Chapter 12 Geography and Tourism in Subsaharan Africa.
* Africa has the most rapid population growth rate in the world.
* Large parts of Africa's physical environment can be labeled "harsh."
* The population distribution is highly rural.
* The physical geography makes access within Africa difficult and limited.
* Africa is rich in important resources needed in industrial nations.
* Conflict and boundary disputes are common, reflecting tribalism aid nationalism.
* High incidences of disease and poverty plague many countries.
* Unstable or ineffective governments in some countries handicap tourism growth.
MAJOR TOURISM CHARACTERISTICS
* Game parks dominate.
* There is a lack of tourism infrastructure.
* Africa has the smallest tourism industry of any major region.
* Tourism is mostly to coastal countries.
* Africa is relatively inaccessible to most of the world's potential tourists.
* A combination of political economic and environmental factors handicap tourism development in many countries.
MAJOR TOURIST DESTINATIONS
The Great National Game Parks: Kenya. Tanzania, South Africa, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Namibia
Coastal beaches and waters of Ivory Coast; Kenya Mauritius, Seychelles, and South Africa
KEY TERMS AND WORDS
Horn of Africa
Africa is one of the largest continents, Figure 12-1, and is also one of the most sparsely populated and least visited. The entire continent of Africa totals 11,685,000 square miles, second only to Asia. The part of Africa south of the Sahara is itself a large area, totaling approximately 9 million square miles, roughly three times the size of the United States. The sheer size of this landmass has played a major role in its relationship with the rest of the world. Its size handicaps development of transportation and communication linkages, which remain concentrated along coastal areas or navigable waters. In addition to its large size and isolation, Africa generally has a climate that is either too wet or too dry for most agriculture.
Tourism in Africa is limited. Only three regions attract Significant world tourism, East Africa (principally Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Mauritius), West Africa (Senegal, Nigeria, Ghana, and Ivory Coast), and Southern Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Swaziland).
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Africa is a land of poverty, with the lowest per capita incomes in the world. In many countries, $100 a year or less is the norm. Low literacy rates, high birth and death rates, high infant mortality rates, and the predominance of rural village residence indicate the lack of industrial development of the continent. These factors also handicap the development of tourism to Africa.
Most of Africa lies at elevations of 650 feet to 6,500 feet. True lowlands, from sea level to about 300 feet, comprise only a small area of the continent. The landforms consist of a relatively level series of plateaus imposed one upon the other, with sharp escarpments where they descend to the narrow coastal plain. This has created rapids and falls (cataracts) a short distance up the rivers from the coast, effectively preventing navigation to the interior. Access to and from the sea is further handicapped by the absence of natural harbors along the coast, sandbars across the mouths of the rivers, and reefs along the tropical coasts of East Africa.
The landforms of tropical Africa can be divided into low-level plateaus and high-level plateaus. The major feature of the high-plateau region is the Rift Valley system of East Africa, which stretches from southeastern Africa to the Jordan River valley of the Middle East. The rift features result from large continental blocks that have been lifted up or dropped down in an area of faulting, folding, and volcanic activity. This has created the high mountains of East Africa as well as the large Lake Tanganyika (between Zaire and Tanzania) and Lake Nyasa (between Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique), as well as the smaller Edward, Albert, and Turkana lakes farther north. The Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Dead Sea of the Middle East are geologically part of the great Rift Valley system. Volcanic mountains like Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania are also found in the southern and eastern part of Africa associated with the Rift Valley system.
Lowland Africa rarely exceeds 2,000 feet in elevation. It includes the river systems of the Congo and the Niger as well as the major part of the drainage of the Nile. The dividing line of lowland Africa extends north from Angola to the Red Sea in the Middle East. Lowland Africa has undergone much less geological folding and faulting than other continents, and important mineral deposits are readily accessible. They contribute to the economy and importance of the region, as many are vital to the industrialized nations of the world.
The climates of Africa are characterized by too much, too little, or poorly timed precipitation. The location of almost all of the continent within 30 degrees of the equator means that the entire area is warm or hot. The only exceptions are the mountains and highlands of the rift zone of East Africa. Because of its location centered on the equator, the Congo Basin is the center of the tropical rain forest. Extending approximately five to eight degrees north and south of the equator, it is an area with year-round high temperatures and precipitation. Daytime temperatures average between 70 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the year, and daily ranges rarely exceed 15 degrees. Precipitation generally exceeds 45 inches per year, and in much of the region exceeds 60 inches.
The savanna climates of Africa extend from between 10 to 15 degrees and 20 to 25 degrees north and south of the equator. These climates are hot and rainy half of the year, and hot and dry the other half of the year. The savanna climate produces vegetation ranging from the tall grasslands of Nigeria, the Sudan, the Ivory Coast, and Kenya to a forest different from the tropical rain forest only in density and number of species of trees. Some savannas, such as those in areas of West Africa, probably resulted from the repeated and persistent burning by both the present and former occupants of the area. The savanna lands are also the home of the last great herds of wild animals and their predators. These have become a major tourist attraction.
North and south of the tropical savanna lands is a transition zone of steppe climate. The transitional region immediately south of the Sahara Desert is known as the Sahel, where the world's attention has been focused because of recurring drought and related human suffering for the past two decades. Precipitation totals from 7.5 to 20 inches yearly, and temperature maximums are constantly in the range of 80 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The daily temperature range is great, with nighttime lows falling to between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This steppe region extends nearly the full width of the African continent, but it is relatively narrow in north-south extent.
South of the southern zone of savanna in Africa is another belt of steppe land. It is composed of Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, but portions extend into Angola, Namibia, and South Africa. This region is similar to the Sahel and has suffered from similar environmental problems such as drought. North and south of the steppe lands are the great deserts of Africa. To the north is the Sahara (approximately the same size as the United States), the world's greatest desert, and in the south is the Kalahari. These deserts are characterized by temperature extremes, limited precipitation, and isolated settlements. The desert regions of Africa have recorded the world's highest official temperatures of 136 degrees Fahrenheit. Precipitation ranges from two to six inches per year, making settlement difficult. Population is restricted to oases or the valleys of rivers, such as the Nile, which bring the much-needed water from the tropical savanna and tropical rain forest areas. Other rivers penetrate the margins of the Sahara and are the basis for settlements such as Tombouctou (Timbuktu) on the Niger and Kaedi on the Senegal River on the border between Mauritania and Senegal.
In southeastern and southwestern Africa, increased elevation or influence from prevailing winds creates areas of subtropical climate similar to the southeastern United States. The southwest tip of Africa around Cape Town has a Mediterranean or dry-summer, subtropical climate. The southeast coast has a humid subtropical climate caused by modification of the steppe lands by the higher elevations of the Drakensberg Mountains.
TOURISM IN AFRICA
Subsaharan Africa is the least developed and least visited region of tourism in the world. A number of factors account for the overall general lack of a strong tourist industry in Africa. First is the region's long distance from the major tourist-generating countries of the world and the limited connectivity between North America, Europe, and Africa. There is direct connectivity into some countries, such as Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa; but for the region as a whole, transportation is poor and infrequent. In some cases, little or no air travel connections exist to world tourist markets. Second, modern transportation systems within Africa are extremely poor or nonexistent. Travel both to and between countries can be circuitous at best. Third, in many countries, there is little or no infrastructure for tourists. Most of the countries are poor and have a difficult time financing their development, and funds have not been available from either international or local sources for tourism development. Fourth, the political unrest in many regions handicaps the tourist market. Fifth, the fear of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and reports of its high incidence in Africa is causing a decline in the limited number of tourists coming to Africa south of the Sahara. As yet, except for a few areas, such as those in East Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa, there is little tourism of consequence in Africa. This region does have a higher percentage of travel for the purpose of business, which has led to the development of some world-class hotels in capital cities. Data are also sporadic, but some idea of the character of tourism to Africa can be illustrated for the various regions.
TRAVEL TIPS Entry: Most of the countries with the exception of Senegal require a visa, and some require proof of sufficient funds. Transportation: Direct flights from various European countries provide service once or twice a week to the West African countries. Transportation outside of major cities is difficult, and taxis are the best form of travel within major cities. Health: Protection for yellow fever, rabies, malaria, cholera, tetanus, typhus, and typhoid should be taken. Also in most cases tap water is not potable. Meats should be well cooked and fruits and vegetables carefully cleaned and prepared. Visitors should avoid swimming in freshwater streams and lakes. In most countries there is a high incidence of HIV infection among prostitutes. Shopping: Common items include hand-carved wooden objects, brass, leather goods, masks, jewelry, handwoven fabrics, and handicrafts of the individual country. CULTURAL CAPSULE West Africa is Subsaharan Africa's most populous region, and the southern half of the region is home to the majority of people. It was from this region that much of the slave trade came. With the exception of Liberia, all the states of West Africa were created by European colonial powers--France, Germany, Britain, and Portugal--during the late nineteenth century. (Figure 12-3) West Africa is composed of a number of tribal groups, such as the Malinke, Fulani, Hausa, Mandingoes, and Mossi. The Malinke journeyed from their early center in Mali to the coastal areas of Guinea, Senegal, and Gambia. Malinke also moved into Burkina Faso, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, where they came to be known as Mandingoes. The Fulani have been migrants throughout the region, spreading Islam. The Hausa mostly live in Northern Nigeria and Niger, but are widespread through West Africa; and their language is sometimes suggested as a possible lingua franca for Africa. There has been large regional migration in West Africa from the poor inland states of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to the wealthier states of the Ivory Coast and Ghana. Many Ghanaians, Togolese, Beninois, and Cameroonians have taken up residence in Nigeria. The two major destination countries, Senegal and Ivory Coast, have a number of ethnic groups, with both countries having a large European (dominated by French) population. The Ivory Coast has more than 5 million non-Ivorian Africans living in the country. Islam is the dominant religion of the two countries, at 90 percent in Senegal and 25 percent in the Ivory Coast. Tribal religions are strong throughout both countries. The typical food dishes include fish, rice, oil, poultry, onions, ground peanuts, and spices. They have been influenced greatly by French cooking. In Senegal the sexes and different age groups eat separately. Clean hands and eating with the right hand are important. Taxis are hailed by raising one arm. Men and women keep their distance in public and are expected to be dignified and reserved around the opposite sex. Shaking hands is a common greeting. Punctuality is important in the Ivory Coast.
While the official languages and some African languages are listed, there are a wide variety of languages and dialects spoken in each of the countries, as in all of Africa. The official language is used in the large cities but not necessarily by a majority of the population.
Tourism to West Africa is illustrated in Figure 12-2. Senegal and the Ivory Coast are the major beneficiaries of tourism to the region. Senegal acts as a transit area connecting North and South America and Europe with many African countries. Of the areas in West Africa, the Ivory Coast has the best tourist infrastructure, with fine restaurants and good hotels. Nigeria and Ghana experienced a significant increase in the number of tourists they received during the 1990s. France, a former colonial power in the region, is the dominant market for the region. French visitors are the largest European group of tourists in all but two countries within West Africa. The exceptions are Gambia and Nigeria, where Germany and the United Kingdom are important sources for visitors.
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Tourist Destinations and Attractions
The focal point of tourism on the Ivory Coast is its beautiful beaches set amid plantations and picturesque fishing villages. The Ivory Coast is trying to build an African Riviera on the beaches. In addition, inland towns and villages are "living museums" that demonstrate the culture and way of life of the people in the country. Abidjan, the capital, is a colonial town providing attractions, such as the IFAN Museum, the public market, and an interesting African sector. Near Abidjan at Buna, there is a wild animal preserve. President Houphouet Boigny has completed a multimillion- dollar Catholic basilica, which will hold 18,000 people inside and 300,000 people outside in its adjacent square. It was built in the president's home village 160 miles north of the capital city of Abidjan. Pope John Paul II visited and consecrated this basilica in September 1990. It contains four times the stained glass of the cathedral in Chartres, France, and the dome is twice the size of the dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Senegal is a hub for international flights and also offers beautiful beaches. The capital, Dakar, has a number of interesting museums, such as the House of Slaves on the island of Goree and a "French town" similar to that in New Orleans or St. Louis. Dakar is an attractive city with shining blue, white, and pink houses and walls covered with bougainvillea. Senegal also has one of the finest game reserves in West Africa with a variety of wildlife and good accommodations. The game park, Niokola-Koba, also is the home of the Bassari people, who offer an interesting cultural experience, demonstrating their unique dress and festivals.
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Although they do not have a well-developed tourist trade, the other West African countries have the potential for future tourism, relying upon a variety of African cultures, the wildlife, colorful scenery, and some excellent beaches. They will have to overcome serious political, economic, and environmental problems.
Nigeria suffers from overcrowding, poor sanitation, and high prices in its cities, but those who visit the capital, Lagos, will find a fine museum of African art, the Museum of Nigerian Antiquities, and one of the largest markets of Africa. Lagos is built on a series of islands with connecting bridges and overpasses. There is a fine beach near Lagos. Ibadan, north of Lagos, is the site of the largest Black medical school in the world. The city is enclosed by thick sun-dried mud walls and has attractions such as markets and colorfully dressed members of the Yoruba tribe. Jos, Nigeria's mining center, has a museum that houses a terra-cotta display that is over 4,000 years old. The ancient mud-walled Islamic city of Kano in northern Nigeria exhibits the Islamic cultural environment to the visitor. Tribal cultures and ancient archaeological sites are important tourism attractions that could be developed in Nigeria.
Togo, near the Ivory Coast, has a tourist trade similar to Nigeria. It has made a serious attempt to improve its tourist business and draws heavily from its neighbors of Ghana and Nigeria. It too has good beaches, picturesque fishing villages, and some unique African tribal cultures. Lome, the capital, is located on an excellent beach. It provides a scenic view of African life with picturesque fishermen's huts and colorfully dressed citizens. North of Togo, tours into the scenic highlands provide the visitor excellent views of mountain villages set above lush green valleys.
The other countries of West Africa receive only a small number of tourists. Most countries have good beaches and their people illustrate African tribal culture, but lack of facilities and promotion combine with political unrest to prevent significant growth in their tourist trade.
Benin has some national parks and game preserves, but their quality is questionable. There is a restored fortress at Ouidah that dates back to the Portuguese explorers, and it was the site of the last recorded slave ship from Africa, in 1870. For the more daring, the Temple of the Serpents, which houses pythons, is also at Ouidah.
Ghana shares excellent beaches with the Ivory Coast. Accra, the capital, is a modern city in an African setting. Accra serves as a jumping-off place for trips to diamond and gold mines where visitors can observe the mining process. Near Accra along the coast, there are castles and forts that were built by the early Portuguese, Dutch, English, French, and Danish colonial powers. Liberia is worth mentioning as it received a large portion of its visitors from the United States in the past. Liberia was a nation created for freed slaves who returned to Africa from America prior to the American Civil War. Today a civil war has devastated the country, and it will be some time before the travel industry can recover.
The desert nations, such as Mauritania and Mali, have French settlements and offer camel caravan trips to such places as Timbuktu in Mali. Mauritania has some good beaches that can be developed, Chinguetti, the seventh holy city of Islam, and other Islamic buildings worth seeing.
West Africa Country Capital Language Benin Porto-Novo French, Fon, Yoruba Burkina Faso Ouagadougou French, Sudanic Gambia Banjul English, Mandinka, Wolof Ghana Accra English, Akan, Moshi-pagoma Ivory Coast Abidjan French, Dioula Liberia Monrovia English, Nigeran, Congo Mali Bamako French, Bambara Mauritania Nouakchott Arabic, Pular, Soniwk-wolof Niger Niamey French, Hausa, Djerma Nigeria Lagos English, Hausa, Yoruha, Ibo, Fulani Senegal Dakar French, Wolof, Pulaan Sierra Leone Freetown English, Mende, Temne Togo Lome French, Ewe, Mina Population (2001) Country Currency (millions) Benin CFA franc 6.6 Burkina Faso CFA franc 12.3 Gambia dalasi 1.4 Ghana cedis 19.9 Ivory Coast CFA franc 16.4 Liberia Liberian dollar 3.2 Mali CFA franc 11.0 Mauritania ouguiya 2.7 Niger CFA franc 10.4 Nigeria Naira 126.6 Senegal CFA franc 9.7 Sierra Leone leones 5.4 Togo CFA franc 5.2 Square Miles and Country State Comparison Benin 43,484 (Pennsylvania) Burkina Faso 105,869 (Colorado) Gambia 4,361 (2 Delaware) Ghana 92,100 (Oregon) Ivory Coast 123,847 (New Mexico) Liberia 43,000 (Pennsylvania) Mali 478,766 (Texas and California) Mauritania 397,955 (Texas and California) Niger 489,191 (3 California) Nigeria 356,669 (2 California) Senegal 75,955 (South Dakota) Sierra Leone 27,925 (South Carolina) Togo 21,925 (West Virginia)
TRAVEL TIPS Entry: Visas are required by most countries, but in some (Kenya and Seychelles for example) they can be obtained at the airport. Most require proof of funds, onward or return transportation, and an airport tax. Transportation: International service is provided through European capitals and other East African countries. Countries such as Kenya, Seychelles, and Mauritius have better international service and connectivity. Transportation within the major cities is best by taxi. Health: In most areas tap water is not potable. Water should be boiled or filtered. Many large hotels in Kenya, Tanzania, and the Seychelles filter their water. Fruits and vegetables should be carefully cleaned and prepared. Cholera, yellow fever, and malaria are major concerns for travel to East Africa. Uganda has a serious AIDS and HIV problem, especially among prostitutes. Shopping: Items include hand-carved wooden objects, brass, leather goods, masks, jewelry, handwoven fabrics, and handicrafts of the individual country. CULTURAL CAPSULE The East African region (Figure 12-4) is an area of great diversity. The islands are the homes of distinctive civilizations with ties to Asia, yet their interactions with the African mainland require they be placed in this region. The region is one of animals, camels, cattle, goats, and sheep. People have migrated through the region since the existence of humankind; in fact, most of the human fossils of early people have been uncovered in this region. The languages of the people are tied to either the Bantu or the Nilotic linguistic families. The official languages noted in the table are a result of European colonialism and are spoken by a minority in the major cities. The area has had considerable Islamic influence through Muslim Arab traders or proximity to the Arabian Peninsula. Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, began as an Islamic trading post in the tenth century. Islam dominates throughout the Horn of Africa, except in the Ethiopian interior and southern Sudan. In the first half of the nineteenth century the sultan of Oman moved his capital to Zanzibar. The region was a source of a large slave trade to Egypt and the Middle East, the Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean islands. South Asian laborers were brought in by the British to build the East African railroad. Traders and business people settled in Kenya and Tanzania. South Asian laborers were brought in to work on the sugar plantations of Mauritius. East Asians now comprise two-thirds of this island's population. The region of the Horn can be characterized by drought and violence. The people of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, and Rwanda have shared a similar background of tribal kingdoms and political division along ethnic lines. For example, the Tutsi--a ruling warrior class--and the Hutu--a peasant class--compete in Rwanda and Burundi. The Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, and the Seychelles each has its own unique characteristics while sharing some common traits. All four islands have been influenced by contacts with Asia as well as with mainland Africa and Europe. Madagascar and the Comoros have populations that began in the Middle East, Africa, and Indonesia. The people of Mauritius and the Seychelles are a combination of European, African, and Asian origins. All four have been influenced by France, with the British taking control of two islands during the 1830s and abolishing slavery. Local French Creole remained the major language on the islands. The four major tourist destinations are Kenya, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Seychelles. While Kenya's population is largely African, it is divided into as many as forty ethnic groups along linguistic lines. English is the official language and widely used in large cities for business and official use. Swahili is the national language, and each ethnic group speaks its own language. The major religions are Protestant and Roman Catholic. The Muslims, who comprise about 6 percent of the population, live along the coast and in the Northeast. Tanzania's population is equally diverse. The majority of Tanzanians, including such large tribes as the Sukuma (the only group with more than a million members) and the Nyamwezi, are of Bantu stock. There are three Nilotic ethnic groups, two Khoisan, and two Afro-Asiatic. Zanzibar's population has a strong Arabic influence. Mauritius was colonized in 1638 by the Dutch. Waves of traders, planters, and their slaves created a strong Asian influence. Mauritius' Creoles trace their origins to the plantation owners and slaves who were brought to work the sugar fields. Indo-Mauritians are descended from Indian immigrants who arrived in the nineteenth century to work as indentured laborers after slavery was abolished in 1835. Most Seychelles people are descendants of early French settlers and African slaves brought to the Seychelles in the nineteenth century by the British who freed them from slave ships on the East African coast. Indians and Chinese account for slightly over 1 percent of the rest of the population. Creole is the native language of 94 percent of the people, with English and French as common languages. English is the language of commerce and government. The handshake is the common greeting in the four major tourist destination countries. They understand most of the European gestures. In many cases using the left hand alone or to pass items is not polite. The verbal "tch-tch" sound is considered an insult in Kenya and Tanzania. Photographing people should not be done without permission. European cuisine (and Indian in major cities) is common in all four major tourist destination countries. The two island nations--Seychelles and Mauritius--have typical Creole, Indian, and Chinese food. Fresh seafood, fruits, and vegetables are common in these islands. Tanzania's foods include grains, fruits, rice, cooked bananas, and vegetables. Kenya's typical dishes are goat, beef, lamb, chicken, fish, red bean stew, and fruits.
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Tourism is significant in East Africa, but a number of countries, especially the countries of the Horn of Africa, have low numbers of visitors due to the environmental and political problems of the region. Kenya, Figure 12-5, receives the largest amount of visitors to the region, and it is second in Africa only to South Africa in total visitor numbers. Kenya leads Africa in non-African visitors. (South Africa has more visitors, but it has a strong regional flow from other African countries.) Tanzania has opened its borders with Kenya in order to take advantage of Kenya's large tourist industry. Kenya and Tanzania also benefit from tours combining the two countries. The largest number of visitors to Tanzania are by land, while Kenya's visitors come by air.
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Along with the governments of other East African countries, Kenya recognized the importance of tourism early and has established governmental agencies to plan, develop, and promote tourism. All of the nations of East Africa have set out to improve their infrastructure for tourism by providing money to build hotels, lodges, airports, and so on. Kenya is beginning to have problems with its tourism. An economic recession resulted in badly maintained infrastructure, which makes tourist visits uncomfortable. Roads to game parks are in such disrepair that travel is alongside the road. Kenya has received adverse press pertaining to problems of security for the potential tourist. Other countries of Africa have been marketing their product more aggressively. Kenya has not tried to broaden its market outside of Europe and North America. European travelers make up the majority of Kenya's visitors, with Germans dominating. The United States is the most important country outside of Europe for tourists to Kenya. Some concern is expressed by officials that Kenya may be at the saturation point of its tourist-carrying capacity. Most visitors are associated with tours and groups. European visitors to Kenya (German and British) visit longer and combine visits to the game parks with a week on the coast for a sun-sea-sand vacation. North Americans typically visit for just a week and spend their time on safari, then return home.
The islands of Mauritius and Seychelles in the Indian Ocean enjoy a tourism trade that is as large as they can effectively handle and maintain. The Seychelles have targeted their tourism industry at the upscale market. They feel this will provide them with the highest possible income and have less impact upon their islands. The Seychelles market is largely European, with minor markets from South Africa.
Mauritius had significant growth in the late 1990s. It now has the second largest volume of visitors to East Africa after Kenya. It is dependent upon three major markets: Europe (43 percent), East Africa (20 percent), and Reunion Island (10 percent). In an effort to diversify, Mauritius has tried to attract tourists from Japan and Singapore. A weekly flight to Singapore has been established, but direct flights to Japan are not presently operating.
Tourist Destinations and Attractions
The principal tourist attractions of Kenya are its forty national parks. The Nairobi National Park is important for observing African wildlife (Figure 12-6). Tsavo National Park, the largest national park in the world, offers spectacular scenery along with a wide variety of animals and birds. A major attraction in Tsavo is Mzima Springs. Elephants, hippos, and crocodiles are found in its waters while gazelle, zebra, and giraffe wander along the banks.
The Masai reserve, where the culture of the Masai people is partially protected, provides an opportunity to observe African wildlife and Masai culture. Masai Mara is one of the most visited game preserves in Africa, and its most prominent feature is the annual migration of the wildebeests from Serengeti in Tanzania. Lake Nakuru National Park has a variety of bird sanctuaries. At Lake Nakuru more than a million pink flamingoes can be seen feeding the shore. Close to Lake Nakuru, in the Nakuru National Park, is the first black rhino sanctuary constructed as part of the government plan to save the rhino from extinction.
Amberdares National Park exhibits the extraordinary mountain scenery of the Rift Valley and some picturesque villages, including an old town with narrow winding streets illustrating native culture. Mt. Kenya, Africa's second highest mountain, attracts climbers and hikers. Its slopes have two of the most famous hotels in Africa--Treetops and the Ark, which provide close-up viewing of game as they come out of the forest to salt licks. Nakuru and Thomson's Falls offer scenic views of the Great Rift Valley. Mombasa, on the Indian Ocean, is a Muslim center and has a host of mosques, a Portuguese fort, Fort Jesus, and a number of beaches.
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Nairobi, the capital, has a number of interesting attractions, including the National Assembly Building, the National Theatre, the University of Nairobi, and the National Museum with exhibits of African tribal lore and Kenyan history, Figure 12-7.
Of the other East African countries, Uganda has very little tourism due to the undeveloped nature of the industry as well as its unstable political situation. Uganda has three national parks, with the primary attraction being Murchison Falls (now called Kabalega), the source of the Nile, surrounded by mountain scenery and an excellent variety of wildlife. Uganda is considered by many to be one of the most beautiful countries in Africa. Lake Victoria is very picturesque. The two major cities are the capital city of Kampala and Entebbe. Both are on Lake Victoria, and travel between the two passes through small villages and farms. Kampala, like Rome, is built on a series of seven hills; it offers the visitor a mosque, the tombs of Kabakas, and the Uganda Museum.
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The second most important country in East Africa is Kenya's neighbor, Tanzania. Tanzania receives half as many tourists as Kenya and has the same general attractions as Kenya and Uganda. Game parks, mountain scenery, and one of the world's most famous mountains, Mt. Kilimanjaro, which attracts climbers and hikers, are part of its tourist destinations. Ngorongoro Crater is one of the largest craters in the world, nearly ten miles wide. A wide variety of wildlife, including antelopes and elephants, can be seen in the crater. Just outside of the crater is Serengeti, noted for its tree-climbing lions. Serengeti National Park has a large concentration of wildlife and is one of the better viewing parks in the world.
Dar es Salaam, the capital and port city of Tanzania, is an attractive city with attractions, such as the Ministries of the Government, the Arab Asian sectors, Tanzania National Museum, and the harbor area. Just off the coast is Zanzibar Island, which was a Persian and Arab trading center. With its ornate Arabian homes, Stone Town is most interesting in Zanzibar. Both Kenya and Tanzania have some excellent beaches that are attractive to Europeans who enjoy both the national parks and the sun-sea-sand environment.
Seychelles and Mauritius islands offer exotic Indian Ocean sun-sea-sand experiences for visitors. They offer beautiful scenery, placid lagoons, and coral reefs with spectacular snorkeling and skindiving. Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, receives few tourists. Ethiopia and Somalia have few tourists because of the conflicts in and between the countries. Both have suffered from extensive droughts, and the world news has emphasized the problems of the two countries and others in the semiarid Sahel.
East Africa Country Capital Language Currency Burundi Bujumbura Kirundi, French, Swahili franc Comoros Moroni Arabic, French, Comoran franc Ethiopia Addis Ababa Amharic, Arabic birr Kenya Nairobi English, Swahili shilling Malawi Lilongwe English, Chichewa kwacha Mauritius Port Louis English, Hindi rupees Rwanda Kigali Kinyarwanda, French, Kiswahili franc Seychelles Victoria Creole, French, English rupee Somalia Mogadishu Somali, Arabic shilling Tanzania Dar es Salaam Swahili, English shilling Uganda Kampala English, Luganda, Swahili shilling Population Square Miles and Country (2001) (millions) State Comparison Burundi 6.2 10,747 (Maryland) Comoros 0.6 838 (1/2 of Delaware) Ethiopia 65.4 472,434 (4/5 of Alaska) Kenya 29.8 224,961 (Texas) Malawi 10.5 45,747 (Pennsylvania) Mauritius 1.2 790 (Rhode Island) Rwanda 7.3 10,169 (Maryland) Seychelles 0.1 171 Somalia 7.5 246,200 (Texas) Tanzania 36.2 364,900 (2 California) Uganda 24.0 91,134 (Oregon)
Southern Africa suffers because of the great distances to the major industrial nations of the world and the political situation in the region, Figure 12-8. Of the nations of South Africa, three--Zimbabwe, Botswana, and South Africa--have a significant tourist industry, Figure 12-9. Namibia, a newly independent nation, is building a tourist industry. Zimbabwe has an increasing tourist trade, as its political situation stabilized in the 1980s. Tourist numbers now exceed 2.3 million annually.
The social and political problems in South Africa hurt Zimbabwe as well as South Africa since traditionally Zimbabwe was included in tour programs with South Africa. Both tour operators and airlines canceled their South African trips due to South African racism. Tourism is now growing, and more cooperation is occurring in the region.
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The tourism market for the region has become a regional market. More than 75 percent of Zimbabwe's tourists are now from the regions of East and South Africa. The United Kingdom and Germany have remained important sources of visitors to the region, but have decreased in relative importance compared with African source regions. The United States has about the same percentage of total visitors as it had in the past, but because total tourism numbers are up there are actually more Americans visiting today.
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Namibia's independence in 1990 has led to the opening of the country to tourism. Currently a majority of its visitors are South Africans who comprise nearly 60 percent of the visitors. There is an increase in European visitors, with Germany being the main source, accounting for some 11 percent of visitors.
Botswana's visitors are mostly from other African countries (about 90 percent), Figure 12-10. Most travel independently, taking short camping safari vacations. The government has given priority to promote overseas tourism to the country. Its location and the location of its tourist resources provide opportunity to join its market with Zimbabwe, which will also help to increase the number of visitors. Non-African tourists are mostly European (English). The United States only accounts for 1 percent of the visitors to Botswana.
TRAVEL TIPS Entry: Visas are required for some of the countries. In many cases they require proof of transportation and sufficient funds. Transportation: The region is served from the United States with direct flights to South Africa and Zambia. Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa, are hubs for travel to and throughout the region. Connections to the other countries are via Europe, which provides service to the various countries of the region. Service from East Africa via Kenya to Botswana and Johannesburg is also available. Health: Malaria, yellow fever, and in some cases cholera protection should be taken. Water in major cities of Southern Africa is potable, but care should be taken to use bottled and boiled water elsewhere. Visitors should avoid swimming in fresh water. Hepatitis has been a problem in some of the cities of the region. Travel Advisory: The state department has advised that the political situation in South Africa is tense and travelers should be aware of problem areas. Travel to the most frequented tourist areas has been generally safe, but recently there have been some problems on the beaches. Shopping: Common items include animal skins, precious stones, hand-carved wooden objects, brass, leather goods, masks, jewelry, handwoven fabrics, and handicrafts of the individual country.
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CULTURAL CAPSULE Southern Africa is a diverse region. The dominant theme in current history has been the evolving struggle of the region's indigenous black African majority for majority rule. The area was settled at least by the eighth century by a variety of black African ethnic groups who spoke languages belonging to the Bantu as well as the Khoisan linguistic classifications. The early groups practiced both agriculture and pastoralism. Some groups had organized into strong states by the fifteenth century as the Kongo of northern Angola and the Shona people of the Zimbabwean plateau. Others like the Nguni speakers lived in smaller communities. In the sixteenth century small numbers of Portuguese began settling along the coasts of Angola and Mozambique. In 1652, the Dutch established a settlement at Africa's southernmost tip, the Cape of Good Hope. The Dutch expanded steadily into the interior throughout the eighteenth century, seizing land of the local Khoisan communities. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia as well as elsewhere in Africa. The region became racially divided between free white settlers and subordinated people of mixed African and Afro-Asian descent. The British took over the Cape during the Napoleonic Wars and in 1820 began to send colonists to the region. During this period, the Zulu state emerged under the great warrior Prince Shaka. During the 1830s the British abolished slavery throughout their empire and extended limited civil rights to nonwhites at the Cape. A large number of white Dutch-descended farmers known as Boers migrated (the Great Trek) into the interior to be free of British control. Lesotho and western Botswana kingdoms preserved their independence from the Boers. During the second half of the nineteenth century, white migration spread throughout the rest of Southern Africa, dominated by British migrants. The discovery of diamonds and gold in northeastern South Africa brought further occupation and expansion by the British. Boer farmers moved to the growing towns and cities, and the term Afrikaaners was applied to all whites of Dutch ancestry. In the 1890s the British South Africa Company occupied modern Zambia and Zimbabwe. British traders, missionaries, and settlers also invaded the area now known as Malawi. The Germans seized Namibia, while the Portuguese began to expand inland from their coastal enclaves. Thus by 1900 the entire region was under white colonial control. After World War II movements advocating black self-determination developed throughout the region. By 1968 Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, and Zambia had gained their independence. In 1974 Angola and Mozambique, 1980 Zimbabwe, and 1990 Namibia gained independence. South Africa is now a democratic country, after a 1992 vote by the whites to abolish official racial segregation. Until 1992 South Africa divided the population into four major racial categories: Africans, whites, coloreds, and Asians. The Africans are mainly descendants of the Sotho and Nguni peoples who migrated southward centuries ago. The largest African ethnic groups are the Zulu (6 million) and Xhosa (5.8 million). Whites are primarily descendants of Dutch, French, English, and German settlers, with small mixtures of other Europeans. Coloreds are mostly descendants of indigenous people and the earliest European and Malay settlers. They represent 9 percent of the population and live primarily in Cape Province. Asians are mainly descendants of the Indian workers brought to South Africa in the nineteenth century to work as indentured laborers on sugar estates in Natal. They constitute about 3 percent of the population. As of 1996, South Africa has officially dropped its racist laws, and all individuals are equal before the law. In practice, the white minority still controls the wealth of the country, but the change to a democracy with Africans in the major political positions has occurred without the race war predicted by many.
Tourism to South Africa itself has grown rapidly in the 1990s with the change in government. Nearly 80 percent of its visitors are from other countries in the region. Outside of Africa, the greatest number of visitors to South Africa are from the United Kingdom, because of former colonial and commonwealth links. About 3 percent of South Africa's tourists are from the United States.
Tourist Destinations and Attractions
The major attractions of Zimbabwe are the spectacular Victoria Falls and the upgraded game viewing areas. The falls are over a mile wide between Zimbabwe and Zambia and can be viewed from both countries. The Zimbabwe Ruins near Fort Victoria are impressive, with ruins of stone buildings dating from 700 B.C. The Wankie Game Reserve and the Inyanga National Park are excellent for observing African wildlife.
South Africa has game reserves, such as the Kruger National Park, the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, and the Umfolozi Game reserve. The major cities of Cape Town, Pretoria, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Pietermaritzburg, and Johannesburg have museums and strong historical ties to the Afrikaaner culture (Figure 12-11). Reached by a cable car ride, Table Mountain provides a fantastic view of Cape Town and the coast (Figure 12-12). Cape Town has evidences of the Dutch and British colonial period. The most historic castle in South Africa is in Cape Town.
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Pretoria, the administrative capital, has government buildings and the Voortrekker Monument in honor of the Boer trek to settle the Transvaal.
Durban, Figure 12-13, is the seaside resort center of South Africa. It also has Hindu temples and mosques and Indian markets that add to the area of best beaches in South Africa. It has a number of Bantu markets and is only a short drive from Zululand. Kimberley is the diamond mining center, where visitors can watch the mining process.
The smaller countries of southern Africa receive few visitors from outside of Africa. A major development for Swaziland, Lesotho, and Botswana has been the development of gambling casinos and large resort complexes. These places are very attractive to South Africans and other residents of the region, providing an important tourist industry to these countries.
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Zambia, a landlocked country, shares Victoria Falls with Zimbabwe and also has a number of game reserves with abundant wildlife. In addition to Victoria Falls, Zambia has 19 game and wildlife parks. A specialty of the South Luangwa Park is walking safaris. Kafue National Park is one of the largest game sanctuaries in Africa, occupying an area as large as Wales. It offers both a rich variety of African wildlife as well as a spectacular array of bird life. Botswana boasts of the most pristine and best-managed park and game reserves in Africa. Chobe National Park has a large concentration of elephants along with rhino, sable, and roan antelope. The Okavango Delta has a wide variety of birds.
Namibia is one of the few countries of the world where the black rhino still exists. In addition to the Etosha National Park it has 19 park and game reserves. Other attractions than game include the Fish River Canyon in the southwest, one of the biggest outside of the Grand Canyon, hot springs resorts, and the Cape Cross seal reserve on the northern coastline. Namibia's colonial history provides plenty of evidence of architectural gems in Luderitz and Swakopmund of the German colonial days.
Tourist data are not available for Angola and Mozambique. They have severe political problems, which hinder the development of tourism. Mozambique does have some natural attractions upon which to develop a tourism industry when the political problems are overcome. It has a rich variety of wildlife in its national parks, reserves, and the countryside.
Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, receives few tourists. It does offer secluded tropical beaches, coral reefs, ancient palaces, beautiful scenery, and considerable French influence. However, it is far from Europe and North America, and there are many sun-sea-sand exotic locations closer and more developed than Madagascar.
Country Capital Language Currency Botswana Gaborone English, Setswana pula Lesotho Maseru English, Sesotho, Zulu, Xhosa loti Madagascar Antananarivo French, Malagasy franc Mozambique Maputo Portuguese metical Namibia Windhoek English, Afrikaans, German rand South Africa Pretoria Afrikaans, English rand Swaziland Mbabane English, Swati lilangeni Zambia Lusaka English kwacha Zimbabwe Harare English dollar Population Country (2001) (millions) State Comparison Botswana 1.1 231,804 (slightly less than Texas) Lesotho 2.2 11,716 (Maryland) Madagascar 15.9 228,880 (slightly less than Texas) Mozambique 19.4 481,353 (2 California) Namibia 1.8 318,261 (1/2 of Alaska) South Africa 43.6 433,680 (4/5 of Alaska) Swaziland 1.1 6,704 (Hawaii) Zambia 9.8 290,585 (Texas) Zimbabwe 11.4 151,000 (California)
Central and Interior Africa
TRAVEL TIPS Entry: Most of these countries require visas, sufficient funds, and proof of return or onward transportation. Transportation: International flights are less frequent than other regions of Africa. Most flights are weekly through Europe or other African countries. Health: Cholera, yellow fever, and malaria are major concerns. Also, typhoid, polio, and hepatitis inoculations are recommended. Raw fruits and vegetables should be carefully prepared. In most cases tap water is not potable. In most cities local transportation is crowded. Taxis are available. CULTURAL CAPSULE The countries of Central and Interior Africa (Figure 12-14) incorporate a variety of people, cultures, resources, environments, and systems of government. Islam has influenced Chad, Sudan, and the northern part of Cameroon. In most areas Christianity coexists with indigenous tribal systems of belief. All of the states except Chad and Sudan encompass equatorial rain forests. French is the predominant language of the region as French was the principal colonial power in this region. Many of the ethnic groups, such as the Fang in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon, the Bateke of the Congo, Gabon, and the Congo overlap national boundaries.
Tourism Characteristics and Destinations
Tourism to Central and Interior Africa is very limited, Figure 12-15. It is the most inaccessible region with the poorest tourist support facilities in the world. Cameroon has the best tourism development in the region, and along with Gabon receives the most visitors. Differing from the other countries in this region, it has a coastal location and offers a variety of attractions from coastal to scenic volcanic mountains. It has several fine game reserves with a great variety of wildlife.
Gabon is one of the most prosperous nations of Africa. Beaches, hunting, and photographic safaris are the major attractions of Gabon. Some important attractions are Kango, the M'Bei Waterfalls, and Ogooue' River. Franceville, Ndjole, and Booue are picturesque townships. Dr. Albert Schweitzer worked at Lambarene.
With its large game reserves, rivers, mountains, native villages, and pygmies, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has the potential for tourism, but it is a poorly developed industry. Albert National Park includes not only a variety of animals but a very scenic area that encompasses the Great Rift Valley with its volcanoes, grassy plateaus, alpine scenery, and tropical rain forest. Lake Kivu, the highest lake on the continent, is located in a picturesque setting. Kinshasa, the capital, is an attractive city providing good restaurants and accommodations. St. Anne's Cathedral, the King Albert Monument, the Museum of Native Life, and the markets provide good attractions for the visitor. Kinshasa serves as a good example of the weak tourism market. It is a city of crime, political collapse, poverty, and garbage. Founded by Henry Stanley, Kisangani reveals evidence of its Arab past and also has the pretty Bovoma Falls (formerly Stanley Falls).
The Central African Republic, too, is an undeveloped country with wildlife and national parks and pygmy cultures offering tourism potential. Bangui, the capital, has some interesting attractions in its colorful Central Market, Mamadou M'Baiiki (trading center), Kina, the Fatima Catholic Mission, and an arts and crafts center. Visits can be made from Bangui along the Ubangi River to observe life and visit coffee and rubber plantations and pygmy villages. However, like the Congo, the Central African Republic has not wanted to create a formal, highly visual tourist trade.
Sudan and Chad in the Sahel receive few visitors. Khartoum and Wadi Halfa are the most promising locations in Sudan. Khartoum, the capital, is the meeting place of the Blue and White Nile Rivers. Wadi Halfa has a number of antiquities in its museum and the Temple of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III at Buhen, which are close to Wadi Halfa. Excursions from Wadi Halfa visit ruins of temples, pyramids, tombs, and fortresses dating back to the Egyptian pharaohs. Chad has the potential to provide good excursions into either desert or tropical environments. N'Djamena, the capital, is a good central location to visit the region for safaris.
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Central and Interior Africa Country Capital Language Currency Cameroon Yaounde English, French franc Central African Republic Bangui French, Swahili, franc Sanglo, Arabic Chad N'Djamena French, Arabic, franc Sara, Sango Congo, Democratic Kinshasa French, Lingala, zaire Republic of the Swahili Congo, Republic of the Brazzaville French, Lingala, franc Kilongo Gabon Libreville French, Fang, Myene franc Sudan Khartoum Arabic, Nubian, pounds Ya Bedawie Population Square Miles and Country (2001) (millions) State Comparison Cameroon 15.8 183,568 (California) Central African Republic 3.6 242,000 (Texas) Chad 8.7 596,000 (Texas and California) Congo, Democratic 53.6 905,063 (almost 1/4 Republic of the of U.S.) Congo, Republic of the 3.1 132,000 (Montana) Gabon 1.2 102,317 (Colorado) Sudan 31.8 967,500 (1/4 of U.S.)
1. Why is Africa the least visited region of the world?
2. Describe the two major types of landforms in Africa.
3. Why has Senegal developed a relatively strong tourist trade?
4. Why are there few tourists to the interior nations of Africa?
5. Which region of Africa has the best-developed tourist industry? Explain why.
6. What are the three most visited attractions in nearly all of the countries of Africa south of the Sahara?
7. What are potentially attractive areas for tourism development in Africa?
1. If African nations became politically stable, which country would have the greatest variety of potential natural attractions upon which to base a tourism industry? Explain your answer.
2. If you planned a tour for a client emphasizing the greatest variety of experiences, which region of Africa (East, West, South, Central and Interior) would you suggest? Justify your answer.
3. Even if the African nations become politically stable would tourism become more important to Africa? Why?
4. If you were a researcher for the African Tourism Association, which countries of the world would you suggest that Africa target for their marketing strategies? Why?
5. In 50 years will Africa's tourism be more from non-African tourist markets or will it be even more dominated by African sources? Justify your answer.
INTERNET WEB SITE
www.tourism-office.org/afrique.htm Provides tourism information and links for Africa.
Through Visitors' Eyes
Touching the Wild in Zimbabwe
Close to Nature
Makalolo is located 80 kilometers from Hwange Aerodome, in the southern, undeveloped part of Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe. Alan Elliott, local hunter and entrepreneur and fourth generation Zimbabwean, established the camp in 1980 as an alternative to the more traditional, luxurious safari lodges.
We were picked up in a Land Rover. (Transportation to and from the camp was provided.) The ride was one long game drive in itself.
Generally arrival at Makalolo is timed for just after dark, and the lights and the warmth of the fire are welcome after the almost two-hour drive.
Accommodations are large, green tents with awnings. We were impressed with their comfort and appeal. Bathrooms are mud huts that contain flush toilets and are centrally located in the complex of tents. Showers are bamboo structures with ten-foot ceilings, and the water is hot.
There is no landscaping here, nor is the camp set apart from the park in any way. Makalolo's location is moved every six months because no permanent camp installation is permitted in the park, due to possible ecological damage.
Our meals were served in a tented open-air clearing, and the food was excellent and plentiful. One morning on an early game drive, pancakes were prepared and served in the middle of a "vlei" (a large, open meadow).
The staff and drivers impressed us with their efficiency and friendliness, answering questions about wildlife and park ecology as if no one ever had posed that particular query before.
Game Drives, Walks
Hwange is famous for its game: elephants are so overpopulated that 4,000 will be culled from the herds within the next year. Cape Buffalo, giraffe, zebra, baboons, and wildebeest abound.
After a little time in the bush, Jim and I could distinguish between the sable antelope, kudu, duliter, steinbok, impala, and bushbuck. We also saw hippo, crocodile, jackals, and hyenas. The big cats presented more of a challenge, but we spotted both lion and leopard.
For bird watchers, this is a paradise. From the big birds--the Maribou Stork, the Secretary Bird, and the Kori Bustard--to the small--Bee-eaters, Lilac-breasted Rollers, and Crimson-breasted Shrikes--the wildlife of the air provides a fascinating study.
There generally are two game drives a day, one rather early in the morning and the second late in the afternoon. Actually we had little free time, perhaps an hour or so in the afternoon for a rest. In addition to the drives, Alan Elliott is licensed for game walks. Elliott carries a rifle for protection in case of an emergency but he has never had to use it. For those people to whom walking poses no problem, a walk in the wild should not be missed.
A few notes about seasons and the Zimbabwe climate: the wet season is December through March. The land becomes green and lush and due to plentiful water the animals disperse and are harder to spot. Most of the rain during those months falls at night and in the early morning.
The best game-viewing months are mid-July through October. As the moisture dissipates, the animals must gather at waterholes and thus are more easily seen. June probably is the coldest month, while October and November see temperatures of 115 degrees Fahrenheit ...
Source: Judy Currie, International Travel News, Nov. 1986, pp. 16-17.
ITINERARY THE VARIETY OF TANZANIA DAY 1 DAR ES SALAAM Dar es Salaam is the capital of Tanzania and offers much to see. Today will be spent sightseeing the city. We will start with a walk down Independence Avenue, the main street in the new quarter of the town, which will give you a chance to enjoy the natural flora of this city. Government buildings, embassies, banks, shops, and curio stores line this street. We will then visit the Art Gallery Arcade located in the IPS building. It has many forms of the popular Makonde art. The Makonde are a proud, distinctive, and highly sensitive people. They tend to isolate themselves in small groups and are regarded by other people with both fear and respect. They are best known for their ebony sculptures, which are principally centered on the mother figure, but which sometimes embrace other themes that deal with life. After lunch, we will visit the National Museum, which is situated in the Botanical Gardens. Its outstanding attraction is the Hall of Man, where Dr. Leakey's first finds from Olduvai Gorge, including the skull of Nut-cracker Man and other human fossils, are displayed and where stages of man's development over the last two million years are clearly traced and illustrated. There is also a fantastic ethnographical collection displaying native handicrafts, witchcraft paraphernalia, dancing masks, and traditional musical instruments. The history of the coast is also displayed with Chinese porcelain, glazed Persian pottery, "trade-wind" beads from India, and a notable series of copper coins of the Sultans of Kilwa. Tonight you will attend the National Dance Troupe at Lumumba Hall. This is a rare opportunity to see the ritual tribal dances and performances, including the famous Makonde masked stilt and snake dances. DAY 2 MISASANI Today you will travel to Village Museum, which consists of a collection of traditional, authentically constructed dwellings of various Tanzanian tribes. It displays several distinct architectural styles with building materials ranging from sand, grass, and poles to mud and rope. Villagers demonstrate their ancient skills of carving and weaving and offer their products for sale. You will enjoy lunching at the local restaurant built on the premises in an attractive style. After lunch, you will travel to Misasani Village. Here you will be able to see the village life and habits of local fishermen who chisel their ngalawa boats out of logs. The tombs and pillars that exist here date from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. We will then continue traveling up the coast to Kaole, which contains the ruins of fourteenth-century mosques and tombs. Then we will continue our drive up to Kunduchi. DAY 3 TANGA-ARUSHA Tanga is the second largest town and port of Tanzania, following Dar es Salaam. It is the center of the important sisal industry. A number of sites to see here include: a sisal estate where you can see the spiny-leaved plants that are related to the amaryllis and how the fibrous tissue is harvested; the Amboni Limestone caves in Tanga, which are quite interesting to visit and explore; and Galanos, the hot sulphur springs for which Tanga is famous. After exploring Tanga, you will depart for Arusha, which is the departing point for all safaris. You will visit Arusha National Park today. It is quite large and is made up of three separate parts: the five Momella Lakes with their prolific birdlife; the forested lower slopes of Mount Neru with its wealth of buffalo, elephant, rhino, giraffe, warthog, bushpig, waterbuck, bushbuck, and colobus monkey; the Ngurdoto Crater, the floor of which has been set aside as a reserve within a reserve "where there shall be no interference whatsoever from man." Visitors may view the wildlife only from lookout points on the crater rim. DAY 4 NGORONGORO CRATER You will travel to the Ngorongoro Crater. This is one of Africa's most beautiful areas of wildlife and certainly one of the most spectacular settings of scenic splendor anywhere. The drive to the crater is exceptional. Leaving Arusha, you start at the base of the Great Rift Valley Wall, pass the entrance to the Manyara National Park, pass by the Mbulu Plateau, the Karatu and Oldeani wheat and coffee farms, and finally through the temperate forest zone and up to the crater rim. This crater is the largest intact crater in existence, exceeded in magnitude only by five damaged ones. There is absolutely no break in its 67-meter wall. Some eight million years ago, Ngorongoro was an active volcano until its cone collapsed, leaving a caldera some 20 kilometers in diameter. The crater rim (where all the hotels and lodges are sited 2,286 meters above sea level) rises high over the Serengeti Plain. Inside, you will be able to see elephant, rhino, lions, leopards, and buffalo as well as 3,000 gazelle, 15,000 wildebeests, and cows. This is also the migratory point for flamingos. DAY 5 OLDUVAI GORGE You will travel to the Olduvai Gorge today. The Olduvai Gorge is where, under the direction of Dr. Louis Leakey, abundant material dating back at least two million years and possibly much longer, has been found. Remains of the prehistoric elephant, giant horned sheep, and enormous ostriches have been found in the Stone Age site, and more recently, the very early human remains of the Nut-cracker Man. Mary Leakey uncovered in 1969 the most intact Habilis skull ever found. It is thought to date from around 1.75 million years ago. DAY 6 MOUNT KILIMANJARO We will travel today to Mt. Kilimanjaro. This is Africa's most renowned and most beautiful mountain. It is located just three degrees south of the equator, and yet its summit is permanently snowclad. It is an extinct volcano with two peaks: Mawenzi (5,600 meters) and Kibo (6,447 meters). It takes a minimum of five days to climb, so instead we will visit the town of Moshi, which lies at the foot of Mt. Kilimanjaro. This town is the center of the coffee trade. There are also large plantations of sugar and sisal and wheat. Things to visit here are: Mwarkio Art Gallery: Local artists display their talents and their creations in this museum. It will help you gain an insight into their ways of life. Djamat ban Mosque: Unique to this area. Rest and explore the city and enjoy the breathtaking scenery of Mt. Kilimanjaro during your free time. You will begin your trip home from here.
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|Publication:||Geography of Travel & Tourism, 4th ed.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2003|
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