process

* Prepare the pie shells and blind bake.

* Scale all the ingredients for the filling.

* Whip the cream to soft peaks and reserve in the refrigerator, or whip just before it is needed.

* Prepare the base, and bloom and melt the gelatin.

* Combine the base and gelatin and prepare the meringue to medium peaks.

* Whisk one-third of the meringue into the base. Fold the remaining two-thirds in with a rubber spatula in two stages.

* Finish whipping the cream to the desired stage and add to the filling in two stages, using the rubber spatula.

* Deposit into the prepared pie shells.

* Refrigerate until set, finish with creme Chantilly, and garnish as desired.

Precautions for Chiffon

The precautions that must be observed for chiffon pies are similar to those of cream pies. The filling contains a large amount of liquid, egg white, and cream, making it essential that the egg white be pasteurized and all of the ingredients be fresh. Precautions must also be taken during the preparation of this delicate filling. Observing temperature guidelines and incorporating ingredients at the proper rate and order are critical steps in attaining the light, ethereal texture known as chiffon.

PIE CONCLUSION

In order to make a good pie, the baker must have a good understanding of several key elements: mixing the dough, making the filling, working with the dough, depositing filling, finishing and assembly, baking times and temperatures, and, potentially, decorating techniques. Whether the finished product is as simple as apple pie, or as complex as chiffon, success depends on a thorough knowledge of both the processes and techniques involved.

TARTS

Tarts are the pastry chef's answer to the baker's pie. Though tarts are based on concepts very similar to those of pie, composition dictates whether the similarities and differences are slight or drastic. Tarts are generally no more than 1 inch (3 cm) thick. They always have a bottom crust and occasionally will have a top crust. Like pies, tarts may be baked or unbaked. Baked tarts usually contain an almond cream-based filling, such as frangipane, and fruit and the tart dough is baked with the filling. Other baked tart fillings may be based on rice, ricotta, or even jam. Unbaked tarts are composed of a blind-baked tart shell and may be filled with pastry cream and topped with fruit or a more complex composition such as raspberry gelee with dark chocolate mousse. In addition, some baked tarts may be combined with components often used on unbaked tarts.

There are some standard differences between tarts and pie. Tarts are usually baked in a short-sided specialty mold that may or may not have a bottom. Unlike the more fragile pie, tarts are served outside of their tin. They have straighter sides, and are made with dough that is richer and crisper than pie dough. Tarts also come in many different shapes and sizes: Contemporary tarts can be the size of petits fours or entremets and can be circular, oval, square, or a specialty shape. Finally, tarts are usually finished with apricot glaze, powdered sugar, fruit, or chocolate garnish.

WORKING WITH TART DOUGH

The working points of tart dough are very similar to those of pie dough; however, tart dough is more challenging to work with. Like pie dough, tart dough must be reserved under refrigeration for at least 4 hours before working with it to ensure that the dough is well chilled and that the gluten has relaxed.

Rolling Out Tart Dough

Tart dough may be rolled out by hand or on a dough sheeter. Either way, it is essential that tart dough be worked with quickly and efficiently because as it is rolled thinner and thinner, it warms at a faster rate. As tart dough warms, it is more prone to damage from mishandling.

Lining Tart Pans

When producing tarts, it is common practice to sheet or roll out the dough, dock it if necessary, cut out circles, transfer them to sheet pans and reserve them in the refrigerator until cool. Working with cooler dough makes it easier to line tart pans and create an end product that looks nicer in a shorter amount of working time. (See Lining Tart Pans Figure 13-13.) When lining tart pans, it is important that the tart dough be relaxed into the mold, ensuring that the dough is not stretched and is in contact with all parts of the mold, especially the walls. (See Figure 13-14.)

[FIGURE 13-14 OMITTED]

BAKING TART DOUGH

Baking tart dough is similar to baking pie dough. Depending on the application, the dough may be blind baked or baked with a filling. Like pie dough, it is ideal for tart dough to rest at least a half hour before baking to limit the risk of shrinkage and the tart's sides falling.

Because tart dough needs to be baked until crisp, proper oven temperature is critical. If tart dough is blind baked, 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C) in a convection oven is a good starting point, although some pastry chefs prefer to bake at a slightly lower temperature, such as 315[degrees]F (155[degrees]C) to 325[degrees]F (165[degrees]C) for a longer amount of time. This ensures that a higher level of moisture will be baked out of the dough, resulting in a dryer, crisper crust. For baked tarts, such as an almond pear tart, it is helpful to bake on a perforated sheet pan to allow maximum heat transfer to the crust.

Depending on the local climate, tart shells will have different shelf life. In climates with lower humidity, baked tart shells stored in airtight containers keep well at room temperature for about a week. For longer storage, they should be stored in an airtight container in the freezer.

Storage of Unbaked Tart Dough

Unbaked tart dough can be stored in bulk, or it can be sheeted and portioned in the refrigerator for up to several days. It is best to store tart dough on a parchment-lined sheet pan, covered with plastic wrap. Well-wrapped, unbaked tart dough can also be stored in the freezer for up to several months.

Troubleshooting Tart Dough

More things tend to go wrong with tart dough than pie dough. Insufficient mixing, improper ingredient selection and baking conditions, and mishandling of the dough can lead to problems in the final product. For troubleshooting tart dough faults and potential causes, refer to Figure 13-15.

BAKED TARTS

Whether fruit is seasonal, fresh, or frozen, baked tarts offer a sleek and sophisticated presentation. Baked tarts always start with unbaked dough, and almost always contain an additional filling, such as creamy, sweetened ricotta, a rich and flavorful frangipane, jam, or a simple pastry cream. For a full explanation of the preparation of assorted creams, please see Chapter 15.
Figure 13-15 Tart Dough Faults and Causes

Fault                       Causes

Dough is too tough.         * Too little fat was used.
                            * Flour was too strong.
                            * Dough was overmixed.

Dough shrinks when          * Dough was not rested enough before
rolled out.                   rolling out.
                            * Dough was overmixed.
                            * Flour was too strong.

Crust is soggy on the       * It Filling was too fluid.
bottom.                     * Blind bake was not enough.
                            * Oven temperature was too low.
                            * Tart was underbaked.

Crust is too tough.         * Too strong flour was used.
                            *  Dough was overmixed.
                            * Tart was overbaked.

Crust shrunk from the       * Flour was too strong.
side of the pan.            * Dough was overmixed.
                            * Dough did not rest enough when cut out.
                            * Dough was stretched too much when lining
                              the pan.


Basic Assembly of Baked Tarts

When the entire mise en place is ready, tart assembly can begin, with specific steps taken to ensure successful production and baking. For example, when assembling large quantities of baked tarts using almond cream or frangipane filling, the filling must be at room temperature for ease of piping. After all of the tart pans have been lined with the dough, depositing the proper amount of almond cream is critical. If too little cream is deposited, the tart will lack in volume. If there is too much, it will take a long time to bake, and the filling may bake out of the pan. Next, the fruit or other topping may be placed atop the almond cream or frangipane filling in a decorative way. At this point, the tart may be baked, or it may be reserved under refrigeration to be baked within a day.

Fruit Selection: Baked Tarts

The type of fruit will determine the amount of filling to put in the tart. For baked tarts, canned and fresh fruits are popular. Commonly used canned fruits include pears and apricots. Fresh fruits, while endless in variety, may include apples, figs, and the pit fruits. Fruit can be prepared in a variety of ways: cut in slices or wedges, or left whole. If fresh fruit is used, it can be sprinkled with a little sugar before baking.

Baking Guidelines for Baked Tarts

When baking tarts, several components need to be considered. Fruit tarts need to be baked in a high enough heat for the dough to form a crisp crust. The filling needs to bake until it sets up, and the fruit must be tender by the time the baking is complete. For an 8 inch (20 cm) tart, 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C) in a convection oven is a high enough temperature to ensure a crisp crust, baked filling, and tender fruit. For larger tarts, or tarts that are thicker than average, the temperature may need to be lowered to ensure even baking.

Finishing Guidelines for Baked Tarts

Baked tarts are usually finished to heighten the presentation and add protection. For baked tarts, the finishing process usually involves a simple brushing of apricot glaze. The hot glaze is brushed over the surface of the tart and acts as a protective barrier, helping to prevent baked fruit from drying out and the tart from absorbing ambient moisture. In addition to apricot glaze, fresh fruit, chocolate, powdered or pearl sugar, or nuts may be used to add additional flair to the product.

General Process for Baked Tarts

* Prepare the tart shells.

* Pipe the filling into the tart shell to the proper height. (See Baked Tarts Figure 13-16, Step 1.)

* If applicable, prepare the fruit as needed, and arrange on top of the cream. (See Baked Tarts Figure 13-16, Step 2.)

* If applicable, top the tart with the top crust (vented), and seal it securely.

* Bake until done, remove from the pan, and finish as desired.

UNBAKED TARTS

The scope of ingredients in an unbaked tart is limited only by one's imagination; however, it will always combine a blind-baked tart shell with some sort of unbaked filling. A simple unbaked tart, for example, can consist of a tart shell filled with pastry cream and topped with fresh fruit. For the more ambitious, an endless array of creams and fillings can be applied to create many different varieties, some of which can be found in the formula section of this book. No matter what the preparation, there are several key factors in creating a successful unbaked tart.

Baking Guidelines for Unbaked Tarts

To create a good unbaked tart, the tart shell must be properly blind baked to a golden brown color. Also, because the filling for unbaked tarts is usually moist, it is necessary to apply with a very light coating of chocolate or cocoa butter to prevent the crust from getting soggy.

Assembly and Composition Guidelines for Unbaked Tarts

The assembly of unbaked tarts is typically straightforward. After the optional protective coating of chocolate has been applied to the crust, the filling may be deposited. Tarts should be filled to just below the rim, taking care to not get any filling on the outside or the ridge of the crust. The ridge of the tart should remain visible and clean. The surface of the filled tart should be level. In certain instances, a filling such as a mousse or other specialty cream may rise above the ridge of the crust. In these cases, the ridge of the crust may or may not be visible, depending on the design of the dessert.
FIGURE 13-16 BAKED TARTS

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Pipe the filling into the
tart shells to the proper
height.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Arrange the fruit on top of
the filling.


Finishing Guidelines for Unbaked Tarts

Unbaked tarts allow the pastry chef to use many different components of pastry and to develop creative presentations and flavor combinations. Finishing varies by the preparation, with simple fruit tarts typically brushed with hot apricot glaze to preserve the integrity of the fruit and add to its appearance. Any tarts containing a ganache or cremeux should be glazed to protect the filling from drying and oxidation. Unbaked tarts containing mousse or more advanced components may include sprayed chocolate, sugar or chocolate decor, fresh fruit, or candied nuts.

General Process for Unbaked Tarts

* Prepare the tart shells, and blind bake.

* Remove the shells from the molds, and deposit the filling into the tart shell to the proper height.

* If applicable, prepare the fruit as needed, and arrange on top of the filling.

* If applicable, apply additional components such as previously prepared mousse or glaze.

TARTS CONCLUSION

Tarts are based on pastry dough that is typically richer and sweeter than piecrust. The creation of tarts is a more delicate process than pie making, and the scope is vast, providing many options based on available ingredients and desired product composition. Seasonal tarts, such as a fresh fruit tart in the summer, are an excellent way to highlight local, fresh produce. At the same time, a delicious almond pear tart may be made year-round. For special occasions or high-end pastry shops, the tart composition may incorporate mousse or other advanced creams as a way to elevate overall product quality.
FORMULA

OLD FASHIONED APPLE PIE

Apple pies were quite popular in Europe, especially in England,
well before they became an American symbol. The popularity of
the apple pie in the United States coincided with the country's
growth into the world's largest apple-producing nation. This old
fashioned apple pie is reminiscent of classic versions baked over
several generations in American kitchens.

Components

Mealy and Flaky Pie Dough

Apple Filling

Apple Filling Formula

Ingredients               Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Apples, peeled, sliced      100.00         3.578          7.888
Lemon juice                   1.46         0.052          0.115
Sugar                        20.00         0.716          1.578
Cornstarch                    2.40         0.086          0.189
Salt                          0.15         0.005          0.012
Cinnamon                      0.15         0.005          0.012
Nutmeg                        0.05         0.002          0.004
Raisins, soaked               6.10         0.218          0.481
Butter                        2.44         0.087          0.192
Total                       132.75         4.750         10.471

Ingredients               Lb & Oz         Test

Apples, peeled, sliced    7 14 1/4     1 lb 9 1/4 oz
Lemon juice                  1 7/8            3/8 oz
Sugar                      1 9 1/4              5 oz
Cornstarch                   3                5/8 oz
Salt                           1/4           1/8 tsp
Cinnamon                       1/4           1/8 tsp
Nutmeg                         1/8           1/8 tsp
Raisins, soaked              7 3/4          1 1/2 oz
Butter                       3 1/8            5/8 oz
Total                     10 7 1/2    21 lb 1 1/2 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] double-crust pies
Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] double-crust pie

Mise en Place

1. Roll out the pie dough and line the pie pans with the bottom crust.

2. Reserve in the refrigerator until the filling is prepared.

Process, Apple Filling

1. Peel, core, and slice the apples.

2. Combine the apple slices and lemon juice in a large mixing bowl.

3. Mix together the sugar, cornstarch, salt, and spices.

4. Add to the apples and toss until mixed.

5. Fold in the drained, soaked raisins.

Assembly and Baking

1. Fill the pie shells. Dot the top of the filling with butter. Create
vents in the top dough and secure to the bottom dough with a decorative
border.

2. Brush with an egg wash or cream wash and sprinkle with granulated
sugar.

3. Bake at 385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C) in a convection oven for about
40 to 45 minutes.

FORMULA

PUMPKIN PIE

When Pilgrims first arrived in the New World, they learned a variety
of useful cooking methods from the Native Americans, including
their use of pumpkins. The earliest version of the pumpkin pie
was not really a pie at all; it was more like a pumpkin pudding.
Settlers would scoop out a pumpkin, fill it with milk and pumpkin
flesh, and then cook it for hours in hot ashes, often adding spices
and syrup. A few decades later in France, Francois Pierre Varenne,
the famous French chef and author, wrote Le Vrai Cuisinier Francois
(The True French Cook), which featured a recipe for a pumpkin
pie that included pastry. By the late 1600s, recipes for variations of
pumpion pie were appearing in English cookbooks and eventually
made their way to America, where serving pumpkin pie became a
tradition for Thanksgiving celebrations that continues to this day.

Components

Mealy Pie Dough

Pumpkin Pie Filling

Pumpkin Pie Filling Formula

Ingredients              Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Eggs                         23.70        0.288          0.635
Pumpkin puree               100.00        1.215          2.678
Brown sugar                  75.10        0.912          2.011
Cinnamon                      0.41        0.005          0.011
Nutmeg                        0.21        0.003          0.006
Ginger                        0.21        0.003          0.006
Cloves                        0.21        0.003          0.006
Allspice                      0.21        0.003          0.006
Salt                          0.62        0.008          0.017
Evaporated milk              99.79        1.212          2.672
Butter, melted                8.23        0.100          0.220
Total                       308.69        3.750          8.267

Ingredients               Lb & Oz          Test

Eggs                        10 1/8             2 oz
Pumpkin puree               14 5/8         8 1/2 oz
Brown sugar                  2 1/8         6 3/8 oz
Cinnamon                       1/8          1/8 tsp
Nutmeg                         1/8          1/8 tsp
Ginger                         1/8          1/8 tsp
Cloves                         1/8          1/8 tsp
Allspice                       1/8          1/8 tsp
Salt                           1/4          1/2 tsp
Evaporated milk          2 10 3/4          8 1/2 oz
Butter, melted               3 1/2           3/4 oz
Total                     8 4 1/4    1 lb 10 3/8 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] single-crust pies
Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] single-crust pie

Mise en Place

1. Roll out the pie dough and line the pie pans with the bottom crust.

2. Reserve in the refrigerator until the filling is prepared.

Process, Pumpkin Pie Filling

1. Break up the eggs with a whisk. Add the pumpkin, brown sugar,
spices, and salt; mix well.

2. Mix in the evaporated milk and melted butter.

3. Blend with an immersion blender until smooth.

Assembly and Baking

1. Deposit the filling evenly among the pies, just below the surface of
the rim of the pie.

2. Bake for 15 minutes at 385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C) in a convection
oven.

3. Turn the oven down to 300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) and bake for an
additional 30 to 40 minutes or until just barely set in the center.

4. Remove from the oven and allow to cool.

FORMULA

PECAN PIE

Some say that French settlers in New Orleans invented pecan
pie after learning about pecans from the Native Americans of the
region. Others believe that pecan pie is a 20th century invention
inspired by traditional sugar pies and sweet nut confections. Even
though its origins may be in doubt, pecan pie is undeniably connected
most strongly with the American South, where many other
pecan-based foods are also an important element of the local cuisine.
This version, based on a buttery and flaky crust, is less sweet
than some others, allowing the true flavor of the pecans and rich
custard to shine.

Components

Mealy Pie Dough

Custard Filling

Custard Filling Formula

Ingredients         Baker's %      Kilogram       US decimal

Eggs                    71.43        0.498          1.098
Brown sugar             71.43        0.498          1.098
Light corn syrup       100.00        0.697          1.537
Butter, melted          21.43        0.149          0.329
Vanilla extract          3.57        0.025          0.055
Salt                     1.43        0.010          0.022
Pecans                  89.29        0.622          1.372
Total                  358.58        2.500          5.511

Ingredients          Lb & Oz           Test

Eggs                 1 1 5/8         3 1/2 oz
Brown sugar          1 1 5/8         3 1/2 oz
Light corn syrup     1 8 5/8         4 7/8 oz
Butter, melted         5 1/4             1 oz
Vanilla extract          7/8            1 tsp
Salt                     3/8          1/2 tsp
Pecans               1     6         4 3/8 oz
Total                5 8 1/8    1 lb 1 5/8 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)) single-crust pies
Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)) single-crust pie

Mise en Place

1. Roll out the pie dough and line the pie tins with the bottom crust.

2. Reserve in the refrigerator until the filling is prepared.

Process, Custard Filling

1. Warm the eggs to 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C), and reserve.

2. Whisk together the brown sugar and corn syrup; add the melted
butter.

3. Whisk in the vanilla and salt.

4. Add the warmed, slightly beaten whole eggs to the sugar mixture
slowly.

5. Avoid incorporating air into this mixture.

Assembly and Baking

1. Arrange the pecans in the unbaked pie shell and portion the custard
over the nuts.

2. Bake at 365[degrees]F (185[degrees]C) for 10 minutes in a convection
oven and then at 300[degrees]F (165[degrees]C) for 30 to 35 minutes or
until the filling is set.

FORMULA

CHOCOLATE CREAM PIE

Many Americans fondly recall classic chocolate cream pie beckoning
from the display case of their favorite roadside diner. This nostalgic
dessert has been updated for a new century, with luxurious ingredients
and elegant finishing, but it retains the basic elements that have made
it such a lasting favorite: rich, creamy dark chocolate custard and
mounds of tempting whipped cream atop a flaky all-butter piecrust.

Components

Blind-Baked Flaky Pie Dough

Chocolate Custard

Creme Chantilly

Chocolate Shavings and Powdered Sugar

Chocolate Custard Formula

Ingredients         Baker's %      Kilogram       US decimal

Whole milk              60.00        0.758          1.671
Heavy cream             40.00        0.505          1.114
Sugar # 1               10.00        0.126          0.278
Cornstarch               5.00        0.063          0.139
Sugar #2                20.00        0.253          0.557
Egg yolks               15.00        0.189          0.418
Butter                  13.00        0.164          0.362
72% chocolate           25.00        0.316          0.696
Total                  188.00        2.375          5.235

Ingredients           Lb & Oz          Test

Whole milk           1 10 3/4        5 3/8 oz
Heavy cream          1  1 7/8        3 5/8 oz
Sugar # 1               4 1/2          7/8 oz
Cornstarch              2 1/4          1/2 oz
Sugar #2                8 7/8        1 3/4 oz
Egg yolks               6 5/8        1 3/8 oz
Butter                  5 3/4        1 1/8 oz
72% chocolate          11 1/8        2 1/4 oz
Total                5  3 3/4     1 lb 3/4 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] single-crust pies
Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] single-crust pie

Process, Chocolate Custard

1. In a stainless steel pot, boil the milk, cream, and first sugar.

2. Combine the second sugar with the cornstarch.

3. Combine the egg yolks and sugar-cornstarch mixture.

4. Once the milk mixture boils, temper one-third of it into the egg
mixture.

5. Return the tempered sugar-yolk mixture to the milk and bring the
mixture back to a boil, stirring constantly.

6. Once cooked, transfer the custard to a bowl fitted with the whip
attachment.

7. Add the chocolate and mix on low speed. Add the butter and mix until
smooth.

8. Once just warm to the touch, fill the blind-baked pie shells
three-fourths of the way up the side of the pie shell and cool to set
the filling.

9. Top with creme Chantilly. Garnish with chocolate shavings and
powdered sugar.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FORMULA

QUICHE

Although most closely associated today with the French, quiche actually
originated in Germany, in the medieval kingdom of Lothringen,
under German rule, which the French later renamed Lorraine. The
word quiche is from the German Kuchen, meaning "cake." Originally
the quiche began with a bread dough, but today pie dough or pate
brisee is the base of choice. Quiche became popular in England and
in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s. Originally available
in mainly vegetarian variations, the quiche evolved to include ham,
seafood, and other varieties as endless as the imagination of the cook.

Custard Filling Formula

Ingredients     Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Heavy cream         100.00       0.848          1.869
Milk                100.00       0.848          1.869
Eggs                 68.00       0.577          1.271
Egg yolks            25.00       0.212          0.467
Salt                  1.80       0.015          0.034
Pepper            To taste
Nutmeg            To taste
Total               294.80       2.500          5.511

Ingredients      Lb & Oz         Test

Heavy cream      1 13 7/8            6 oz
Milk             1 13 7/8            6 oz
Eggs             1  4 3/8        4 1/8 oz
Egg yolks           7 1/2        1 1/2 oz
Salt                  1/2         1/2 tsp
Pepper
Nutmeg
Total            5  8 1/8    1 lb 1 5/8 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] quiches (Note. Yield will vary depending
on quantity and type of fillings used.)
Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] quiche

Process, Custard Filling

Combine all the ingredients and blend well with an immersion blender.

Assembly and Baking

1. Line quiche molds or pie tins with the pastry dough and allow to
rest in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes. Blind bake the shells
before filling.

2. Prepare and cool the fillings and then deposit into the pastry
shells.

3. Fill with custard to just below the surface of the pastry.

4. Bake at 300[degrees]F (149[degrees]C) in a convection oven just
until the custard is set.

Note

Smaller quiches such as petits fours or single serving size do not need
to have their shells blind baked. For these, start at 350[degrees]F
(177[degrees]C) and then drop the temperature to 300[degrees]F
(149[degrees]C). Baking on a perforated sheet pan will also improve
crust color and crispness.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Lorraine Filling Formula

Ingredients         Quantity    US decimal    Lb & Oz

Ham, diced          0.090 kg      0.198       3
Bacon, cooked       0.100 kg      0.220       3 1/2
Grated emmental     0.090 kg      0.198       3

Yield: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] quiche

Chicken and Artichoke With Roasted Red Pepper Filling Formula

Ingredients         Quantity    US decimal    Lb & Oz

Chicken             0.100 kg      0.220       3 1/2
Artichoke           0.080 kg      0.176       2 3/4
Roasted pepper      0.050 kg      0.110       1

Yield: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] quiche

Spinach, Feta, and Roma Tomato Filling Formula

Ingredients         Quantity    US decimal    Lb & Oz

Spinach             0.080 kg      0.176       2 3/4
Feta                0.120 kg      0.264       4 1/4
Tomato              0.100 kg      0.220       3 1/2

Yield: 1 (9 inch (23 (m)] quiche

Mushroom and Swiss Filling Formula

Ingredients         Quantity    US decimal    Lb & Oz

Mushroom            0.150 kg      0.330       5 1/4
Thyme               0.002 kg      0.004       1 tsp
Swiss cheese        0.100 kg      0.220       3 1/2

Yield: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] quiche

Broccoli Cheddar Filling Formula

Ingredients         Quantity    US decimal    Lb & Oz

Broccoli            0.125 kg      0.275       4 1/4
Cheddar             0.125 kg      0.275       4 1/4

Yield: 1 (9 inch (23 cm)] quiche

FORMULA

PEAR ALMOND TART

This centerpiece dessert is a classic French tart often served during
autumn when its key ingredient is at its finest. Pear tarts are
surprisingly simple to make and are a sensational special occasion
dessert because of their simple, luxurious appearance and fragrant
ingredients. The combination of pears and frangipane in a buttery tart
dough crust never fails to dazzle.

Components              Quantity    US decimal    Lb & Oz

Pate sucree              250 g        0.550         8 1/2
Raspberry jam              SQ           SQ          SQ
Frangipane               500 g        1.102       1 1 1/2
Pear halves, poached       6            6           6
or canned
Apricot glaze              SQ           SQ          SQ

Yield: 1 (9 inch (23 cm)] tart

Process

1. Roll the dough large enough to fit a 9 inch
(23 cm) tart ring.

2. Line the tart ring and trim the edges.

3. Pipe a spiral of raspberry jam on the base
of the tart.

4. Pipe frangipane on the bottom of the tart
to cover.

5. Slice the pear halves.

6. Arrange six pear halves on the frangipane
with the small end facing toward the center.

7. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven
for about 35 minutes or until golden brown.

8. Brush with the glaze, and sprinkle sliced
almonds or pearl sugar decoratively around
the edge.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

FORMULA

FRESH FRUIT TART

Fresh fruit tarts are ubiquitous in pastry shops in the United States
and in Europe. The style can range from an organized presentation
of fruit to an abstract arrangement. Whatever the style, it is
essential to use quality ingredients and fresh components to ensure
the flavors and textures of the dessert are the best that they can
be. Creating a moisture barrier between the crust and the custard
filling is an optional step; however, it will greatly prolong the crisp
texture of the tart shell. Use seasonal fruit when it is at its best
and balance the shapes and colors of the fruit for a striking
appearance.

Components

Pate Sucree

Pastry Cream

Fresh Fruit

Apricot Glaze

Powdered Sugar

Assembly

1. Preheat the oven to 350[degrees]F (175[degrees]C).

2. Line the tart rings with the pate sucree, refrigerate, and then
blind bake.

3. Pipe a layer of pastry cream evenly on top of the pastry shell.
Place the fruit on top of the pastry cream and garnish with apricot
glaze and powdered sugar.

FORMULA

PASSION FRUIT TART

The intense flavor and intoxicating fragrance of the tropical passion
fruit distinguish it from other fruits commonly used in the creation
of seasonal tarts. Passion fruit is the edible fruit of the passion
flower, discovered by Spanish explorers who named their find in honor
of the passion of Christ. This is a simple tart consisting of a pate
sucree shell and passion cremeux, an exceptionally creamy filling
composed of passion fruit puree, sugar, egg yolks, butter, and gelatin.

Components

Blind-Baked Pate Sucree Tart Shells

Passion Fruit Cremeux

Italian Meringue

Neutral Glaze

Chocolate Decor

Passion Fruit Cremeux Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %      Kilogram      US decimal

Passion fruit puree        100.00       0.975          2.149
Sugar                       50.00       0.487          1.074
Egg yolks                   30.00       0.292          0.645
Eggs                        37.50       0.365          0.806
Gelatin                      1.50       0.015          0.032
Butter                      37.50       0.365          0.806
Total                      256.50       2.500          5.512

Ingredients             Lb & Oz          Test

Passion fruit puree     2  2 3/8         6 7/8 oz
Sugar                   1  1 1/4         3 3/8 oz
Egg yolks                 10 3/8             2 oz
Eggs                      12 7/8         2 5/8 oz
Gelatin                      1/2         2 sheets
Butter                    12 7/8         2 5/8 oz
Total                   5  8 1/8    1 lb 1 5/8 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] tart or 16 [4 inch (10 cm)] tartlets
Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] tart

Process, Passion Fruit Cremeux

1. Bring the puree to just below a boil with half of the sugar.

2. Combine the egg yolks, whole eggs, and the remainder of the sugar.

3. Pour one-third of the puree over the egg mixture and stir with a
spatula. Do not use a whisk as it will incorporate air.

4. Return the egg mixture to the pot and continue to stir constantly,
agitating the bottom of the pot.

5. Cook until the mixture is 180[degrees]F (82[degrees]C) and
thickened. Do not overcook.

6. Strain through a fine chinois into a clean, dry container. Add
gelatin, and stir to incorporate.

7. When the mixture is at 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C), add soft butter
using an immersion blender.

8. Deposit into blind-baked tart shells 1/8 inch from the top of the
tart and store covered in the freezer until ready for use.

Italian Meringue Formula

Ingredients   Baker's %   Kilogram   US decimal   Lb & Oz

Sugar            200.00    0.600       1.322      1  5 1/8
Water             60.00    0.180       0.397         6 3/8
Egg whites       100.00    0.300       0.661        10 5/8
Total            360.00    1.080       2.380      2  6 1/8

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] tarts

Process, Italian Meringue

1. Heat the sugar and water on the stove until it reaches the boiling
point.

2. In a mixer with the whisk attachment, mix the egg whites on second
speed.

3. When the sugar reaches soft ball stage [240[degrees]F
(118[degrees]C)], slowly pour it into the whipped egg whites. Continue
to mix for 10 minutes.

Assembly

Remove from the freezer and glaze with a very thin layer of neutral
glaze, decorate the border with Italian meringue, and garnish with
chocolate decor.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

TARTE TATIN

This famous French dessert, basically an upside-down apple tart
with caramelized apples, is supposedly the result of a happy accident.
Sisters Carolina and Stephanie Tatin ran l'Hotel Tatin in a small
rural town in the Loire Valley in the late 1800s. One day, Stephanie
was preparing her special apple tart when she inadvertently placed
it in the oven the wrong way round. Stephanie served the strange
tart warm, even after discovering that the pastry and apples were
upside-down. Her guests raved about the unusual creation, and a star
dessert was born. The French call this dessert Tarte des Demoiselles
Tatin--"the tart of two unmarried women named Tatin." Restaurateur
Louis Vaudable is usually given credit for the lasting renown of the
tarte Tatin. After tasting the tart one day, he made tarte Tatin a
permanent fixture on the menu at his restaurant, Maxim's of Paris.

Components

Puff Pastry

Apples

Caramel Sauce

Caramel Sauce Formula

Ingredients     Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Glucose              16.67      0.048         0.107
Sugar               100.00      0.290         0.640
Butter               33.33      0.097         0.213
Cream                22.22      0.065         0.142
Total               172.22      0.500         1.102

Ingredients      Lb & Oz        Test

Glucose              1 3/4       3/8 oz
Sugar               10 1/4         2 oz
Butter               3 3/8       5/8 oz
Cream                2 1/4       1/2 oz
Total             1  1 5/8     3 1/2 oz

Yield: 5 [6 inch (15 cm)] tarts
Test: 1 [6 inch (15 cm)] tart

Process, Caramel Sauce

1. Heat the glucose and add the sugar; cook to a deep golden brown.

2. Add the butter and stir to incorporate.

3. Add the cream while stirring constantly.

4. Deposit into the molds.

Assembly

1. Sheet out the puff pastry, dock, cut out 6 inch (15 cm) rounds, and
reserve.

2. Arrange the apples over the caramel decoratively.

3. Top with the pastry, and create a vent in the center of the pastry.

4. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven until the
pastry is golden brown.

5. Before removing the pastry from the pan, let it stand for 2 hours.

6. To remove the pastry, warm the pan and turn it over onto a gold
board or serving tray.

FORMULA

LEMON CURD TART

This refreshing tart pleases the eye with its sunny appearance and
stimulates the palate with its superb pairing of sweet and tart
flavors. Lemon curd, sometimes referred to as lemon cheese, is a
specialty of England, where it is has been used since the 19th century
as a filling for cakes, small pastries, and tarts or as a spread for
muffins or bread. The pastry used for the crust is pate a foncer,
balancing the sweet and tart in the filling and the buttery tenderness
in the crust.

Components

Pate a Foncer

Lemon Curd

Neutral Glaze

Tempered Chocolate

Lemon Curd Formula

Ingredients     Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Sugar               100.00      1.030         2.271
Egg yolks            48.89      0.504         1.110
Lemon juice          50.00      0.515         1.135
Lemon zest            3.33      0.034         0.076
Butter               40.00      0.412         0.908
Total               242.22      2.495         5.500

Ingredients      Lb & Oz        Test

Sugar               2   4          7 oz
Egg yolks           1   2        3.5 oz
Lemon juice         1   2        3.5 oz
Lemon zest              1         1 tsp
Butter              1   5          3 oz
Total               5   8         17 oz

Yield: 5 (9 inch (23 cm)] tarts or 16 [4 inch (10 cm)] tartlets
Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] tart

Process, Lemon Curd

1. Combine the sugar, egg yolks, lemon juice, and lemon zest in a
stainless steel bowl and place over a double boiler.

2. Stir occasionally. Once done, the mixture must be thick like
ketchup.

3. Remove from the heat, strain into a clean container, and add butter
at 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C) to 95[degrees]F (35[degrees]C) with an
immersion blender.

4. Cover to the surface, and reserve in the refrigerator.

Assembly

1. Line the tart molds with the pate a foncer, and reserve in the
refrigerator for at least a half hour.

2. Blind bake and cool.

3. Fill the tarts with the curd.

4. Place in a low oven [200[degrees]F (94[degrees]C) convection] for
about 10 minutes to set the curd.

5. Cool and cover with glaze. Decorative piping with chocolate
couverture is optional.

Lemon Meringue Tart Variation

1. After the curd has been deposited and set, make an Italian meringue
(see pages 635-636) and apply to the surface of the tart.

2. Brown with the torch.

FORMULA

BRETON STRAWBERRY TART

Few desserts are more strikingly colorful than a strawberry tart in
season. With its ruby red fruit, displayed to perfection atop a Breton
tart shell, this dessert evokes summer's pleasures like nothing else.
A layer of pistachio cream, along with a garnish of candied pistachios,
further invigorates this tart's stimulating flavor and visual appeal.

Components

Breton Short Dough

Pistachio Cream

Fresh Strawberries

Fresh Raspberries

Apricot Glaze

Candied Pistachio Pieces

Icing Sugar

Breton Short Dough Formula

Ingredients          Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Egg yolks               30.00      0.132         0.291
Sugar                   70.00      0.307         0.678
Butter                  75.00      0.329         0.726
Salt                     1.00      0.004         0.010
Pastry flour           100.00      0.439         0.968
Baking powder            8.50      0.037         0.082
Total                  284.50      1.250         2.755

Ingredients           Lb & Oz        Test

Egg yolks                   5         1 oz
Sugar                      11         2 oz
Butter                     12         2 oz
Salt                        0      1/4 tsp
Pastry flour               15         3 oz
Baking powder               1    1 1/2 tsp
Total                   2  12         9 oz

Yield: 5 [6 inch (15 cm)] tarts
Test: 1 [6 inch (15 cm)] tart

Process, Breton Short Dough

1. Cream the egg yolks and sugar with the paddle until light and foamy.

2. Add the soft butter and salt and mix to incorporate.

3. Add the flour and baking powder that have been sifted together.

4. Refrigerate the dough for at least 4 hours.

5. Roll out each portion [9 oz (250 g)] to a 6 inch diameter circle and
deposit into a sprayed 6 inch cake pan.

6. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) for about 14 minutes.

Pistachio Cream Formula

Ingredients        Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Pastry cream           100.00      0.329         0.725
Pistachio paste          9.00      0.030         0.065
Kirsch                   5.00      0.016         0.036
Total                  114.00      0.375         0.826

Ingredients           Lb & Oz        Test

Pastry cream               12     2 3/8 oz
Pistachio paste             1       1/4 oz
Kirsch                      1       1/8 oz
Total                      13     2 5/8 oz

Process, Pistachio Cream

1. Whip the pastry cream until smooth.

2. Add the pistachio paste to incorporate.

3. Add the Kirsch.

Assembly

1. When cooled, remove the blind-baked breton dough shells from the cake
pans.

2. Line each shell with 2.7 oz (75 g) of the pistachio cream.

3. Decorate with a selection of strawberries; glaze the strawberries
to prevent from drying out.

4. Add some raspberries and dust with icing sugar.

5. Garnish with pistachio pieces.


CHAPTER SUMMARY

Pies and tarts are versatile products that allow the baker or pastry chef to highlight countless flavors and textures. From the apple pie made with fresh apples to the Breton strawberry tart, this category of pastry can be both classic and contemporary. The range of fillings that can be made for pie, the endless options for filling a variety of tart bases, and the wide selection of makeup techniques provide the baker or pastry chef with many options for product development.

KEY TERMS

* Baked pie

* Baked tarts

* Blind baked

* Chiffon pie

* Cooked fruit juice method

* Cooked fruit method

* Cream pie

* Custard pie

* Fruit pie

* Galette

* Heavy pack

* Individually quick frozen (IQF)

* Lattice crust

* Light pack

* Unbaked pie

* Unbaked tarts

* Uncooked fruit method

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What are the goals when rolling out pie dough and lining pie pans?

2. What is the purpose for blind baking? What types of pie require it?

3. What are the three main methods used to prepare fruit fillings for pies? How are they prepared?

4. What can be done to prevent tart dough from shrinking when it is blind baked?

5. What preventative measures can be taken to preserve the quality of a tart crust used for a fresh fruit tart? What can be done to preserve the quality of the fruit?
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:14866
Previous Article:Chapter 12 Pastry dough.
Next Article:Chapter 14 Cake mixing and baking.
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