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Chapter 11 Large trees.

Acer rubrum 'Armstrong' (A. x freemanii 'Armstrong')

(a'-ser roo'-brum)

Armstrong Red Maple

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 40' to 60'

WIDTH: 12' to 15'

FRUIT: 1" 2-wing samaras. Reddish maturing brown, spring and early summer.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderately fast.

HABIT: Upright and narrow.

FAMILY: Aceraceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium to dark green in the summer; yellow to orange in fall. Silver-gray underneath.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 5" long and broad, broadly ovate with 5 lobes, deeply cut, crenate margins. Long petioles. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious, cultivar is female, not as noticeable as other cultivars. Appearing in early spring before the leaves.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. As with all Red Maples, the plant does not perform best under droughty soil. Does best in moist, organic soils. Not for arid conditions.

PEST PROBLEMS: None serious. An isolated dieback problem has been reported. Check with the local extension service for any problem in your locale.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems reddish-green or green; older bark is silver gray, remaining smooth except for the lower trunk on older plants.

SIMILAR CULTIVARS: 'Columnare'--Described on previous page.

RELATED SPECIES: 'Armstrong' is marketed as a Red Maple cultivar; however, it is a cultivar selection of A. x freemanii; a hybrid species resulting from A. rubrum x A. saccharinum (cross between Red Maple and Silver Maple).

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Columnar plants (fastigiate) are available in today's market for many species of shrubs and trees. There is a desire, and hopefully a need, for such plants, but the use of such plants requires careful consideration to avoid dwarfing "shorter" structures with giant exclamation points!!!

Acer rubrum 'October Glory'

(a'-ser roo'-brum)

October Glory[R] Red Maple

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 50'

WIDTH: 25' to 30'

FRUIT: 3/4" to 1" winged samara; reddish, maturing to brown.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Oval and upright.

FAMILY: Aceraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and grayish beneath; fall color is brilliant red to red-orange.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and broad, 3 to 5 lobes, lobes irregularly crenate-serrate, palmately veined, red petioles. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Red, 1/2" to 1", appearing in April before the leaves; NOT GREATLY NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. The plant prefers moist, organic, well-drained soils, but is tolerant of a wide range of soils. Moderately drought-resistant. Mulch for best growth. Prune for strong branching.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green to reddish with lenticels; older bark is light to medium gray and smooth, becoming darker and furrowed at the base.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of A. rubrum.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: October Glory[R] Red Maple is one of the more outstanding cultivars for growth habit and fall color. It makes a fine lawn specimen for shade or fall accent. Fall color is more intense and holds later than Red Sunset[R] (featured on next page.)

Acer rubrum 'Franksred'

(a'-ser roo'-brum)

Red Sunset[R] Maple

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 50'

WIDTH: 25' to 30'

FRUIT: 3/4" to 1" winged samara; reddish maturing to brown.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Oval or rounded; upright.

FAMILY: Aceraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and grayish beneath; red fall color.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long, almost as wide, 5-lobed, terminal lobe being the longest and largest, lobes irregularly crenate-serrate, palmately veined. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Red, 1/2" to 1" long, appearing in spring before the leaves; NOT GREATLY NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Best in sun. The plant prefers moist, organic, well-drained soil, but is adaptable to a wide range of soils. Reasonably drought-tolerant. Mulching is recommended for best growth. Prune, if desired, for strong branching.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems reddish with lenticels; older bark is light to medium gray and smooth, becoming darker and furrowed at the base.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar of A. rubrum.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Red Sunset[R] Maple is one of the most popular Red Maple cultivars. Fall color can be spectacular under ideal conditions. Does not hold its leaves as long as October Glory[R], but might be somewhat more vigorous. Blends well in the lawn area in summer, but will be noticed in fall!

Acer rubrum 'Scarsen' (A. x freemanii 'Scarsen')

(a'-ser roo'-brum)

Scarlet Sentinel[TM] Red Maple

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 45'

WIDTH: 15' to 20'

FRUIT: 1" winged samaras (2), reddish maturing to brown.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to rapid.

HABIT: Upright with oval crown. Broader than most columnar plants.

FAMILY: Aceraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer and grayish beneath; yellow, orange, or redorange in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" long and wide, having 5 lobes, lobes dentate to serrated margins, broadly ovate overall shape, palmately veined. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Red, to 1" across, mostly monoecious, appearing in spring before the leaves. Not greatly noticeable but attractive.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or partial shade. Native Red Maples are found on "high ground" to wetlands and adapt to a wide range of soils. However, the plant is not the best for drought tolerance. Not recommended for the Southeast!

PEST PROBLEMS: None serious.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems are green or reddish-green; older bark light gray and smooth, becoming dark and furrowed on the lower trunk.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

RELATED SPECIES: 'Scarsen' is marketed as a Red Maple cultivar; however, it is a cultivar selection of A. x freemanii; a hybrid species resulting from A. rubrum. x A. saccharinum (cross between Red Maple and Silver Maple).

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Scarlet Sentinel[TM] is more narrow than either Red Maple or Silver Maple, making it more useful in smaller residential or business properties. It is useful as a lawn specimen or in borders and is a nice plant for vertical screening during the warm seasons.

Acer saccharinum

(a'-ser sac-car-i'-num)

Silver Maple

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 60' to 70'

WIDTH: 40' to 50'

FRUIT: 2" winged samara in summer; green maturing to brown.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Upright; rounded and irregular.

FAMILY: Aceraceae

LEAF COLOR: Green, silver underneath; fall color greenish-yellow.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 7" long, almost as broad, 5-lobed, terminal lobe being the longest and largest, lobes acuminate with doubly serrated margins, deeply cut, terminal lobe more narrow at the base, pubescent or glabrous beneath. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Pinkish, 1/2" to 1" , appearing in early spring before the leaves; NOT GREATLY NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant prefers moist, deep soils for best growth, but is adaptable. Reasonably drought-tolerant. pH-tolerant. Prune carefully for good structure since the wood is brittle compared to most maples.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests. However, there are numerous pests reported including anthracnose, leaf spots, mildews, wilt, cankers, caterpillars, leafhoppers, borers, cottony maple scale, and other scales.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems reddish, becoming gray with lenticels; older bark is gray-brown and deeply furrowed, often with scaly plates.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Blairii'--This plant is a rapid-growing selection with stronger branching habit. Handles snow and ice better. 'Laciniatum'--A cutleaf form with leaves dissected almost to the midrib. 'Pyramidal'--Has a pyramidal to cone-shaped habit with a central trunk.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Silver Maple is one of the fastest growing large trees. Although many fine Silver Maples exist, most authorities regard it as a temporary tree for quick shade. This is due to susceptibility to breakage by ice or high winds. In spite of this, it certainly is ornamental, and fall color is often very good.

Acer saccharum

(a-ser sac-car'-um)

Sugar Maple

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 55' to 80'

WIDTH: 35' to 50'

FRUIT: 1" to 2" winged samara; green becoming brown in fall.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded and dense.

FAMILY: Aceraceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; yellow, orange, or orange-red in fall, more often orange.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 7" long and wide, 3 to 5 lobed (usually 5), sparsely sinused, sinuses U-shaped at base, palmately veined. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-yellow, 1/2" in small, pendulous corymbs, appearing in spring before the leaves; NOT GREATLY NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers moist, organic, cool soil, and is often found as an understory tree in moist woodlands. pH-tolerant. Not tolerant of dry, hot, windy locations, especially in the southernmost zones. Mulch for cool, moist roots. Prune for good structural branching.

PEST PROBLEMS: Leaf scorch. (See A. saccharinum for additional pests.)

BARK/STEMS: Young stems brown with lenticels; older bark is smooth and gray-brown; very old trees with furrowed bark.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Commemoration' PP 5079--Oval to rounded form; faster-growing and dense. Fall color yellowish-orange to red. Outstanding cultivar. Columnare'--Narrow, upright column for limited spaces. Yellow to orange in fall. Green Mountain[R] PP 2339--A more heat-resistant form with an oval crown and dark green foliage. Deep orange to red in fall. 'Legacy' PP 4979--Superior cultivar Featured on next page). MANY OTHER CULTIVARS EXIST.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sugar Maple is one of the more brilliant trees for fall color, usually assuming a bright orange. It is one of the thickest shade trees, which limits the survival of lawn grasses beneath. It makes a nice lawn specimen that becomes a focal point in fall. One cannot picture fall without Sugar Maples.

Acer saccharum 'Legacy' PP 4979

(a'-ser sac-car'-um)

Legacy Sugar Maple

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 55' to 70'

WIDTH: 35' to 40'

FRUIT: 1" to 2" winged samara; green, becoming brown in fall.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright oval in youth; spreading more with age. Very dense.

FAMILY: Aceraceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; deep orange to red in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 7" long and wide, 3 to 5 lobes (usually 5), sparsely sinused, sinuses U-shaped at base, palmately veined. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Yellowish-green, 1/2" in small corymbs, appearing in spring before the leaves; NOT GREATLY NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers moist, organic, cool soils. pH-tolerant. Avoid hot, dry locations, even though it is more tolerant that A. saccharum. Mulch for best growth. Pruning is minimal for structure.

PEST PROBLEMS: (See A. saccharinum.)

BARK/STEMS: Young stems brownish with lenticels; older bark is smooth and gray, becoming furrowed with age.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Legacy Sugar Maple makes a fine specimen for the lawn or garden border. Provides very dense shade where shade is desired. Select the site carefully, because it will become a focal point in fall. This is the finest new cultivar for drought resistance and reliability. Can be grown further south and further west.

Aesculus glabra

(ess'-ku-luss gla'-bruh)

Ohio Buckeye

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 30' to 50'

WIDTH: 30' to 50'

FRUIT: 1" round, dehiscent capsule; spiny, containing mahogany seed (Buckeye).

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded, spreading, and dense.

FAMILY: Hippocastanaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellow to orange in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: PALMATELY COMPOUND, usually 5 leaflets, leaflets 3" to 6 1/2" long and one-third as broad, obovate to elliptic-obovate shape with acuminate tip, serrated margins, petiole to 6" long. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Pale yellow or yellow-green, tiny, 4-petalous, appearing in terminal panicles in early spring with the leaves. Somewhat showy.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers a moist, well-drained soil. Somewhat tolerant of alkaline soils. Moderately drought-resistant. Develops leaf scorch in the hot, dry climates of the Southwest. Fairs better in northern zones. Pruning is selective and minimal.

PEST PROBLEMS: Anthracnose, fungal leaf spots, chewing insects.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems brown and pubescent; older bark is medium to dark gray with narrow, shallow, fissures.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: A. arguta--Texas Buckeye. This is a small tree to 20" that does well in shaded, moist areas of the Southwest. The leaves have 7 to 11 leaflets of elliptic shape. A plant for naturalizing. A. pavia--Red Buckeye. This is a small tree of less than 20" that has similar foliage to A. glabra. Flowers are red to yellow and attractive.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Ohio Buckeye makes a nice lawn specimen with graceful, pendulous lower branches. It is best underplanted with ground cover due to dense shading. Should not be used in borders or near walks and patios due to the prickly, hard fruit. This is a native tree with adequate fall color and overall ornamental value.

Aesculus x carnea 'Rosea'

(ess'-ku-luss car'-ne-ah)

Red Horsechestnut

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 30' to 50'

WIDTH: 30' to 50'

FRUIT: Prickly 1" round dehiscent capsule; usually 2 brown seeds.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded, spreading, and dense.

FAMILY: Hippocastanaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellowish to orange in fall. LEAF DESCRIPTION: PALMATELY COMPOUND, usually 5 leaflets, leaflets 4" to 6" long and one-third as wide, leaflets ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-oblong shape with serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Rose-pink, tiny, appearing in 6" to 8" terminal, upright panicles in early spring with the leaves; SHOWY.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers a moist, well-drained soil, and is pH-adaptable. Should be mulched, especially in areas of hot, dry conditions. Does better in the northern zones. Pruning is minimal and selective.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests. (See A. glabra.)

BARK/STEMS: Young stems brown and pubescent; older bark is gray with shallow, narrow fissures.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

RELATED CULTIVARS: 'Briotii'--Has scarlet-red flowers. 'O'Neill'--Has deep red flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Red Horsechestnut is a cross between A. pavia and A. hippocastanum (Horsechestnut). It is a commonly used plant in Europe and Britain that should be more widely used in the U.S. The flowers are attractive and fall color is excellent. Should be used as a lawn specimen away from drives and walks.

Betula papyrifera

(bet'-you-la pap-e-riff'-er-ah)

Paper Birch, Canoe Birch

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 60' to 80'

WIDTH: 20' to 40'

FRUIT: 1" strobile with winged nutlets.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and irregularly rounded; single or multistemmed trunk.

FAMILY: Betulaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; usually bright yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and 2" to 2 1/2" wide, ovate shape with doubly serrated margins and acuminate tip, pubescent beneath. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male catkins 2" to 3" long and pendulous, female catkins 1" to 1 1/2" and erect.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soils. pH-adaptable. Grows naturally on stream and river banks and in nearby woodlands. Can be grown in the Midwest. Pruning is usually not necessary.

PEST PROBLEMS: Bronze birch borer.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems red-brown to orange-brown; older bark white, flaking to expose orange inner bark, having black areas, especially at nodes.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Paper Birch is a durable, hardy native tree with attractive, noticeable bark. It can be used as a lawn specimen or an accent plant for garden borders. It is a great plant for naturalizing, and looks especially nice in combination with garden pools or streams.

Betula platyphylla var. japonica

(bet'-you-la platt-e-fill'-ah var. juh-pon'-e-kuh)

Japanese White Birch

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 40' to 60'

WIDTH: 15' to 25'

FRUIT: 1" strobile with winged nutlets.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, rounded, and open.

FAMILY: Betulaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" long and 3/4" to 1 1/2" wide, ovate to triangular shape with truncate to broad-cuneate base and long, acuminate tip. Margins doubly serrated. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; pendulous male catkins, erect female catkins. EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers moist, organic, well-drained soils. pH-adaptable. Can be grown in the Midwest and survives better than B. papyrifera in the heat of the Southwest. Pruning is usually not necessary.

PEST PROBLEMS: Bronze birch borer.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems reddish-brown and pubescent; older bark is creamy-white and exfoliating to expose an orange inner bark, having black patches, especially at the nodes.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Whitespire'--Reportedly resistant to the bronze birch borer.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Japanese White Birch is one of the whitest of all birches, having very noticeable and attractive bark. It is a true specimen in all seasons. This is a great tree for areas in need of light shade, but not dense shade. Makes a great tree for shading patios, casting pleasant shade while allowing air movement. Can be underplanted with a wider range of plants.

Carya glabra

(car'-yuh gla'-bruh)

Pignut Hickory

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 50'

WIDTH: 25' to 30'

FRUIT: 4-valved green, dehiscent husk; hard nut inside; edible.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Oblong to oval crown; drooping lower branches.

FAMILY: Juglandaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD PINNATELY COMPOUND, 5 to 7 leaflets (usually 5), leaflets 4" to 6" long and one-third as wide, obovate to oblanceolate shape with acuminate tip and serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male 3-branched catkins, females in terminal spike-like clusters; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant prefers moist, organic, acid soil, but is somewhat adaptable. Reasonably drought-tolerant. Difficult to transplant. Usually found in landscapes where it established naturally. Pruning is not necessary.

PEST PROBLEMS: Tent caterpillars.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems red-brown to gray-brown and smooth; older bark is gray with shallow fissures forming a "diamond" pattern.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

RELATED SPECIES: C. ovata--Shagbark Hickory. This species grows to 100" and has noticeable, attractive "shaggy" bark, which is more beautiful with age. C. tomentosa Mockernut Hickory. This species has 5 to 9 leaflets (usually 7) which are pubescent beneath. Petiole and rachis are densely pubescent. C. cordiformis--Bitternut Hickory. This species has 5 to 9 leaflets with a pubescent rachis. Easily identified by yellow buds during all seasons. Nuts are too bitter for man or beast.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Pignut Hickory is a fine native tree that has very dense wood (great for firewood) and good form when grown under landscape conditions. Fall color is adequate, though not spectacular. Once established, it is a durable, long-lived tree requiring very little care. Not for use near patios or drives because of fruit.

Carya illinoinensis

(car'-yuh ill-e-noy-nen'-siss)

Pecan

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 80' to 100'

WIDTH: 40' to 80'

FRUIT: 1" to 2" dehiscent husk; nuts reddish-brown with dark spots; edible and delicious.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Oval to broad-spreading with rounded crown.

FAMILY: Juglandaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark yellow-green in summer; more yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD PINNATELY COMPOUND, 10" to 18" long, 11 to 17 leaflets, leaflets to 7" long and to 2 1/2" wide, oblong-lanceolate shape with acuminate tips and doubly serrated margins. Pubescent in spring. ALTERNATE arrangement.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers moist, organic soil, but is adaptable. pH-tolerant and drought-tolerant. Found naturally in bottom lands near rivers or streams. Prune for structural development. Regular spraying is essential for fruit crops.

PEST PROBLEMS: Tent caterpillars, scab, weevils, and many others. (Check with the Extension Service for pests in your area.)

BARK/STEMS: Young stems reddish-brown and pubescent, with lenticels; older bark is grayish-brown and scaly with narrow fissures.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: Note: There are hundreds of cultivars. Most were developed for a particular geographic location. Check with the Extension Service for cultivars suitable for your area.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Pecan is an important fruit crop in the U.S. Consequently, it is a very popular lawn tree for home gardens, space permitting. In the home garden it serves as a shade tree, while providing fall fruit for the family. As an ornamental tree, it is very attractive in foliage and has good fall color. Avoid planting near walks, drives, and patios. Not low-maintenance, but worth the effort. Note: Many authorities use the species spelling of illinoensis. I have used illinoinensis, which, according to Hortus Third, is the correct spelling.

Celtis occidentalis

(sell'-tiss oc-see-den-ta'-lis)

Common Hackberry

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 50' to 60'

WIDTH: 40' to 50'

FRUIT: Ovoid drupe, 1/4" (pea size), purple with sweet flesh, ripening in early fall.

TEXTURE: Somewhat coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderately rapid.

HABIT: Irregular and upright in youth, becoming broadly rounded with age.

FAMILY: Ulmaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; yellow-green to yellow in fall--sometimes very showy.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 4 1/2" long, 1 1/2" to 3" wide, ovate to broad ovate shape, acute tip, oblique or rounded base, serrated margins but entire at base. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Green and tiny, appearing in spring with the leaves.

NOT NOTICEABLE and NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. The plant adapts to any soil texture or pH level. It will grow in dry, rocky soil or wet soils that are not flooded frequently.

PEST PROBLEMS: Witches broom, nipple gall, leaf spots, mildew, mites. None lethal.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems brownish-green with a somewhat zig-zag pattern and visible lenticels. Older bark is ash-gray to grayish brown with narrow, corky ridges, sometimes "warty".

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Prairie Pride'--This cultivar is more compact, uniform, and upright in habit. It is less subject to breakage and is more resistant to witches broom.

RELATED SPECIES: C. laevigata. Sugarberry. This relative of C. occidentalis has very sweet red to black fruits that attract birds and other wildlife. It is less hardy (Zone 5) but is resistant to witches broom and nipple gall. In addition, the bark is lighter gray and smooth with less "warts". NOTE: Does poorly on high alkaline soils.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Common Hackberry is a native plant with potential for more extensive use in landscaping. It works well for naturalizing in garden areas where less formality is desirable or where woodland areas border the property. It is probably best used in garden borders in combination with finer-textured plantings, and away from drives and patios where fruit droppage might cause inconvenience. Look for new cultivars that are disease-resistant and fruitless.

Cercidiphyllum japonicum

(cer-si-di-file'-um juh-pon'-e-kum)

Katsura Tree

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 50' to 60'

WIDTH: 30' to 40'

FRUIT: 3/4" brown follicle; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Pyramidal to rounded; dense.

FAMILY: Cercidiphyllaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bluish-green in summer; yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and wide, broad oval shape with cordate base and crenate margins. Almost reniform in shape. OPPOSITE arrangement. FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; staminate and pistillate on separate trees; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant is adaptable as to soil types, but does not tolerate drought. Mulch and provide water during hot, dry periods. Difficult to transplant. Prune for structural development, if needed. Not a tree for the Southwest.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems are smooth and brown with swollen nodes; older bark is light brown to grayish-brown with shallow furrows, somewhat shaggy.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Pendula'--(See Small Deciduous Trees.)

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Katsura Tree can be used as a lawn specimen or shade tree anywhere in the landscape where sufficient space is available. It should be given a prominent place and plenty of sunlight where it will develop into a gorgeous, symmetrical tree. Although fall color is not spectacular, a healthy specimen is as attractive as any tree. OUTSTANDING TREE.

Cladrastis kentuckea

(cla-dras'-tiss ken-tuck'--e-uh)

American Yellowwood

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 40' to 50'

WIDTH: 20' to 50'

FRUIT: 3" to 5" brown pod.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Rounded, irregular, and spreading.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Light to medium green.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD PINNATELY COMPOUND, 8" to 10" long, 7 to 11 leaflets, leaflets 2" to 4" long and half as wide, ovate or elliptic shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: White, 1" long, appearing in pendulous, terminal panicles to 12" long. Flowers in late spring. Very ornamental.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant prefers organic, well-drained soils, but is adaptable to all but wet soils. pH-tolerant. Pruning is selective and structural. Prune in summer after the flowers.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems are brown and smooth; white pith and yellow wood; older bark is brownish or dark gray and smooth.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Rosea'--Similar to species, but having pink flowers.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: American Yellowwood is gaining in popularity as an accent or street tree. Its flowers, excellent foliage, and gray bark combine to form a tree of excellent potential for greater use in the landscape industry.

Eucommia ulmoides

(u-com'-e-uh ul-moy'-deez)

Hardy Rubber Tree

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 35' to 55'

WIDTH: 25' to 40'

FRUIT: 1" to 1 1/2" one-seeded winged fruit; similar to Elm, but much larger.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Oval in youth; rounded with age.

FAMILY: Eucommiaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellowish-green in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 5" long and half as wide, elliptic or ovate shape with acuminate tips and serrated margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; NOT ORNAMENTAL AND NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant adapts to a wide range of well-drained soils. pH-tolerant. Reasonably drought-tolerant. Prune as desired.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green-brown; older bark is gray-brown with shallow furrows.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Hardy Rubber Tree is a nice lawn specimen or shade tree that offers nice foliage and is essentially pest-free. Not as popular as trees having noticeable flowers or spectacular fall color, but is a worthy tree that deserves consideration. Blends into almost any landscape theme.

Fagus grandifolia

(fay'-gus gran-de-fol'-e-uh)

American Beech

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 50' to 80'

WIDTH: 40' to 70'

FRUIT: Prickly, dehiscent husk; 1/2" triangular, edible nut.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Rounded or oval crown; dense.

FAMILY: Fagaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; golden brown to bronze in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 4" long and 1" to 2" wide, ovate-oblong to elliptic shape with serrated margins and acuminate tips, veins distinctly sunken on upper surface. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male in drooping heads, female in small spikes; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers light, well-drained, moist, organic soils. Will grow in heavy soil where the permeability is good. Not for the Southwest. Prune selectively, if needed.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems lustrous brown with zigzag pattern; older bark is smooth and gray with darker mottles.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: American Beech forms a huge, rounded tree with beautiful smooth gray bark. The fall color is not spectacular, but is attractive. The small "beechnuts" are edible but sometimes messy. This is not a tree for small gardens, but makes a nice lawn specimen or very dense shade tree.

Fagus sylvatica

(fay'-gus sill-vat'-e-ca)

European Beech

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 50' to 80'

WIDTH: 40' to 70'

FRUIT: Prickly, dehiscent husk with small, triangular nut.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Oval to rounded; dense and symmetrical.

FAMILY: Fagaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark, lustrous green in summer; reddish-brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 4" long and half as wide, ovate or elliptic shape with entire margins, usually undulate, 5 to 9 vein pairs (usually 7, which is less than F. grandifolia). ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male in drooping head, female in small spikes; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers moist, light, well-drained, organic soil. Not for the Southwest. Prune for structural development or to remove lower branches.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green-brown with zigzag pattern; older bark is gray and smooth with darker mottles.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Atropunicea'--Purple leaves (Featured on next page.) 'Aurea-variegata'--Variegated form with yellow leaf margins. 'Fastigiata'--Columnar form. 'Laciniata'--Cutleaf form having lobed or deeply toothed margins. 'Pendula' Has horizontal main branches that weep at the ends. 'Rotundifolia'--Leaves are smaller (1") and almost round.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: European Beech and its many cultivars is one of the most beautiful of all lawn specimens. The plant requires plenty of space and branches naturally to the ground. The lower branches are often removed to provide dense shade. Unfortunately, it performs poorly in the lower Southeast and Southwest. Not for smaller gardens. Makes a nice plant for parks and other public areas.

Fagus sylvatica 'Atropunicea' ('Cuprea', 'Purpurea')

(fay'-gus sill-vat'-e-ca)

Copper Beech, Purple Beech

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7

HEIGHT: 40' to 60'

WIDTH: 30' to 40'

FRUIT: Prickly, dehiscent husk, with 1/2" triangular nut.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Oval to rounded; very dense.

FAMILY: Fagaceae

LEAF COLOR: Purplish-green in summer; more copper colored in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2 1/2" to 3 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate to elliptic shape with entire margins, usually undulate, usually 7 vein pairs (less than F. grandifolia). ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male in drooping heads, female in small spikes; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Prefers moist, light, well-drained, organic soil. Not for the lower Southeast or Southwest. Pruning is minimal.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green-brown with zigzag pattern; older bark is gray and smooth with darker mottles.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Copper Beech is a bold accent or specimen plant for the lawn area of larger gardens. The bold foliage holds its color throughout the season, and, consequently, its location should be carefully planned. One must exercise restraint, since this plant is not a plant for massing. As with all Beeches, this plant is great for parks, golf courses, and other public areas.

Fraxinus americana

(frax'-e-nus ah-mer-i-can'-uh)

White Ash

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 60' to 80'

WIDTH: 40' to 60'

FRUIT: 1" to 2" long single-seeded, winged samara; spring.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Oval and upright; somewhat open, becoming more rounded with age.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellowish to orange in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD PINNATELY COMPOUND, 8" to 12" long, 5 to 9 leaflets (usually 7), leaflets 3" to 5" long and 1" to 2 1/2" wide, narrow elliptic to ovate-lanceolate shape with acuminate tip and finely serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; male and female in panicles; NOT ORNAMENTAL OR NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant prefers moist, organic, deep, well-drained soil, but is adaptable to all but excessively wet or excessively dry soils. Very easy to grow. Prune selectively for structural development.

PEST PROBLEMS: Ash borers and other borers, webworms.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems gray-green to gray-brown with lenticels; older bark is ash-gray with narrow diamond-shaped furrows and flat ridges.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Autumn Applause'--Has deep maroon fall color. 'Autumn Purple'--Has purple foliage in fall. 'Rosehill'--Seedless cultivar with bronze fall color. 'Skyline'--Seedless form with orange to red fall color.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: White Ash can be used as a lawn specimen or shade tree. It has nice form and is not as dense as many popular large trees. In open lawn areas it can accomodate grass or many ground cover species as underplantings. This is a nice native tree, but it requires space. Seedless forms are recommended near walks, drives, and patios. Great for parks, golf courses, commercial landscapes.

Fraxinus americana 'Champaign County'

(frax'-e-nus ah-mer-i-can'-uh)

Champaign County White Ash

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 35' to 45

WIDTH: 25' to 30'

FRUIT: Supposedly fruitless, but has been observed, 1" to 1 1/2" samara.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright, oval, and dense.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium to dark green and lustrous in summer; yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD-PINNATELY COMPOUND, leaflets 2" to 5" long and 1" to 2 1/2" wide, ovate-lanceolate shape with entire or randomly serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious, male and female INCONSPICUOUS and NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. The plant prefers rich, organic soil, but is adaptable to all except wet or very dry soils.

PEST PROBLEMS: Borers and webworms.

BARK/STEMS: Green in youth; older bark ash-gray with small diamond-shaped fissures with flat ridges.

SIMILAR CULTIVARS: 'Greenspire'--An upright oval form with orange fall foliage.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Champaign County White Ash is a densely oval cultivar that makes a quality shade tree, garden lawn tree, or can be used any other place in the landscape where a nice, strong-branched tree is desirable. Size should be a consideration, especially for residential properties.

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

(frax'-e-nus pen-sill-van'-e-cuh)

Green Ash

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 60'

WIDTH: 30' to 40'

FRUIT: 1" to 2" single-seed, single-winged samara in spring.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Oval to rounded and somewhat open.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD PINNATELY COMPOUND, 8" to 12" long, 5 to 9 leaflets (usually 7), leaflets 3" to 6" long and 1 1/4" to 2" as wide, ovate to lanceolate shape with long, acuminate tips and entire to sharply serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; male and female appearing in panicles in spring.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers moist, deep, well-drained soils, but is adaptable to many well-drained soils and pH levels. More drought-tolerant than F. americana. Will grow in the Southwest. Prune for structure or shaping.

PEST PROBLEMS: Ash borers and other borers, webworms.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems are green, maturing to gray-brown; older bark is ash-gray with diamond-shaped furrows and flat ridges.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Cimmaron'--Male form that has bright red fall foliage. 'Marshall's Seedless'--Male form that grows more rapidly than the species. 'Summit'--Female selection with refined appearance. Bright red foliage, turning golden-yellow in fall.

RELATED SPECIES: F. udhei--Evergreen Ash. A fast-growing, rounded, evergreen tree for Zones 9 and 10. Great street tree for Southern California, Southern Texas, and Florida.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Green Ash is a popular lawn or shade tree over a wide range of the U.S. It is more hardy and drought-tolerant than White Ash, but has similar appearance. Most of the popular cultivars are seedless forms, which allows greater versatility in use. One of the best trees for American gardens. 515

Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Bergeson'

frax'-e-nus pen-sill-van'-e-cuh)

Bergeson Ash

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ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 60'

WIDTH: 30' to 40'

FRUIT: None. No samaras on this male form. Seedless.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and mostly oval in habit. More symmetrical in habit than the species.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; mostly yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD-PINNATELY COMPOUND, 6" to 12" overall, 5 to 9 leaflets (usually 7), leaflets 3" to 5" long and one-third as wide, leaflets narrow ovate to lanceolate shape with serrated margins (entire at base), with long acuminate tips and acute to cuneate bases. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious. This is a male clone with staminate flowers appearing in compound clusters before the leaves in spring. Greenish. NOT NOTICEABLE and NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. The plant will thrive in a wide range of soil types and pH levels. It survives under windy conditions and is hardy to Zone 3. Can be grown in the Southwest. Pruning is minimal for structure.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale insects, Ash borers and other borers, leaf spots, webworms, chewing and sucking insects.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green, maturing to gray-brown. Older bark is ash-gray with narrow, diamond-shaped furrows with flat ridges.

SIMILAR CULTIVARS: 'Patimore'--An oval, symmetrical selection with glossy green foliage. A very cold hardy cultivar that was discovered in Canada.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Burgeson Ash is a handsome, vigorous, and seedless cultivar. The plant is adaptable to a wide-range of conditions, and it can be used as a street tree, lawn or shade tree, and in garden borders where space is adequate for a large tree.

Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Emerald'

(frax'-e-nus pen-sill-van'-e-cuh)

Emerald Pennsylvania Ash

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 50'

WIDTH: 35' to 40'

FRUIT: Supposedly fruitless, but have been known to produce liberal amounts of 1" samaras.

TEXTURE: Medium to coarse.

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Round and dense.

FAMILY: Oleaceae

LEAF COLOR: Lustrous dark green in summer; yellowish in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: ODD-PINNATELY COMPOUND, each leaflet 3" to 6" long and 1 1/4" to 2 1/2" wide, ovate-lanceolate shape with acuminate tip and very finely serrated margins. OPPOSITE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; male and female NOT NOTICEABLE.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Full sun. The plant is adaptable as to pH and soil textures. However, it does best in well-drained organic soil. Not for wet soils.

PEST PROBLEMS: Borers, webworms.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green; older bark is ash-gray with splits and cracks in the narrow fissures.

RELATED CULTIVARS: Urbanite[R]--Assumes a broad pyramid shape with thick green leaves that turn bronze-green in the fall.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Emerald Ash forms a broad, rounded tree with dense foliage that is a popular shade tree for the lawn, garden borders, or anywhere a broad tree will "work" in the landscape. You might ask for a guarantee that the tree is seedless. This is a superior cultivar, worthy of its own page!

Ginkgo biloba

(gink'-o bi-lo'-bah)

Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 40' to 60'

WIDTH: 30' to 50'

FRUIT: 1" orange, berry-like seed with fleshy covering (female); foulsmelling and objectionable.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Upright and irregular.

FAMILY: Ginkgoaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green in summer; bright yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 2" to 3" long and broad, petiole to 3" long, fanshaped with wavy or incised margin, dichotomously veined. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Dioecious; appearing on spurs; male catkin-like, female appearing on long peduncles.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant prefers moist, well-drained, light soils, but is adaptable to all but wet soils. pH-tolerant and drought-tolerant. Good hardy tree for urban conditions. Pruning is minimal and structural.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems yellow to gray-brown, exfoliating thread-like "strings", older bark is ash-gray and furrowed, with furrows lighter in color.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Autumn Gold'--The best male form, with symmetrical, radiating branches. 'Fastigiata'--Narrow, columnar habit. Princeton Sentry[R] PP 2720--Male form with a narrow pyramidal habit. 'Pendula'--Branches somewhat weeping in character. 'Variegata'--Summer foliage has yellow streaks on the green foliage.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Ginkgo is the brightest of the yellow colored trees in fall, which accounts for its popularity. The leaves are a definite fan-shape and distinctively different. One should always select male trees that do not have fruits. The tree can be used in lawn areas or garden borders, but its location should be well-planned, as it will become a focal point of interest in fall.

Gymnocladus dioicus

(gim-noc'-la-dus di-o-e'-cuss)

Kentucky Coffee Tree

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

HEIGHT: 60' +

WIDTH: 30' +

FRUIT: 4" to 8" green pod, maturing to blackish-brown. Note: Pods and seeds are POISONOUS.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Spreading and irregular crown; somewhat open.

FAMILY: Fabaceae

LEAF COLOR: Gray-green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: BIPINNATELY COMPOUND, 18" to 36" overall length, 3 to 7 pairs of pinnae along the rachis, pinnae having 3 to 7 pairs of leaflets (pinnules), leaflets 1" to 2 1/2" long and half as wide, ovate shape with entire margins. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-white, 1" long in panicles; dioecious or polygamous; male panicles to 4" long, female to 12"; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Prefers moist, organic soils, but is adaptable to a wide range of soils. pH-tolerant and drought-tolerant. Will thrive on poorly drained sites. Pruning is minimal and selective for structural development. Suitable for the Southwest.

PEST PROBLEMS: None

BARK/STEMS: Young stems green and downy, becoming gray-brown with salmon or pinkish pith; older bark is steel-gray to gray-brown with shallow furrows and recurved ridges.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Kentucky Coffee Tree was used by the early settlers as a coffee substitute. Apparently, roasting the beans destroyed the toxins. The tree is hardy and rugged, and will grow almost anywhere. It can be used in lawn areas, street plantings, parks, and golf courses. Plant male trees to avoid the seed pods. This tree should be more widely used, especially on poor sites.

Larix laricinia

(lar'-icks lar-i-sin'-e-ah)

American Larch, Tamarack

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ZONES: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

HEIGHT: 50' to 80'

WIDTH: 20' to 30'

FRUIT: 1/2" to 3/4" yellow-brown cone.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Narrow cone in youth; more horizontal with age.

FAMILY: Pinaceae

LEAF COLOR: Bright, pale blue-green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, 1" to 1 1/2" long, keeled underneath with 2 stomatic bands, appearing in clusters of 15 to 30 needles, usually on short spurs.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male globose on axillary shoots, female globose and terminal; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Plant prefers moist, well-drained soils of acid reaction. Reasonably drought-tolerant, but should be mulched heavily for best growth. Pruning is minimal and selective.

PEST PROBLEMS: Insects may be numerous. (Check with the Extension Service.)

BARK/STEMS: Young stems are smooth and orange-brown; older bark is reddish-brown with thin scales.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Glauca'--Developed in Sweden. Has steel-blue foliage.

RELATED SPECIES: L. decidua--European Larch. This species is less columnar than L. laricinia. Many authorities feel this species is superior for landscapes. This might be debatable.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: American Larch is one of a handful of deciduous conifers. The plant is not spectacular, but has possibilies for naturalizing in the landscape. Although it is not considered a specimen plant for focalization, older plants can be quite picturesque.

Liquidambar styraciflua

(li-kwid-am'-bar sti-ra-se-flu'-ah)

Sweetgum

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 60' to 90'

WIDTH: 40' to 60'

FRUIT: 1" round aggregate with spiny burrs; NOT ORNAMENTAL considered a nuisance.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Pyramidal and upright.

FAMILY: Hamamelidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; yellow to orange-red to purple in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 6" long and wide, distinctly star-shaped (palmately lobed) with 5 lobes, serrated margins and acuminate tips. (No marginal lobes as with Maple.) ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male in terminal racemes, female globose on slender peduncles; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Prefers moist, acid, deep soil for best growth, but is drought-tolerant in the Southeast. Not for the Southwest. Pruning is minimal.

PEST PROBLEMS: Scale insects, chewing insects, webworm.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems yellowish to reddish-brown, developing corky ridges in second year; older bark is gray-brown with narrow furrows and scaly ridges.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: Burgundy[TM]--Fall foliage is dark red to purple, holding late into the season. Festival[TM]--A narrow, upright form of variable fall color. Palo Alto[TM]--A pyramidal form for the South. Uniform growth with orange to red leaves in fall. 'Rotundiloba'--(Featured on next page.)

RELATED SPECIES: L. formosana--Formosan Sweetgum. This tree has 3-lobed leaves that turn yellow in fall. Stems do not have corky ridges. Fruits have long, limber spines that are less hazardous than L. styraciflua.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sweetgum is very popular for its brilliant foliage in fall. It is often confused with Maple by the novice gardener because of the star-shaped leaves. The corky ridges add additional interest to the plant. It makes a nice lawn specimen, but should be planted where the burrs will not be a problem. One of the most beautiful trees for fall color.

Liquidambar styraciflua 'Rotundiloba'

(li-kwid-am'-bar sti-ra-s-e-flu'-ah)

Fruitless Sweetgum

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ZONES: 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 60'

WIDTH: 15' to 20'

FRUIT: NON-FRUITING

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Slow

HABIT: Upright, narrow habit with central trunk.

FAMILY: Hamamelidaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green and shiny in summer; red to purple in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 6" long and almost as broad, somewhat rounded overall, having 5 rounded tip lobes, lobes forming V's at base, margins entire. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; sterile. NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or light shade. Leaves darker in fall on sunny side. Prefers acidic, deep, moist soils. Adaptable but not drought-tolerant in Southwest.

PEST PROBLEMS: Chewing and sucking insects, webworms.

BARK/STEMS: Gray-brown with shallow furrows.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. This is a cultivar.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: This plant is the answer for those people who have sentimental attachment to Sweetgum but hate to rake Sweetgum "balls", the prickly round fruits. The plant may be more suited for smaller properties than the species because of the more narrow form. This author chooses to reserve judgment on this one at the present time.

Liriodendron tulipifera

(leer-i-o-den'-dron tu-lip-if'-er-ah)

Yellow Poplar, Tuliptree

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 60' to 100'

WIDTH: 25' to 40'

FRUIT: 3" to 4" brown, cone-like pod (aggregate of samaras).

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Columnar to rounded.

FAMILY: Magnoliaceae

LEAF COLOR: Green in summer; yellow in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 4" to 6" long and wide, leaves resembling profile of a tulip flower, square shape with 2 to 3 lobes on each side of the midrib. Margins entire. Petioles to 6" long. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Greenish-yellow, 3" to 4" wide, cup-shaped with brush-like stamens, appearing in April to June; ATTRACTIVE, but not abundant.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or part shade. Native to moist, deep soils along streams and bottomlands. Will grow on higher ground where moisture is adequate. Develops leaf scorch in the Southwest. Pruning is usually not necessary, except to remove broken branches.

PEST PROBLEMS: Aphids, gray mold.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems are smooth and greenish-brown to reddish-brown; older bark is ash-gray with interlocking furrows and narrow ridges.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'Arnold'--A narrow, fastigiate form with butter-yellow fall color. Introduced by Monrovia Nurseries. 'Aureo-marginatum'--Similar to the species, except green leaves are edged bright yellow. Very attractive. Marketed by Monrovia Nurseries as 'Majestic Beauty'.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Yellow Poplar is often called Tuliptree because the greenish-yellow flowers have a Tulip shape. It is a good single-trunk tree that can be used as a specimen or lawn tree, usually with great success. Avoid planting near buildings because it is subject to breakage.

Metasequoia glyptostroboides

(met-ah-s-e-kwoy'-ah glip-toe-str-o-boy'-deez)

Dawn Redwood

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ZONES: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 60' to 90'

WIDTH: 15' to 25'

FRUIT: 1" brown cone; long-stalked and pendulous.

TEXTURE: Fine

GROWTH RATE: Moderate

HABIT: Upright and pyramidal, with ascending branches.

FAMILY: Taxodiaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: NEEDLE-LIKE, 1/2" needles, 2-ranked and opposite on deciduous branchlets (appearance of compound leaves), needles with 2 stomatic bands underneath, upper surface with grooved midvein.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male axillary or terminal in racemes or panicles, female solitary with numerous seed scales; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. The plant is adaptable to most well-drained soils with moderate moisture levels. Performs better in the Southeast than in the Southwest. Pruning is usually not necessary.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young stems smooth and red-brown; older bark is dark gray, furrowed, and exfoliating in narrow strips.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: 'National'--Narrow conical to pyramidal form. Developed by the U.S. National Arboretum.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Dawn Redwood is a deciduous conifer that is a true fossil dating to the age of dinosaurs. It has good trunk and branching characteristics that look great in winter when the leaves are gone. It is a plant to feature in the landscape. Not for small gardens.

Nyssa sylvatica

(nis'-uh sill-vat'-e-ca)

Black Gum, Black Tupelo

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ZONES: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 40' to 50'

WIDTH: 20' to 25

FRUIT: 1/4" blue-black berries (drupes); SHOWY.

TEXTURE: Medium

GROWTH RATE: Moderate to slow.

HABIT: Upright and somewhat irregular.

FAMILY: Nyssaceae

LEAF COLOR: Dark green in summer; brilliant red or orange in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 3" to 5" long and half as wide, elliptic to obovate shape, entire margins (slightly undulate). ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Usually dioecious, sometimes monoecious; male and female both in clusters; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun or shade. Prefers moist, organic, acid soils, but will grow in almost any soil, except alkaline, where moisture is adequate. Needs supplemental water in the Southwest. Prune to single trunk.

PEST PROBLEMS: No serious pests.

BARK/STEMS: Young twigs smooth and ash-gray to red-brown; older bark is dark gray and fissured with blocky ridges.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None. Since the species varies greatly, some standardization of characteristics by nurserymen would be in order.

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Black Gum is a native tree that has good form and brilliant fall color. It is an excellent tree to feature in the landscape and is easy to grow. It should be more widely available in the nursery trade.

Platanus occidentalis

(plat'-uh-nus ok-se-den-tal'-liss)

Sycamore, American Planetree

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZONES: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

HEIGHT: 60' to 90'

WIDTH: 50' to 60'

FRUIT: 1" to 1 1/2" brown fuzzy ball; (aggregate of achenes); borne singly.

TEXTURE: Coarse

GROWTH RATE: Rapid

HABIT: Oval to somewhat rounded; dense.

FAMILY: Platanaceae

LEAF COLOR: Medium green in summer; brown in fall.

LEAF DESCRIPTION: SIMPLE, 5" to 8" long and wide, 3 to 5 lobes, pointed at the tips, each lobe with shallow U-shaped sinuses, petiole to 3" long. Palmately veined. ALTERNATE arrangement.

FLOWER DESCRIPTION: Monoecious; male and female both are globular on long peduncles; NOT ORNAMENTAL.

EXPOSURE/CULTURE: Sun. Native to bottomlands and river banks. Prefers deep, moist, organic soils, but will grow almost anywhere if ample moisture is provided. Tolerant of dry, hot winds of the Southwest.

PEST PROBLEMS: Anthracnose

BARK/STEMS: Young stems smooth and yellow-brown to gray; zigzag habit; older bark smooth and gray-brown, exfoliating in large irregular plates to expose the whitish or green inner bark.

SELECTED CULTIVARS: None

LANDSCAPE NOTES: Sycamore is valued for its rapid growth and grayish, peeling bark and colorful inner bark. It should not be used in mass plantings due to fruit droppage and "different" bark. However, it is a plant to feature as a lawn specimen or as a shade tree.
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Title Annotation:Acer rubrum 'Armstrong' (A. x freemanii 'Armstrong')-Platanus occidentalis
Author:Bridwell, Ferrell M.
Publication:Landscape Plants, Their Identification, Culture, and Use, 2nd ed.
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:8341
Previous Article:Chapter 11 Large trees.
Next Article:Chapter 11 Large trees.
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