Chapter 11 Train-the-trainer.
Not everyone can be a good teacher. Some people have it in them to be good teachers, but start slowly and are not very good at first. To wit, seasoned teachers are usually better than new ones. Most of us improve with practice. Teaching someone to do a job takes entirely different skills than just doing the job. Most people selected by management to train new employees have the job skills down. Often, however, they have not been shown how to train and do not have the skills necessary for teaching someone else how to do the job. Merely being good at specific jobs like waiter, cook, or front desk does not qualify one for trainer responsibilities.
The purpose of this chapter is to review and practice instructional design by designing instruction to train the trainer. This instruction can be modified to use in any hospitality operation to train line workers to be trainers.
Upon completion of Chapter Eleven, the student should be able to
* Discuss the importance of train-the-trainer instruction.
* Describe the characteristics necessary to be a successful trainer.
* Design or modify instruction to train-the-trainer.
As professionals we want to take as much guesswork and risk out of our management as possible. Giving responsibilities to untrained trainers increases the chance that new employees may not be taught properly, and, as a result, will not be able to meet customer standards. Even if there are professionally designed training documents, untrained trainers might not know how to use them or may not even bother. When we go to the effort and expense to design training, we then must train the people who are going to deliver the material to new employees. Otherwise, we are wasting resources, and our new employees may not be competent before taking the floor.
Some of us may intuitively know the principles of learning and how to get people to do what we want them to do. While some of us are naturally great communicators (good listeners, tuned in to the feelings of those around us), the greater majority of people could probably use some work on communication skills. The over 50 percent divorce rate is an indication of less than highly developed communication skills in our country. Those "natural" teachers will also benefit from instruction in basic training or teaching principles and methods. Great teachers practice and hone their skills. They go to workshops, retreats, read articles about teaching, and keep their approach to education fresh.
Most of us understand the necessity of training employees to do their jobs. We know that some methods are better than others. We may have personally experienced excellent comprehensive training for a position in one hospitality organization, then changed jobs and experienced a much less effective system. If we expect an employee to train other employees, it stands to reason that we should train the employee to be able to effectively do his or her new job duties. We train cooks. We train servers. We train front desk agents. We train housekeepers. We must also train trainers.
In Chapter Two, we described some of the characteristics trainers need. As with all jobs, we need to make sure we have good matches between person and position. Not everyone can be a good server. Not everyone is good with the general public. Not everyone can be an accountant. Even if we are forced to take jobs or receive certain training, we may not be successful or happy if it is not a good match (i.e., our own characteristics match those necessary for the position).
A great cook may be asked to train a new cook. To be a great cook requires expertise, the ability to do many things simultaneously, a sense of timing, and the ability to work fast in a highly stressful atmosphere. It does not require exceptional communication skills or the ability to explain and demonstrate things clearly and patiently. On the other hand, a trainer need not be a great cook to teach other cooks to be great cooks ... so long as the other people have the characteristics it takes to be great cooks. A master chef, however, will not necessarily make a great trainer.
Obviously, a trainer needs a certain level of subject matter expertise. It would be difficult for you to teach someone to cook without any cooking skills of your own. But, more than subject matter expertise, a trainer needs to be able to patiently, sequentially, and clearly explain a process. A trainer needs to be able to be attuned to the trainee--to know whether or not the trainee is following and understanding the material--and to be able to modify the training to better meet the needs of the trainee. The trainer needs to understand and incorporate the principles of learning while providing an atmosphere conducive to learning.
Not everyone wants the additional responsibility of training. We should not force employees to train other employees. Instead, we should determine who wants to train and select trainers who have the required characteristics from that group. To simply add training responsibilities to an existing job can be motivating for some high-achiever type employees. It can, however, also have the effect of causing a feeling of resentment. An employee may feel overworked and under-appreciated--working harder than others in the same position but for the same pay. We may want to consider additional pay for the additional responsibilities of training (i.e., "trainer's pay"), or, perhaps, allowing employees to be freed from some of their regular job responsibilities while training new workers. Either way, training means additional expenses.
Once we have selected someone who wants to train other employees (who possesses the required communication skills, is attuned to other people, is flexible, patient, and can explain things clearly), we can then teach this person motivation theory, learning principles, teaching methods, and how to use and perhaps design lesson plans.
Design Train-the-Trainer Instruction
We use the same training design model to design trainer training.
Step #1 #2 #3 #4 Needs Training Lesson Trainer Assessment Plan Plans Training #5 #6 #7 Training Training Coaching Implementation Evaluation and Counseling
We begin with needs assessment. We ask ourselves questions like: Who is the trainer and what do they do? What does the trainer have to know to be able to do it? How and where do we find this information? We use the needs assessment tools--job lists and job or task breakdowns, and then we write objectives and come up with a training plan. Lesson plans are then devised to result in attainment of the objectives. So, we go back to Chapter Three and begin.
GTI: Train-the-Trainer Needs Assessment
We know we need to design training for the trainer because we do not have any. We have already collected data on the organization mission and philosophy and the extent of management commitment to training. We know about space and time availability and organizational and individual needs. We need to find out about the position needs.
Position needs (from Chapter Three):
* Obtain a copy of the organizational chart.
* What are the duties and responsibilities of each of the positions? (Job descriptions)
* What are the qualifications necessary for each of the positions? (Job specifications)
* What type of training is necessary for each of the positions?
* Task Analysis
We already have a copy of the organizational chart. We are only interested at this point in the position of trainer. We will need a job description and job specification for trainer. In hospitality operations, much of our training will be OTJ. As a result, many of our trainers will be workers doing the job. Much of the same training could probably be given to all the trainers in all departments at GTI.
Training differs from education in many ways. We need only train people for what they actually have to do. We do not need to bother with background, history, or any explanations that do not have a direct effect on the job. In the kitchen, the Chef, Sous Chef, and probably representatives from all the line positions will be actively involved in training. It is likely, however, that some of the line workers (such as the dish person) will have fairly small training demands. It may not be necessary to teach this person everything there is to know about training. He or she may only need to be trained to use the training lesson plan. The Chef and the other department heads, on the other hand, will probably need to have a comprehensive understanding of all training principles and methods. They will not only be taught how to deliver the training, but also be expected to design training themselves.
We might want to design comprehensive train-the-trainer instruction where portions could be used to train those trainers whose training needs are less. We could pull out the portion on "how to do a demonstration according to a lesson plan" to train a dishwasher to train another dishwasher, and so forth. Part of the comprehensive training instruction might include how to pull out portions from the comprehensive instruction and modify them specifically for the lesser needs of some departmental employees who will be training others.
We have decided to design a comprehensive train-the-trainer program for the management team at GTI. The Executive Chef, Executive Housekeeper, Front Desk Manager, and the Dining Room Manager, plus the Assistant General Manager and Sous Chef will all receive instruction. The GM will also sit in on all these sessions. They will all be taught to use specific segments of the comprehensive training to show their own staff members how to train.
We need a job list in order to begin the design process. There is, however, no employee or manager who can show or tell us what the trainer to be trained needs to know. We are, after all, designing training for a position that, up to now, has not existed. As for new operations, we must obtain the information from experts or other operations that have similar training programs. In the case of GTI, the information will come from the expert consultants (us) who were contracted to design the training.
Define the Trainees
Training will be designed for the seven members of GTI's management team. Three have bachelor degrees, one has an associate degree, and two have high school diplomas. They all have good reading and communication skills, and have been successfully managing their departments or areas. Portions of the training materials will be modified by managers for training selected line workers to train (OTJ Trainers).
Job Specification: OTJ Trainers
1) Must be able to read and write English to the tenth grade level.
2) Must have good communication skills.
3) Must want to be a trainer.
4) Must be patient, flexible, and understanding.
5) Must be able to explain things clearly.
6) Must be able to follow written lesson plans.
Job Description: OTJ Trainers On top of regular job duties, OTJ trainers will
1) Deliver instruction to trainees as per written lesson plans.
2) Deliver immediate positive corrective feedback to trainees.
3) Administer evaluation instruments to trainees to assure training success.
4) Follow up training with coaching.
As experts, we have determined the following topics to be essential for a comprehensive train-the-trainer program. Our managers in the future may need to be able to design small training sessions for new procedures or changes that might require additional training for their staff. Managers will be conducting the training in their departments, so they must also be trained to use the lesson plans effectively. They will be training their own workers to be OTJ trainers. We will, therefore, design training to enable us to "conduct training utilizing the lesson plans." This training session will be administered to managers as a portion of their comprehensive trainer training, and they in turn can administer it to their department's OTJ trainers.
Upon completion of train-the-trainer training, the manager will be able to
1) Conduct needs assessments.
2) Construct job lists, objectives, and job breakdowns (task analysis).
3) Write lesson plans for training in their departments that incorporate the learning principles.
4) Conduct training utilizing the lesson plans.
Topic 4. Conduct Training: Upon completion of train-the-trainer training, Managers and OTJ trainers will be able to conduct training utilizing the lesson plans.
4.a. Upon completion of the training, the trainee will be able to
1. Identify training examples of the learning principles.
4.b. Upon completion of the training, the trainee will be able to
1. Conduct a demonstration of training using a lesson plan.
2. Give immediate positive corrective feedback to the trainee.
Training Topic Training Method Trainer 4. Conduct Training 4.a.1. Learning Lecture/Discussion Training Consultant Principles with handouts & (Mgrs. at later exercises time) 4.b.1. Demonstrate Demonstration With Training Consultant Lesson Plan handout (Mgrs. at later time) 4.b.2. Immediate Practice--Trainee Training Consultant Corrective Demos. with (Mgrs. at later Feedback critiques time) Training Topic Place Held 4. Conduct Training 4.a.1. Learning Sm. Conf. Rm. Principles 4.b.1. Demonstrate Sm. Conf. Rm. Lesson Plan 4.b.2. Immediate Sm. Conf. Rm. Corrective Feedback
We are ready to devise the lesson plans for Topic Four (Conducting Training). It is just one training segment of a much larger comprehensive training program for GTI managers. We are developing instruction for managers who will then use it to train the employees doing OTJ training in their departments. Because we are training employees who have the necessary characteristics to be successful trainers, the training can be completed in about two hours.
This textbook is education. It is designed to teach everything about training design. The instruction we are designing for Topic Four is not education. It is training and thus will be considerably less involved because OTJ trainers merely need to meet the objective, which is: "To be able to conduct training utilizing the lesson plans."
The lesson plan will begin with learning principles (4.a.1.). We have the list of learning principles from Chapter Seven, which will serve as content for our lesson. This list is the equivalent of task breakdown or task analysis.
Lesson Plan--Conduct Training
4.a.1. Learning Principles
4.b.1. Demonstration of Lesson Plan
4.b.2. Immediate Corrective Feedback
Time: To be scheduled when needed
Place: Small Conference Room
Trainer: Training Consultant (Managers at a later time)
Trainees: Managers (OTJ Trainers at a later time)
Method: Lecture/Discussion/Demonstration/Practice with handouts and exercises
* "Learning Principles" handouts, copied for each trainee
* Overhead transparency of "Learning Principles" handout
* Overhead Projector
* Copies of "Lesson Plan" to be handed out after the lecture
* Overhead transparency of "Learning Principles Lesson Plan" handout
* Marker to use on transparency
* Demonstration "Critique Form" handouts
Duration: About two hours
Objective: Upon completion of the training session, the trainee will be able to
1) List and give training examples of learning principles.
2) Deliver training using a lesson plan.
3) Give immediate corrective feedback.
Step Procedure Trainer's Directions 4.a.1. Welcome and Agenda "Hello everyone. Thanks for taking time from your busy schedules for this training session. Today we are going to go over how to conduct training using the lesson plans. [Learning Principle number six] We have spent a lot of time and money developing excellent training materials. We now must make sure that everyone who will be conducting training knows how to use them. [Learning Principle number five] The lesson plans will result in consistent training with everything covered that needs to be covered, and covered in the most effective ways." 4.b.1. What we are going "We are going to spend the first to study and why it twenty minutes looking at the Adult is important Principles of Learning. We adults are different from children. We have lots of experience and already know many things. We also have lots of baggage that can affect our openness to learning." To be good trainers, it is helpful for us to understand our trainees and the way they learn. That's the way for us to be most effective. [Hand out Learning Principles and, at the same time, say:] I am giving you copies of the Adult Learning Principles, and we are goiig to go through all of them." Learning Principles "Most of this information will ring handout bells for you. It makes sense. We know how we learn and what we like. This is common sense stuff. It is a good idea, though, to review the principles and to see them all together on a list. It helps us to put our common knowledge into some type of framework that will help us to use it better." Learning Principles [Put up Learning Principles Overhead transparency on the overhead projector and point to each of the principles as you explain each with the following instruction.] 1 Trainees prefer an [Read the Principle and then say:] informal atmosphere for training "Some of our workers might not sessions where have had good school experiences. trainees are They may be afraid of failing or treated as just dislike school in general. professionals If our training feels like school, rather than as they might be afraid or not at all students. open to learning. Training is different from school, though." "In training, everyone has to get an A. Satisfactory is not okay. Can you imagine what would happen to our customers if only 70 percent of the time they got what they actually ordered for dinner, or got checked into their rooms properly, or went in and found that the room had been cleaned properly?" "It is our responsibility to make sure that every trainee masters the material. All of it, every time. We may have to go slower for some or think of a different way to explain it. But, they must all be on the same page before we let them loose on customers." 2 Trainees need "Do not keep the trainees guessing. encouragement and In a learning situation, we all positive feedback want to know how we are as to their progressing. As managers, we do not progress. let them go in the wrong direction or do anything incorrectly. We immediately help them to get back on track. The idea is that they must learn the material, and it is our job to facilitate this." 3 Trainees should not "Not everyone is competitive. Some compete with each of our trainees might just give up other. instead of being inspired by competition. Also, we are trying to 4 Trainees learn at foster teamwork. That means we different speeds work together, not against each and may need other. A trainee can certainly individual compete with him- or herself-like attention and trying to beat his or her last training. time, and so forth. Our trainees will learn at different speeds. That is okay so long as they learn it. Only highly competitive people are motivated by competition. Many trainees will not be highly competitive, though, so do not force them to compete." 5 Trainees must want "We adults do not learn until we to learn and actually want to--until we see a understand why the good reason for it. I did not learn material is how to use e-mail until my best necessary. friend moved away and my phone bill was too high. As soon as I realized the advantage to me, I learned how to use it. Likewise, we need to let our trainees know why they need to learn and precisely what it is that we are trying to teach them. Basically, they need to see the point." "I started this training session by telling you why you needed to know the learning principles. Do you remember the reasons I gave you--why they are important-- how they are useful to know? What were the reasons I gave?" [Let the trainees volunteer reasons. If none are forthcoming, try giving hints like, "Do we learn the same as children? How are we different?"] 6 Trainees must be "Our trainees are not mind readers. told what they are Most of us need to have an idea of to do and then be where we are going so we can shown the sequential understand what we are doing. For steps to do it. example, if someone is giving us directions to get someplace in a car, we first like to know where we are going--the final destination. And then we like step-by-step directions, in order. Otherwise, it does not make sense. The idea is to help our trainees to get the material. So, we have to present it in such a way that they will." 7 The training should "If we can relate training to be related to something the trainee already trainees' life knows, we can speed up the experiences. comprehension. Like the example I used a second ago of getting directions for driving someplace." 8 Trainees need real "We want to relate everything to and tangible what we already know. For one examples. thing, it is more interesting. For another, it is familiar." 9 Trainees learn "Most of us learn better by better by doing. actually doing the thing we are supposed to learn. Think about learning to tie your shoes or ride a bike. An explanation is probably useful, but a diagram or written instructions are not nearly as useful as actually doing it." 10 Trainees should "We do not want to waste time learn to do the doing things incorrectly. Get activity correctly, trainees going in the right then build up speed. direction and allow them to build up speed naturally. Most things our employees are doing and learning are physical actions. We do not want them practicing them wrong. They would eventually have to unlearn and then relearn the right way if we let them do it wrong at the beginning." 11 Training should be "We know that children have short conducted in attention spans. But let us face numerous shorter it--so do we! Especially when we sessions are learning things that we may not be especially excited about. So let us keep the sessions short so we do not lose them and just waste time." 12 Repetition and If we call someone numerous times practice result in we usually end up knowing their better retention. phone number by heart. Repetition results in memorization. When we want someone to learn something, we should repeat it--a lot. We should have them repeat it or do it several times. The more they do, the better they will learn it." 13 Keep lag time short "Most movies we have seen we between time of can remember the next day. But training and the with each day that passes, we job. remember less--it becomes less clear in our memories. Eventually, we may only vaguely remember that we saw it but not really any particulars about it. Personally, I have to re-read the portable phone manual every time I need to program a new phone number in the speed dial--because I do not do it often enough and forget how." 14 Use a combination "We learn better when we absorb of training methods. things in a variety of ways. If we hear, see, touch, and try something ... we are much more likely to remember it than if we simply hear it." "That is why we have these learning principles on a handout, on the overhead, and why I am talking about them. We will also do a little activity with them. It is repetition, people. Again, the point of training is that everyone must master the material, so we do whatever it takes." 15 Make the training "This next bit is pretty obvious. interesting and If something is boring and relevant. pointless, we will not bother to remember it." 16 The trainer should "We do not want the trainer to get be well prepared. in the way of the training. What I mean is that if our trainees are focused on the trainer instead of the material, for whatever reason, the training will be less effective. Training is part of the job, too. It is never acceptable to do any of our jobs below the standard. I am responsible for making sure you are well trained to train. You are responsible for your employees' performance." 17 The trainer must "We must provide an atmosphere create a positive that is conducive to learning. Our learning trainees must feel comfortable, not environment. threatened or afraid, not stressed. They must feel open to learning, and it is our responsibility to be attuned to the atmosphere and adjust it if it is not conducive to learning." 18 The trainer must "As trainers, we are to a certain exhibit enthusiasm. extent role models. What we do is far more important than what we say. Our enthusiasm should be catching. It is far more satisfying and easier to work when we feel some enthusiasm for it." Conclusion "In retrospect, I do not think there was anything on that list you did not already know. It was just a lot of common sense. It is helpful, though, to consider all the principles together when we are going to try to train or teach adults. We can forget and fall back into old ways, even when they are not as effective. 'This is how I was trained,' we may think." Activity [Hand out a copy of the lesson plan for the Learning Principles, just delivered.] Learning Principles "Take a couple of minutes to read Lesson Plan Handout over this. What I want you to do is identify every place in the lesson plan where a Learning Principle was used. Like where something was repeated or a real life example was used. Do it like this:" Overhead of Lesson [Put the first page of this lesson Plan Example of plan on the overhead and note the first two learning underlined portions in the principles in the trainer's directions followed by lesson plan Learning Principle number six and number five in brackets.] "Well, what did you think of the lesson plan? Did it look familiar?" [Get reactions of trainees--they should note that it was almost identical to what was presented.] "Any one of you could take this lesson plan and present the exact same thing! That means that no matter how many times the training is delivered, or who delivers the training, it will be exactly the same. Every trainee will get exactly the same material in the same way. That is the beauty of a lesson plan." "To be honest, it did take a long time to put this thing together-- but, it takes no time to do it the second time. It is already put together. I just review it and get all the handouts and transparencies and the marker, and I am ready to go." [Using the overhead of the lesson plan and the marker] "Let us go through this lesson plan from the beginning and underline all the examples you underlined of the Learning Principles used." Discussion [Ask trainees] "Do you think the use of the Learning Principles made the lesson better? How? Could we incorporate other Learning Principles in this instruction? Which ones and how?" 4.b.2 Practice--Immediate "We are going to break here and Corrective Feedback meet again [give time and date]. In the meantime, you have an assignment! You are going to choose a short ten-minute training segment from the training documents for your department and prepare to present it at our next session. You will train us just like you would train a new employee or as one of your OTJ trainers would train a new employee. We will critique the training delivery and the training lesson plan, and we will look for the use of Learning Principles. The idea is to get a chance to practice using a lesson plan, and become more familiar with the process. [Hand out Demonstration Critique Form] We Demonstration will use the Demonstration Critique Critique Form Form to help us analyze each other's performance in the demonstration next time. A critique form helps us to focus on some of the things that we need to do in a demonstration. It also helps us to critique in an objective way. Critiques should be helpful and certainly not harmful in any way.... So, I would like you to go ahead and critique my performance on the lesson I just delivered. Do not put your names on them because I am going to collect them, and we will go over them before we leave." [Collect them and discuss the results.] Closing "Any questions? Comments? Do you understand what you need to have ready for next time? Thank you and we will meet again on [say time and date]." Handout: The Principles of Adult Learning Principles Examples/Notes 1) Trainees prefer an informal atmosphere for training sessions where trainees are treated as professionals rather than students. 2) Trainees need encouragement and positive feedback as to their progress. 3) Trainees should not compete with each other. 4) Trainees learn at different speeds and may need individual attention and training. 5) Trainees must want to learn and understand why the material is necessary. 6) Trainees must be told what they are to do and then be shown the sequential steps to do it. 7) The training should be related to trainees' life experiences. 8) Trainees need real and tangible examples. 9) Trainees learn better by doing. 10) Trainees should learn to do the activity correctly, then build up speed. 11) Training should be conducted in numerous shorter sessions. 12) Repetition and practice result in better retention. 13) Keep lag time short between time of training and the job. 14) Use a combination of training methods. 15) Make the training interesting and relevant. 16) The trainer should be well prepared. 17) The trainer must create a positive learning environment. 18) The trainer must exhibit enthusiasm. Demonstration Critique Form No Yes 1 2 3 Name of the Lesson: -- Were you told: * What you were going to learn? 1 2 3 * Why it is important? 1 2 3 * Why you need to know this? 1 2 3 * When you will use this? 1 2 3 * Was it presented in a logical sequence? 1 2 3 * Was the trainer prepared? 1 2 3 * Did the trainer check for trainee comprehension? 1 2 3 How? -- * Could everyone see and hear? 1 2 3 * Was the pace just right? Not too fast or slow? 1 2 3 * Did you learn what you were expected to learn? 1 2 3 * Did the trainer have any distracting mannerisms? 1 2 3 What were they? -- * Does this performance need improvement? 1 2 3 * How could this performance be improved? -- Comments: --
The Topic Four lesson plan took about six hours to construct. Training design is expensive. That is one of the reasons why needs assessment is so important. If we spend the time and money, we want to make sure we are designing the right training. Once the training is designed, however, it results in consistent, convenient, efficient, and effective training.
It is essential that we take the extra time to train everyone who will be using documents (the lesson plans) to deliver training. Training is a learned skill, and, without instruction on how to do it, the trainer may not be able to utilize documents effectively. Training the trainer also takes time and money. Training is expensive so we must assure (through proper training) that the money spent is not wasted.
Some of our employees assume training responsibilities as part of their jobs. We understand the necessity of training employees to make beds, check-in guests, and take drink orders. We also have to train our employees to train if they have training responsibilities added to their jobs. As professionals, we reduce as much chance and risk as possible. For training to be effective, the trainers must know how to train. They learn that from train-the-trainer training.
CHAPTER THOUGHT QUESTIONS
1. Explain why it is necessary to teach employees (with training responsibilities) how to train. What are possible problems if trainers have not been trained to train?
2. Think about instructors you have had in school who did not seem to be very good teachers. What did they do or not do that made them less effective? What could they have done differently to be better? Do you think they were taught how to teach?
3. Think about training you have received at the various jobs you've held. Choose the worst and the best and compare and contrast. Who trained you? How did this person train you? Do you think the trainer was an effective trainer? Why or why not? What could have improved the trainer's performance? Do you think the trainer had been trained to train?
4. List the characteristics necessary to be an effective trainer and discuss each individually, explaining why the characteristic is necessary.
5. Review and list the Adult Learning Principles in Chapter Seven. Discuss why it is necessary for trainers to understand and incorporate the principles in their training activities.
6. Describe the process for designing training for trainers using the Training Design Model. Please outline all the steps and relate the process to designing training for any line position.
7. Review Chapters Three and Four. Please define needs assessment and then list and describe all the steps in needs assessment--what information is necessary and how and where do we get it.
8. Chapter Eleven was about designing training for a new trainer. The process, however, follows the same model as designing training for any line position. Apply all the steps in question number seven and come up with a needs assessment plan for designing training for a housekeeper in a hotel, or institution. What are the questions you will need to ask and whom will you ask?
9. Pretend that you actually collected all the data called for in your needs assessment plan in question number eight. Using made-up data, devise a training plan for the housekeeper position according to the directions in Chapter Eight.
10. We can develop some very good-looking training by utilizing our own experience and knowledge. It takes a lot less time if we skip the data collection. Why, if we really do know how to do the job, do we still need to do a needs assessment as the first step in the training design?
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Training Design Guide for the Hospitality Industry|
|Article Type:||Professional standards|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2003|
|Previous Article:||Chapter 10 Group training and team-building.|
|Next Article:||Chapter 12 Implementing training and evaluation.|