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Chapter 11 Quick breads.

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OBJECTIVES

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

* describe the three mixing methods of quick breads.

* describe the role gluten plays in the physical structure of the final baked good.

* explain the makeup and baking processes of different quick breads.

* discuss characteristics of different chemical leavening agents and their functional properties.

* make a selection of quick breads using the techniques presented in this chapter.

DESCRIPTION AND SCOPE OF QUICK BREADS

The category of quick breads covers a wide range of nonyeasted products such as muffins, scones, biscuits, and coffee cakes. Leavened by chemical agents and steam, quick breads are staple bakery products that are quick and inexpensive to produce on a large scale. The technical skills involved in making quick breads are limited to several key concepts that include ingredient functions, mixing methods, and baking processes. Once these are understood, it is possible to make a wide array of products with relatively few ingredients and little expertise. Many commercial quick bread mixes are available in the market; the use of the mixes will yield more consistent products in shorter production time. It is very convenient to use the mixes in a larger production environment, although in a smaller production setting, the quality is better and the cost is lower when they are made from scratch.

CONTROLLING THE DEVELOPMENT OF GLUTEN

The most desirable physical characteristic of quick breads is tenderness. Even though the scope of the category encompasses diverse products such as scones, muffins, and fruit breads, each product should be of a tender texture in order to ensure a pleasurable eating experience. This is controlled through the mixing process.

The development of gluten plays an important role in controlling the texture of quick breads. The sugar and fat content of quick breads helps prevent excessive gluten development; however, formulas that contain higher levels of liquid may be prone to developing at a faster rate. In addition, overmixing muffin or coffee cake batter will cause a toughening of the crumb and may create holes in the pastry that run diagonally, a phenomenon referred to as tunneling. Products like biscuits and scones will have a dense and tough texture if overmixed. Proper mixing methods and precautions for each of the major mixing categories are covered in this chapter. (See Figure 11-1.)

THE ROLE OF CHEMICAL LEAVENING AGENTS

Chemical leavening agents play a crucial role in the development of quick breads. There are several kinds of chemical leavening agents, but all have the same functional purposes in the making of quick breads. First, every chemical leavening agent creates gas by reacting with water, heat, or leavening acid. The gas aerates and leavens the batter before and/or during baking. The aeration of batter results in the tenderizing of the product, providing a pleasurable mouthfeel. Second, baking soda has a high pH when it is dissolved, and it is used to balance out the total pH of the quick bread batter. Exact measurement of leavening agents is essential because a slight change can result in imperfect final products.

BAKING SODA AND BAKING POWDER

The most common leavening agents used for quick breads are baking soda and baking powder. Baking soda is the chemical sodium bicarbonate, and baking powder is a mixture of baking soda, leavening acids, and cornstarch. Leavening acids are added to react with sodium bicarbonate and produce carbon dioxides during mixing and/or baking. The starch prevents baking powder from caking, absorbs ambient moisture, and most importantly prevents the chemicals from prematurely reacting.

During mixing, a small amount of carbon dioxide is created by fast-acting leavening acids reacting with dissolved sodium bicarbonate. Examples of the leavening acids that react at this point at low temperatures are cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) and monocalcium phosphate.

[FIGURE 11-1 OMITTED]

High-temperature reacting leavening acids are usually aluminum salts, such as sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS) and sodium aluminum phosphate, and they create larger amounts of gas during baking, enabling the quick bread to rise in the oven. The alums do not react with bicarbonate of soda at a low temperature, but they rapidly react under the heat in the oven. The residue of this reaction is aluminum hydroxide, which is insoluble and undesirable in food, and it tends to leave an unpleasant flavor in final products. In the United States, the use of SAS in baking powder is permitted because the actual intake is only a trace amount. Sodium acid pyrophosphate, which also is a high-temperature reacting acid but does not contain alum, is commonly used in specialty baking powder for people who have concerns about aluminum intake.

Baking powder that contains both low- and high-temperature reacting leavening acids is called double-acting baking powder, and one with only low-temperature reacting acid salt is called single-acting baking powder. Single-acting baking powder is usually used in larger food processing operations. Both baking soda and baking powder need to be kept in a container with a tight lid and stored in a cool and dry place. The shelf life for both of these products is about one year after the date of manufacture.

HISTORY OF CHEMICAL LEAVENING AGENTS

Carbonates of soda and potash are known as the earliest leavening agents used in baking. Carbonates of soda were obtained from the ashes of sea plants, as well as from plants growing near the seashore. Potash comes from the ashes of land plants and was originally referred to as potashes. From potashes a purer form of leavening known as pearl ashes was made (Bennion & Bamford, 1973, p. 76). Both carbonate of soda and potash are alkalis, and when used with an acid ingredient, such as sour milk or buttermilk, they create a reaction resulting in the creation of carbon dioxide. Although lactic acid exists in those dairy products, the amount of acid is not sufficient to make the leavening agents fully react. However, it is truly believable that the acid reduced the alkaline taste and discoloration. At this time, domestic baking was widely practiced, but as commercial baking became more popular, it was necessary to discover more convenient and stable substances to aid in chemical aeration.

Until the 1830s, potash and alum were used in bakeries as leavening agents. Alum is not an acid, but it reacts with carbonate of soda producing carbon dioxide when exposed to heat in the oven. Baking ammonia appeared on the market at this point, and it was used by home bakers as well as in commercial bakeries. Ready-mixed baking powder made with tartaric acid and cream of tartar, mixed with bicarbonate of soda was introduced to the market at the end of 1840s. Many leavening acids were examined to be used in baking powder from 1860s to 1890s. Calcium acid phosphate and SAS, which are commercially used in production of baking powder today, were found during this period, and the first double-acting baking powder was manufactured.

Sodium acid pyrophosphate was the next leavening acid introduced to the United States in 1911. This material is completely nonhygroscopic in cold water, but it dissolves and reacts readily in a hot environment; this is an adequate "slow-acting" baking acid. In the current baking industry, the main leavening acid used in baking powder is cream of tartar, mono-calcium phosphate, SAS, sodium aluminum phosphate, and sodium acid pyrophosphate.

CHEMICAL LEAVENING AGENTS AND PH BALANCE

A proper balance of baking soda, as well as other leavening systems like baking powder, is essential for the final quality of the texture and flavor of baked goods. Baking soda balances the pH in quick breads when other chemical leavening systems are used. Furthermore, controlling pH is crucial in the process of quick bread making because lower pH relaxes gluten and a higher pH tightens gluten. Baking soda, which has pH around 8.0, is always used with cream of tartar or other acidic ingredients, such as honey, molasses, or cocoa powder. Baking soda also helps to balance out the flavor of the final product by making the acidity less pronounced. A small amount of cream of tartar in biscuits lowers the pH and weakens the gluten, yielding a more tender product. Cream of tartar also helps to yield a whiter crumb. When too much baking powder or baking soda is used, it results in a slightly coarse texture, metallic flavor, and yellow or greenish off-coloration.

CHOOSING CHEMICAL LEAVENING AGENTS IN QUICK BREAD FORMULAS

The proper leavening system for use in a specific formula depends on the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation. While chemical leavening agents are generally added as a ratio of the flour, the acidity of the batter must be taken into account. The more fat and sugar in a formula, the less baking powder and milk will be required; conversely, the less fat and sugar in a formula, the more baking powder and milk will be required. The fat has a tenderizing effect on gluten and reduces resistance to gas pressure. Batter is leavened slightly during the mixing process as air is incorporated; however, additional leavening agents are often used as well. (See Figures 11-2a and 11-2b.)

In large commercial bakeries, specially blended baking powders containing different leavening acids may be used to more closely control the release of carbon dioxide into the dough system. A combination of mono-calcium phosphate and sodium acid pyrophosphate, both leavening acids (the prior is fast acting and latter is slow acting), are commonly used for commercial baking powder.

MIXING METHODS FOR QUICK BREAD

Because of the range of products in the quick bread category, there are three mixing methods to consider: biscuit, creaming, and blending. The particular mixing method used will depend on the desired outcome for the final product.

BISCUIT METHOD FOR BISCUITS AND SCONES

What is known as biscuit in the United States was developed many years ago and gained its popularity mostly in the southern states. The neutral flavor of biscuits is often used as a flavor carrier for the food that is served with them. They may be prepared as either sweet or savory and are commonly served for breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Scones are a much richer version of biscuits, often containing fruit, nuts, or dried fruits and sweeteners such as honey, molasses, or granulated sugar. Savory versions of scones can also be prepared by using various cheeses, spices, and herbs.

[FIGURE 11-2a OMITTED]

[FIGURE 11-2b OMITTED]

Ingredient Functions

The biscuit method is achieved by the cutting fat into the flour and other dry ingredients and then adding the liquid ingredients and blending to incorporation. The typical end result is to have small to medium-sized pieces of fat throughout the dough in order to create a flaky structure. The formulation for flaky biscuits and scones is similar, with common ingredients that include flour, solid fat, chemical leavening agents, milk, buttermilk or cream, sugar, and other ingredients.

A range of flour may be found in formulas for biscuits as scones. Bread flour, pastry flour, and sometimes cake flour are used for this method to give enough strength and to create flaky layers. The stronger the flour is, the more the height of the biscuit will increase and the more the width will decrease. If the flour is too weak, the shape will not remain uniform because the protein will be too minimal to hold the shape. Weaker flour also creates a lighter color on crust, but this phenomenon can be compensated by adding dry milk solids, approximately 5 percent of flour weight.

The most common sugars used in quick bread are granulated sugar and inverted sugar such as honey. Only a small amount of sugar is used in biscuit formulas; savory biscuits usually contain 2 to 5 percent sugar, and in sweet biscuits, which are often used for strawberry shortcake in the United States, up to 15 percent sugar can be added. In scone formulations, sugar is almost always present. When inverted sugar is used, it increases crust color and also keeps the product moist for a longer time. Honey is often used in scone formulas to yield a longer shelf life and add unique flavor.

Mixing Method

The key to producing excellent flaky biscuits and scones is the mixing process. Fats must be blended into the flour to the proper size, liquids must be added in the proper amount, and mixing should be minimal. To ensure flakiness in the final product, the fat in biscuits and scones must be cold and remain in visible, pea-sized pieces.

Biscuit dough is mixed lightly after the incorporation of liquid into the flour and fat phase. Next, the dough is sheeted to the desired thickness and cut out. It is essential to rest the portioned dough at least 20 minutes before baking to allow the gluten to relax, in order to obtain an even oven spring during baking. Egg wash should be applied to the top surface of the product and not to the sides in order to yield an even rise. Biscuits and scones freeze well after being portioned and covered in plastic. Before baking, they should be thawed completely to achieve full leavening and to prevent an underbaked center of the dough.

If scone and biscuit dough is overmixed, the fat will eventually coat all the starch granules. This creates a product that is too tender and that will not have enough structure. Another result of overmixing is shrink age; as gluten is strengthened, the final product has less volume. However, undermixing can cause problems as well. Lumps of flour or large pieces of fat will lead to inconsistent final products. All dry ingredients of the dough should be moistened sufficiently. If they are overhydrated, the result will be a soft and weak dough that can barely hold together when lifted, which will result in poor volume and texture. Some degree of gluten development occurs during the sheeting or rolling out of the dough for cutting, but it will not cause significant damage unless it is overly done. Minimizing the waste of scrap dough is important because if it is reworked, it gains strength and toughens.

If scones with frozen fruit are being made, it is easiest to mix plain scone dough and add the frozen fruit to the dough during makeup. To do this, the dough is first divided and then the dough is sandwiched with the frozen fruit between two layers and additional fruit is pressed into the top of the scones. This is done to avoid crushing the fruits and to prevent the bleeding of color during mixing.

Biscuit Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients.

* Sift the chemical leavening agents and combine with the dry ingredients.

* Combine the liquid ingredients. * Cut the fat into the flour by hand or with the paddle attachment on a mixer until the fat is the size of peas. (See Biscuit Method Figure 11-3, Step 1.)

* Add the liquid to the dry ingredients and mix just until combined. (See Biscuit Method Figure 11-3, Steps 2-3.)
FIGURE 11-3 BISCUIT METHOD

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[1] The cold fat is blended
into the dry ingredients until
the proper size.

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[2] The liquid ingredients are
added to the dry ingredients.

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[3] The dough is mixed just to
incorporation.


CREAMING METHOD FOR BISCUITS AND SCONES

Some biscuits and scones are mixed by the creaming method in which the fat and sugar are incorporated until they form a smooth paste. This makes a product with finer crumb and less flaky, cake-like texture when compared to ones produced by the biscuit method.

Ingredient Functions

The ingredients and ingredient functions in biscuits and scones made using the creaming method are very similar to the ones made using the biscuit method. The main difference is that formulas that use the creaming method tend to contain less solid fat. When a very tender texture is desired, heavy cream is added with eggs after the sugar and fat are incorporated instead of using a liquid with less fat, such as milk or water.

Mixing Method

In the creaming method for biscuits and scones, the fat and sugar are incorporated, and the fat spreads evenly throughout the dough in a continuous phase, limiting the chance for pockets of fat to provide a flaky product. Next, the liquid ingredients are added slowly and are mixed into the sugar and fat phase. The sifted flour and chemical leavening are added next, and mixing occurs until the ingredients are well incorporated.

When compared to the biscuit method, it is easier to yield an even mix of ingredients when using this method. Compared to the biscuit method, the final effect on the dough is very different; the crumb is finer and more tender than flaky. If dried fruits and/or nuts are added, they should be added when the dry ingredients are 50 percent incorporated to prevent overmixing.

When using the creaming method for biscuits and scones, the fat and sugar should be creamed only to the point of incorporation because overmixing can add additional air into the batter and create a more cake-like texture, which is not desirable in biscuits and scones.

Makeup and baking are similar for the creaming and biscuit methods. For small retail production, biscuit and scone dough made by the creaming method is often deposited using an ice cream scoop, whereas larger operations may use an automated depositor. Additionally, the dough can be rolled out and cut into desired shapes with a knife or cutter. It is recommended to rest portioned dough for at least 15 minutes before baking for an even oven spring.

Creaming Method Process for Biscuits and Scones

Scale all the ingredients. Prepare a mixing bowl with the paddle attachment. Sift the chemical leavening agents and combine with the flour and salt.

* Combine the fat and sugar and cream only until smooth, not light and fluffy.

* Add the eggs slowly, scraping down the bowl after they are all added.

* Add any liquid and mix in thoroughly.

* Add the dry ingredients and mix just until combined.

BLENDING METHOD FOR MUFFINS, LOAF CAKES, AND SCONES

Probably the most simple and familiar technique to the new home baker is the blending method, also known as the muffin method. In this method, the dry ingredients are simply combined with the liquid ingredients. It is a fast and easy mixing method that can be used for many products, including muffins, banana bread, and cream scones. The same mixing method is also used for pancakes, crepes, and waffles; however, the consistency of those batters is more fluid. These formulas are sometimes adapted by adding in egg foam to further lighten the texture, such as in the case of certain waffle batter. Larger-sized loaves tend to have a more dense and moist interior compared to small-portioned ones because larger mass keeps moisture longer during baking.

Ingredient Functions

The flour used for the blending method can range from pastry flour to low-protein bread flour. If a formula calls for all-purpose flour, low-protein bread flour can often be substituted without issue. The fat used in the blending method is in a liquid phase, which results in a dense and moist crumb. Butter is often used because it provides a rich, creamy flavor; however, margarine could be substituted as long as it is unsalted. Liquid oils such as canola or safflower are also common ingredients. It is important to use oil with a neutral flavor. Typically white or brown sugar is used. Not only does sugar help to prevent the development of the gluten, but it also helps to retain moisture and delay the staling process. Chemical leavening agents often are comprised of baking powder or a combination of baking powder and soda. The amount will vary depending on the ratio of the other ingredients in the formula. Inclusions can range from fruit (fresh, dried, canned, or frozen) to nuts and spices.

Mixing Method

Because the liquid-to-flour ratio is high in these types of formulas, it is important to keep the mixing to a minimum to prevent excessive development of the gluten: the wet and dry ingredients are mixed to incorporation. Sugar is treated as a wet ingredient in blending method formulas and should be combined with the wet ingredients. If there are any additional ingredients, such as fruit and/or nuts, they should be added when the batter is mixed halfway to prevent overmixing. To prevent the breakdown of frozen fruit in the mixing and makeup process, they must be completely frozen when being mixed in.

Batter made with the blending method is often deposited into greased molds or paper molds. The products can be baked into muffin-size portions or into loaves. Cornbread is usually baked on a sheet pan and then sliced into individual portions. Only products such as scones should be egg washed. The surfaces of loaves or muffins can be decorated with coarse sugar, seeds, or nuts. When baked in greased molds, the products should be unmolded 10 minutes after baking, to cool completely and prevent sweating.

Blending Method Process

* Scale all the ingredients. Sift the dry ingredients together.

* Combine the wet ingredients.

* Add all of the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and mix just until the batter comes together. The batter may look lumpy. Do not overmix.

* Store for later use or deposit to be baked. (Note: Depending on the formula, prolonged holding may affect oven spring.)

CREAMING METHOD FOR MUFFINS, COFFEE CAKES, AND LOAVES

The creaming method for muffins, coffee cakes, and cake loaves is used less often than the blending method. It is a more time-consuming procedure, with more attention to the detail of the mixing process; nevertheless, it creates a moist textured product and is likely to be more tender than a product made using the blending method.

Ingredient Functions

In general, creaming method formulas tend to have a higher content of fat and sugar than blending method formulas, resulting in rich flavors and tender textures. Muffins and coffee cakes made with the creaming method are based on the creaming of a solid fat (butter, margarine, shortening, or a combination) and sugar. Sometimes cream cheese is included in the preparation and should be a part of the creaming process. The presence of cream cheese adds stability to the fat-sugar phase and assists in maintaining the emulsion after the eggs are added because cream cheese contains gums and stabilizers. Pastry flour is commonly used, but a blend of pastry flour and cake flour is sometimes used to create a less chewy and more tender crumb. Just like products made with the blending method, both sweet and savory applications are possible.

Mixing Method

For this application, air is incorporated into the fat-sugar mixture to aid in leavening and to lighten the crumb. In general, the sugar is creamed with the fat and any additional ingredients, such as cream cheese. For effective creaming, the fat must be at least 65[degrees]F (18[degrees]C) to ensure an appropriate consistency. Once the fat and sugar mixture is light and fluffy, the eggs can be added slowly. After they're added, the bowl should be scraped down to ensure even mixing. Next, any additional liquids can be added. Last, the dry ingredients should be added and mixed just to incorporation.

Creaming Method Process for Muffins, Coffee Cakes, and Loaves

* Scale all the ingredients. Prepare a mixing bowl with the paddle attachment. Sift together the flour, baking powder, and salt.

* Combine the fat and sugar and cream until light and fluffy.

* Add the eggs in three stages, mixing after each addition and scraping down the bowl after all the eggs are added.

* Add any liquid and mix in thoroughly.

* Add the sifted dry ingredients and mix just until smooth. If adding additional ingredients, add these once the mixing is three-fourths complete.
FIGURE 11-4

SCONE MAKEUP

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] Once the dough is mixed and
divided, flatten a portion of
dough into an 8 inch (20 cm)
cake ring.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Divide into 8 pieces by using a
chef's knife.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Brush the top lightly with egg
wash.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[4] Finish with a sprinkle of coarse
sugar.


MAKEUP PROCESSES FOR QUICK BREADS

The makeup processes for quick breads are largely determined by the mixing method, or on a product-by-product basis. As with anything in baking, the baker needs to adapt to the situation and apply his or her skills to determine the best process. Some general guidelines for individual products follow.

SCONES

* Sheet or roll the dough out on a lightly floured surface to about 3/4 inch (2 cm) thick.

* Cut with a round or fluted pastry cutter or a chefs knife to the desired size and shape, minimizing waste.

* Creamed scones may be scooped.

* Alternatively, portion the dough into 2.21b (1 kg) pieces and press into an 8 inch (20 cm) cake ring. (See Scone Makeup Figure 11-4, Step 1.)

* Cut into eight equal wedges and transfer to a sheet pan. (See Scone Makeup Figure 11-4, Step 2.)

* Place the scones on a parchment-lined sheet pan and brush with egg or cream wash and garnish with sugar (optional). (See Scone Makeup Figure 11-4, Steps 3-4.)

Scones Made With Frozen Fruit (Blueberries)

* Process a plain scone dough.

* Scale the dough into 1 lb (0.450 kg) pieces.

* Spread 1 3/4 oz (0.050 kg) of frozen blueberries within an 8 inch x 2 inch (20 cm x 10 cm) ring mold.

* Round off a piece of scone dough and press it into the blueberries.

* Spread 1 3/4 oz (0.050 kg) of frozen blueberries over the scone dough and gently press in.

* Round off a second piece of scone dough and press it into the ring mold.

* Remove the ring mold and cut the round into eight wedges.

Note: Work with only the amount of blueberries that will remain frozen. Toss the blueberries in a small quantity of flour to prevent them from bleeding.

BISCUITS

* On the bench, knead the dough lightly by pressing it out and folding

* the dough in half. Repeat this approximately 10 times. Roll the dough out to about 3/4 inch (2 cm) thick and cut the biscuits to the desired size with a floured cutter.

* Place the biscuits on a sheet pan lined with parchment paper and brush with egg or cream wash and garnish with sugar (optional).

MUFFINS

* The quantity of muffin batter per portion varies according to the mixing technique and muffin tin size.

* All muffins pans need to be lined with paper cups or sprayed with nonstick spray.

* Creamed muffin batter should fill approximately half of each tin.

* Blending method batter can fill three-fourths of each tin.

* The quantity of batter in the tin will have an effect on the size of the muffin top. More batter will produce more top.

* In a production setting, muffins are generally portioned by volume, using various scoop sizes to maintain portion control.

* Once the tray is portioned, the muffins may be garnished and baked.
FIGURE 11-5 COFFEE CAKE MAKUP

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[1] After a portion batter
is spread on the bottom of
the pan, fillings are applied
on top

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[2] Place second layer of batter
on top; flatten evenly.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[3] Spread streusel over the
top layer.


LOAF CAKES

* The guidelines for filling loaf pans are similar to the guidelines for filling muffin tins.

* Loaf pans should always be sprayed with nonstick spray and placed on a flat sheet pan.

* Loaf cakes are typically portioned by weight, rather than by volume, to ensure even baking and proper portion control.

* Some loafs breads may be "scored" using a bench knife that has been partially dipped in oil. When gently pressed 1/4 inch (0.6 cm) into the batter, it creates a means for the bread to split during baking.

COFFEE CAKES

* The makeup process for coffee cakes generally consists of several steps.

* First, the pans are prepared with nonstick pan spray. Next, a portion of the dough is placed into the pan and is spread out evenly.

* A filling of choice is then evenly distributed over the base layer. (If using jam or fruits, it is important that they do not touch the side of the pan.) (See Coffee Cake Makeup Figure 11-5, Step 1.)

* Next, the second layer of batter is placed over the filling and is pressed down flat. (See Coffee Cake Makeup Figure 11-5, Step 2.)

* If streusel is called for, it can be spread over the top layer. (See Coffee Cake Makeup Figure 11-5, Step 3.)

SHEET PAN APPLICATIONS

* Items such as coffee cake or cornbread may be baked in a sheet and then portioned.

* The pans are prepared with parchment paper.

* A pan-collar may be used to obtain fuller volume of the baked item.

* Deposit the batter depending on the pan size and product makeup.

* Bake at a lower temperature for a longer period of time to ensure an even bake.

BAKING QUICK BREADS

The common trait shared by quick breads is that they should bake as quickly as possible to ensure a palatable, enjoyable final product. Even so, baking temperatures and times vary. Items such as scones and biscuits will bake at a higher temperature and for a shorter amount of time than a coffee cake, while a loaf cake will bake at a lower temperature for a longer time than muffins to ensure that the center of the product is fully baked.

When it comes to determining whether a product is done, professional bakers who produce the same items on a daily basis can tell from a quick glance. For the novice, however, or in the case of a new formula, there are several key things to look for. For example, baked loaf cakes will have a definite cell structure that allows them to spring back to the touch once they are baked. The common method for testing doneness is to insert a cake tester in the center of the loaf. If it comes out clean, the product has baked enough. If it is not ready yet, the cake tester will be coated with batter. The same technique may be used for muffins. Other characteristics of muffins and loaf cakes that are done baking include a golden brown color, a surface center that springs back to the touch, and partial separation of the sides from the pan.

Loaf cakes and muffins should be removed from the pan 10 to 15 minutes after baking. If they are not removed, they may be harder to remove later, and condensation that can damage the integrity of the product will occur.

PRODUCTION OF BISCUITS AND SCONES

The production of scones and biscuits for retail bakeries ranges from completely by hand to completely by machine. A difference in quality may be evident depending on the product; however, there is a point where the demands of high-volume production will most likely result in the need to sacrifice some quality. This is due to problems that arise during the mixing stage. For bulk production, scones may be made up and then frozen or reserved in the refrigerator for later use. Flaky scones and biscuits should always go into the oven cold in order to maintain their structure.

STORAGE OF QUICK BREADS

Quick breads are best served fresh, but if they must be served at a later date, they keep well in the freezer. For example, items such as loaf cakes and coffee cakes can be produced in large quantities once a week and stored in the freezer until needed without much of a sacrifice in flavor or texture. Items to be stored in this way must be well wrapped after they have completely cooled. If they are wrapped with plastic when warm, moisture will be trapped that will cause faster molding and possible contamination with microorganisms at a faster rate. The good news is that quick breads are fast and simple to make, which makes them easy to serve fresh.
FORMULA

BANANA BREAD

Banana bread first became standard fare in American kitchens
when baking soda and baking powder hit the mainstream in the
1930s, ushering in the popularity of quick breads of all kinds. Its
reputation as a standby was renewed in the 1960s when hearty
breads became fashionable, and the simplicity of the basic recipes
for banana bread have contributed to its enduring popularity
ever since.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram     US decimal

Bananas                        105.00          0.725         1.599
Buttermilk                      11.25          0.078         0.171
Vanilla extract                  0.50          0.003         0.008
Sugar                           66.00          0.456         1.005
Brown sugar                     33.00          0.228         0.503
Eggs                            40.70          0.281         0.620
Canola oil                      42.00          0.290         0.640
Bread flour                    100.00          0.691         1.523
Salt                             1.00          0.007         0.015
Baking soda                      2.00          0.014         0.030
Baking powder                    2.00          0.014         0.030
Cinnamon                         0.70          0.005         0.011
Walnuts                         30.00          0.207         0.457
Total                          434.15          3.000         6.613

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Bananas                       1 9 5/8       5 1/8 oz
Buttermilk                      2 3/4         1/2 oz
Vanilla extract                   1/8         1/8 tsp
Sugar                           1 1/8       3 1/4 oz
Brown sugar                         8       1 5/8 oz
Eggs                            9 7/8           2 oz
Canola oil                     10 1/4           2 oz
Bread flour                  1  8 3/8       4 7/8 oz
Salt                              1/4         1/4 tsp
Baking soda                       1/2         1/2 tsp
Baking powder                     1/2         1/2 tsp
Cinnamon                          1/8         1/8 tsp
Walnuts                         7 1/4       1 1/2 oz
Total                        6  9 3/4       1 lb 5 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaves

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf

Process

1. In the bowl of a mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, premix
the bananas, buttermilk, and vanilla extract until broken up. Reserve.

2. Combine the sugar, brown sugar, eggs, and canola oil in the bowl
of a mixer fitted with the paddle attachment and mix until well
incorporated.

3. Combine the dry ingredients and add to the wet ingredients and mix
until 50 percent incorporation.

4. Add the banana buttermilk mixture and then add the walnuts and mix
to incorporation.

5. Deposit into sprayed pans three-fourths up the pan.

6. "Score" along length of the loaf, 1/4 inch (2 cm) deep with a
scraper dipped in vegetable oil.

7. Bake until golden brown and the surface bounces back to the touch.

8. For an 8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm) [1 lb 5 oz (600 g)] loaf,
bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven for
40 to 45 minutes.

Variation: Caramel Pear Bread Formula

Adjustments                Baker's %      Kilogram     US decimal

Add nutmeg                        0.1          0.001         0.002
Add ginger                        0.5          0.003         0.008
Replace bananas with              112          0.774         1.706
diced pears, cut in
1/2 inch (1 cm) squares

Adjustments                 Lb & Oz         Test

Add nutmeg                     < 1/8           <1/8
Add ginger                       1/8           <1/8
Replace bananas with        1 11 1/4       5 1/2 oz
diced pears, cut in
1/2 inch (1 cm) squares

Caramel Formula

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram     US decimal

Sugar                             100          0.227         0.496
Ginger                            0.1          0.000         0.002
Nutmeg                            0.1          0.000         0.002
Total                          100.20          0.227         0.500

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Sugar                           7 7/8      1 1/2 oz
Ginger                           <1/8          <1/8
Nutmeg                           <1/8          <1/8
Total                               8      1 1/2 oz

Process

1. Make a caramel with the sugar and spices and then add the diced
pears. Cook until tender; reserve.

2. After the caramel pear mixture is cool, fold into the batter.

3. Deposit 1 lb 5 oz (600 g) batter per 8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch
(10 cm) loaf and continue as with the banana bread.

FORMULA

PUMPKIN BREAD

A hearty, dense bread served most often during the autumn and
winter holidays, pumpkin bread really deserves to be appreciated
all year round. Filled with spices, pumpkin, and walnuts, each bite
is packed with flavor. It is a lovely bread to enjoy at breakfast or
with an afternoon cup of coffee or tea.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram     US decimal

Sugar                          109.00          0.639         1.409
Butter                          91.00          0.533         1.176
Eggs                            31.00          0.182         0.401
Pumpkin puree                   92.00          0.539         1.189
Low-protein                    100.00          0.586         1.292
bread flour
Baking soda                      0.80          0.005         0.010
Baking powder                    0.40          0.002         0.005
Salt                             0.80          0.005         0.010
Cinnamon                         0.40          0.002         0.005
Nutmeg                           0.40          0.002         0.005
Allspice                         0.40          0.002         0.005
Ginger                           0.40          0.002         0.005
Total                          426.60          2.501         5.513

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Sugar                        1 6 1/2       4 5/8 oz
Butter                       1 2 7/8       3 7/8 oz
Eggs                           6 3/8       1 1/4 oz
Pumpkin puree                  1   3       3 7/8 oz
Low-protein                  1 4 5/8       4 1/4 oz
bread flour
Baking soda                      1/8           <1/8
Baking powder                    1/8           <1/8
Salt                             1/8           <1/8
Cinnamon                         1/8           <1/8
Nutmeg                           1/8           <1/8
Allspice                         1/8           <1/8
Ginger                           1/8           <1/8
Total                        5 8 1/4      1 lb 2 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaves

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch (10 cm)] loaf

Process

1. In the bowl of a mixer, cream the butter and sugar using the paddle
attachment.

2. Mix the eggs and pumpkin together and slowly add to the creamed
butter and sugar.

3. Sift all the dry ingredients together; add to the bowl and mix
until the batter is smooth.

4. Deposit 1 lb 2 oz (500 g) batter per 8 inch (20 cm) x 4 inch
(10 cm) loaf pan.

5. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 45
minutes or until done.

FORMULA

CORNBREAD

The earliest makers of cornbread were the Native American tribes
of the southern United States and Central America, who relied
heavily upon corn as a food source. Early American settlers soon
acquired the practice of using local ingredients, such as cornmeal,
when the wheat they were accustomed to using was in short supply.
Cornbread was popular during the Civil War because it was economical
and easy to make. Today, cornbread is made in an endless
array of varieties, most commonly in the southern United States,
where authenticity of the recipes is prized. Notable for its crumbly
simplicity, and incomplete without a generous slathering of butter,
cornbread is often eaten hot, or at least warm.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram     US decimal

Cornmeal                        34.00          0.619         1.366
Semolina flour                  33.00          0.601         1.326
Pastry flour                    33.00          0.601         1.326
Baking powder                    5.00          0.091         0.201
Salt                             1.70          0.031         0.068
Sugar                           32.00          0.583         1.285
Eggs                            20.00          0.364         0.803
Buttermilk                      76.00          1.385         3.053
Butter                          26.00          0.474         1.044
Total                          260.70          4.750        10.472

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Cornmeal                    1  5 7/8         4 3/8 oz
Semolina flour              1  5 1/4         4 1/4 oz
Pastry flour                1  5 1/4         4 1/4 oz
Baking powder                  3 1/4           5/8 oz
Salt                           1 1/8           1/4 oz
Sugar                       1  4 5/8         4 1/8 oz
Eggs                          12 7/8         2 5/8 oz
Buttermilk                     3 2/8         9 3/4 oz
Butter                         1 3/4         3 3/8 oz
Total                      10  7 1/2    2 lb 1 1/2 oz

Yield: 5 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake pans

Test: 1 [8 inch (20 cm)] cake pan

Process

1. Melt the butter and reserve until needed.

2. Sift the cornmeal, semolina flour, pastry flour, baking powder,
salt, and sugar together and reserve.

3. Combine the eggs and buttermilk. Add the dry ingredients to the wet
ingredients and mix until incorporated.

4. Next, add the melted butter and mix until smooth.

5. Pour the batter into prepared pans at 2 lb 1 1/2 oz (0.950 kg) per
pan. Bake at 350[degrees]F (177[degrees]C) for 16 to 18 minutes or
until done.

FORMULA

SAVORY MUFFIN

Take some of the best elements of a hot breakfast, fold them into
an egg-rich muffin batter, flavored with mustard and parsley, and
put them in the oven, and what do you have? The mouth-watering
ham and cheese muffin demands to be eaten with a cup of coffee
on the side.

Ingredients                Baker's %      Kilogram     US decimal

Parsley                          6.00          0.044         0.097
Gruyere, grated                 50.00          0.365         0.805
Ham, small dice                 75.00          0.548         1.208
Eggs                           150.00          1.096         2.416
Mustard                         25.00          0.183         0.403
Butter, soft                    60.00          0.438         0.967
Salt                             2.00          0.015         0.032
Pepper                           1.00          0.007         0.016
Bread flour                    100.00          0.731         1.611
Baking powder                   10.00          0.073         0.161
Total                          479.00          3.500         7.716

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz         Test

Parsley                         1 1/2         1 tbsp
Gruyere, grated                12 7/8       2 5/8 oz
Ham, small dice              1  3 3/8       3 7/8 oz
Eggs                         2  6 5/8       7 7/8 oz
Mustard                         6 1/2       1 1/4 oz
Butter, soft                   15 1/2       3 1/8 oz
Salt                              1/2          1 tsp
Pepper                            1/4        1/4 tsp
Bread flour                  1  9 3/4       5 1/4 oz
Baking powder                   2 5/8         1/2 oz
Total                        7 11 1/2      1 lb 9 oz

Yield: 45 medium-sized muffins

Test: 9 medium-sized muffins

Process

1. Bring all the ingredients to room temperature and warm the butter
to soften it.

2. Mince the parsley; prepare the cheese and ham.

3. Combine all of the wet ingredients (eggs, mustard, parsley,
butter).

4. Combine all of the dry ingredients (salt, pepper, bread flour,
baking powder).

5. Add the dry ingredients to the wet ingredients, and fold them in
three-fourths of the way. Then add the cheese and ham and mix to
incorporate.

6. Deposit into greased or papered muffin pans.

7. Bake the muffins at 375[degrees]F (191 [degrees]C) in a convection
oven for 15 minutes, or until done.

Note

Salt content of mustard, cheese, and ham will vary by source. Adjust
salt amount in formula as necessary.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

BLUEBERRY MUFFIN

Every traditional American bakery has its version of a blueberry
muffin. The color, texture, and tartness of blueberries, melded with
a slightly sweet muffin batter, create a classic morning delicacy with
unshakable appeal.

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Canola oil                  20.00       0.237         0.522
Melted butter               20.00       0.237         0.522
Sugar                       76.50       0.906         1.997
Eggs                        35.00       0.415         0.914
Milk                        59.50       0.705         1.554
Vanilla extract              1.50       0.018         0.039
Bread flour                100.00       1.184         2.611
Baking powder                3.75       0.044         0.098
Salt                         1.75       0.021         0.046
Blueberries                 65.00       0.770         1.697
Total                      383.00       4.536        10.000

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Canola oil                  8 3/8   1 5/8 oz
Melted butter               8 3/8   1 5/8 oz
Sugar                       2   0   6 3/8 oz
Eggs                       14 5/8   2 7/8 oz
Milk                     1  8 7/8       5 oz
Vanilla extract               5/8       1 tsp
Bread flour              2  9 3/4   8 3/8 oz
Baking powder               1 5/8       2 tsp
Salt                          3/4       1 tsp
Blueberries              1 11 1/8   5 3/8 oz
Total                      10   0       2 lb

Yield: 45 medium-sized muffins

Test: 9 medium-sized muffins

Process

1. Sift the flour and baking powder. Add the salt and reserve.

2. Blend the oil, butter, and sugar.

3. Add the eggs, milk, and vanilla to the butter mixture.

4. Add the dry ingredients to the wet ingredients and mix in first
speed to incorporation. Continue to mix on low speed 30 seconds to 1
minute. The extra mixing will promote a peaked muffin top.

5. Fold in the berries.

6. Scoop into greased or papered muffin pans of desired size.

7. Garnish with choice of pearl sugar, sliced almonds, streusel, or
granulated sugar just before baking.

8. Bake at 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 18
minutes or until done.

Note

Batter may be kept under refrigeration for 2 days with good results.

FORMULA

BRAN MUFFIN

This is the kind of bran muffin that makes healthy eating seem not
only endurable, but pleasurable. With its earthy, moist texture and
generous portions of currants, wheat germ, and bran, this muffin
offers a delicious dose of responsible fun.

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Canola oil                  35.00       0.334         0.737
Honey                        9.50       0.091         0.200
Molasses                    21.00       0.201         0.442
Brown sugar                 59.50       0.568         1.253
Vanilla extract              1.20       0.011         0.025
Eggs                        41.60       0.397         0.876
Buttermilk                 123.00       1.175         2.591
Bread flour                100.00       0.955         2.106
Baking soda                  4.70       0.045         0.099
Baking powder                2.30       0.022         0.048
Cinnamon                     1.20       0.011         0.025
Salt                         0.50       0.005         0.011
Wheat germ                  23.00       0.220         0.484
Bran                        14.25       0.136         0.300
Currants                    38.00       0.363         0.800
Total                      474.75       4.536        10.000

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Canola oil                 11 3/4   2 3/8 oz
Honey                       3 1/4     5/8 oz
Molasses                    7 1/8   1 3/8 oz
Brown sugar                 1   4       4 oz
Vanilla extract               1/8     1/2 tsp
Eggs                           14   2 3/4 oz
Buttermilk                2 9 1/2   8 1/4 oz
Bread flour               2 1 3/4   6 3/4 oz
Baking soda                 1 5/8       2 tsp
Baking powder                 3/4       1 tsp
Cinnamon                      3/8     1/2 tsp
Salt                          1/8     1/8 tsp
Wheat germ                  7 3/4   1 1/2 oz
Bran                        4 3/4       1 oz
Currants                   12 3/4   2 1/2 oz
Total                      10   0       2 lb

Yield: 45 medium-sized muffins

Test: 9 medium-sized muffins

Process

1. Combine the dry ingredients and reserve.

2. Combine the wet ingredients, and add the dry ingredients to them.

3. Mix to 75 percent incorporation; fold in the wheat germ, bran, and
currants and mix to incorporation.

4. Deposit 3 1/2 oz (100 g) of batter into greased or papered muffin
pans and garnish with a dusting of bran.

5. Bake at 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 15
to 17 minutes or until done.

Note

Batter may be kept under refrigeration for 2 days with good results.


COFFEE CAKE

Coffee cake is aptly named after the beverage with which it is most often enjoyed. Even though its traditional role is to make the morning routine noticeably more pleasurable, coffee cake has also served as a customary dessert to offer visiting guests, no matter the time of day.
FORMULA

CAKE

The addition of cream cheese to this coffee cake creates a softer,
moister crumb. Two layers of batter, divided by a layer of jam and
fruit, add a pleasing sweetness with a touch of acidic flavors to
help cleanse the palate. The batter of this cake can be stored under
refrigeration for up to 24 hours, or the assembled cakes may be
stored unbaked, frozen for up to one week with good results.
The cake should be thawed before baking.

Streusel Topping Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Butter, cold               140.00       0.317         0.699
Sugar                      100.00       0.227         0.500
Almond meal                100.00       0.227         0.500
Pastry flour               100.00       0.227         0.500
Salt                         0.80       0.002         0.004
Cinnamon                     0.40       0.001         0.002
Total                      441.20       1.000         2.204

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Butter, cold               11 1/4   2 1/4 oz
Sugar                           8   1 5/8 oz
Almond meal                     8   1 5/8 oz
Pastry flour                    8   1 5/8 oz
Salt                          1/8     1/8 tsp
Cinnamon                        0     1/8 tsp
Total                    2  3 1/4       7 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] cake

Process, Streusel Topping

1. Combine all the ingredients in the bowl of a mixer fitted with the
paddle attachment.

2. Mix on medium speed until the mixture is crumbly. Do not overmix.

3. Refrigerate in an airtight container until needed (also stores well
in the freezer for longer periods of time).

Batter Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Butter                      44.92       0.570         1.256
Cream cheese                56.25       0.713         1.573
Sugar                       56.25       0.713         1.573
Eggs                        39.06       0.495         1.092
Vanilla extract              1.95       0.025         0.055
Bread flour                100.00       1.268         2.796
Baking powder                1.56       0.020         0.044
Baking soda                  2.34       0.030         0.065
Salt                         1.56       0.020         0.044
Whole milk                  31.25       0.396         0.874
Total                      335.14       4.250         9.370

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Butter                  1  4 1/8          4 oz
Cream cheese            1  9 1/8          5 oz
Sugar                   1  9 1/8          5 oz
Eggs                    1  1 1/2      3 1/2 oz
Vanilla extract              7/8          1 tsp
Bread flour             2 12 3/4          9 oz
Baking powder                3/4          1 tsp
Baking soda                    1          1 tsp
Salt                         3/4        2/3 tsp
Whole milk                    14      2 3/4 oz
Total                   9  5 7/8    1 lb 14 oz

Yield: 5 [9 inch (23 cm)] cakes

Test: 1 [9 inch (23 cm)] cake

Process, Batter

1. Cream the butter, cream cheese, and sugar until light.

2. Gradually add the eggs and vanilla.

3. Sift the dry ingredients together and add these slowly, not
overmixing the dough.

4. Add the whole milk and mix until smooth.

Coffee Cake Assembly Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Batter                     100.00       4.250         9.370
Raspberries                 13.99       0.595         1.311
Raspberryjam                 4.66       0.198         0.437
Total                      118.65       5.043        11.118

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Batter                   9 5 7/8    1 lb 14 oz
Raspberries                   15          4 oz
Raspberryjam                   7          1 oz
Total                   11 1 7/8     2 lb 3 oz

Process, Coffee Cake Assembly

1. Spray 9 inch (23 cm) cake pans with pan release and deposit 14 oz
(400 g) of batter into each pan and flatten it.

2. Pipe about 1 oz (40 g) of jam onto the batter and place about 4 oz
(120 g) of berries over the jam.

3. Top this with an additional 1 lb (450 g) of batter. Top with about
7 oz (200 g) of streusel.

4. Bake at 335[degrees]F (168[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 50
to 55 minutes.

5. Allow to cool in the pan for 15 minutes; then remove from the pan.

FORMULA

SOUR CREAM COFFEE CAKE

This rich and tender coffee cake emphasizes the flavorful combination
of apples and hazelnuts. The preparation is somewhat detailed
for a coffee cake, but with advance planning, the process can be
simplified. This coffee cake is best when baked in a large sheet and
cut into squares for serving.

Hazelnut Streusel Topping Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Brown sugar                140.00       0.271         0.597
Pastry flour               100.00       0.193         0.426
Butter, cold               100.00       0.193         0.426
Hazelnuts                  100.00       0.193         0.426
Total                      440.00       0.850         1.875

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Brown sugar                 9 1/2   2 3/8 oz
Pastry flour                6 7/8   1 3/4 oz
Butter, cold                6 7/8   1 3/4 oz
Hazelnuts                   6 7/8   1 3/4 oz
Total                    1 14 1/8   7 1/2 oz

Process, Hazelnut Streusel Topping

1. Chop the hazelnuts coarsely.

2. Combine all the ingredients and mix on medium speed using the
paddle attachment.

3. Mix until crumbly; do not overmix.

Roasted Apple Filling Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Apples, diced              100.00       1.301         2.868
Cinnamon sugar              10.80       0.141         0.310
Butter, melted               4.61       0.060         0.132
Total                      115.41       1.501         3.310

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Apples, diced           2 13 7/8    11 1/2 oz
Cinnamon sugar                 5     1 1/4 oz
Butter, melted             2 1/8       1/2 oz
Total                      3   5    13 1/4 oz

Process, Roasted Apple Filling

1. Dice the apples to 3/4 inch (2 cm); combine with the melted butter
and cinnamon sugar.

2. Roast at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) for 20 to 25 minutes. Cool
and reserve.

Streusel Filling Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Brown sugar               1027.48       1.024         2.257
Pastry flour               100.00       0.100         0.220
Butter, cold               170.23       0.170         0.374
Hazelnuts                  910.31       0.907         2.000
Total                     2208.02       2.200         4.850

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Brown sugar              2 4 1/8        9 oz
Pastry flour               3 1/2      7/8 oz
Butter, cold                   6    1 1/2 oz
Hazelnuts                  2   0        8 oz
Total                   4 13 5/8    3 3/8 oz

Process, Streusel Filling

1. Roast the hazelnuts at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) for 15 minutes
or until golden brown.

2. When cool, chop coarsely.

3. Mix the brown sugar, pastry flour, cold butter, and hazelnuts with
the paddle attachment until the mixture is crumbly.

4. Reserve.

Cake Batter Formula

Ingredients            Baker's %    Kilogram    US decimal

Butter                      76.30       0.909         2.003
Sugar                       38.15       0.454         1.002
Brown sugar                 38.15       0.454         1.002
Eggs                        48.74       0.580         1.280
Vanilla extract              1.68       0.020         0.044
Pastry flour               100.00       1.191         2.625
Baking soda                  1.85       0.022         0.049
Baking powder                1.51       0.018         0.040
Sour cream                  84.03       1.001         2.206
Total                      390.41       4.649        10.250

Ingredients             Lb & Oz       Test

Butter                       2 0        8 oz
Sugar                        1 0        4 oz
Brown sugar                  1 0        4 oz
Eggs                    1  4 1/2    5 1/8 oz
Vanilla extract              3/4        1 tsp
Pastry flour               2  10   10 1/2 oz
Baking soda                  3/4        1 tsp
Baking powder                5/8        1 tsp
Sour cream              2  3 1/4    8 7/8 oz
Total                     10   4   2 lb 9 oz

Yield: 1 full sheet pan

Test: 1/4 sheet pan

Process, Cake Batter

1. Sift together the pastry flour, baking soda, and baking powder and
reserve.

2. Cream the butter and sugar until light with the paddle attachment.

3. Gradually add the tempered eggs and vanilla.

4. Scrape down the bowl.

5. Add half of the dry ingredients and mix to incorporation.

6. Add the sour cream and mix to incorporation.

7. Add the remaining dry ingredients and blend to incorporation.

Assembly

1. Deposit half of the batter onto a parchment-lined sheet pan with a
collar.

2. Deposit the roasted apple filling over the batter. Then sprinkle
with the streusel filling.

3. Cover with the remaining batter and spread out evenly.

4. Top with the hazelnut streusel topping.

5. Bake at 325[degrees]F (163[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 45
to 55 minutes.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

SCONES

Some believe the first scones originated in Scotland, taking their name from the Stone of Destiny (or Scone), the place where Scottish kings were once crowned. Others believe the name is derived from the Dutch word schoonbrot meaning "fine white bread" or from the German word sconbrot meaning "fine or beautiful bread." Still others say it comes from the Gaelic sgonn, basically a "shapeless mass" or "large mouthful." Whatever their country of origin, scones were first made with oats, shaped into a large round, scored into four to six triangles, and then cooked on a griddle either over an open fire or on top of the stove. Today's versions are more often flour-based and are baked in the oven. Their shapes, including triangles, rounds, squares, and diamonds, are as diverse as their flavor combinations, from the sweet to the savory.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

CREAM SCONE

The cream scone is a classic favorite that calls for a cream with a
fat content of at least 35 percent. The simple mixing method allows
for easy production, but one must be careful not to overmix the dough.
These scones store well in the refrigerator for up to 18 hours or in
the freezer well-wrapped for up to one week.

Ingredients                Baker's %       Kilogram        US decimal

Bread flour                    100.00             1.765           3.777
Sugar                           20.00             0.343           0.755
Baking powder                    4.50             0.077           0.170
Salt                             0.63             0.011           0.024
Nuts, dried fruits, etc.        43.75             0.749           1.652
Heavy cream                    105.00             1.799           3.965
Honey                           18.00             0.308           0.680
Total                          291.88             5.052          11.023

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz          Test

Bread flour                  3 12 3/8            12 oz
Sugar                          12 1/8         2 3/8 oz
Baking powder                   2 3/4           1/2 oz
Salt                              3/8           1/2 tsp
Nuts, dried fruits, etc.     1 10 3/8         5 1/4 oz
Heavy cream                  3 15 1/2        12 5/8 oz
Honey                          10 7/8         2 1/8 oz
Total                          11 3/4        2 lb 3 oz

Yield: 40 scones; cut from five 8 inch (20 cm) circles

Test: 8 scones; cut from one 8 inch (20 cm) circle

Process

1. Combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt.

2. Add the dried fruit or nuts to incorporate.

3. Whisk together the cream and the honey.

4. Add the cream mixture to the dry ingredients and mix just until the
dough comes together.

5. Divide the dough into 2 lb 3 oz (1 kg) pieces.

6. Flatten each portion into an 8 inch (20 cm) cake ring to mold.

7. Remove the ring and cut the circle into eight wedges.

8. Brush with the egg wash and garnish with sugar or nut meal.

9. Bake at 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) in a convection oven for 15
to 17 minutes or until golden brown and baked through.

FORMULA

BUTTER SCONE

The butter scone is defined by its flaky and tender texture. For the
best texture, mixing should be done by hand. If machine mixing
is required, the batch size should be limited to prevent overmixing
the dough, which can easily happen when mixing upwards of
100 pounds (45 kg). These scones store well in the refrigerator for
up to 18 hours or in the freezer well-wrapped for up to a week.

Ingredients                Baker's %       Kilogram        US decimal

Bread flour                    100.00             1.998           4.405
Sugar                           12.50             0.250           0.551
Baking powder                    5.60             0.112           0.247
Salt                             0.80             0.016           0.035
Orange zest                      1.00             0.020           0.044
Butter, cold                    25.00             0.500           1.101
Currants                        30.60             0.611           1.348
Cream                           56.00             1.119           2.467
Honey                            7.50             0.150           0.330
Eggs                            11.25             0.225           0.496
Total                          250.25             5.000          11.024

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz          Test

Bread flour                  4 6 1/2         14 1/8 oz
Sugar                          8 3/4          1 3/4 oz
Baking powder                      4            3/4 oz
Salt                             5/8          1 1/2 tsp
Orange zest                      3/4              1 tsp
Butter, cold                 1 1 5/8          3 1/2 oz
Currants                     1 5 5/8          4 1/4 oz
Cream                        2 7 1/2          7 7/8 oz
Honey                          5 1/4              1 oz
Eggs                           7 7/8          1 5/8 oz
Total                         11 7/8         2 lb 3 oz

Yield: 40 scones; cut from five 8 inch (20 cm) circles

Test: 8 scones; cut from one 8 inch (20 cm) circle

Process

1. Combine the cream, honey, and eggs; reserve.

2. Combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, salt, and zest in a mixing
bowl.

3. With the paddle attachment, cut the butter into the dry ingredients
until it is the size of peas. Add the currants, and mix to distribute
evenly.

4. Add the liquid ingredients; mix to incorporation.

5. Divide the dough into 2 lb 3 oz (1 kg) pieces.

6. Flatten each portion into an 8 inch (20 cm) cake ring to mold.

7. Remove the ring and cut the circle into eight wedges.

8. Alternately, roll out on a lightly floured surface and cut out
shapes as desired.

9. Store under refrigeration or in the freezer or brush lightly with
egg wash and bake at 375[degrees]F (190[degrees]C) in a convection
oven for about 15 to 17 minutes or until golden brown.

FORMULA

SAVORY SCONE

The best of the pastry and savory worlds meet in this tender savory
scone, studded with goat cheese, pine nuts, and green onion. This
scone is a satisfying alternative to sweeter versions in the morning
or afternoon.

Ingredients                Baker's %       Kilogram        US decimal

Bread flour                     60.00             1.267           2.794
Semolina flour                  17.00             0.359           0.792
Durum flour                     23.00             0.486           1.071
Baking powder                    4.50             0.095           0.210
Salt                             1.00             0.021           0.047
Butter, cold                    23.50             0.496           1.094
Cream                           35.00             0.739           1.630
Honey                           18.00             0.380           0.838
Eggs                            11.70             0.247           0.545
Scallion                        11.00             0.232           0.512
Pine nuts                       17.00             0.359           0.792
Goat cheese                     15.00             0.317           0.699
Total                          236.70             5.000          11.023

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz          Test

Bread flour                  2 12 3/4         8 7/8 oz
Semolina flour                 12 5/8         2 1/2 oz
Durum flour                  1  1 1/8         3 3/8 oz
Baking powder                   3 3/8           5/8 oz
Salt                              3/4           1/2 tsp
Butter, cold                 1  1 1/2         3 1/2 oz
Cream                        1 10 1/8         5 1/8 oz
Honey                          13 3/8         2 5/8 oz
Eggs                            8 3/4         1 3/4 oz
Scallion                        8 1/4         1 5/8 oz
Pine nuts                      12 5/8         2 1/2 oz
Goat cheese                    11 1/8         2 1/4 oz
Total                          11 3/8        2 lb 3 oz

Yield: 40 scones; cut from five 8 inch (20 cm) circles

Test: 8 scones; cut from one 8 inch (20 cm) circle

Process

1. Combine the cream, honey, and eggs, and reserve.

2. Combine the flours, baking powder, salt, and butter in a mixing
bowl with the paddle attachment.

3. Mix until the butter is the size of peas.

4. With the machine on, add the wet ingredients and mix to 50 percent
incorporation.

5. Add the scallions, pine nuts, and crumbled goat cheese.

6. Continue to mix until the dough just barely comes together.

7. Divide the dough into 2 lb 3 oz (1 kg) pieces.

8. Flatten each portion into an 8 inch (20 cm) cake ring to mold.

9. Remove the ring and cut the circle into eight wedges.

10. Brush with the egg wash.

11. Bake at 375[degrees] F (190[degrees]C) in a convection oven for
about 15 to 17 minutes or until golden brown.

FORMULA

MADELEINES

Madeleines were first made famous by Marcel Proust in Remembrance
of Things Past, in which he wrote: "She sent out for one of
those short, plump little cakes called 'petites madeleines', which
looked as though they had been moulded in the fluted scallop of a
pilgrim's shell.... An exquisite pleasure had invaded my senses."
Popular legend relates the story of madeleines originating in 18th
century Commercy, in the region of Lorraine, when a girl named
Madeleine made them for Stanislaw Lezczynski, Duke of Lorraine,
who shared his love of the newly discovered delicacy with his
daughter, Marie, the wife of Louis XV, thus ensuring their popularity.
These enchanting little cakes are baked in oval molds with
ribbed indentations in a distinctive shell shape.

Ingredients                Baker's %       Kilogram        US decimal

Sugar                           81.63             1.060           2.336
Brown sugar                     12.24             0.159           0.350
Salt                             0.41             0.005           0.012
Honey                           16.33             0.212           0.467
Eggs                           110.20             1.431           3.154
Pastry flour                   100.00             1.298           2.862
Baking powder                    2.86             0.037           0.082
Butter, 82% fat, melted           100             1.298           2.862
Total                          423.67             5.500          12.125

Ingredients                 Lb & Oz          Test

Sugar                        2 5 3/8         7 1/2 oz
Brown sugar                    5 5/8         1 1/8 oz
Salt                             1/4           1/8 tsp
Honey                          7 1/2         1 1/2 OZ
Eggs                        3  2 1/2        10 1/8 oz
Pastry flour                2 13 3/4           9/8 oz
Baking powder                  1 1/4         1 1/2 tsp
Butter, 82% fat, melted     2 13 3/4         9 1/8 oz
Total                         12   4    2 lb 6 1/2, oz

Yield: 5 sheets (Flexipan mold)

Test: 1 sheet (Flexipan mold)

Process

1. Sift the pastry flour and baking powder; reserve.

2. Melt the butter and reserve.

3. In a bowl, combine the sugars, salt, honey, and eggs just to
incorporation with a whisk.

4. Add the sifted flour and baking powder; fold in using a rubber
spatula.

5. Add the melted butter, and fold to incorporate.

6. Pipe into molds three-fourths full and refrigerate for a minimum of
1 1/2 hours.

7. Bake in a staged convection oven: Start at 400[degrees]F
(245[degrees]C) for 2 minutes and drop to 350[degrees]F
(176[degrees]C) for 9 to 10 minutes.

8. Remove from the molds 5 minutes after baking.


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]
FORMULA

FINANCIER

The financier, sometimes called a friand (meaning "dainty" or
"tasty"), is a light tea cake. The basis of the cake itself is beurre
noisette (brown butter), almond meal, egg whites, flour, and powdered
sugar. Like the madeleine, financiers are often baked in
shaped molds and may have been named after their traditional
rectangular mold, which resembles a bar of gold. Financiers are
often topped with whipped cream, berries, or fresh fruit and can
be served with ice cream or other frozen confections.

Ingredients        Baker's %     Kilogram     US decimal

Powdered sugar         264.00      1.763         3.887
Almond meal             96.00      0.641         1.413
Bread flour            100.00      0.668         1.472
Baking powder            2.40      0.016         0.035
Vanilla bean            Each       2.5           2.5
Trimoline               24.00      0.160         0.353
Butter, browned        144.00      0.962         2.120
Egg whites             268.00      1.790         3.946
Total                  898.40      6.000        13.227

Ingredients         Lb & Oz        Test

Powdered sugar      3 14 1/4     12 1/2 oz
Almond meal         1  6 5/8      4 1/2 oz
Bread flour         1  7 1/2      4 3/4 oz
Baking powder            5/8       2/3 tsp
Vanilla bean             2.5      1/2 each
Trimoline              5 5/8      1 1/8 oz
Butter, browned     2  1 7/8      6 3/4 oz
Egg whites          3 15 1/8     12 5/8 oz
Total              13  3 5/8    2 lb 10 oz

Yield: 5 sheets (Flexipan mold)
Test: 1 sheet (Flexipan mold)

Process

1. Sift together the dry ingredients and add the vanilla and Trimoline
to this mixture.

2. Blend until combined in the bowl of a mixer fitted with the paddle
attachment.

3. Cook the butter to the browned butter stage using caution to not
stir the mixture.

4. Strain the browned butter (beurre noisette) and add to the
dry ingredients; mix well.

5. Add half of the egg whites and mix to incorporate.

6. Add the remaining egg whites and mix until the batter is smooth.

7. Pipe into greased molds or Flexipans three-fourths of the way up
the mold.

8. Bake at 370[degrees]F (187[degrees]C) for about 10 to 12 minutes or
until done.

9. Batter can be stored in bulk in the refrigerator for up to 4 days
or frozen portioned for up to 10 days.


CHAPTER SUMMARY

Quick bread products are the cornerstone of many bakeries. The absence of yeast and uncomplicated mixing methods make these ideal products to make and serve at bakeries. The three main mixing methods for quick breads-the biscuit method, the creaming method, and the blending or muffin method-are simple; however, one needs to be concerned about the degree to which the gluten is developed. In some instances, mixing beyond incorporation, such as for some types of muffin, can improve the texture as well as appearance of the muffin by improving volume. Typically however, mixing is kept to a minimum to keep the products tender and light. It is critical to understand the properties of chemical leavening agents presented in this chapter in order to understand their role within the baking process of quick breads. Production of quick breads can happen daily, or some work can be done out of the freezer for easier scheduling and work organization. Working out of the freezer with products like scones and coffee cake allows one to present a larger selection of product, with less active work by the staff of the bakery.

KEY TERMS

* Alum

* Baking ammonia

* Baking powder

* Baking soda

* Biscuit method

* Blending method

* Carbonates of soda

* Chemical leavening agents

* Creaming method

* Double-acting baking powder

* Leavening acids

* Potash

* Quick breads

* Single-acting baking powder

* Tunneling

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Describe the biscuit method and how the flaky structure of biscuits is created.

2. Explain the function of baking powder and of baking soda and how the chemical reactions occur.

3. Describe the process for making scones with frozen fruit. How is the process different than using dried fruit or nuts as an add-in ingredient?

4. What are the signs that the following are fully baked?

a. Muffins

b. Scones

c. Loaf cake

5. What is tunneling? What are the causes of tunneling?
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:PART 4 PASTRY
Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:11729
Previous Article:Chapter 10 Cookies.
Next Article:Chapter 12 Pastry dough.
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