Chapter 11 Working with fats in pies and tarts.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
* Explain the difference between the three types of pastry crusts: pate brisee, pate sucree, and pate sablee.
* Explain the role fat plays in making pies and tarts.
* List the six steps to reduce gluten formation.
* Demonstrate how to work with fats in pies and tarts by preparing the recipes in this chapter.
Pie and tart crusts traditionally contain a great deal of fat. This is one of the reasons we love them so much. Fat makes the crust tender, light, and flaky. A recurrent theme in this book is the role fats play as tenderizers in baked goods; this role is no less important for pies and tarts.
Pies are defined as a crust topped with a sweet or savory filling. Some pies have a top and bottom crust, a bottom crust only, or a top crust only. Pies are traditionally baked in a pie pan, a shallow, slope-sided pan made of metal, tempered glass, or other decorative materials such as ceramic.
Tarts are, in actuality, just pies without a top crust, although there may be some exceptions. Tarts tend to be a showcase for a spectacular arrangement of fruits, mousses, pastry creams, and chocolate. The shape of a tart has more variations than for a pie. Tart pans may be geometrically shaped (e.g., round, square, rectangular) or shaped like hearts or flowers, for example. The pans may or may not be fluted. Tarts may also be prepared freeform without a pan.
In general, tarts have a "dressy" look. They lend a degree of sophistication to the end of a formal meal. Both pies and tarts can be prepared in individual portion sizes.
This chapter discusses the three types of pastry crusts and how fats are distributed in each one. The topic of gluten is also revisited, primarily how to decrease its formation in the preparation of tender, flaky pies and tarts.
Recipes using the different types of pastry crusts appear at the end of the chapter.
The Difference between Tenderness and Flakiness in a Pastry Crust
Many bakers seem to have a special knack for creating the most tender, flaky pastry crusts. The first step in learning how to work with fats in preparing pies and tarts is to understand the difference between tenderness and flakiness.
Certain fats are referred to as shortenings because tenderness results when the fat shortens strands of gluten, preventing them from joining together and producing a tough pastry crust.
Flakiness results when pieces of fat, acting as spacers within the dough, melt in the oven and leave spaces of air in their place. These spaces of air expand and any moisture in the dough turns to steam, pushing up against each layer of dough. This expansion separates the layers of dough, producing flakiness in a similar manner to laminated doughs.
Choosing the Right Fat
As you learned in Chapter 10, while most fats tenderize and reduce gluten, different types of solid fat have different levels of plasticity and produce differences in flakiness.
Solid fat, such as vegetable shortening, is ideal for preparing crusts for pies and tarts. It produces the flakiest pastry crust because of its high degree of plasticity. Lard, a fat rendered from pigs, also produces a flaky crust, but because of its high level of saturated fat and health concerns, it is not used as often.
Butter, on the other hand, provides the best flavor despite its lower plasticity. As the temperature of the kitchen goes up, doughs containing butter become difficult to handle. The higher the melting point of the fat used, the longer it will maintain its shape before melting in a hot oven, thereby increasing the pastry's flakiness. This is the main reason why liquid fats such as oils are not used. Although they do tenderize, they produce a crust that crumbles easily and contributes little to flakiness.
Some chefs substitute a portion of the fat for a different one to enhance the flavor of the crust. Some substitutions include high-fat dairy products such as cream cheese or sour cream. For a savory crust, cheeses such as Cheddar can be used. Although these fatty dairy products will produce a very tender crust, they may not be as flaky.
Three Different Types of Pastry Doughs
There are three basic types of pastry doughs: pate brisee, pate sucree, and pate sablee. Pate brisee is the flakiest of the three types. Pate sucree and pate sablee are referred to as "short doughs" and produce the most tender crusts. This is because the fat is softened and creamed with sugar. Because the fat is blended in so thoroughly (unlike in pate brisee), gluten strands are shortened so that they are not able to form a strong structure. The addition of a larger amount of sugar also decreases gluten formation, producing a very tender, but not a flaky crust. Some short dough recipes may contain a small quantity of baking powder. Because pate sucree and pate sablee are quite soft after mixing, they need to be chilled for several hours or overnight until they are firm enough to work with. Pate sucree holds its shape when rolled out, whereas pate sablee is too tender.
In general, pate sucree and pate sablee are baked with no filling and then filled once they have cooled. Typically, they are baked at lower temperatures than pate brisee because of their high sugar content which causes burning at temperatures greater than 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). Tarts made from pate sucree and pate sablee generally are filled while still in the pan and unmolded when served. (See Table 11-1, The Three Pastry Mixing Methods; and Table 11-2, Comparing the Three Types of Pastry Doughs.)
Pate brisee is a rich, flaky dough containing flour, salt, butter (or other fat), and ice water. In French, pate brisee means "broken pastry." Broken pastry refers to the tender flakes that break off as one cuts into this rich crust.
There are two types of pate brisee: flaky pie dough and mealy pie dough. They are prepared using the same ingredients. The difference between them is in how thoroughly the fat pieces are blended into the dry ingredients. In a typical flaky pie dough, the fat is blended in only until it breaks up into pea-sized pieces; in a mealy pie dough, the fat is blended in more thoroughly until it breaks up into finer pieces resembling corn meal.
Flaky pie dough tends to produce a flaky crust because the larger fat pieces act as spacers separating the layers of dough during baking. As flaky pie dough is rolled out, pieces of fat can be easily seen interspersed within the dough. Flaky pie doughs are ideal for top crusts.
Mealy pie doughs produce a more tender crust. This is because the fat is almost completely blended into the flour. The word mealy is used because the dough resembles meal. Each grain of flour becomes entirely coated with fat, greatly reducing gluten formation. Less water is needed in a mealy pie dough because the fat-covered flour particles become less able to absorb it. This creates a very tender, water-resistant crust that is ideal for the bottom crust of a fruit or custard pie. Mealy pie doughs are less likely to get soggy because of their resistance to allowing moisture in.
This dough usually has little or no sugar in it. Traditionally, a pastry blender is used to combine the dry ingredients with the fat for small batches of dough. However, a food processor may be used when the fat is too firm or frozen, taking care not to overprocess the ingredients.
Pate Brisee (This chapter, page 245)
Pate Brisee with Cream Chesse (This chapter, page 247)
The Pate Brisee Method
1. Place the dry ingredients in a medium-sized mixing bowl.
2. Cut in the cold fat using a pastry blender until it becomes the size of peas for flaky pie dough and the size of small particles resembling meal for mealy pie dough.
3. Drizzle in ice water.
4. Gently gather the ingredients into a ball of dough. Flatten into a disk and wrap in plastic wrap and chill.
Pate sucree is a French term for "sweet" or "sugar dough." It resembles a sugar cookie dough more than it does a flaky pie dough or pate brisee. In pate sucree, the fat is creamed with the sugar. These two ingredients act as tenderizers, interfering with the network of gluten and creating a tender, not flaky pastry. When it is baked, pate sucree has a rich, buttery flavor with a crisp texture. This is a rich dough containing flour, a small amount of sugar, butter, and eggs. Eggs and often rich dairy products (e.g., milk, cream, or sour cream) replace the water that is in pate brisee. Pate sucree can be rolled out just like a pate brisee.
Pate Sucree (This chapter, page 248)
The Pate Sucree Method
1. Cream together the butter and the sugar in the bowl of an electric mixer.
2. Gradually add the eggs and dairy products.
3. Add the flour and the salt.
4. Gently gather the ingredients into a ball of dough. Flatten into a disk and wrap the dough in plastic wrap and chill.
Pate sablee is a French word meaning "sandy dough" and is a very sweet, crumbly short dough used for sweet tarts and cookies. Of the three types of pastry dough, this dough contains the most sugar and is called "sandy dough" for a reason. The fat and sugar, acting as tenderizers, prevent gluten from forming, so the dough crumbles easily. This dough, when baked, can even be eaten and enjoyed as a rich shortbread cookie all by itself!
Because pate sablee is so tender and crumbly, it is difficult to roll out. Instead, it is simply crumbled and sprinkled into the tart pan and pressed into place by hand. It is best used in tarts, small individual tarts, and cookies. When baked, pate sablee has a rich, tender texture that easily breaks apart.
Chocolate Pate Sablee (This chapter, page 251)
The Pate Sablee Method
1. Cream together the butter and sugar in the bowl of an electric mixer.
2. Gradually add the eggs.
3. Add the flour, other dry ingredients, baking powder, and salt.
4. Gently gather the ingredients into a ball of dough. Flatten into a disk and wrap the dough in plastic wrap and chill.
Six Ways to Ensure a Tender, Flaky Pastry Crust
There are six ways to ensure a tender, flaky pastry crust. The first step contributes to flakiness. The remaining five steps are directed at decreasing gluten from forming to create the most tender crust. They include:
1. Use a solid, cold fat.
2. Use a low-protein flour.
3. Add an acid.
4. Avoid using too much water.
5. Do not overmix.
6. Allow the dough to rest.
Use a Solid, Cold Fat
Even though butter has low plasticity, it is the fat of choice in pastry crusts. Some bakers use a combination of fats--vegetable shortening and butter--to achieve both flakiness and flavor.
If using butter, cut it into small cubes, wrap it, and freeze it for a short period of time. This prevents it from melting into the dough too quickly in the oven and increases flakiness. (Freeze cubed butter for approximately 20 minutes if using a pastry blender; freeze the butter cubes for approximately 1 hour if a food processor is used.) The butter should not be too hard to cut into the dry ingredients. The general rule is the colder and harder the fat, the flakier the crust.
Fat Fact: The colder and harder the fat, the flakier the crust.
Use Low-Protein Flour
Flours containing fewer proteins develop less gluten. Most pastry crusts use pastry or all-purpose flour.
Add an Acid
Adding a very small amount of an acid like orange juice, lemon juice, or vinegar helps break down and denature the proteins in the flour, preventing gluten from forming. The acid also allows the dough to be rolled out more easily with less shrinkage. Many pastry chefs substitute cold orange or lemon juice for some of the ice water, not only to decrease gluten but also to add flavor.
Avoid Using Too Much Water
It can be tempting to add too much water when making a pastry crust, especially when the pastry seems dry. Remember that gluten strands do not develop until the proteins in the flour come into contact with water.
One of the most common mistakes that bakers make is adding too much water when making a pastry crust. Sprinkle in the water gradually instead of pouring it in all at once. The entire amount may not be needed. The less water added, the more tender the crust. The water should be very cold, so add ice to a bowl of cold water, then measure from there. Using ice water prevents the pieces of fat from warming up and melting into the dough before baking.
Do Not Overmix
Any type of mixing will encourage some gluten to develop. Never knead a pastry dough; instead, push the dough gently against the sides of the bowl until it comes together and then gather it into a ball. Overhandling the dough with hands will warm up the fat, reducing flakiness.
Allow the Dough to Rest
Resting the dough relaxes gluten strands, allowing the dough to be more easily rolled out and shaped with less shrinkage. When gluten has been overdeveloped, rolling out the dough becomes an impossible task. It is similar to pulling on a too tightly wound rubber band. The more you try to stretch it, the more it resists and shrinks back. Some gluten is desirable, though, to give a certain amount of structure to the crust.
Resting also allows the fat in the dough to firm up, preventing it from melting into the dough. Generally, the dough is placed in the refrigerator to rest but it can be placed in the freezer briefly just until the dough is firm enough to roll out.
If the dough does become overworked, wrap it in plastic wrap and allow it to rest in the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes, or even longer.
Tips for a High-Quality Pastry Crust
1. Make sure the fat is cold.
2. Make sure the water or liquid is ice cold.
3. Chill the dough before rolling.
4. When rolling out a pastry dough, keep the work surface well dusted with flour to prevent the dough from sticking and then brush off excess flour with a pastry brush after rolling is completed.
5. Place the unbaked pie or tart shell on a sheet pan to make it easier to bring it to and from the oven.
There are times when a pastry shell must be baked before it can be filled. After the tart shell is cooled, it can be filled with pastry cream, mousse, whipped cream, ice cream, or fruit. Tarts such as these contain fillings that do not need cooking or that have been cooked separately and, once in the tart shell, are ready to be served. When a tart shell is baked with nothing in it, it is called blind baking.
When blind baking a pastry crust it is important to prevent the sides of the crust from shrinking down and the bottom of the crust from puffing up.
Three Ways to Blind Bake a Pie Shell
* The unbaked tart shell can be covered with a piece of parchment paper and filled with dried beans or pie weights. This prevents the dough from puffing up during baking. The shell is baked halfway, and then the parchment paper with beans or weights is removed. The shell is placed back in the oven to finish baking and ensure that the crust browns evenly.
* A second way to blind bake a pastry shell is to prick holes all over the bottom and sides of the unbaked pie shell. This is referred to as stippling or docking. A fork, paring knife, or a special tool made just for this purpose can be used. The holes prevent the crust from puffing up and shrinking in the oven.
* A third way is to set an empty pie pan on top of the unbaked pie shell and invert it onto a sheet pan. It is baked halfway, then the crust is flipped over so it is right side up. The extra pan is then removed and the pie shell is placed back in the oven to finish baking. Baking the crust upside down prevents the sides from shrinking.
Chilling or freezing the raw pastry shell briefly before baking allows the fat to harden, ensuring a flaky crust, and relaxes gluten to prevent shrinkage.
Helpful Tips to Roll Out a Pastry Crust
There are many ways to roll out a pastry crust:
* Before you begin to roll out the dough, use your hands to form the
dough into the shape it will ultimately be in when it is rolled out. For example, if a round pie pan will be used, form the disk of dough into a rough circle before you begin to roll it out. If a rectangular tart pan will be used, form the dough into a rough rectangle.
* Be sure the work surface and the rolling pin are well floured. Before transferring the dough to the pan, brush off excess flour using a pastry brush.
* After rolling out the dough in one direction, rotate the dough to make sure it is not sticking to the work surface. Roll out the dough evenly so the crust will be uniform in thickness.
* If the dough becomes too sticky or soft to work with, rewrap it and chill it in the refrigerator for 20 to 30 minutes.
* Stickier doughs may be rolled out between two pieces of plastic wrap and chilled for a short time to firm up. When you are ready to transfer the dough to the pan, peel off the top sheet of plastic. The pan can be placed on top of the dough (upside down) and the dough flipped over into the pan. The remaining piece of plastic wrap can then be peeled off.
* Place the pan on top of the rolled-out dough that is 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) larger than the pan to ensure you have enough dough to go up the sides.
* Roll the dough over a rolling pin or fold it into quarters and transfer it to the pan.
* Do not stretch the dough as you fit it into the pie or tart pan. This will cause the pastry to shrink as it bakes.
* Decoratively crimp the edges of the dough if using a pie pan.
* Roll over the top edge of a tart pan with a rolling pin to remove the excess dough.
Preventing a Soggy Bottom Crust
The following are tips to avoid a soggy bottom crust:
* Use a mealy pie dough for the bottom crust, especially for fruit or custard pies.
* Bake the crust for a long enough time. It should not look doughy.
* Bake the crust on the lowest rack of the oven at least for part of the time to ensure it bakes through completely.
For crusts to be blind baked, the following tips apply:
* Just before baking is complete, brush the bottom of the crust with egg white or egg wash and return it to the oven just long enough to cook and set the egg. This forms a barrier or protective coating against the filling.
* After baking, brush the bottom of the crust with melted chocolate or scatter chopped chocolate over the hot crust. Once melted, spread the chocolate evenly over the bottom. Chill the crust just until the chocolate has hardened before filling.
PATE BRISEE DOUGH OR FLAKY PASTRY DOUGH Makes enough pastry for two 9- to 10-inch (22.5-to 25-cm) single pie crusts or one 9- to 10-inch (22.5-to 25-cm) double pie crust Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a pate brisee or flaky pie crust. * The butter is frozen briefly so that it will not melt too quickly in the oven, thus ensuring a flaky crust. * An acid such as lemon juice is added to help the dough roll out more easily with less shrinkage. * Keeping the water icy cold ensures the fat will not melt during mixing. * Resting the dough allows any gluten that developed during mixing to relax so the crust will roll out easily and not shrink in the oven. / MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 12 3/4 3 cups 360 g 100% pastry flour ounces 2 tablespoons 30 g 8% granulated sugar 1/2 teaspoon 3 g 0.7% salt 10 ounces 2 sticks 285 g 79% unsalted butter 4 tablespoons cut into small cubes, wrapped in plastic wrap, and frozen for appro- ximately 1 hour 1 teaspoon 5 mL 1.4% fresh lemon juice 4 to 8 to 120 to 33% to ice water 4 1/4 8 1/2 table- 130 mL 36% fluid spoons additional ice ounces water, if needed 225% Total Pate Brisee percentage 1. Combine the flour, the sugar, and the salt in the work bowl of a food processor. Pulse the mixture until the dry ingredients are well combined. Pulsing means to turn the food processor on and off in spurts. This prevents overmixing. 2. Add the frozen butter cubes, scattering them on top of the flour (Figure 11-1). Pulse the mixture about 8 times, or until the butter becomes the size of peas (Figure 11-2). Stop the machine and feel the butter pieces with your fingers to make sure they are not too small. [FIGURE 11-1 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-2 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-3 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-4 OMITTED] 3. Gradually add the lemon juice and half the water, and pulse the mixture until just combined. Add more water until the dough holds together. All of the water may not be needed, so stop the machine and feel the dough to see if it holds together (Figure 11-3). At this point the mixture can be poured into a bowl, if desired, to gather it into a ball. Do not overmix or knead the dough. TIP The dough can also be made by hand using a pastry blender. For larger batches, use an electric mixer with a pastry blender attachment. 4. Form the dough into a disk. Wrap the dough in plastic wrap and chill for 1 hour (Figure 11-4). How to shape and bake this dough depends on what is being made with it. For specific recipes on how to use this dough, see Additional Ideas That Use the Recipes in This Chapter. TIP If preparing a mealy pie dough, process the mixture in step 2 until the butter and dry ingredients are very fine and resemble meal. PATE BRISEE WITH CREAM CHEESE Makes enough pastry for a single 9- to 10-inch (22.5-to 25-cm) pie crust Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a pate brisee substituting cream cheese for a portion of the fat. * The butter is frozen for a short period of time and the cream cheese is chilled to ensure that they will not soften or melt during mixing. * Resting the dough allows gluten to relax. * An acid such as cold orange juice is added to make rolling out easier with less shrinkage while providing flavor to the crust. [FIGURE 11-5 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-6 OMITTED] MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 6 1/2 1 1/2 cups 185 g 100% pastry flour ounces 1/8 teaspoon 0.5 g 0% salt 1 teaspoon 6 g 3% grated orange zest 3 1/2 100 g 54% cold cream cheese, ounces cut into cubes 4 ounces 115 g 62% unsalted butter, cut into small cubes, wrapped in plastic wrap, and frozen for 20 to 30 minutes 1 1/2 3 tablespoons 45 mL 24% ice cold orange fluid juice ounces 244% Total Pate Brisee with Cream Cheese percentage 1. In the bowl of a food processor, add the flour, the salt, and the orange peel. Pulse the mixture to blend. 2. Add the cream cheese to the dry ingredients and pulse the mixture a few times to distribute it until the cream cheese resembles small pea-sized pieces (Figure 11-5). Stop the machine and feel the pieces to make sure they are the right size. 3. Add the frozen butter and pulse the mixture 8 to 10 times to reduce the butter to pea-sized pieces. 4. Add half of the orange juice, pulsing the machine only until the mixture is just combined. Pour the mixture into a bowl and with your hands gather the dough together to form a ball (Figure 11-6). If the dough feels too dry, add the remaining orange juice. Shape the dough into a disk. Wrap it in plastic wrap and allow it to rest in the refrigerator for at least 1 hour or overnight. How to shape and bake this dough depends on what is being made with it. For specific recipes on how to use this dough, see Additional Ideas That Use the Recipes in This Chapter. TIP The dough can also be made by hand using a pastry blender. For larger batches, use an electric mixer with a pastry blender attachment. PATE SUCREE DOUGH Makes enough pastry for one 10-inch (25-cm) tart shell Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a pate sucree dough. * A low-protein flour is used to prevent gluten formation. * Flour particles will become completely coated with fat, causing less gluten to form. * The fat in the whole milk or heavy cream coats gluten strands, making a more tender crust. * The egg helps enrich and bind the dough while providing tenderness. * Resting the dough in the refrigerator allows any gluten that develops to relax and firms up the dough enough to be rolled out. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 8 1/2 2 cups 240 g 100% pastry flour ounces 1/8 teaspoon 0.5 g 0% salt 5 ounces 140 g 58% unsalted butter, softened 3 1/2 1/2 cup 100 g 42% confectioners' ounces sugar, sifted if lumpy 1 each 47 g 20% large egg 1 tablespoon 15 mL 6% whole milk or heavy cream 226% Total Pate Sucree percentage 1. In a small bowl, blend the flour and salt and set aside. 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer using the paddle attachment, cream the butter with the sugar until the mixture is light (Figure 11-7). 3. Add the egg and the milk or cream. Blend well (Figure 11-8). 4. On low speed, add the flour and salt, and mix the ingredients until they are just combined (Figure 11-9). [FIGURE 11-7 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-8 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-9 OMITTED] 5. Form the dough into a disk (Figure 11-10). Wrap the dough in plastic and chill for at least 20 minutes in the freezer, or at least 1 hour in the refrigerator, until it firms up enough to be rolled out. Blind Baking the Tart Shell 6. Roll out the dough onto a lightly floured surface 1/4-inch (6-mm) thick to an 11- to 12-inch (27 1/2- to 30-cm) circle. Fit the dough snugly into a 10-inch (25-cm) false-bottom tart pan with fluted edges (Figure 11-11). Trim the excess dough and chill the unbaked tart shell for at least 30 minutes. 7. Preheat the oven to 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C). Using a fork, dock the tart shell all over the bottom and sides to prevent any puffing up of the dough (Figure 11-12). Fill the shell with parchment paper and dried beans (Figure 11-13). Place the tart shell on a half sheet pan and bake for 20 to 25 minutes. Remove the tart shell from the oven and gently lift off and remove the parchment paper with the beans. Return the tart shell to the oven and bake for another 5 to 10 minutes, until the bottom of the tart shell is light brown and there are no areas of crust that look doughy and underbaked. 8. Cool the tart shell completely, leaving it in the pan. [FIGURE 11-10 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-11 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-12 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-13 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] CHOCOLATE PATE SABLEE DOUGH Makes enough pastry for one 10-inch (25-cm) tart shell Lessons demonstrated in this recipe: * How to prepare a pate sablee dough. * Ground nuts and cake crumbs are added for their flavor and tenderizing ability. * A low-gluten flour is used to help tenderize the dough. * Baking powder is added to leaven, resulting in a lighter, more tender pastry. * Pate sablee dough is too tender to be rolled out and should be crumbled into the tart pan. MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC BAKER'S % 4 ounces 1 cup 115 g 48% walnuts 4 ounces 1/2 cup 130 g 54% granulated sugar 2 tablespoons 6 ounces 170 g 71% unsalted butter, softened 1 each 47 g 20% large egg 8 1/2 2 cups 240 g 100% pastry flour ounces 1 tablespoon 8 g 3% Dutch processed cocoa powder 1 teaspoon 4 g 1.7% baking powder 1/2 teaspoon 0.75 g 0% cinnamon 2 ounces 1/2 cup 60 g 25% chocolate cake [heaping] crumbs * 323.3% Total Chocolate Pate Sablee Dough percentage * Chocolate cake crumbs can be made from the Fudgy Chocolate Cake, Chapter 14. 1. In a food processor, process the walnuts and the sugar until they are finely ground. Transfer the mixture to the bowl of an electric mixer. 2. In the bowl of an electric mixer, cream the butter with the ground nuts and sugar until the mixture is light. Add the egg and blend the mixture well (Figure 11-14). 3. In a small bowl, blend the flour, cocoa powder, baking powder, cinnamon, and the cake crumbs. 4. Slowly add the dry ingredients into the butter and nut mixture (Figure 11-15). Blend the mixture well. [FIGURE 11-14 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-15 OMITTED] 5. Wrap the dough in plastic wrap and chill for at least 3 to 4 hours or overnight (Figure 11-16). The dough must be firm in order to use it. Blind Baking the Tart Shell 6. Breaking up the firm dough with your hands, crumble it onto the bottom of a 10-inch (25-cm) false-bottom tart pan (Figure 11-17). Pat the dough evenly over the bottom and sides of the tart pan to a 1/4 inch (6 mm) thickness (Figure 11-18). Reserve the excess dough if there is any for another use. Chill the tart shell for 30 minutes. TIP Excess pate sablee dough can be rolled out and cut into a variety of shapes, baked at 325[degrees]F (165[degrees]C), and eaten as a shortbread cookie. 7. Preheat the oven to 325[degrees]F (165[degrees]C). Place a piece of parchment paper into the tart shell and fill it with dried beans. Place the bean-filled tart pan on a sheet pan. This makes it easier to take it in and out of the oven. Bake it for 25 to 35 minutes or until it is lightly browned. Do not allow the crust to get too brown. Crusts made with cocoa can taste bitter if overbaked. 8. Gently lift off and remove the beans and parchment paper, and return the tart shell to the oven for 5 to 10 extra minutes or until the bottom is lightly browned and there are no areas of crust that look doughy and underbaked. Allow it to cool completely, leaving it in the pan. [FIGURE 11-16 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-17 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-18 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] INDIVIDUAL NECTARINE ALMOND GALETTES Makes 8 to 10 individual galettes (4 to 5 inches or 10 to 12.5 cm in diameter) Additional Ideas That Use the Recipes in This Chapter Galette is a French word that refers to a free-form tart that is filled with different types of fruit and baked. They are easy to make and can be made as individual tarts or as one large galette to feed several people. STEP A: PATE BRISEE Make one recipe of pate brisee, adding 2 1/2 ounces (1/2 cup; 70 g) natural almonds with skins (toasted) to step 1 of the Pate Brisee recipe, pulsing until the almonds are finely chopped. STEP B: NECTARINE FILLING MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 1 3/4 ounces 1/4 cup 50 g granulated sugar 1/2 teaspoon 0.75 g ground cinnamon 1 tablespoon 8 g cornstarch 2 3/4 pounds 1.25 kg 8 nectarines pitted and thinly sliced 1 teaspoon 5 mL almond extract 1. In a large bowl, whisk the sugar, cinnamon, and cornstarch until well combined. Add the sliced nectarines and the almond extract to the dry ingredients and mix gently until the nectarines are coated (Figure 11-19). Set the filling aside. STEP C: ASSEMBLY MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC As needed As needed all-purpose flour for dusting 1 large egg, lightly beaten, to be used as a wash 6 ounces 1/2 cup 170 g peach preserves 1 1/3 ounces 1/2 cup 40 g sliced almonds, toasted 1. Preheat oven to 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C). Line two sheet pans with parchment paper. Set aside. 2. Divide the dough into 8 to 10 equal pieces. With a rolling pin, roll each piece of dough into a rough circle between 1/8 and 1/4 of an inch (3 to 6 mm) thick and about 5 to 6 inches (12.5 to 15 cm) in diameter (Figure 11-20). Using an offset spatula, transfer the pastry rounds so they fit on the prepared baking sheets. Be sure to space them so they are not touching. Using a pastry brush, lightly egg wash each round (Figure 11-21). [FIGURE 11-19 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-20 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-21 OMITTED] 3. With a slotted spoon, place about 2 tablespoons (30 mL) of filling (draining out any liquid you can through the holes in the spoon) into the center of the dough (Figure 11-22). 4. Using your fingers, fold the outer edges of the dough in toward the nectarine filling, forming a rim over the nectarines (Figure 11-23). 5. Repeat filling the remaining rounds of dough. Brush the dough around each galette with egg wash. 6. Bake the galettes for 30 to 35 minutes or until brown. Remove them from the oven. 7. In a small saucepan, melt the peach preserves over low heat. With a pastry brush, brush the edges of the crust and the nectarines with preserves (Figure 11-24). Sprinkle sliced toasted almonds all around the edges of each galette (Figure 11-25). TIP After cooling, galettes can be individually wrapped in plastic wrap, placed in plastic bags, and frozen for 3 to 4 months. They can be unwrapped, placed on a parchment-lined sheet pan while still frozen, and placed in a preheated 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) oven for 15 to 20 minutes or until the crust becomes crisp and flaky. [FIGURE 11-22 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-23 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-24 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-25 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] PIZZA DESSERT TART WITH THE WORKS Recipe makes one 12-inch (30.5-cm) pizza STEP A Make one recipe of Pate Brisee with Cream Cheese In a food processor, puree all the ingredients and pour the mixture into a bowl. Refrigerate the sauce until needed. STEP B: MIXED BERRY PIZZA SAUCE MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 4 1/4 ounces 1 cup 120 g frozen raspberries, thawed and drained 3 ounces 1/2 cup 85 g fresh strawberries, sliced or frozen strawberries, thawed and drained (it is not necessary to slice them, if they were frozen) 2 1/2 ounces 1/4 cup 70 g strawberry or raspberry jam or preserves 1 teaspoon 5 mL fresh orange juice 1 teaspoon 5 mL balsamic vinegar In a food processor, puree all the ingredients and pour the mixture into a bowl. Refrigerate the sauce until needed. STEP C: TOPPINGS MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 1 tablespoon 15 mL milk 2 teaspoons 10 g coarse sugar 6 ounces 1 cup 170 g diced fresh or drained canned pineapple 1 ounce 1/4 cup 30 g dried cranberries or cherries 2 ounces 1/2 cup 60 g high-quality white chocolate warmed in a microwave for 20 to 30 seconds on low power and shredded using a grater. 2 ounces 1/3 cup 60 g mini semisweet chocolate chips or coarsely chopped semisweet chocolate 1 1/4 ounces 1/3 cup 35 g coarsely chopped walnuts, toasted in a 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C) oven for 5 to 10 minutes 1/2 ounce 1/3 cup 15 g shredded coconut, toasted 1 tablespoon 3 g confectioners' sugar put through a sieve for dusting over the top of the pizza [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] STEP D: ASSEMBLY 1. Set the oven rack on the lowest position and preheat the oven to 400[degrees]F (205[degrees]C). Spray a 12-inch (30-cm) pizza pan with nonstick cooking spray. 2. Roll out the pate brisee dough onto a lightly floured surface into a 12-inch (30-cm) circle, using the pizza pan as a guide, about 1/4 inch (6 mm) thick. Fit the dough into the pizza pan (Figure 11-26). Roll the edges over like a cuff on a pant leg, if desired to create a higher edge. With a pastry brush, brush the edges with milk and sprinkle them with coarse sugar (Figure 11-27). 3. Spread 4 ounces (1/2 cup; 119 mL) of the mixed berry pizza sauce evenly over the crust. Reserve the remaining sauce for another use. 4. Scatter the crust with the pineapple and the dried cranberries or cherries (Figure 11-28). Bake for about 40 minutes or until the crust is golden brown. 5. Remove the pizza tart from the oven and immediately sprinkle the shredded white chocolate "cheese," mini chocolate chips, walnuts, and coconut evenly over the top (Figure 11-29). Allow the pizza to cool. Dust the top with confectioners' sugar and serve the pizza at room temperature cut into slices. [FIGURE 11-26 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-27 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-28 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-29 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] FRESH BERRY TART FILLED WITH COCONUT PASTRY CREAM Makes one 10-inch (25-cm) tart, serving 8 to 10 STEP A: COCONUT PASTRY CREAM MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC 4 fluid ounces 1/2 cup 120 mL whole milk 9 1/2 fluid 1 cup 285 mL coconut milk ounces 3 tablespoons 2 ounces 4 tablespoons 60 g cream of coconut, well stirred 3 1/2 ounces 1/2 cup 100 g granulated sugar 1 1/4 ounce 1/4 cup 35 g cornstarch 4 each 76 g large egg yolks 1 teaspoon 5 mL coconut extract 1 teaspoon 5 mL vanilla extract 1. Place the milk, coconut milk, and cream of coconut into a saucepan. Whisk the mixture and bring it to a boil. Remove it from the heat and set it aside. 2. In a heatproof mixing bowl, whisk the sugar, cornstarch, and egg yolks until there are no lumps. The mixture will be thick. 3. Temper the egg yolk mixture by slowly adding dribbles of the hot milk into it, whisking constantly until all the milk has been added (Figure 11-30). Pour the mixture back into the saucepan and place it over medium-high heat. Bring the mixture to a boil whisking constantly. The mixture will thicken (Figure 11-31). Continue to boil and whisk the custard for 20 more seconds. 4. Remove the mixture from the heat and whisk in both extracts. Pour the pastry cream into a bowl and place a piece of plastic wrap directly onto it to prevent a skin from forming (Figure 11-32). Place the pastry cream in the refrigerator for approximately 3 to 4 hours or until it is cold. To hasten the cooling process, place the bowl of pastry cream over an ice water bath, stirring frequently. [FIGURE 11-30 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-31 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-32 OMITTED] STEP B: PATE SUCREE 1. Make one recipe Pate Sucree and bake it blind. STEP C: CHOCOLATE-COATED PASTRY CRUST MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS 3 ounces 1/2 cup 90 g semisweet chocolate, chopped 1. Bake the pate sucree crust blind as directed in the recipe for pate sucree dough. Immediately after removing the baked tart shell from the oven, sprinkle the chopped semisweet chocolate evenly over the bottom of the hot crust. Wait 1 to 2 minutes and then spread it evenly with an offset spatula (Figure 11-33). Allow the tart to cool completely and chill it for approximately 15 minutes or until the chocolate hardens. The chocolate will protect the bottom crust from becoming soggy after it is filled. STEP D: ASSEMBLY MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS U.S. METRIC Clear Glaze 2 teaspoons 10 mL cold water 1 teaspoon 3 g unflavored powdered gelatin 4 fluid ounces 1/2 cup 120 mL water 3 1/2 ounces 1/2 cup 100 g granulated sugar fresh fruit such as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries 1/2 ounce 1/4 cup 15 g shredded coconut, ligthly toasted, finely chopped 1. Pour 2 teaspoons (10 mL) cold water into a small bowl. Sprinkle the gelatin over the water and allow it to bloom for 5 minutes. 2. In a small saucepan, make a simple syrup by bringing the 4 fluid ounces (1/2 cup; 120 mL) water and the sugar to a boil on high heat. Boil the mixture for approximately 1 minute or until the sugar is completely dissolved. Remove the pan from the heat and whisk the bloomed gelatin into the hot simple syrup. Whisk the glaze until the gelatin has melted. Set the glaze aside until the tart has been filled. [FIGURE 11-33 OMITTED] 3. Pour the cooled coconut pastry cream into the chocolate-lined crust and spread it evenly over the bottom. Slice the strawberries, if desired. Place the berries decoratively over the pastry cream, laying the fruit down in an attractive pattern (Figure 11-34). 4. Stir the glaze over an ice water bath until it begins to thicken slightly or until it has the consistency of raw egg white. Using a pastry brush, glaze each piece of fruit and the rim of the tart (Figure 11-35). 5. Immediately sprinkle the toasted coconut around the outer edge of the tart. Chill the tart until ready to serve. The tart should be served the same day it is made and removed from the pan right before it is served. Note: Tart shown removed from pan for demonstration purposes [FIGURE 11-34 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-35 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] CHOCOLATE RASPBERRY TART Makes one 10-inch (25-cm) tart, serving 8 to 10 STEP A; CHOCOLATE PATE SABLEE CRUST 1. Make one recipe of Chocolate Pate Sablee Dough 2. Bake the chocolate pate sablee crust blind in a 10-inch (25-cm) false bottom tart pan as directed in the recipe for Chocolate Pate Sablee Dough. Allow it to cool. STEP B: GANACHE (CHOCOLATE CREAM FILLING) MEASUREMENTS INGREDIENTS 12 fluid 1 1/2 cups 355 mL heavy cream ounces 12 ounces 340 g semisweet chocolate, coarsely chopped 2 tablespoons 30 mL seedless raspberry preserves 10 tablespoons 296 mL seedless raspberry preserves 1 tablespoon 15 mL raspberry liqueur 8 1/2 to 2 to 3 cups 240 to fresh raspberries 13 ounces 370 g 1. In a saucepan, bring the cream to a boil. Remove the pan from the heat and add the chopped chocolate. Whisk the ganache gently until the chocolate is melted and the mixture is smooth. Stir in 2 tablespoons (30 mL) of the preserves. 2. Let the ganache cool for 1 hour at room temperature. Pour it into the cooled tart shell (Figure 11-36). Chill the tart for approximately 1 hour or until the ganache feels slightly firm. 3. In a small saucepan, blend the remaining preserves and liqueur. Heat the mixture on low heat until it becomes thin and fluid. 4. Arrange the raspberries in concentric rows on top of the ganache. 5. Using a pastry brush, brush the raspberries with the warmed preserve mixture (Figure 11-37). Chill the tart. Remove the tart from the pan right before it is served. [FIGURE 11-36 OMITTED] [FIGURE 11-37 OMITTED] [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
1. Describe the difference between tenderness and flakiness in a pastry crust.
2. Why does pate sablee have to be crumbled into a tart pan and not rolled out?
3. How is the fat mixed into the dry ingredients of a flaky pie dough? A mealy pie dough?
4. Name four ways to decrease gluten development in a pastry crust.
5. What effect does gluten have on a flaky pie crust?
6. Describe how a pie crust forms flaky layers in the oven.
7. What can be done if too much gluten forms while rolling out a pie dough?
8. What is one of the most common mistakes bakers make when preparing a pastry crust?
9. Which two types of pastry doughs require the fat to be creamed with the sugar?
10. Which crust would be the flakiest--a crust made of pate brisee or a crust made from pate sucree?
James P. Sinopoli, CEPC
School of Culinary Arts
1. Question: When did you realize that you wanted to pursue a career in baking and pastry?
Answer: I was a cook at a Hyatt in New Jersey when some shift changes resulted in my slot being taken over. The chef said, "Go to the bakeshop," but I knew nothing about baking. He sent me to The Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park to take a class on tortes and gateau. The moment I stepped through those doors I knew I had to come back there to get my education. I was fascinated by the artistry side of pastry.
2. Question: Was there a person or event that influenced you to go into this line of work?
Answer: The "event" was basic survivorship--I needed a job! But the pastry chef at that Hyatt in New Jersey, Phyllis Levy, really encouraged me.
3. Question: What did you find most challenging when you first began working in baking and pastry?
Answer: Having cooked for close to 15 years prior to going off to school I found the hardest challenge was the science part of baking.
4. Question: Where and when was the first practical experience in a professional baking setting?
Answer: After graduating from the CIA, I went to work as a chocolatier for Birnn Chocolates in Highland Park, NJ.
5. Question: How did this experience affect your later professional development?
Answer: The chocolate shop taught me about chocolate, its uses and abuses.
6. Question: Who were your mentors when you were starting out?
Answer: I would be remiss if I didn't say Julia Child. I loved everything she did. I also learned so much from Jan Bandula, CMPC.
7. Question: What would you list as your greatest rewards of your professional life?
Answer: Some of the best rewards are seeing people just go crazy when they consume something that you have poured your heart into. I also had the privilege to work for the past 2 years as the contract pastry chef at Blair House. Having your food appreciated by world leaders and having the opportunity to occasionally meet them was very exciting.
8. Question: What traits do you consider essential for anyone entering the field?
Answer: Passion. You must really have it for the food and for hospitality. This is a meet and greet business. You must be a people person to be in it.
9. Question: If there was one message you would impart to all students in this field what would that be?
Answer: There are easier ways to make money, but if you really love what you are doing then other things in your life will be much easier for you. Think about it; you love what you do so at least 8 to 12 hours a day you are guaranteed to be happy!
Table 11-1 The Three Pastry Mixing Methods PATE BRISEE METHOD PATE SUCREE METHOD PATE SABLEE METHOD (Broken dough) (Sugar dough) (Sandy dough) 1. Place dry 1. Cream butter and 1. Cream butter ingredients sugar. and sugar. in bowl. 2. Cut in cold fat. 2. Gradually add eggs 2. Gradually add and/or milk or eggs. cream. 3. Drizzle in ice 3. Add flour and salt. 3. Add flour, salt, water. and occasionally a leavening agent like baking powder. 4. Wrap in plastic 4. Wrap in plastic 4. Wrap in plastic wrap and chill. wrap and chill. wrap and chill. Table 11-2 Comparing the Three Types of Pastry Doughs PATE BRISEE PATE SUCREE Translated from Broken pastry Sweet or sugar dough French Texture after Flaky pie dough: Sweet, rich, crisp, baking unsweetened, tender, not flaky very flaky Mealy pie dough: unsweetened, tender, not as flaky Best used in Flaky pie dough: top Tarts and small, crusts of pies individual tarts Mealy pie dough: bottom crusts of pies, especially those with wet fillings such as fruit and custards PATE SABLEE Translated from Sandy dough French Texture after Sweet, rich, crumbly, baking not flaky Best used in Tarts and small, individual tarts; cookies
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|Publication:||About Professional Baking|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2006|
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