Chapter 12 Pastry dough.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
* explain the characteristics of various doughs, as well as their working properties and common uses.
* present the ingredient functions of various pastry doughs presented in this chapter.
* describe the mixing process for the different doughs presented.
* make a variety of doughs including pate brisee, pate sablee, sable breton, puff pastry, pate a foncer, and pie dough.
INTRODUCTION TO PASTRY DOUGH
The word "pate" (French for "dough," "paste," or "batter") is classically used as a descriptor for a category of products, which are the building blocks of many traditional and contemporary creations. Dough bases are so important they are traditionally the responsibility of a department within the pastry shop or bakery. One who works in this department is referred to as a tourrier. This is an important job because the care in mixing and proper handling of various dough preparations ultimately determines the quality of the pastry shop's finished products.
There are several different styles of pastry dough. Although each of them has a different texture, many of them are all made with flour, fat, sugar, a liquid such as water, milk, and/or eggs in varying ratios. The texture of each dough is the result of which ingredients are used, how the fat is incorporated into the dough, and how much the gluten is developed.
Of the main pastry doughs presented in this chapter, they are divided into two categories based on their level of sweetness. The quantity of sugar in the dough, and its resulting flavors, determine not only the texture of the dough but also what it is typically used for. This chapter will present sweet and nonsweet versions of dough that are used for the bases of pastries. Nonsweet varieties include pie dough, pate brisee, and pate a foncer. Sweet varieties include pate sucree, pate sablee, and sable breton. Two additional products will be presented which include puff pastry and pate a choux.
Between the terms that are commonly used in the United States and the terms used in Europe, specifically France, there are some differences between terminologies. Please refer to Figure 12-1 for a quick summary of how each type of dough is commonly used.
INGREDIENT FUNCTIONS FOR PASTRY DOUGH
Although dough may be composed of the same basic ingredients, depending on the formula and the process, there may be different results in the physical and textural characteristics. Many of these characteristics are established by the method in which they are prepared and the ratio of ingredients in the formula.
Five main ingredients form the foundation for the various types of pastry dough: flour, fat, liquid (milk or water), eggs, and sugar. Secondary ingredients such as salt and baking powder can also play a role. The choice of ingredients and the ratio in which they are present in comparison to the flour will determine many of the characteristics of the final product. Balancing the different protein, fat, free water, and sugars within doughs is critical in obtaining successful pastry with the desired results.
Figure 12-1 Pastry Dough and Common Uses Not Sweet Sweet Pie Tart Cookie Pie dough X X X Pate brisee X X X Pate a foncer (X) X X X Pate sucree X X X Pate sablee X X X Sable breton X X Pate a sable X X X breton Puff pastry X X X Pate a choux X Texture Comments/Uses Pie dough Tender/flaky Pie, sweet and savory Pate brisee Tender Tarts, sweet and savory Pate a foncer Tender/crisp Tarts, sweet or savory; varieties based on usage; sugar can be up to 25% of FW Pate sucree Crisp Sweet tart dough Pate sablee Tender/crisp Base for tarts Sable breton Tender/crumbly The traditional cookie from Bretagne Pate a sable Tender/crumbly Used as a base for breton entremets or tart Puff pastry Flaky/light For napoleons, apple turnover, savory tarts, vol-au-vent Pate a choux Soft/crisp For cream puffs, eclair, religiuse, etc.
The type of flour used in a pastry dough formula is typically from wheat and the variety of flour used largely depends on the item being made. Most types of dough use pastry flour or a low-protein bread flour to ensure tenderness in the final product. When little gluten development and a tender, crumbly, or flaky texture is desired, pastry flour is generally used to obtain these desired textures. For doughs that require more strength, such as when the dough contains sugar at 10 percent based on the flour weight or more, a low-protein or all-purpose flour is advised. With exception of pate a choux, all of the dough presented in this chapter has a hydration of 50 percent or less based on the flour weight. When there is a larger ratio of flour to water, gluten can develop at a faster rate; therefore, it is important to use the proper flour. The starch coming from the flour will absorb the liquids from the dough and, upon being heated in the oven, will gelatinize in the oven giving way to a product with structure.
Although fats and oils are commonly classified as shortening agents, they can also be known as tenderizing ingredients. The term "shortening" is classically used to describe the ability to shorten or divide the gluten strands that can toughen flour-based dough. This term is misleading because something must first be long in order to be shortened. When mixing pie dough, the protein in the flour is not developed and then shortened. Instead, the high presence of fat, as well as the mixing process, inhibits the flour from forming gluten. The tenderizing effect occurs when the fat in the formula coats a portion of the flour and destroys its ability to easily form long, continuous strands of gluten. In formulas that use larger pieces of fat, the fat remains dispersed throughout the dough after mixing and creates flakier crust. Finer incorporation of fat, on the other hand, creates "shorter" dough that is less flaky.
Fat is used to add flavor, create texture, aid in leavening, and create mouth feel. Commonly used fats include butter, lard, vegetable oils, hydrogenated shortening, and emulsified shortenings. Fats used for pastry dough are typically unsalted.
The function of hard fat in dough is to create flakiness, tenderness, and moisture protection. Depending on the cost involved, as well as desired appearance, working properties, and flavor, it is possible to choose from a selection of fats that will deliver a variety of outcomes.
Butter, which is prized for its flavor and mouth feel, is the fat most commonly used in dough. Some dough, however, benefits from shortening, as is the case with pie dough. In this case, one should be aware of the water content in the fat to allow for appropriate changes that might be needed in the formula.
The type of fat has many effects on both the dough and the final product. The higher melting point of manufactured fats creates dough that is easier to work with and flakier. Specialty shapes and decorative borders on pie crust also benefit from manufactured fat because they do not bake out as much as all-butter crusts.
For artisan baking, the tendency is to use 100 percent butter because of its superior taste and the commitment to quality foods. The lower melting point means that dough made completely with butter is slightly harder to work with than dough made with shortening. However, as long as the environment is not too hot and one works efficiently, butter should pose no real workability challenge.
Water and/or milk are found in most formulas; however, some formulas call for other liquids, including cream, eggs, buttermilk, or even juice. Water, coming from the selected liquid ingredients, allows water-soluble ingredients such as salt, sugar, and chemical leavening agents to be dissolved evenly, and it allows the formation of dough by hydrating the starch and protein in the flour. The other components of the liquids, such as fats, protein, and carbohydrates, also have an effect on the texture and baking performance of the dough. Additionally, when water converts to steam at 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C) in the oven, it transforms into steam and helps to leaven the product.
Milk and milk derivatives add additional functions to those of water. Lactose and proteins aid in the development of crust color, firmness, and crispness. Lactic acid tightens gluten and increases its stability, resulting in a fine grain and texture. Butterfat from milk aids in making dough softer.
The rate of hydration, or absorption of water into the flour, depends on the flour's moisture content, as well as on how thoroughly the butter is cut into it. This rate of hydration is critical because it determines the final texture and strength of the dough. If the butter is mixed into the dough too much, not enough flour will be able to hydrate the protein and starch, and the dough will be brittle and will not produce a good crust. If the fat is not worked into the dough enough, too much protein and starch will be hydrated, and the dough will become tough and hard to roll out.
The water used for dough should always be cold to help prevent the fat from softening and being absorbed by the flour, and the taste should be neutral. If the water is heavily chlorinated, it may be a good idea to use filtered water or to allow the water to sit for several hours. This allows the chlorine to naturally dissipate.
Alternative liquids that are sometimes used for dough, especially pie dough, include milk, cream, sour cream, and buttermilk. These liquids add additional sugar (lactose) and fat, along with acidity that makes the dough more flavorful and easier to roll out.
Egg products, including for the most part whole eggs and egg yolks, are commonly used in pastry dough. Whether they are used whole, or separated into yolks and whites, egg products perform a number of functions that affect hydration, structure, texture, leavening, flavor, and color.
These ingredients all contain a significant portion of water, which is able to hydrate protein and starch.
Egg whites are approximately 90 percent water, and yolks are roughly 50 percent water meaning whole eggs are approximately 72 percent water. The proteins found in whole eggs coagulate during the baking process and create structure. Dough made using whole egg should provide a crust that does not fall down the sides, or shrink into the mold after the baking process. Conversely, the high percentage of fats in egg yolk tends to promote tenderness and enrich the color of the dough. When egg yolks are the sole egg product/hydration in a formula, it is sometimes best suited for use as a flat base because the tenderizing properties can cause the dough to fall down the sides of the mold. Lecithin, a natural emulsifier in egg yolks, helps to generate a better distribution of liquids and fats, thus making the dough smoother. This is not always desirable though. Some varieties of pate sablee include a process to precook the yolk to render the lecithin useless, enabling a more tender, crumblier texture. If only egg whites are used in a pastry dough, they have a high percentage of water as well as protein; therefore, the dough achieves strength during mixing, as well as during baking from the coagulation of the egg white protein.
Sugar is used to some degree in almost all pastry dough, except for most puff pastry. It is used in varying degrees to alter both the level of sweetness and the texture of the dough. The most common varieties used include powdered sugar, superfine sugar, and granulated sugar. Exotic sugars such as muscovado can be used to create unique flavor as well as variation in the color of the dough.
The size of the sugar grain has an effect on flavor, mouth feel, and dough properties as well as mixing processes (Figure 12-2). The fine texture of powdered sugar enables the ingredient to spread easily throughout the dough and makes very smooth dough, which is highly regarded for its workability. The sheeting properties of dough made with powdered sugar are better than those of dough made with superfine sugar or granulated sugar. The one negative point of powdered sugar use is that the flavor of the crust from the use of this sugar is not ideal in comparison to the superfine sugar or granulated sugar.
The use of superfine sugar yields good results overall; however, the dough is noticeably more difficult to work with. The flavor from the dough is better; however, sheetability is reduced as the larger grains of sugar interfere with the sheeting of the dough.
Granulated sugar has the best flavor of the three sugars, but due to its larger crystal sizes, it creates a rougher texture for the sheeting of the dough, which is understandable.
Even though the creaming method may be used to make pastry dough, it should not be used to incorporate air. Air incorporation is detrimental to the structure of dough used for tarts because it alters its shape during the baking process. Sugar's hygroscopic properties help to retain moisture. It prolongs freshness by absorbing moisture from the other ingredients, as well as from the environment. Sugar has a denaturing effect on gluten, which creates a softer crumb, a finer grain, and a moister, more tender texture. Sugar also contributes to the Maillard reaction during the baking process, which imparts color and firmness to the crust.
Both chemical and physical leavening are used to produce pastry dough. Physical leavening occurs in all pastry dough on a range of levels depending on the application. For example, consider the slight leavening of a piecrust in contrast to the dramatic rise of puff pastry as the result of the water content in the dough and the butter turning to steam. Dough, in which the butter is incorporated to a higher degree, will have a denser texture. A small amount of chemical leavening is commonly used in these doughs. Baking powder is commonly used in pastry dough for lining molds or specialty tarts. For pate breton, baking powder contributes to the unique texture of the dough.
Figure 12-2 Sugar and Dough Properties Powdered Superfine Granulated Property Sugar Sugar Sugar Sheeting properties XXX XX X Shelf life XXX XX X Flavor/mouth feel X XX XXX
Salt is added to most pastry dough to add flavor, improve shelf life, and round out the flavors of the flour. It also has a slight tenderizing effect on the gluten and helps to make the dough less sticky. Salt should be measured by weight to ensure that the proper quantity is used: approximately 1.5 to 2 percent based on the flour weight is standard. Some specialty pastry dough, such as sable breton, has a distinct salty flavor which is characteristic of that dough. In Bretagne, the region where sable breton is common, salted butter is also used in the preparation of the cookie.
Some formulas may call for a small quantity of lemon juice or vinegar to be added to the pastry dough. The addition of an acidic liquid will help relax the gluten so the dough is more extensible for rolling out. Acidity in the dough will also help prevent oxidation, or the slight gray discoloration that occurs when dough is left in the refrigerator for several days. Variations in flavor as well as texture can be made by using various nut flours, spices, and flavoring extracts. A small percentage of almond meal is commonly used in pate sucree as well as pate sablee, and vanilla bean rather than extract is also used to flavor the dough.
UNSWEETENED PASTRY DOUGH
Unsweetened pastry dough has a variety of functions and can be used for both savory and sweet applications. Depending on the filling, it may be better to have a crust that is not too sweet, even for a filling that has a noticeable level of sweetness. For example, to pair a pate sucree tart crust with a lemon curd filling would make a very different flavor than if the curd were in a pate a foncer crust. Both can be good, but they will be noticeably different. The balancing of sweetness, tenderness, flakiness, and crispness is an important consideration in the creation of desserts and pastries.
The selection of unsweetened pastry dough covered in this chapter includes pie dough, pate brisee, and pate a foncer. The two doughs with the greatest difference between them are pie dough and pate a foncer. Pate brisee is slightly more enriched than pate a foncer, and pie dough and is commonly used for savory applications.
Pie dough is mixed using the pie dough method, which is similar to the sanding method used in mixing cookies and butter scones. The method of mixing for pate brisee and pate a foncer can be either the creaming method or the sabler method. Both create dough that is generally stronger and easier to roll out into large pieces and that has a crisp texture. The makeup and baking techniques for pie and tart dough are covered in detail in Chapter 13. Tart dough encompasses all dough which may be used to make tarts; however, it is usually sweetened pastry dough. All dough should rest for a minimum of 4 hours before working. This will help to minimize shrinkage and ensure that the fats are cold and will not melt as easily into the dough.
There are two types of pie dough commonly made: mealy and flaky. Both are tender, though mealy dough has a more compact texture. The type of pie dough is determined by the degree to which the fat has been incorporated into the flour. In order to create pie dough that is both tender and flaky, the proper types of ingredients, which include flour, fat, and water, should be used. Additional basic ingredients can include salt, sugar, and an acidic liquid such as lemon juice.
The protein content in pastry flour creates a fine balance of strength and tenderness that makes it the standard choice for piecrust. Bread flour, with its higher protein content, produces a tough crust that is hard to roll out thinly. Conversely, cake flour will not provide enough strength to hold its shape throughout the baking process and may be too fragile when rolled out. If a whole wheat crust is desired, whole wheat pastry flour creates a nice, wholesome crust. If no whole wheat pastry flour is available, it is possible to substitute 25 percent of the flour weight with whole wheat bread flour.
Manufactured fats and natural hard fats are most commonly used in pie dough; however, some formulations do call for liquid vegetable oil. Manufactured fats include all varieties of shortening and margarine, while natural fats include butter and lard.
Water is an essential ingredient for pie dough because it binds together the starches and proteins to form dough that has strength. The average ratio of water to flour is 20 to 30 percent.
Sugar, an optional ingredient in pie dough, is generally used in sweet pies at a low percentage of about 5 to 8 percent, based on the flour weight. A small addition of sugar to the dough will make the crust a little more tender and will also help to promote browning.
Mealy Pie Dough
Mealy pie dough is created when the fat is mixed in until the flour-fat mixture resembles coarse cornmeal. Because the hard fat coats a large portion of the flour, it repels moisture and ensures a crisper crust for longer periods of time. This property is essential for pies with wet fillings such as fruits, creams, and chiffons. Mealy pie dough is very versatile and may be used for both tops and bottoms of pies.
Flaky Pie Dough
Flaky pie dough is used for drier fillings and top crusts. The flour and fat are mixed until the fat is the size of walnuts, leaving large fat particles that create a flaky texture once rolled out. In flaky pie dough, more water is needed to hydrate the starch and protein. Flaky pie dough can be used for unbaked pies with wet fillings if the blind-baked crust is coated with a thin layer of chocolate or cocoa butter to help resist moisture damage.
Mixing Pie Dough
When the proper mixing technique is used, successful pie dough is usually the result. Knowing the working properties of the ingredients is important because the temperature and mixing of the dough will determine its workability and the quality of the final product. Pie dough can be mixed by hand or machine with good results, but care must be taken to prevent overmixing the dough when a machine is used. The important stages of mixing are cutting in the fat and adding water to the fat-flour mixture. It is essential that the fat be cold for cutting in.
If it is too warm, it will be absorbed into the flour. The amount of water required depends on the degree to which the fat is mixed into the flour. To produce a flakier crust, larger pieces of fat are required, and more water is needed to hydrate the available protein and starch. For mealy dough, less water is used because more of the protein and starch have been coated with fat. If the dough is too wet or too dry, it will be difficult to work with, and quality will be compromised.
Mixing by Hand
* Combine the flour, salt, and sugar, and dice the cold butter into 1 inch (2.5 cm) cubes. (See Mixing by Hand Figure 12-3, Step 1.).
* Add the cold butter to the flour mixture. (See Mixing by Hand Figure 12-3, Step 2.)
* With a bowl scraper or bench knife, cut the butter into the flour mixture until the desired consistency is reached (coarse meal for mealy, walnut-sized for flaky). This may be done on a table or counter.
* Add the water and lemon juice (if using), reserving some, and mix until dough forms. (See Mixing by Hand Figure 12-3, Steps 3-5.) Add more liquid if needed.
* Transfer the dough to a parchment-lined sheet pan and cover with plastic.
* Place in the refrigerator for at least 4 hours before using.
Mixing by Machine
* In the bowl of a mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, combine the flour, salt, and sugar.
* Dice the cold butter into 1 inch (2.5 cm) cubes and toss them in the flour mixture. (See Mixing by Machine Figure 12-4, Step 1.)
* Mix on a medium speed until the desired consistency is reached (coarse meal for mealy, hazelnut-sized for flaky). (See Mixing by Machine Figure 12-4, Step 2.)
* Add the water and lemon juice (if using), reserving some, and mix until dough forms. (See Mixing by Machine Figure 12-4, Step 3.)
* Add more liquid if needed.
* Transfer the dough to a parchment-lined sheet pan and cover with plastic.
* Place in the refrigerator for at least 4 hours before using.
Precautions for Mixing One of the first steps to ensure success with pie dough is to make sure the temperature of the ingredients is correct. Both the fat and liquid should be cold. The next precaution is to mix the fat into the flour mixture to the proper degree. Insufficient mixing will require that you add more water to the dough, resulting in a crust that may absorb too much liquid. On the other hand, if the flour-fat phase is overmixed and the dough cannot be properly hydrated, the dough will not be strong enough and may shrink excessively during baking.
Finally, the proper amount of water in pie dough is critical. If there is enough water in the dough, overmixing can overwork and strengthen the gluten, resulting in a tough crust. If there is not enough water, the dough may be dry, crumbly, and difficult to work with.
FIGURE 12-3 MIXING BY HAND [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Cold fat, pastry flour, salt, and sugar on the bench are ready to be mixed. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Cut the fat into the flour using a bench scraper; process until a desired stage. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Make a well with the mixture, and then pour cold water in the center. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Knead by hand until just incorporated. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Some chunks of fat should remain in the finished dough. FIGURE 12-4 MIXING BY MACHINE [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Cut the fat into the flour with a paddle. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Mix until the desired consistency is reached. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Add liquid and mix until the dough forms.
PATE A FONCER
Pate a foncer, which translates as "lining pastry," is used primarily for lining molds for pies and tarts. According to Traite de Patisserie Moderne (Darenne & Duval,1974, pp. 54-55), there are five classic variations, which include pate a foncer fine, pate a foncer ordinare, pate a foncer commune, pate a foncer pour entremets, and foncer levee ordinare pour tarts, flans. It can have little to no sugar in it and can be used for sweet and savory applications. The basic formulation mirrors that of pie dough, but it is processed using butter that is at room temperature instead of cold butter. This produces a finer crumb as the butter disperses more easily throughout the dough.
Figure 12-5 Sample Formulas of Pate a Foncer Ingredient Formula 1 (%) Formula 2 (%) Flour 100 (pastry) 100 (bread) Butter 50 50-75 Salt 2 2 Water 12 -- Sugar -- 0-25 Eggs -- 15-20
A typical formulation (Formula 1) as well as an alternate, richer formulation (Formula 2) for pate a foncer is shown in Figure 12-5. Depending on the quantity of sugar in the dough, as well as the quality of the flour being used, it may be beneficial to use bread or pastry flour in pate a foncer. With higher quantities of sugar, the higher protein content of bread flour will add strength to the dough, making it easier to work with. This dough can be enriched with sugar [up to 25 percent of flour weight (FW)], butter can be increased (up to 25 percent more based on FW), and egg may replace water (15 to 20 percent based on FW). Like all rolled, cut dough, pate a foncer should rest for a minimum of 4 hours before use to ensure the butter is well chilled and the gluten has relaxed.
Pate brisde is a dough similar to pie dough and pate a foncer, but it typically always has egg in it. Because pastry is such a dynamic field, and many like to make their own variations, formulas tend to vary significantly from source to source, and pate brisee is a good example of this tendency. Some varieties may use bread flour, others pastry flour. Some may contain sugar, others not. However, according to Traite de Patisserie Moderne, a bible for pastry terminology, pate brisee should not contain sugar (Darenne & Duval, 1974, p. 60). Some may contain water, others egg, some just yolk. Knowing the properties of the ingredients and how the ingredients work together to affect the dough as a whole is important in understanding the mixing, baking, shelf life, and eating qualities. The two examples of pate brisee in Figure 12-6 show how they can vary considerably. Formula 1 features a higher percent of butter and utilizes pastry flour, whereas Formula 2 utilizes bread flour and less butter but adds tenderizing agents including egg yolk and powdered sugar.
REVIEW OF UNSWEETENED PASTRY DOUGH
Unsweetened pastry dough is a versatile group of dough, some types of which are very similar, and it can be used for both savory and sweet applications. The choices of ingredients, as for any item, as well as the mixing processes are very important to follow. For all pastry dough, it is necessary to allow it to rest at least 4 hours to ensure that the dough is well chilled and the gluten is well relaxed. After the dough is rolled out (this topic will be covered in more detail in Chapter 13), it should be cut efficiently to minimize waste. Any scrap dough should be added to the next sheeting, and when possible, it is best to preportion dough to prevent waste. Scrap pieces should not exceed 15 percent of the new dough weight.
Figure 12-6 Sample formulas of Pate Brisee Ingredients Formula 1 (%) Formula 2 (%) Flour 100 (pastry) 100 (bread) Butter 60 45 Water 20 18 Egg yolk -- 7 Powdered sugar -- 9 Salt 2 1.8
SWEET PASTRY DOUGH
Sweet pastry dough has a larger quantity of sugar and egg than a typical pie dough formula, making it sweeter and richer. Several important and prevalent sweet pastry doughs are used, including pate sucree, pate sablee, and pate a sable breton. Not only are these doughs used for making tarts, but they may also be used to make cookies or bases for cakes. Pate sucree, which literally means "sweet pastry," is a traditional French dough that is often used for lining tart molds. Pate sablee is a more tender dough that can be used for lining tart molds, but it can also be used as a base for cake or other pastry. Pate a sable breton is a dough, originally used for traditional cookies from Brittany, France, that is now often used as a base for tarts and other pastries. Like other pastry dough, all sweet pastry doughs can be rolled thin to create a delicate crust, golden color, and crisp texture; however, when being used for alternate bases, such as for tarts or entremets, the dough is usually thicker. All sweet pastry dough may also be flavored with ingredients like vanilla bean, chocolate, almond, or pistachio to add uniqueness. As with any pastry, the ingredients and mixing processes used for pastry dough will affect its final taste and texture.
INGREDIENT FUNCTIONS FOR SWEET PASTRY DOUGH
If the flour used for sweet pastry dough is too weak, the dough will not have sufficient strength to be rolled out, transferred to the tart pan, and lined. If it is too strong, it will produce dough that is tough to roll out, requires more hydration, and shrinks excessively during baking. The best choice is low-protein bread flour or all-purpose flour, both of which provide sufficient strength yet allow tart dough to remain tender and crisp. The protein content of the flour is essential for adding strength because the sugar content makes the dough weaker, possibly making the dough tear during sheeting.
Unsalted butter is the standard choice for sweetened pastry dough because it lends a sweet, rich flavor. Salted butter, or half-salted butter, may be used for specialty versions of pate a sable breton as well as some pate sablee. If this is the case, the salt in the formula should be balanced and adjusted to taste for the ideal outcome.
Three types of sugar are common in sweet pastry dough: granulated, superfine, and powdered. The choice will affect the dough's texture, workability, and flavor. Refer to Figure 12-2 for a review of these proper ties. The finer powdered sugar, depending on the method of production, will not incorporate any air into the dough, which will reduce spread and create a dough that is easier to work with for mass production. If white granulated sugar is used, flavor is improved; however, care must be taken to not incorporate too much air into the butter because tart dough should not spread much in the oven.
Eggs are used as the primary source of hydration in sweet pastry dough in larger quantity than in unsweetened pastry dough. The egg yolk adds richness in color as well as flavor, while natural emulsifiers in the yolk help make the dough easier to roll out and work with. In certain instances, the egg yolk is precooked and pressed through a sieve before being incorporated into the dough to create a less dense, more crumbly texture. If this is done, it is essential that the yolk not remain uncovered for too long after it is prepared because it will dry out and negatively affect the hydration of the dough. Though seldom used in sweet pastry dough preparations, the egg white adds crispness and stability to baked dough.
Salt is used to round off the flavors of the other ingredients in the dough, especially the flour. Some specialty preparations may use salted butter to intensify the flavor of a dough. Additionally, specialty salts, such as fleur de sel de Guerande, may be used to add a unique, surprising saltiness.
Baking powder is an optional ingredient but is often added to sweet pastry dough to lighten it up. It is generally added in small quantities of about 0.5 percent of the weight of the flour. Baking powder is usually used in the classic sable breton and is largely responsible for its final texture as well as its golden brown color.
There are two main mixing methods for sweet pastry dough: the sanding and creaming methods. The creaming method for sweet pastry dough is adapted from the standard creaming method and produces results similar to the sanding method. Please review Chapter 10 for a complete overview of the sanding method, as well as the traditional creaming method.
For the sanding method, a large portion of the flour and sugar is coated with fat, and then eggs are added to hydrate the remaining flour and add strength. The result is a crisp and tender crust. If properly rolled out and blind baked, the crust should not shrink, and pie weights are typically not needed.
For the creaming method for sweet pastry dough, the butter and sugar are creamed minimally, to limit the quantity of air introduced to the dough. It is important that the butter be very soft to help limit the incorporation of air and to ensure that the butter is thoroughly distributed throughout the dough. If mixed properly using the soft butter technique, the results should be similar to the sanding method. After the fat and sugar are blended, the eggs and then the flour are added and mixed to incorporation. More people have adapted formulas calling for the sanding method technique to the soft butter creaming method because the results are more consistent as the butter texture can be controlled. It is more difficult to control the exact incorporation of the butter into the dry ingredients, especially during warmer seasons.
Pate sucree is a rich sweet dough that is usually made using the creaming method, but it can also be made using the sanding method. Pate sucree is used for lining pastry shells or as a base for cut-out cookies. The classic formulation for this dough is 100 percent flour, 50 percent butter, 50 percent sugar, and 20 percent egg. Some bakers add a small amount of baking powder to further lighten the texture. Pate sucree bakes into a crisp texture and is ideal for tarts because it is easy to handle for larger productions and generally has a good shelf life.
Sable, a French term that means "sandy," is often used to refer to cookies. Pate sablee, or shortbread pastry, is delicate, rich, and crumbly due to the high ratio of butter and sugar to flour. A classic formulation contains 100 percent flour, 60 percent butter, and 40 percent sugar. Pate sablee can also contain baking powder, which gives it a lighter texture and, consequently, a shorter shelf life. Some versions add almond meal for added flavor and texture, and vanilla bean is also a common addition.
Though not traditional, some versions of pate sablee contain egg yolk, which may be precooked. The addition of fresh egg yolk makes a slightly richer dough and gives the dough some extra strength due to the water content coming from the yolk. If cooked yolk is added, the dough becomes more tender (due to the nullification of the lecithin) and thus more difficult to process. Pate sablee made using cooked yolk is generally used for cookies and bases for petit four or entremets. Pate sablee can be mixed either by the creaming method or the sanding method, depending on the formula being used.
PATE BRETON AND PATE A SABLE BRETON
Pate breton, a specialty dough that originated in Brittany, France, is baked traditionally as a cookie. The traditional mixing method for pate breton begins by whipping egg yolks and sugar, adding soft butter and mixing just to incorporation, and then adding the flour sifted with baking powder and mixing just until incorporation. This technique results in a cookie with an open crumb and a very sandy texture.
Pate a sable breton is a variation on pate breton and is commonly used for tarts and petit four bases. Pate a sable breton is not suitable for lining tart molds as it is such a tender dough and lacks the strength to line a vertical wall of a mold.
REVIEW OF SWEET PASTRY DOUGH
With just several sweet pastry dough bases, one can make a wide range of products that have different textures and flavors. Some preparations are better than others for larger production. For example, pate sucree can tolerate more handling than can pate sablee with cooked egg yolks. The flavors and textures of the dough should complement the components of which they are paired. Understanding the range of sweet dough, one has the ability to create several styles of pastry bases.
PUFF PASTRY DOUGH
Puff pastry is a classic French pastry dough with a long history. In its rudimentary forms, it has been around since the 15th century. It is a laminated dough, but it is not technically considered Viennoiserie. Puff pastry is not yeasted, and typically no sugar is added to the dough. Its richness is due to the high quantity of butter used to create paper-thin layers of dough that bake into crisp, light pastry.
Puff pastry is often used as a component to make a dessert referred to as mille feuille, which literally translated means "thousand layers," a reference to the many layers created in the dough during the lamination process. Because it is not sweet, puff pastry dough applications extend to the savory kitchen. It can often be used for dishes such as beef Wellington, salmon en croute, rustic savory galette, or savory appetizers. In the pastry shop, a wide range of puff pastry is used for breakfast pastry, tarts, sweet galettes, cakes, and classic pastries such as napoleons, palmiers, apple turnovers, vol-au-vents, jalousie, and cream horns.
Although puff pastry is made from a minimum of four basic ingredients (flour, water, butter, salt), the process of making the dough transforms it into one like none other. Additional ingredients such as lemon juice, white wine, sugar (in very small quantities), malt, and eggs can be added to the basic dough.
The choice of flour is typically low-protein bread flour. However, if the puff pastry is made by hand, up to 25 percent of the flour weight can be substituted with pastry flour for easier workability. The water used for puff pastry should always be cold, while salt will help even the flavors of the flour and butter. Ideally, the butter should be European-style cultured butter with a higher fat content. The butter is, on average, equal to half of the dough weight. Acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or white wine can help add some extensibility but also help prevent dough oxidization. The Italian variety has a small quantity of egg and sometimes sugar that slightly enriches the dough.
Like Viennoiserie, the basic process of puff pastry involves mixing dough that is classically referred to as the detrempe and enclosing the beurrage (butter block) in it. This package is then sheeted out and given a series of folds. Because too few folds will cause the butter to melt out of the dough, puff pastry requires at least four single folds, and five or a maximum of six is normal. The folds for puff pastry can be completed in the same way as for other laminated doughs by using single and double folds independently or combined. Refer to Chapter 9 for a review of lamination.
TYPES OF PUFF PASTRY
The four main types of puff pastry are blitz, traditional, Italian, and inverted. Each has its own virtues and followers, and it is beneficial to understand them all to know what is most appropriate for particular needs. In addition to these four basic formulas, there are a handful of possible variations based on inclusions such as cocoa powder or pistachio paste into the dough, or butter for roll-in.
Blitz Puff Pastry
Blitz puff pastry is the most basic of the puff dough selections. Blitz puff pastry, also known as quick puff pastry, is named for its fast preparation. It is essentially very flaky pie dough that has had turns completed on it. The average percentage of butter in the dough is 75 percent of the flour weight.
Blitz puff dough is mixed only until rough dough is formed, and it is essential to not overmix it. The butter chunks in the dough should be about golf-ball sized in order to provide proper layering for lamination. It may appear shaggy out of the mixer, but it will become more cohesive once lamination begins. After the dough is mixed, it should rest in the refrigerator for a minimum of 20 minutes. Four single folds are standard for blitz puff because there is not a large, concentrated mass of butter in the dough. The dough should rest for a minimum of 20 minutes after the first two folds, as well as after the third and fourth folds. Too many folds can sacrifice the volume and flakiness of the final product.
FIGURE 12-7 TRADITIONAL PUFF PASTRY [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Prepared dough and butter are shown. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Roll out the dough to double the size of the butter. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Enclose the butter into the dough. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Rotate the dough 90 degrees, and then roll out the dough for the first fold.
Traditional Puff Pastry
Traditional puff pastry is made from a beurrage and detrempe and requires a more involved process than the blitz puff. The butter for traditional puff pastry is typically 50 percent of the dough weight. With an average of 50 percent of the flour hydrated, the dough is fairly stiff, which is required to create distinct layers of dough and butter.
The mixing of the detrempe is limited to ingredient incorporation only. After it is mixed, it should rest in the refrigerator for at least 1 hour before lamination begins. As with yeasted laminated doughs, it is possible to do two folds back to back. Between folds, the dough should rest in the refrigerator, or even possibly the freezer, to maintain a cold temperature. (See Traditional Puff Pastry Figure 12-7.)
Italian Puff Pastry
Italian puff pastry, also known as pasta sfogliata, varies in composition from blitz and traditional in that white wine and eggs are included in the dough. The mixing process is another difference. In the case of Italian puff, an intensive mix is required. The process for laminating Italian puff pastry is the same as traditional puff pastry, and the same guidelines should be followed.
Inverted Puff Pastry
Inverted puff pastry is best made using a reversible dough sheeter. As the name implies, the beurrage is on the outside of the dough. This creates a crisper, flakier puff pastry because the outside surfaces become one during the folding process, increasing the layers of fat.
The formulation of inverted puff dough varies significantly from other puff dough because the technique is so different. In order to make a sheetable butter that does not readily melt and is more extensible, the butter is first mixed with flour. In all, approximately 40 percent by weight of flour is added to the butter. The detrempe for this dough is richer as well, with an average of about 30 percent butter in the dough. It is essential that this butter be thoroughly mixed in and then chilled, as opposed to the beurrage for traditional and Italian puff, which can be used right away. The equivalent of five single folds is required for inverted puff pastry. (See Inverted Puff Pastry Figure 12-8.)
FIGURE 12-8 INVERTED PUFF PASTRY [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Mix the butter and flour for the beurrage of inverted puff pastry. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Spread the butter mixture on a heavy plastic sheet into a flat block shape. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Mix the dough in the mixing bowl fitted with a hook attachment; process to incorporation only. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Prepare the beurrage and cold dough. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Roll out the beurrage to twice the size of the dough and place the dough on the center. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Enclose the dough in the beurrage. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Roll the dough out the three times its width. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Complete a single fold.
WORKING WITH PUFF DOUGH
When working with puff dough, it is imperative to work quickly and efficiently to avoid warming. Because the dough is typically sheeted very thin, this happens quickly. Once sheeted out, the dough must be relaxed, or it can shrink after it is cut. In addition, it is important to allow the puff dough to rest for at least 30 minutes in the refrigerator after the product is made up to prevent the pastry shape from shrinking during baking. (See Working with Puff Dough Jalousie Figure 12-9.)
PATE A CHOUX
Pate a choux is a classic French pastry preparation that uses two stages of preparation: cooking the paste and baking the paste. Pate a choux has roots to the 16th century and was originally made by adding eggs to a paste made from potatoes. This dish is still made today and is known as pommes dauphine. The word derivation of choux (French for "cabbage") refers to the irregular shape it takes on as it bakes (historically). It is a versatile and important component of every chef's repertoire, used for many applications in pastry as well as cooking. Products commonly made from pate a choux include cream puffs, eclairs, profiteroles, and the classic Paris-Brest.
FIGURE 12-9 WORKING WITH PUFF DOUGH--JALOUSIE [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  After the puff pastry is sheeted out and relaxed, measure and cut into rectangles. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Egg wash the edges, apply the side strips of dough, and apply the filling within the side strips. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Dock the top layer with the "shutter cutter." [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Place the top layer, and gently press onto the side strips to seal the edge. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Create decorative borders as desired.
Pate a choux is a combination of milk and/or water, butter, margarine or shortening, sugar, salt, pastry flour, and whole egg. The use of milk gives the choux more color during baking and creates a more tender pastry, whereas water allows for baking at a higher temperature. Generally, a combination of both water and milk is used. Unsalted butter is typically used for the fat; however, margarine and shortening may be used as well. Pastry flour is used for its milder protein content, which prevents the dough from distorting too much during the baking process. If bread flour is used, the paste will require more hydration, and the paste may be tough and not expand well in the oven. A small quantity of sugar is typically added, and it lends a slightly sweet flavor as well as aid in coloration. Salt rounds off the flavors, helps to bind the water to the paste, and makes smoother dough. Eggs should always be fresh to ensure optimal flavor, and they should be at room temperature to ensure easy incorporation into the paste.
Cooking and Baking
To begin pate a choux, the liquid, fat, salt, and sugar are combined in a stainless steel pot and are brought to a boil. It is important to heat this mixture slowly at first to ensure the fat melts evenly as the liquid warms. If there is too much water evaporation via steam, the emulsion could break after the flour is added. Once this mixture has boiled, it is then removed from the heat, the flour is added all at once, and the mixture is stirred until a thick paste forms (see Pate a Choux Figure 12-10, Step 1). The mixture is then returned to low heat and stirred just until the flour pulls away from the sides of the pot (see Pate a Choux Figure 12-10, Step 2). During this phase, the starch in the flour is hydrated and binds with the liquid phase (butter, milk, and water), which helps to stabilize the emulsion. It is important to not overcook this paste; otherwise, the proteins will be denatured and the flour will lose its ability to hold this liquid and to then fully absorb the egg.
FIGURE 12-10 PATE A CHOUX [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  After the liquid is brought to a boil, remove the pot from the heat and add the sifted flour. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  After the liquid is brought to a boil, remove the pot from the heat and add the sifted flour. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Transfer the paste into a mixing bowl, begin mixing, and then add 75 percent of the eggs. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Mix until smooth; adjust the consistency with the remaining eggs and hot milk if necessary. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  The paste is finished with the desired consistency. Next, the paste is transferred to a mixer fitted with a paddle attachment and is beaten for a few moments. Then, three-fourths of the egg is added at once (see Pate a Choux Figure 12-10, Step 3), and after incorporation the rest is added to achieve the proper texture of batter (see Pate a Choux Figure 12-10, Step 4). If all the egg has been added and the batter is still stiff, add warm milk to adjust the paste to the proper consistency (see Pate a Choux Figure 12-10, Step 5). Whether or not milk is added, as well as how much milk is added, depends on the age, quality, and moisture content of the flour. It is important to not overmix pate a choux, which can easily happen when using a machine for mixing. Pate a choux is easily mixed by hand with almost no worry of overmixing. The egg in pate a choux is required to maintain the emulsion and increase the percentage of liquid in the paste. The expansion of pate a choux is due to the creation of steam from within the pastry during the baking process. If the paste is too dry, there will not be sufficient steam generation to leaven the paste, and if it is too wet, the paste will not be able to hold the shape that the steam creates. Properly made pate a choux should have a shiny, smooth appearance. It should not be too soft, and it should relax in shape just slightly once piped or deposited. After pate a choux is piped (see Piping Figure 12-11), it can be egg washed, scored, and baked. The purpose of scoring the pate a choux is to help encourage an even expansion of the paste in the oven. An easy way to score the paste is to slightly indent it with a fork in a cross-cross pattern. It is best to bake the pastry in a staged oven, starting at a medium-high temperature [350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) convection] and lowering the temperature as the bake progresses [to 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) after 5 to 7 minutes]. The initial temperature heats the pastry quickly, creating the steam required for leavening. If the pastry becomes too hot, too much steam can be created and a misshaped or cracked pastry will result. The proteins from the egg and flour are stretched when they are warmed and held until they are set by oven heat. Once the full volume is achieved and the crust begins to form, the temperature should be decreased and the vent should be opened. Pate a choux should be baked until it is golden brown and "dry" in the center. This can be tested by breaking open a piece out of the oven and feeling the moisture level on the inside of the pastry. Ironically, it should feel slightly moist. If pate a choux is prematurely removed from the oven, the pastry is at risk of collapse because the excessive moisture from within the pastry evaporates through the crust and makes it weak. FIGURE 12-11 PIPING [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Pipe the eclairs to the desired length. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  At the end of the eclair, flip the tip towards the top of the eclair to avoid a tail. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Egg wash the surface, smoothing out any tails. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  Pipe Paris-Brest to the desired diameter. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]  After egg washing, top with sliced almonds.
Unbaked as well as baked pate a choux can be stored in the freezer with good results. To store pate a choux unbaked, it is best to use a blast freezer and to freeze it for a maximum of 2 weeks. Upon thorough defrosting, the pastry can be baked as normal. To freeze baked pate a choux, the pieces should be frozen on sheet pans and then consolidated for space-conscious storage. Once required, it can be finished as needed. All pate a choux products have a fairly short shelf life of 24 hours because the pastry tends to soften excessively.
FORMULA PIE DOUGH The pursuit of the perfect pie dough has been an American obsession for generations. Each family has its own secret recipe, and each professional his or her techniques. Here we offer an expert-tested version that belongs in every baker's tool kit. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Pastry flour 100.00 2.191 4.831 Sugar 5.00 0.110 0.242 Salt 2.00 0.044 0.097 Butter 70.00 1.534 3.382 Cold water 30.00 0.657 1.449 Total 207.00 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Pastry flour 4 13 1/4 15 1/2 oz Sugar 3 7/8 3/4 oz Salt 1 1/2 1 1/2 tsp Butter 3 6 1/8 10 7/8 oz Cold water 1 7 1/4 4 5/8 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Mix the flour, sugar, salt, and butter until the pieces of butter are the appropriate size for either flaky or mealy dough, as desired. 2. Add the water to the flour mixture and mix until just incorporated. See note below. 3. Portion the dough as desired and allow it to rest in the refrigerator for at least 4 hours or store in the freezer for longer periods of time. Note The amount of water needed can vary according to the moisture content of the flour, as well as the degree to which the fat is being cut into the flour. The more the fat is blended, the less water will be required. Blind Baking 1. Line the prepared pie shells with paper and weights. Bake in a convection oven at 385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C). 2. After 10 minutes, remove the paper and weights and bake for an additional 10 minutes or until golden brown. 3. Alternately, sandwich the dough between two aluminum pie tins and bake upside-down until golden brown, approximately 15 to 20 minutes. FORMULA PATE A FONCER This French version of basic pie dough has an exceptionally fine texture that makes it perfect for use in lining tart molds. Pate a foncer can be used for both sweet and savory applications. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Butter 75.00 1.680 3.704 Salt 2.00 0.045 0.099 Sugar 1.50 0.034 0.074 Egg yolks 4.00 0.090 0.198 Milk 20.00 0.448 0.988 Pastry flour 100.00 2.240 4.938 Total 202.50 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Butter 3 11 1/4 11 7/8 oz Salt 1 5/8 1 1/2 tsp Sugar 1 1/8 1 tsp Egg yolks 3 1/8 5/8 oz Milk 15 3/4 3 1/8 oz Pastry flour 4 15 15 3/4 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Soften the butter and mix with the paddle attachment. 2. Add the salt, sugar, yolks, and milk, and then add the flour. Mix until just incorporated; be careful not to overmix. 3. Transfer to a sheet pan and reserve in the refrigerator at least 4 hours. 4. Bake at 385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C) in a convection oven or 425[degrees]F (219[degrees]C) in a deck oven until golden. FORMULA PATE BRISEE Pate brisee is the French version of classic pie or tart pastry. Flavorful, quick to make, and easy to roll out, it also has a high ratio of fat to flour, which lends a tender texture and buttery flavor to this French staple. It is used in both sweet and savory applications. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Pastry flour 100.00 2.492 5.495 Salt 2.00 0.050 0.110 Butter 60.00 1.495 3.297 Water, cold 20.00 0.498 1.099 Total 182.00 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Pastry flour 5 7 7/8 1 lb 1 3/8 oz Salt 1 3/4 2 tsp Butter 3 4 3/4 10 3/8 oz Water, cold 1 1 5/8 3 1/2 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Blend the butter into the flour and salt in the bowl of a mixer fitted with the paddle attachment until mealy. 2. Gradually mix in the water until the dough comes together. 3. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 4 hours. 4. Bake at 385[degrees]F (196[degrees]C) in a convection oven. FORMULA PATE SUCREE Sometimes referred to as a sweet tart dough, pate sucree is similar to pate brisee, but it is further enriched with egg yolks and more sugar. It is similar to the American "short dough." Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Bread flour 100.00 1.963 4.328 Powdered sugar 40.23 0.790 1.741 Baking powder 0.57 0.011 0.025 Butter 50.00 0.982 2.164 Eggs 25.29 0.497 1.095 Almond meal 14.94 0.293 0.647 Vanilla bean Each 4 4 Total 231.03 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Bread flour 4 5 1/4 13 7/8 oz Powdered sugar 1 11 7/8 5 5/8 oz Baking powder 3/8 1/2 tsp Butter 2 2 5/8 6 7/8 oz Eggs 1 1 1/2 3 1/2 oz Almond meal 10 3/8 2 1/8 oz Vanilla bean 4 1 each Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Sift the flour, powered sugar, and baking powder, and add to a mixing bowl fitted with the paddle attachment. 2. Add the butter and mix on medium speed until mealy. 3. Add the eggs and once the dough begins to come together, add the almond meal and mix until the dough comes together. 4. Cover the dough in plastic film, and reserve in the refrigerator for a minimum of 4 hours. 5. Sheet to the desired thickness, dock if required, and reserve in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes and up to 2 days. Line the tart pans as desired. 6. Blind bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 10 to 12 minutes, or until light golden brown. Variation Chocolate pate sucree can be obtained by replacing 20 percent of the flour with cocoa powder. FORMULA PATE SABLEE Most often used for dessert tarts, this crust is cookie-like and crumbly, giving it the name, sable, which means "sand" in French. Process Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Egg yolks, cooked 17.14 0.285 0.627 Butter, soft 81.43 1.352 2.981 Salt 0.29 0.005 0.011 Powdered sugar 42.86 0.712 1.569 Egg yolks 17.14 0.285 0.627 Almond meal 14.29 0.237 0.523 Pastry flour 100.00 1.661 3.661 Total 273.15 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Egg yolks, cooked 10 2 oz Butter, soft 2 15 3/4 9 1/2 oz Salt 1/8 1/8 tsp Powdered sugar 1 9 1/8 5 oz Egg yolks 10 2 oz Almond meal 8 3/8 1 5/8 oz Pastry flour 3 10 5/8 11 3/4 oz Total 10 0 2 lb 1. Cook the egg yolks and reserve, covered. 2. Cream the butter, salt, and sugar until well combined. 3. Press the egg yolks through a fine sieve and blend in to the butter-sugar mixture with the fresh egg yolks. 4. Add the almond meal to this mixture. 5. Add the sifted flour and mix to incorporation. 6. Cover in plastic, and store in the refrigerator until ready to use. 7. Roll out the dough and cut out circles for cookies or tarts. 8. For tarts: Line tart rings with dough; allow to rest 30 minutes. 9. For cookies: Place the circles on a parchment-lined sheet pan and brush with egg wash. 10. Bake the pate sablee at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven with the vent open until golden brown. PATE BRETON This traditional short dough from Brittany is enriched with egg yolk and a generous amount of butter. It is a slightly salty sweet dough that makes an ideal base for tarts and cakes, and can also be used for cookies. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Egg yolks 30.00 0.478 1.054 Granulated sugar 70.00 1.116 2.460 Butter 75.00 1.196 2.636 Salt 1.00 0.016 0.035 Pastry flour 100.00 1.594 3.515 Baking powder 8.50 0.136 0.299 Total 284.50 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Egg yolks 1 7/8 3 3/8 oz Granulated sugar 2 7 3/8 7 7/8 oz Butter 2 10 1/8 8 3/8 oz Salt 1/2 2/3 tsp Pastry flour 3 8 1/4 11 1/4 oz Baking powder 4 3/4 1 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Sift together the flour and baking powder; set aside. 2. Cream the yolks and sugar until light. 3. Add the soft butter and salt and mix to incorporate. 4. Next, add the sifted ingredients. Mix until the dough comes together. 5. Use immediately or store, covered in the refrigerator, until needed. 6. Pipe or sheet to the desired shape and size. 7. Bake the pate breton at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven with the vent open until golden brown. FORMULA BLITZ PUFF PASTRY This appropriately named quick puff pastry takes about half the time to make as standard puff pastry. It is important to not work the butter into the dough too much. It should be quite large before lamination begins to ensure an ideal final flaky texture. Blitz puff paste can be used for many of the applications that other puff pastes are used for. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Flour 100.00 1.981 4.367 Butter, cold 75.00 1.486 3.275 Salt 2.00 0.040 0.087 Malt 1.00 0.020 0.044 Lemon juice 1.00 0.020 0.044 Water 50.00 0.990 2.183 Total 229.00 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Flour 4 5 7/8 14 oz Butter, cold 3 4 3/8 10 1/2 oz Salt 1 3/8 2 tsp Malt 3/4 1 1/2 tsp Lemon juice 3/4 1 tsp Water 2 2 7/8 7 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Combine the flour, butter, salt, and malt in a mixing bowl fitted with the paddle attachment. 2. Mix on low speed until the butter is distributed evenly and is still in large chunks. 3. Add the lemon juice and cold water to the bowl, and mix just until a dough is formed. Do not overmix. 4. Transfer the dough to a flour-dusted sheet plan and flatten it. 5. Cover the dough with plastic and place it in the refrigerator for 20 minutes. Lamination 1. Give the dough a total of five single folds. 2. Two folds can be given back to back with a 30 minute rest between folds. 3. After the last fold (fifth single), allow the dough to rest for 30 minutes. 4. At this point, the dough can be used as desired. FORMULA CLASSIC PUFF PASTRY Puff pastry is also called pate feuilletee in French. The dough rises because of the stream created from the large amount of butter contained in between the many layers of dough. Puff pastry is the foundation of countless pastries, desserts, savories, and other delicacies. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Bread flour 100.00 2.800 6.173 Water 48.00 1.344 2.963 Butter 10.00 0.280 0.617 Salt 2.00 0.056 0.123 Lemon juice 1.00 0.028 0.062 Malt 1.00 0.028 0.062 Total 162.00 4.536 10.000 Butter for lamination 50.00 2.268 5.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Bread flour 6 3/4 1 lb 3 3/4 oz Water 2 15 3/8 9 1/2 oz Butter 9 7/8 2 oz Salt 2 2 tsp Lemon juice 1 1 tsp Malt 1 1 1/2 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Butter for lamination 5 0 2 lb Note Butter for lamination is a percent of the total dough weight. Process Mixing Mix all the ingredients (except for the butter for lamination) to incorporation (3 to 4 minutes on first speed). Transfer to a lightly floured sheet pan, form into a flat square, and cover with plastic. Resting Allow the dough the rest in the refrigerator for 1 hour. Lamination 5 to 6 single folds 2 folds at a time; allow 30 minutes rest between each set of folds. Sheeting After a resting time of at least 30 minutes, sheet the puff pastry to 1/2 inch (2 mm). Use as desired. Baking 350[degrees]F (176[degrees]C) in a convection oven. Time will vary according to product composition. Shaping Option Apple Turnover (Chausson Pomme) Sheet out the dough to 1/8 inch (2 mm) thick. Cut into 3?/2 inch (90 mm) circles. Roll out into ovals, and pipe apple butter on the center. Water wash the border and fold in half to seal. Crimp the edge and egg wash. Rest in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes. Create a vent in the top of the pastry and egg wash again before baking. Bake at 350[degrees]F (176[degrees]C) for 20 to 25 minutes, or until the edges are golden brown. FORMULA INVERTED PUFF PASTRY Inverted puff pastry is formed when the butter, mixed with some flour, is placed on the outside of the dough. Though this may be intimidating to work with, the dough is actually easier to work with than classic puff pastry because it doesn't become as sticky. Additionally, it tends to retain its shape more consistently with less shrinkage during baking. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Bread flour 100.00 2.724 6.006 Water 39.00 1.062 2.342 Butter 22.50 0.613 1.351 Salt 3.00 0.082 0.180 Malt 1.00 0.027 0.060 Lemon juice 1.00 0.027 0.060 Total 166.50 4.536 10.000 Butter for lamination 75.00 3.402 7.500 Bread flour for 18.01 0.817 1.801 lamination Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Bread flour 6 1/8 1 lb 3 1/4 oz Water 2 5 1/2 7 1/2 oz Butter 1 5 5/8 4 3/8 oz Salt 2 7/8 5/8 oz Malt 1 1 tsp Lemon juice 1 1 tsp Total 10 0 2 lb Butter for lamination 7 8 1 lb 8 oz Bread flour for 1 12 3/4 5 3/4 oz lamination Note Butter and flour for the roll-in is a percentage of total flour weight. Process, Detrempe 1. Mix all the ingredients (except for the butter and flour for lamination) to incorporation only, approximately 4 minutes in first speed. 2. Form the dough into a square and place on a sheet pan. 3. Reserve the dough wrapped in plastic in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes. Process, Beurrage 1. Ina mixer with the paddle attachment, blend the butter and flour for lamination. 2. Spread the butter-flour mixture on a heavy plastic sheet or parchment paper in the form of a rectangle that is the same dimensions as the dough. Reserve in the refrigerator. Process, Lamination 1. Ensure that the beurrage is twice the size of the dough piece. 2. Place the dough in the center of the butter and close the fat around the dough. 3. Give the dough 2 single folds and relax the dough for 1 hour under refrigeration. 4. Give the dough another 2 single folds and rest another hour in the refrigerator. 5. Finish the dough with 1 single fold and refrigerate for 1 hour. 6. Sheet the dough to'/8 inch (2 mm) and use as desired. FORMULA PATE A CHOUX The French named this singular pastry pate a choux, or "cabbage," after its shape. Known since at least the 16th century, the recipe was perfected by Antoine Careme in the 19th century, and his recipe is still in use today. Exceptionally delicate before baking, pate a choux must be either spooned or piped into shape. Once baked, the paste crusts on the outside, trapping steam inside, creating a puffed shape with a hollow interior. The crisp shells are filled with a variety of creams and finished with a glaze. Dramatic desserts such as croquembouche, profiteroles, Gateau St. Honore, Paris-Brest, and eclairs are all made with pate a choux. Ingredients Baker's % Kilogram US decimal Whole milk 89.00 0.796 1.755 Water 89.00 0.796 1.755 Salt 3.00 0.027 0.059 Sugar 4.00 0.036 0.079 Butter 79.00 0.707 1.558 Pastry flour 100.00 0.895 1.972 Eggs 143.00 1.279 2.821 Total 507.00 4.536 10.000 Ingredients Lb & Oz Test Whole milk 1 12 1/8 5 5/8 oz Water 1 12 1/8 5 5/8 oz Salt 1 1 tsp Sugar 1 1/4 1 1/2 tsp Butter 1 8 7/8 5 oz Pastry flour 1 15 1/2 6 1/4 oz Eggs 2 13 1/8 9 oz Total 10 0 2 lb Process 1. Sift the pastry flour and reserve. 2. Bring the milk, water, salt, sugar, and butter to a boil. 3. Remove from the heat, add the flour to the pot, and stir to combine. 4. Return to the heat and, stirring constantly, cook the paste for 1 minute or until it clears the side of the pot. 5. Transfer to a mixer with the paddle attachment, mix on low speed, and add three-fourths of the eggs. 6. Add the remainder of the eggs. 7. Adjust to the proper consistency using hot milk. 8. Pipe into the desired shapes, and brush lightly with the egg wash. 9. Bake at 350[degrees]F (176[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 10 minutes with the vent closed and then at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) for 15 to 20 minutes with the vent open. 10. Bake until the pastry has a well browned exterior and is "dry" in the center.
The selection of sweetened and unsweetened dough, as well as puff pastry and pate a choux, form the bases for many traditional pastries and cakes. Understanding their formulation and characteristics is an important step in understanding the construction and composition of cakes, tarts, quiche, and pies, just to name a few. The variations on these doughs create additional options for one to explore in order to bring the most out in what is being made.
* Blitz puff pastry
* Inverted puff pastry
* Italian puff pastry
* Mille feuille
* Pasta sfogliata
* Pate a choux
* Pate a foncer
* Pate a sable breton
* Pate breton
* Pate brisee
* Pate sablee
* Pate sucree
* Pie dough
* Puff pastry
* Tart dough
* Traditional puff pastry
1. What are the main ingredients in sweet pastry dough? What are the functions of those ingredients?
2. What is the process for making mealy pie dough? Flaky pie dough?
3. Why is it important to have a stiff dough for puff pastry?
4. What are the advantages of working with inverted puff pastry?
5. What is the leavening mechanism in peite a choux?
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|Title Annotation:||PART 4 PASTRY|
|Publication:||Advanced Bread and Pastry|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2009|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 11 Quick breads.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 13 Pies and tarts.|